NEWS
author kuncar
Mon Jan 14 14:03:24 2013 +0100 (2013-01-14)
changeset 50878 2840522a936d
parent 50836 c95af99e003b
child 50991 b3c6c9ef11b8
permissions -rw-r--r--
NEWS
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
    10 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
    11 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
    12 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
    13 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
    14 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
    15 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
    16 
    17 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
    18 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
    19 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
    20 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
    21 
    22 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
    23 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
    24 
    25 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
    26 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
    27 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
    28 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
    29 dependencies properly.
    30 
    31 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    32 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    33 
    34 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
    35 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
    36 
    37 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for
    38 specifications: nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
    39 and "class ... context ...".
    40 
    41 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
    42 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
    43 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
    44 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
    45 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
    46 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
    47 
    48 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
    49 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
    50 
    51 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
    52 to name patterns (with clickable results).
    53 
    54 
    55 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    56 
    57 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
    58 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
    59 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
    60 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
    61 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
    62 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
    63 
    64 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
    65 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
    66 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
    67 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
    68 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
    69 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
    70 
    71 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
    72 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
    73 browser on demand.
    74 
    75 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
    76 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
    77 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
    78 that frequently occur in user interaction.
    79 
    80 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
    81 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
    82 
    83 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
    84 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
    85 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
    86 potentially infinite message streams.
    87 
    88 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
    89 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
    90 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
    91 schemes.
    92 
    93 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
    94 symbols.
    95 
    96 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.
    97 
    98 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
    99 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   100 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   101 
   102 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   103 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   104 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   105 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   106 
   107 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   108 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   109 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   110 
   111 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   112 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   113 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   114 Isabelle distribution.
   115 
   116 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   117 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   118 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   119 
   120 
   121 *** Pure ***
   122 
   123 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   124 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   125 
   126 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   127 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   128 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   129 
   130 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   131 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   132 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   133 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   134 with some care where this is really required.
   135 
   136 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   137 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   138 given given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   139 
   140   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   141 
   142 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   143 a Hasse diagram.
   144 
   145 
   146 *** HOL ***
   147 
   148 * Sledgehammer:
   149 
   150   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   151     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   152   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   153   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   154   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   155   - Renamed options:
   156       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   157       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   158       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   159       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   160 
   161 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   162 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   163 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   164 
   165 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   166 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   167 
   168 * Lifting:
   169   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   170   - quot_del attribute
   171   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   172 
   173 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   174 expressions.
   175 
   176 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   177 pointfree expressions.
   178 
   179 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   180 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   181 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   182 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   183 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   184 
   185 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   186 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   187 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   188 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   189 accordingly.
   190 
   191 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   192 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   193 
   194 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   195 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   196 
   197 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   198 
   199 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   200 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   201 
   202 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   203 
   204 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   205 
   206   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   207   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   208 
   209 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   210 
   211 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   212 
   213   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   214   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   215 
   216 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   217 
   218 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   219 
   220   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   221     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   222     output f x converges to G.
   223 
   224   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   225     infinity (at_bot).
   226 
   227   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   228     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   229 
   230   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   231     at_top".
   232 
   233 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   234 
   235 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   236 lattice type classes.
   237 
   238 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   239 
   240     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   241     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   242 
   243 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   244 
   245 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   246 changes as follows.
   247 
   248   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   249 
   250       prefix ~> prefixeq
   251       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   252 
   253   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   254     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   255     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   256     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   257 
   258   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   259     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   260     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   261 
   262   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   263     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   264     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   265     Library/Prefix_Order.
   266 
   267   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   268     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   269 
   270       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   271       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   272       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   273       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   274       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   275       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   276       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   277       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   278       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   279       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   280       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   281       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   282       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   283       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   284       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   285       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   286 
   287 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   288 
   289 
   290 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   291 
   292 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   293 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   294 
   295 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   296 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   297 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   298 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   299 
   300   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   301   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   302   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   303   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   304   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   305   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   306   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   307   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   308   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   309   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   310 
   311 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   312 
   313 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   314 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   315 Data").
   316 
   317 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   318 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   319 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   320 code.
   321 
   322 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   323 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   324 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   325 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   326 
   327 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
   328 
   329 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
   330 
   331 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
   332 
   333   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
   334   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
   335 
   336 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
   337 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
   338 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
   339 
   340   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
   341 
   342     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
   343     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
   344     cart_base i  removed
   345     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
   346 
   347   Theorems about these constants where removed.
   348 
   349   Renamed lemmas:
   350 
   351     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
   352     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
   353     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
   354     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
   355     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
   356     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
   357     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
   358     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
   359     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
   360     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
   361 
   362 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   363 
   364 * HOL/Probability:
   365 
   366   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
   367 
   368   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
   369     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
   370     (borel_measurable_induct).
   371 
   372   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
   373     projective family).
   374 
   375 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
   376 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   377 
   378 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
   379 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
   380 datatypes.
   381 
   382 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations 
   383 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
   384 
   385 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
   386 trees for the code generator.
   387 
   388 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
   389 Lifting/Transfer.
   390 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
   391 
   392 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
   393 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   394 
   395 
   396 *** Document preparation ***
   397 
   398 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
   399 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
   400 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
   401 
   402 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
   403 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
   404 
   405 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   406 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   407 document/root.tex.
   408 
   409 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   410 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   411 
   412 
   413 *** ML ***
   414 
   415 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   416 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
   417 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
   418 
   419 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   420 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   421 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   422 
   423 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   424 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   425 necessarily printing visible text.
   426 
   427 
   428 *** System ***
   429 
   430 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   431 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   432 build" tool and its examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   433 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   434 
   435 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   436 
   437 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   438 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   439 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   440 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   441 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   442 
   443 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   444 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   445 
   446   isabelle build -s -b HOLCF
   447 
   448 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   449 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   450 
   451 * The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares session root directories for use
   452 with "isabelle build", similar to former "isabelle mkdir" for
   453 "isabelle usedir".
   454 
   455 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   456 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   457 
   458 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
   459 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   460 
   461 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   462 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   463 version of Isabelle.
   464 
   465 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
   466 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
   467 
   468 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   469 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   470 for home-made settings.
   471 
   472 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
   473 
   474 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   475 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   476 configuration.
   477 
   478 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   479 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   480 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   481 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   482 bundled as Isabelle component.
   483 
   484 
   485 
   486 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   487 ------------------------------
   488 
   489 *** General ***
   490 
   491 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   492 
   493   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   494     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   495   - markup for bound variables
   496   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   497   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   498   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   499     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   500 
   501 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   502 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   503 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   504 
   505 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   506 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   507 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   508 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   509 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   510 
   511   context
   512     fixes x y z :: 'a
   513     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   514   begin
   515 
   516   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   517 
   518   end
   519 
   520   thm my_trans
   521 
   522 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   523 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   524 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   525 
   526 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   527 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   528 
   529 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   530 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   531 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   532 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   533 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   534 
   535 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   536 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   537 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   538 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   539 indices of schematic variables.
   540 
   541 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   542 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   543 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   544 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   545 etc. was exploited.
   546 
   547 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   548 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   549 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   550 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   551 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   552 of the material of that old tutorial.
   553 
   554 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   555 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   556 manual.
   557 
   558 
   559 *** Pure ***
   560 
   561 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   562 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   563 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   564 
   565 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   566 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   567 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   568 undocumented feature.)
   569 
   570 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   571 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   572 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   573 
   574   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   575 
   576   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   577     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   578 
   579 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   580 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   581 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   582 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   583 
   584 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   585 
   586     num ~> num_token
   587     xnum ~> xnum_token
   588     xstr ~> str_token
   589 
   590 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   591 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   592 position information via constraints).
   593 
   594 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   595 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   596 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   597 
   598 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   599 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   600 
   601 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   602 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   603 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   604 
   605 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   606 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   607 
   608 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   609 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   610 
   611   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   612 
   613 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   614 
   615 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   616 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   617 
   618 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   619 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   620 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   621 
   622 
   623 *** HOL ***
   624 
   625 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   626 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   627 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   628 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   629 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   630 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   631 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   632 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   633 possible.
   634 
   635 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   636 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   637 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   638 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   639 
   640 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   641 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   642 
   643 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   644 
   645 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   646 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   647 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   648 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   649 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   650 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   651 
   652   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   653     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   654 
   655   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   656     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   657     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   658 
   659   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   660     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   661 
   662   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   663     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   664     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   665 
   666   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   667     Redefine using other integer operations.
   668 
   669 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   670 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   671 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   672 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   673 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   674 
   675   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   676     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   677     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   678     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   679     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   680 
   681     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   682     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   683 
   684   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   685     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   686     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   687     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   688     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   689     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   690     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   691     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   692 
   693   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   694     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   695     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   696     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   697 
   698   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   699     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   700     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   701     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   702 
   703   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   704     from type nat to type int.
   705 
   706 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   707 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   708 
   709   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   710     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   711     type.  Example syntax:
   712 
   713     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   714       is List.insert
   715 
   716     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   717     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   718     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   719     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   720     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   721     by the package.
   722 
   723   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   724     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   725     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   726     code generation for each constant.
   727 
   728   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   729     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   730     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   731     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   732     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   733 
   734   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   735     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   736     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   737 
   738 * Quotient package:
   739 
   740   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   741     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   742 
   743   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   744     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   745 
   746   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   747     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   748     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   749 
   750   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   751     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   752 
   753 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   754 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   755 
   756 * Quickcheck:
   757 
   758   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   759     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   760     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   761     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   762     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   763 
   764     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   765     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   766     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   767 
   768     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   769     continues searching for genuine ones.
   770 
   771     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   772     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   773     show genuine counterexamples.
   774 
   775   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   776     value generators for a given type and operations.
   777 
   778     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   779     constructors of that type.
   780 
   781   - Support for multisets.
   782 
   783   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   784 
   785   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   786     conjectures in a locale context.
   787 
   788 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   789 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   790 
   791 * Sledgehammer:
   792   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   793     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   794   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   795   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   796     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   797   - Sped up the minimizer.
   798   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   799   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   800   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   801 
   802 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   803 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   804 
   805 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   806 
   807 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   808 
   809 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   810 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   811 
   812   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   813 
   814 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   815 a list and a nat.
   816 
   817 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   818 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   819 
   820 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   821 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   822 default.
   823 
   824 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   825 
   826   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   827 
   828 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   829 
   830 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   831 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   832 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   833 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   834 one_case.
   835 
   836 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   837 the result of the fact expression.
   838 
   839 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   840 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   841 of some relation theorems:
   842 
   843   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   844   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   845   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   846   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   847   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   848   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   849 
   850 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   851 
   852 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   853 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   854 
   855 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   856 
   857 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   858 to match the constant's name:
   859 
   860   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   861   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   862   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   863   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   864   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   865   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   866   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   867   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   868   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   869   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   870   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   871   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   872   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   873   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   874   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   875   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   876   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   877   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   878   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   879   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   880   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   881   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   882   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   883   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   884 
   885 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   886 
   887 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   888 and corresponding theorem names:
   889 
   890   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   891 
   892   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   893 
   894   - Renamed theorems:
   895 
   896     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   897     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   898     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   899     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   900     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   901     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   902     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   903     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   904     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   905     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   906     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   907     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   908     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   909     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   910     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   911     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   912     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   913     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   914     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   915     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   916     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   917     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   918     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   919 
   920     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   921 
   922     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   923 
   924 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   925 
   926 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   927 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   928 
   929   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   930   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   931   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   932   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   933   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   934   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   935   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   936   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   937   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   938   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   939   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   940   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   941   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   942   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   943   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   944   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   945   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   946   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   947   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   948   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   949   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   950 
   951 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   952 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   953 
   954 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   955 
   956 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   957 
   958   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   959   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   960   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   961   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   962   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   963   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   964   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   965   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   966   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   967   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   968   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   969   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   970   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   971   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   972   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   973   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   974   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   975   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   976 
   977 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   978 
   979 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   980 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   981 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   982 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   983 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   984 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   985 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   986 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   987 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   988 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   989 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   990 
   991 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   992 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   993 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   994 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   995 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   996 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   997 
   998 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   999 through option types.
  1000 
  1001 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1002 relations.
  1003 
  1004 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1005 
  1006 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1007 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1008 
  1009   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1010   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1011   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1012   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1013   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1014   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1015   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1016   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1017   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1018   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1019   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1020   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1021   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1022   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1023   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1024   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1025   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1026   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1027   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1028   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1029   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1030   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1031   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1032   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1033   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1034   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1035   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1036   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1037   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1038   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1039   zless_le ~> less_le
  1040   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1041   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1042   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1043 
  1044 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1045 
  1046   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1047 
  1048 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1049 
  1050 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1051 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1052 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1053 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1054 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1055 
  1056 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1057 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1058 
  1059 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1060 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1061 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1062 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1063 follows:
  1064 
  1065   Operations:
  1066   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1067   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1068   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1069   del -> rbt_del
  1070   delete -> rbt_delete
  1071   ins -> rbt_ins
  1072   insert -> rbt_insert
  1073   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1074   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1075   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1076   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1077   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1078   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1079   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1080   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1081   union -> rbt_union
  1082   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1083   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1084 
  1085   Lemmas:
  1086   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1087   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1088   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1089   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1090   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1091   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1092   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1093   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1094   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1095   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1096   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1097   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1098   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1099   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1100   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1101   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1102   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1103   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1104   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1105   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1106   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1107   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1108   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1109   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1110   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1111   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1112   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1113   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1114   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1115   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1116   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1117   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1118   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1119   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1120   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1121   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1122   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1123   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1124   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1125   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1126   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1127   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1128   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1129   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1130   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1131   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1132   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1133   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1134   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1135   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1136   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1137   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1138   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1139   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1140   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1141   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1142   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1143   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1144   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1145   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1146   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1147   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1148   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1149   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1150   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1151   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1152   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1153   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1154   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1155   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1156   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1157   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1158   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1159   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1160   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1161   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1162   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1163   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1164   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1165   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1166   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1167   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1168   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1169 
  1170 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1171 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1172 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1173 
  1174   Changed Operations:
  1175   float_abs -> abs
  1176   float_nprt -> nprt
  1177   float_pprt -> pprt
  1178   pow2 -> use powr
  1179   round_down -> float_round_down
  1180   round_up -> float_round_up
  1181   scale -> exponent
  1182 
  1183   Removed Operations:
  1184   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1185 
  1186   Renamed Lemmas:
  1187   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1188   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1189   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1190   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1191   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1192   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1193   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1194   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1195   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1196   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1197   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1198   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1199   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1200   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1201   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1202   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1203   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1204   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1205   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1206   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1207   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1208   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1209   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1210   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1211   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1212   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1213   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1214   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1215   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1216   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1217   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1218   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1219   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1220   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1221   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1222   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1223 
  1224   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1225   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1226   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1227   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1228   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1229   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1230   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1231   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1232   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1233   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1234 
  1235 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1236 association lists with distinct keys.
  1237 
  1238 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1239 annotated commands.
  1240 
  1241 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1242 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1243 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1244 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1245 
  1246 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1247 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1248 instead.
  1249 
  1250   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1251   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1252   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1253   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1254   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1255   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1256   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1257   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1258   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1259   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1260   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1261   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1262   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1263   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1264   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1265   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1266   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1267   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1268   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1269   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1270   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1271   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1272   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1273   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1274   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1275   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1276   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1277   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1278   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1279   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1280   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1281   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1282   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1283   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1284   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1285   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1286   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1287   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1288   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1289   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1290   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1291 
  1292 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1293 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1294 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1295 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1296 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1297 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1298 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1299 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1300 
  1301 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1302 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1303 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1304 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1305 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1306 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1307 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1308 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1309 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1310 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1311 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1312 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1313 
  1314   Renamed constants:
  1315   measure -> emeasure
  1316   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1317   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1318   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1319   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1320 
  1321   Removed locales:
  1322   completeable_measure_space
  1323   finite_measure_space
  1324   finite_prob_space
  1325   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1326   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1327   finite_sigma_algebra
  1328   measure_space
  1329   pair_finite_prob_space
  1330   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1331   pair_finite_space
  1332   pair_sigma_algebra
  1333   product_sigma_algebra
  1334 
  1335   Removed constants:
  1336   conditional_space
  1337   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1338   image_space
  1339   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1340   pair_measure_generator
  1341   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1342   subvimage
  1343 
  1344   Replacement theorems:
  1345   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1346   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1347   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1348   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1349   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1350   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1351   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1352   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1353   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1354   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1355   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1356   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1357   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1358   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1359   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1360   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1361   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1362   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1363   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1364   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1365   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1366   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1367   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1368   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1369   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1370   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1371   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1372   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1373   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1374   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1375   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1376   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1377   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1378   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1379   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1380   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1381   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1382   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1383   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1384   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1385   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1386   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1387   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1388   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1389   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1390   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1391   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1392   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1393   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1394   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1395   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1396   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1397   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1398   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1399   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1400   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1401   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1402   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1403   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1404   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1405   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1406   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1407   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1408   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1409   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1410   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1411   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1412   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1413   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1414   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1415   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1416   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1417   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1418   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1419   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1420   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1421   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1422   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1423   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1424   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1425   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1426   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1427   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1428   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1429   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1430   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1431   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1432   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1433   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1434   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1435   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1436   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1437   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1438   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1439   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1440   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1441   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1442   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1443   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1444   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1445   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1446   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1447   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1448   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1449   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1450   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1451   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1452   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1453   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1454   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1455   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1456   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1457   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1458   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1459   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1460   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1461   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1462   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1463   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1464   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1465   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1466   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1467   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1468   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1469   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1470   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1471   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1472   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1473 
  1474 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1475 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1476 
  1477 
  1478 *** FOL ***
  1479 
  1480 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1481 
  1482 
  1483 *** ZF ***
  1484 
  1485 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1486 analysis.
  1487 
  1488 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1489 
  1490 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1491 
  1492 
  1493 *** ML ***
  1494 
  1495 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1496 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1497 
  1498 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1499 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1500 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1501 
  1502 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1503 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1504 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1505 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1506 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1507 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1508 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1509 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1510 
  1511 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1512 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1513 
  1514 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1515 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1516 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1517 
  1518 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1519 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1520 
  1521 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1522 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1523 context as well.
  1524 
  1525 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1526 
  1527   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1528   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1529   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1530   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1531   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1532   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1533   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1534   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1535   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1536   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1537   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1538   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1539 
  1540 
  1541 *** System ***
  1542 
  1543 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1544 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1545 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1546 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1547 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1548 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1549 the generic user home was intended.
  1550 
  1551 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1552 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1553 
  1554 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1555 (not just JRE).
  1556 
  1557 
  1558 
  1559 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1560 ------------------------------------
  1561 
  1562 *** General ***
  1563 
  1564 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1565 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1566 
  1567   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1568     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1569     files for checking).
  1570 
  1571   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1572     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1573     positions.
  1574 
  1575   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1576     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1577     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1578 
  1579   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1580     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1581     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1582 
  1583   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1584     cores.
  1585 
  1586   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1587     versions (garbage collection).
  1588 
  1589 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1590 including some remaining limitations.
  1591 
  1592 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1593 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1594 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1595 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1596 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1597 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1598 
  1599 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1600 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1601 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1602 
  1603 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1604 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1605 usedir option -Q.
  1606 
  1607 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1608 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1609 
  1610   long_names   ~> names_long
  1611   short_names  ~> names_short
  1612   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1613 
  1614 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1615 
  1616   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1617 
  1618 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1619 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1620 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1621 
  1622 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1623 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1624 
  1625 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1626   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1627   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1628   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1629     "Classical Reasoner".
  1630 
  1631 
  1632 *** HOL ***
  1633 
  1634 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1635 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1636 
  1637 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1638 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1639 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1640 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1641 class complete_linorder.
  1642 
  1643 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1644 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1645 
  1646 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1647 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1648 
  1649   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1650   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1651   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1652   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1653   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1654   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1655   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1656   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1657   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1658   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1659   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1660 
  1661 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1662 
  1663   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1664   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1665   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1666   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1667   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1668   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1669   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1670   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1671   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1672   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1673   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1674   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1675   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1676   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1677   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1678   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1679 
  1680 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1681 
  1682 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1683 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1684 
  1685 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1686 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1687 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1688 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1689 
  1690 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1691 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1692 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1693 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1694 
  1695 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1696 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1697 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1698 
  1699 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1700 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1701 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1702 
  1703 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1704 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1705 
  1706 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1707 
  1708     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1709     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1710 
  1711 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1712 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1713 
  1714 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1715 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1716 
  1717 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1718 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1719 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1720 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1721 
  1722   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1723   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1724   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1725   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1726   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1727   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1728   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1729 
  1730 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1731 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1732 
  1733   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1734   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1735   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1736   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1737   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1738   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1739   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1740   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1741   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1742   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1743   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1744   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1745   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1746   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1747   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1748   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1749   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1750   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1751   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1752   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1753   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1754   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1755   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1756   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1757   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1758   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1759   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1760   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1761   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1762   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1763   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1764   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1765   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1766   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1767   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1768   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1769   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1770   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1771   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1772   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1773   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1774   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1775   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1776   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1777   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1778   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1779   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1780   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1781   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1782   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1783   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1784   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1785   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1786   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1787   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1788   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1789   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1790   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1791   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1792   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1793   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1794   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1795   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1796   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1797   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1798   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1799   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1800   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1801   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1802   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1803   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1804   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1805   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1806   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1807   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1808   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1809   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1810   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1811   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1812   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1813   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1814   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1815 
  1816 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1817 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1818 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1819 
  1820 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1821 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1822 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1823 
  1824 * Code generation:
  1825 
  1826   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1827     characters in the target language.
  1828 
  1829   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1830     instead.
  1831 
  1832   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1833 
  1834   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1835     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1836 
  1837       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1838 
  1839 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1840 
  1841 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1842 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1843 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1844 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1845 syntax.
  1846 
  1847 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1848 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1849 
  1850 * Nitpick:
  1851   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1852   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1853   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1854     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1855 
  1856 * Sledgehammer:
  1857   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1858   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1859     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1860   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1861     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1862   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1863     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1864   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1865     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1866   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1867     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1868 
  1869 * Metis:
  1870   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1871   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1872     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1873 
  1874 * Command 'try':
  1875   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1876     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1877   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1878     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1879 
  1880 * Quickcheck:
  1881   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1882     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1883   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1884     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1885   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1886     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1887     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1888     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1889   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1890     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1891 
  1892 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1893 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1894 
  1895 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1896 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1897 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1898 
  1899 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1900 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1901 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1902 
  1903 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1904 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1905 
  1906 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1907 arithmetic.
  1908 
  1909 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1910 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1911 and lattice type classes.
  1912 
  1913 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1914 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1915 
  1916 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1917 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1918 
  1919 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1920 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1921 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1922 
  1923   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1924   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1925   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1926   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1927 
  1928 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1929 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1930 constants:
  1931 
  1932   type inat   ~> type enat
  1933   Fin         ~> enat
  1934   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1935   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1936   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1937 
  1938 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1939 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1940 
  1941 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1942 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1943 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1944 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1945 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1946 
  1947 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1948 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1949 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1950 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1951 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1952 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1953 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1954 
  1955   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1956   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1957   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1958   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1959 
  1960 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1961 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1962 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1963 
  1964   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1965   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1966   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1967   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1968   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1969   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1970   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1971   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1972   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1973   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1974   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1975   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1976   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1977   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1978   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1979   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1980   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1981   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1982   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1983   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1984   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1985   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1986   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1987   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1988   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1989   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1990   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1991   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1992   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1993   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1994   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1995   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1996   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1997   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1998   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1999   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2000   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2001   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2002   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2003   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2004   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2005   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2006   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2007   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2008   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2009   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2010   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2011   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2012   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2013   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2014   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2015 
  2016 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2017   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2018   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2019   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2020   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2021     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2022 
  2023 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2024 
  2025   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2026   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2027   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2028   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2029   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2030   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2031   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2032   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2033   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2034   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2035   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2036   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2037   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2038   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2039   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2040   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2041   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2042   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2043   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2044   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2045   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2046   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2047   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2048   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2049   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2050 
  2051 
  2052 *** Document preparation ***
  2053 
  2054 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2055 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2056 same.
  2057 
  2058 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2059 result.
  2060 
  2061 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2062 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2063 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2064 
  2065 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2066 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2067 
  2068 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2069 like this:
  2070 
  2071   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2072   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2073 
  2074 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2075 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2076 layouts.
  2077 
  2078 
  2079 *** ML ***
  2080 
  2081 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2082 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2083 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2084 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2085 under external program control.
  2086 
  2087 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2088 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2089 
  2090 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2091 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2092 (better known as Proof General).
  2093 
  2094 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2095 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2096 
  2097 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2098 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2099 
  2100 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2101 (including quotes etc.).
  2102 
  2103 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2104 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2105 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2106 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2107 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2108 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2109 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2110 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2111 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2112 
  2113 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2114 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2115 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2116 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2117 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2118 
  2119 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2120 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2121 
  2122 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2123 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2124 
  2125 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2126 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2127 
  2128 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2129 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2130 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2131 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2132 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2133 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2134 proper Proof.context.
  2135 
  2136 
  2137 *** System ***
  2138 
  2139 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2140 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2141 
  2142 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2143 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2144 
  2145 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2146 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2147 
  2148   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2149   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2150   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2151   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2152   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2153 
  2154 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2155 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2156 
  2157 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2158 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2159 example:
  2160 
  2161   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2162 
  2163 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2164 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2165 
  2166 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2167 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2168 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2169 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2170 
  2171 
  2172 
  2173 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2174 ----------------------------------
  2175 
  2176 *** General ***
  2177 
  2178 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2179 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2180 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2181 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2182 like this:
  2183 
  2184   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2185 
  2186 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2187 
  2188 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2189 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2190 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2191 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2192 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2193 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2194 
  2195 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2196 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2197 the following package declarations:
  2198 
  2199   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2200   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2201 
  2202 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2203 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2204 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2205 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2206 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2207 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2208 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2209 
  2210 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2211 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2212 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2213 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2214 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2215 
  2216 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2217 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2218 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2219 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2220 
  2221 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2222 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2223 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2224 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2225 
  2226   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2227 
  2228   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2229   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2230   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2231   show_types                    show_types
  2232   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2233   show_consts                   show_consts
  2234   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2235 
  2236   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2237   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2238   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2239 
  2240   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2241   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2242 
  2243   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2244 
  2245   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2246   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2247   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2248   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2249   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2250 
  2251 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2252 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2253 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2254 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2255 
  2256 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2257 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2258 
  2259   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2260   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2261 
  2262 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2263 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2264 float_token.
  2265 
  2266 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2267 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2268 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2269 
  2270 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2271 DejaVu Sans.
  2272 
  2273 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2274 
  2275 
  2276 *** Pure ***
  2277 
  2278 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2279 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2280 time.
  2281 
  2282 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2283 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2284 
  2285 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2286 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2287 
  2288 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2289 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2290 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2291 command already provided this functionality.
  2292 
  2293 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2294 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2295 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2296 without interpretations.
  2297 
  2298 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2299 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2300 
  2301 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2302 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2303 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2304 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2305 
  2306 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2307 'definition' instead.
  2308 
  2309 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2310 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2311 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2312 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2313 
  2314 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2315 constructors.
  2316 
  2317 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2318 the local file system.
  2319 
  2320 
  2321 *** HOL ***
  2322 
  2323 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2324 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2325 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2326 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2327 
  2328   declare [[coercion f]]
  2329 
  2330 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2331 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2332 
  2333   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2334 
  2335 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2336 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2337 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2338 other theories like this:
  2339 
  2340   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2341 
  2342 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2343 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2344 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2345 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2346 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2347 for examples.
  2348 
  2349 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2350 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2351 
  2352 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2353 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2354 
  2355 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2356 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2357 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2358 
  2359 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2360 functorial structure of types.
  2361 
  2362 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2363 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2364 
  2365 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2366 languages.
  2367 
  2368 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2369 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2370 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2371 
  2372 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2373 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2374 
  2375 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2376 combinators any longer.
  2377 
  2378 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2379 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2380 
  2381 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2382 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2383 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2384 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2385 
  2386   record 'a foo = ...
  2387   ...
  2388   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2389 
  2390 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2391 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2392 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2393 
  2394 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2395 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2396 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2397 
  2398 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2399 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2400 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2401 
  2402 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2403 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2404 
  2405 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2406 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2407 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2408 independently.
  2409 
  2410 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2411 counter example search.
  2412 
  2413 * Sledgehammer:
  2414   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2415     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2416     sledgehammer").
  2417   - Renamed commands:
  2418     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2419     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2420     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2421     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2422   - Renamed options:
  2423     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2424     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2425     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2426     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2427     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2428 
  2429 * Nitpick:
  2430   - Renamed options:
  2431     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2432     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2433     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2434   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2435   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2436   - Added "whack" option.
  2437   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2438   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2439   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2440   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2441     higher cardinalities.
  2442   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2443 
  2444 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2445 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2446 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2447 
  2448     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2449 
  2450 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2451 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2452 
  2453 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2454 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2455 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2456 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2457 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2458 "smt_solver".
  2459 
  2460 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2461 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2462 
  2463 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2464 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2465 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2466 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2467 
  2468 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2469   - Renamed:
  2470     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2471     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2472     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2473   - Added:
  2474     smt_verbose
  2475     smt_random_seed
  2476     smt_datatypes
  2477     smt_infer_triggers
  2478     smt_monomorph_limit
  2479     cvc3_options
  2480     remote_cvc3_options
  2481     remote_z3_options
  2482     yices_options
  2483 
  2484 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2485 header.
  2486 
  2487 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2488 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2489 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2490 
  2491   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2492 
  2493 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2494 
  2495 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2496 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2497 
  2498 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2499 
  2500 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2501 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2502 
  2503 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2504 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2505 
  2506 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2507 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2508 
  2509 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2510 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2511 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2512 
  2513 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2514 
  2515 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2516 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2517 
  2518 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2519 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2520 
  2521 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2522 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2523 for congruent(2)).
  2524 
  2525 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2526 
  2527   types
  2528     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2529     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2530 
  2531   constants
  2532     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2533     True ~> HOL.True
  2534     False ~> HOL.False
  2535     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2536     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2537     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2538     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2539     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2540     The ~> HOL.The
  2541     All ~> HOL.All
  2542     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2543     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2544     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2545     If ~> HOL.If
  2546     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2547     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2548     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2549     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2550     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2551     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2552     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2553     op : ~> Set.member
  2554     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2555 
  2556 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2557 
  2558 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2559 
  2560     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2561     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2562     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2563     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2564     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2565     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2566     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2567     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2568 
  2569 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2570 
  2571 * More stylized fact names:
  2572 
  2573   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2574   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2575   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2576   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2577 
  2578 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2579 
  2580 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2581 
  2582   constants
  2583     null ~> List.null
  2584 
  2585   facts
  2586     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2587     null_empty ~> null_def
  2588 
  2589 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2590 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2591 generation.
  2592 
  2593 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2594 Haskell code.
  2595 
  2596 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2597 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2598 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2599 
  2600 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2601 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2602 
  2603 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2604 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2605 
  2606 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2607 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2608 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2609 
  2610 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2611 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2612 
  2613 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2614 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2615 
  2616 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2617 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2618 referred to by its qualified name.
  2619 
  2620   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2621   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2622   product ~>  Enum.product
  2623 
  2624 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2625 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2626 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2627 
  2628 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2629 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2630 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2631 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2632 
  2633 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2634 sort_key.
  2635 
  2636 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2637 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2638 
  2639 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2640 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2641 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2642 
  2643   types
  2644     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2645               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2646               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2647         (depends on your needs)
  2648 
  2649   constants
  2650      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2651      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2652      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2653 
  2654 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2655 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2656 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2657 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2658 
  2659 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2660 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2661 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2662 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2663 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2664 
  2665 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2666 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2667 
  2668 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2669 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2670 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2671 
  2672 
  2673 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2674 
  2675 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2676 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2677 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2678 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2679 compatibility.
  2680 
  2681 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2682 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2683 
  2684 
  2685 *** HOLCF ***
  2686 
  2687 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2688 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2689 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2690 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2691 
  2692 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2693 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2694 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2695 
  2696   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2697   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2698   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2699 
  2700 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2701 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2702 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2703 
  2704 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2705 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2706 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2707 domain definition now works:
  2708 
  2709   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2710 
  2711 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2712 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2713 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2714 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2715 
  2716   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2717     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2718 
  2719   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2720 
  2721 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2722 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2723 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2724 
  2725 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2726 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2727 
  2728 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2729 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2730 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2731 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2732 
  2733 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2734 
  2735 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2736 
  2737 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2738 
  2739 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2740 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2741 
  2742 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2743 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2744 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2745 
  2746 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2747 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2748 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2749 
  2750 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2751 still supported as an input translation.
  2752 
  2753 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2754 
  2755   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2756   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2757   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2758   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2759   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2760   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2761   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2762 
  2763 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2764 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2765 
  2766   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2767   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2768   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2769   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2770   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2771   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2772 
  2773 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2774 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2775 
  2776 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2777 
  2778   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2779   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2780   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2781   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2782 
  2783 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2784 
  2785 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2786 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2787 
  2788 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2789 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2790 
  2791   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2792   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2793   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2794   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2795   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2796   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2797   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2798   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2799   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2800   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2801   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2802   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2803   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2804   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2805   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2806   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2807   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2808   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2809   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2810   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2811 
  2812 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2813 
  2814   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2815   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2816   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2817   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2818   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2819   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2820   box_less             ~> box_below
  2821   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2822   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2823   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2824   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2825   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2826   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2827   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2828   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2829   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2830   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2831   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2832   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2833   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2834   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2835   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2836   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2837   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2838   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2839   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2840   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2841   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2842   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2843   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2844   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2845   up_less              ~> up_below
  2846   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2847   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2848   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2849   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2850   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2851   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2852   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2853   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2854   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2855   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2856   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2857   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2858   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2859 
  2860 
  2861 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2862 
  2863 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2864 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2865 
  2866 
  2867 *** ML ***
  2868 
  2869 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2870 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2871 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2872 
  2873 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2874 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2875 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2876 
  2877 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2878 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2879 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2880 
  2881 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2882 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2883 
  2884 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2885 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2886 
  2887 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2888 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2889 
  2890 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2891 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2892 
  2893 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2894 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2895 almost all situations.
  2896 
  2897 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2898 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2899 Isabelle/ML.
  2900 
  2901 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2902 meaning.
  2903 
  2904 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2905 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2906 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2907 
  2908 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2909 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2910 
  2911 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2912 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2913 
  2914 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2915 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2916 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2917 
  2918 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2919 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2920 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2921 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2922 configuration options.
  2923 
  2924 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2925 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2926 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2927 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2928 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2929 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2930 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2931 
  2932 
  2933 
  2934 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2935 ---------------------------------
  2936 
  2937 *** General ***
  2938 
  2939 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2940 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2941 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2942 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2943 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2944 their full internal name.
  2945 
  2946 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2947 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2948 Some hints on upgrading:
  2949 
  2950   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2951     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2952     which are independent of this issue.
  2953 
  2954   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2955     provides the following special forms:
  2956 
  2957       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2958       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2959       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2960 
  2961     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2962     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2963     extra variables".
  2964 
  2965     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2966     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2967     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2968     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2969     "logic".
  2970 
  2971   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2972     antiquotations:
  2973 
  2974       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2975       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2976       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2977       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2978 
  2979   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2980     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2981     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2982     antiquotations.
  2983 
  2984 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2985 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2986 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2987 diagnose syntax problems.
  2988 
  2989 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2990 
  2991 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2992 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2993 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2994 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2995 
  2996 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2997 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2998 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2999 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3000 
  3001 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3002 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3003 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3004 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3005 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3006 
  3007 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3008 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3009 
  3010 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3011 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3012 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3013 
  3014   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3015 
  3016 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3017 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3018 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3019 
  3020 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3021 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3022 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3023 
  3024 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3025 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3026 
  3027 
  3028 *** Pure ***
  3029 
  3030 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3031 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3032 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3033 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3034 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3035 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3036 inspect proof terms.
  3037 
  3038 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3039 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3040 are added internally.  For example:
  3041 
  3042   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3043 
  3044 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3045 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3046 
  3047 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3048 
  3049 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3050 'class' instead.
  3051 
  3052 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3053 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3054 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3055 
  3056 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3057 invariants.
  3058 
  3059 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3060 user space functionality any longer.
  3061 
  3062 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3063 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3064 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3065 
  3066 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3067 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3068 
  3069 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3070 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3071 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3072 
  3073 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3074 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3075 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3076 
  3077 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3078 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3079 
  3080 
  3081 *** HOL ***
  3082 
  3083 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3084 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3085 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3086 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3087 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3088 
  3089 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3090 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3091 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3092 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3093 
  3094   fun
  3095     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3096   where
  3097     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3098 
  3099   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3100     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3101 
  3102   quotient_definition
  3103     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3104 
  3105 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3106 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3107 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3108 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3109 
  3110 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3111 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3112 
  3113 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3114 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3115 
  3116 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3117 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3118 
  3119 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3120 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3121 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3122 
  3123 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3124 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3125 
  3126 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3127 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3128 
  3129 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3130 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3131 
  3132 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3133 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3134 
  3135 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3136 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3137 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3138 
  3139   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3140   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3141   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3142   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3143   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3144   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3145   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3146   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3147   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3148   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3149   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3150   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3151   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3152   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3153   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3154   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3155   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3156   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3157   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3158   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3159   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3160   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3161   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3162   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3163   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3164   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3165   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3166   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3167   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3168   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3169 
  3170 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3171 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3172 
  3173 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3174 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3175 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3176 
  3177 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3178 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3179 
  3180 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3181 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3182 
  3183 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3184 
  3185 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3186 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3187 
  3188 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3189 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3190 
  3191 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3192 
  3193 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3194 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3195 
  3196 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3197 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3198 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3199 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3200 
  3201 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3202   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3203   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3204   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3205 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3206 
  3207 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3208 lattices):
  3209 
  3210     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3211     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3212 
  3213     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3214 
  3215     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3216     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3217     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3218     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3219     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3220     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3221     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3222     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3223     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3224     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3225     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3226     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3227     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3228 
  3229     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3230     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3231     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3232     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3233     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3234     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3235     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3236     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3237     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3238     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3239     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3240     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3241     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3242     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3243     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3244     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3245     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3246     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3247 
  3248   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3249   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3250 
  3251     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3252     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3253     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3254     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3255     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3256 
  3257 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3258 
  3259 * Refined field classes:
  3260   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3261     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3262     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3263   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3264 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3265 
  3266 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3267   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3268   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3269   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3270     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3271   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3272     equal_neg_zero.
  3273 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3274 
  3275 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3276 sets to lattices:
  3277 
  3278   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3279   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3280   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3281   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3282   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3283   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3284   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3285   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3286   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3287   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3288 
  3289 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3290 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3291 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3292 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3293 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3294 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3295 
  3296 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3297 multiset order:
  3298 
  3299   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3300     <= and <;
  3301   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3302     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3303     multiset_order;
  3304   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3305     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3306     generation;
  3307   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3308     if needed.
  3309 
  3310 Renamed:
  3311 
  3312   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3313   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3314   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3315 
  3316 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3317 
  3318 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3319 
  3320 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3321 
  3322 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3323 
  3324 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3325 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3326 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3327 
  3328   Constants:
  3329   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3330   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3331   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3332   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3333   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3334   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3335   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3336   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3337   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3338   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3339   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3340   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3341   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3342 
  3343   Lemmas:
  3344   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3345   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3346   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3347   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3348   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3349   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3350   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3351   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3352   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3353   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3354   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3355   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3356   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3357 
  3358 * Sledgehammer:
  3359   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3360     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3361     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3362     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3363     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3364     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3365     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3366   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3367   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3368     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3369   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3370     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3371     is still experimental.)
  3372   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3373     full-typed mode.
  3374   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3375 
  3376 * Nitpick:
  3377   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3378   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3379   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3380     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3381   - Added support for quotient types.
  3382   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3383     constructs.
  3384   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3385     "termination" proofs).
  3386   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3387   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3388   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3389   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3390     record getters.
  3391   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3392   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3393   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3394   - Added "atoms" option.
  3395   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3396     problems.
  3397   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3398     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3399     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3400   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3401     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3402   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3403 
  3404 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3405   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3406   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3407   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3408   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3409   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3410   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3411   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3412   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3413   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3414 
  3415 
  3416 *** HOLCF ***
  3417 
  3418 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3419 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3420 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3421 
  3422 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3423 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3424 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3425 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3426 
  3427 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3428 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3429 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3430 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3431 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3432 
  3433 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3434 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3435 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3436 
  3437 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3438 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3439 
  3440   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3441   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3442 
  3443 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3444 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3445 
  3446   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3447   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3448   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3449   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3450   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3451 
  3452 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3453 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3454 
  3455   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3456   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3457   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3458 
  3459 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3460 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3461 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3462 
  3463 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3464 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3465 
  3466 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3467 
  3468 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3469 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3470 
  3471 
  3472 *** ML ***
  3473 
  3474 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3475 
  3476     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3477     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3478 
  3479     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3480     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3481     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3482     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3483 
  3484     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3485     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3486     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3487 
  3488 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3489 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3490 
  3491 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3492 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3493 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3494 
  3495 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3496 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3497 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3498 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3499 
  3500 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3501 the context or even global references.
  3502 
  3503 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3504 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3505 
  3506 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3507 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3508 
  3509   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3510   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3511   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3512   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3513   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3514   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3515   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3516   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3517   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3518   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3519 
  3520 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3521 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3522 
  3523 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3524 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3525 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3526 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3527 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3528 
  3529 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3530 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3531 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3532 Theory_Data version.
  3533 
  3534 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3535 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3536 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3537 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3538 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3539 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3540 explicitly in rare situations.
  3541 
  3542 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3543 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3544 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3545 
  3546 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3547 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3548 
  3549 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3550 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3551 quite rare).
  3552 
  3553 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3554 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3555 
  3556 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3557 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3558 terms.
  3559 
  3560 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3561 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3562 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3563 
  3564 
  3565 *** System ***
  3566 
  3567 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3568 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3569 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3570 
  3571 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3572 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3573 respectively.
  3574 
  3575 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3576 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3577 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3578 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3579 
  3580   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3581 
  3582 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3583 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3584 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3585 component.
  3586 
  3587 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3588 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3589 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3590 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3591 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3592 the user for manual installation.
  3593 
  3594 
  3595 
  3596 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3597 -------------------------------------
  3598 
  3599 *** General ***
  3600 
  3601 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3602 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3603 
  3604 
  3605 *** Pure ***
  3606 
  3607 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3608 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3609 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3610 
  3611 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3612 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3613 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3614 
  3615 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3616 interpretation.
  3617 
  3618 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3619 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3620 
  3621 
  3622 *** Document preparation ***
  3623 
  3624 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3625 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3626 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3627 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3628 
  3629 
  3630 *** HOL ***
  3631 
  3632 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3633 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3634 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3635 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3636 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3637 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3638 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3639 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3640 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3641 
  3642 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3643 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3644 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3645 
  3646 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3647 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3648 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3649 
  3650 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3651 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3652 
  3653 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3654 
  3655 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3656 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3657 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3658 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3659 
  3660 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3661 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3662 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3663 "mirabelle" utility.
  3664 
  3665 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3666 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3667 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3668 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3669 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3670 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3671 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3672 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3673 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3674 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3675 
  3676 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3677 procedure only.
  3678 
  3679 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3680 
  3681 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3682 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3683 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3684 that fail later.
  3685 
  3686 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3687 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3688 
  3689 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3690 the same method as the approximation method.
  3691 
  3692 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3693 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3694 series expansion.
  3695 
  3696 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3697 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3698 
  3699 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3700 reals.
  3701 
  3702 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3703 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3704 
  3705 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3706 fixpoint theorem.
  3707 
  3708 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3709   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3710     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3711   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3712     accordingly
  3713   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3714     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3715   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3716     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3717 
  3718 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3719 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3720 lattice.
  3721 
  3722 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3723 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3724 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3725 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3726 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3727 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3728 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3729 
  3730 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3731   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3732     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3733   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3734     le_inf_iff
  3735   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3736     sup_aci)
  3737   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3738   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3739   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3740     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3741     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3742     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3743     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3744     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3745     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3746     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3747     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3748     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3749     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3750   - authentic syntax for
  3751     Set.Pow
  3752     Set.image
  3753   - mere abbreviations:
  3754     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3755     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3756     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3757     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3758     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3759     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3760     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3761     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3762   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3763 
  3764 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3765 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3766 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3767 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3768 
  3769 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3770 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3771 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3772 
  3773 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3774 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3775 
  3776 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3777 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3778 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3779 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3780 
  3781 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3782 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3783 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3784 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3785 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3786 
  3787 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3788 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3789 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3790 
  3791 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3792 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3793 
  3794 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3795 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3796 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3797 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3798 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3799 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3800 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3801 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3802 
  3803 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3804     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3805     code_post       replaces    code post
  3806     etc.
  3807   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3808 
  3809 * Renamed methods:
  3810     sizechange -> size_change
  3811     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3812   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3813 
  3814 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3815 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3816 
  3817 * Renamed theorems:
  3818     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3819     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3820     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3821     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3822     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3823   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3824 
  3825 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3826 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3827 
  3828 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3829 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3830 
  3831 
  3832 *** HOLCF ***
  3833 
  3834 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3835 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3836 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3837 
  3838 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3839 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3840 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3841 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3842 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3843 
  3844 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3845 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3846 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3847 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3848 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3849 
  3850 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3851 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3852 constructor are pre-configured.
  3853 
  3854 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3855 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3856 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3857 
  3858 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3859 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3860 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3861 as well.)
  3862 
  3863 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3864 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3865 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3866 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3867 examples.
  3868 
  3869 
  3870 *** ML ***
  3871 
  3872 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3873 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3874 
  3875 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3876 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3877 position, logical grouping etc.
  3878 
  3879 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3880 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3881 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3882 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3883 
  3884 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3885 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3886 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3887 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3888 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3889 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3890 
  3891 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3892 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3893 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3894 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3895 experiments with references.
  3896 
  3897 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3898 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3899 
  3900 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3901 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3902 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3903 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3904 
  3905 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3906 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3907 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3908 
  3909 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3910 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3911 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3912 
  3913 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3914 
  3915 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3916 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3917 
  3918 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3919 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3920 
  3921 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3922 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3923 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3924 
  3925 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3926 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3927 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3928 
  3929 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3930 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3931 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3932 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3933 
  3934 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3935 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3936 instead of global theory.
  3937 
  3938 
  3939 *** System ***
  3940 
  3941 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3942 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3943 usedir option -q.
  3944 
  3945 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3946 also the system manual.
  3947 
  3948 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3949 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3950 
  3951 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3952 this is always enabled.
  3953 
  3954 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3955 
  3956 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3957 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3958 currently supported on Linux only.
  3959 
  3960 
  3961 
  3962 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3963 --------------------------------
  3964 
  3965 *** General ***
  3966 
  3967 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3968 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3969 
  3970   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3971     "isatool."
  3972 
  3973   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3974     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3975 
  3976   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3977     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3978 
  3979 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3980 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3981 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3982 
  3983 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3984 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3985 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3986 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3987 via "isabelle emacs".
  3988 
  3989 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3990 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3991 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3992 
  3993 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3994 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3995 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3996 
  3997 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3998 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3999 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4000 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4001 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4002 
  4003 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4004 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4005 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4006 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4007 
  4008 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4009 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4010 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4011 
  4012 
  4013 *** Pure ***
  4014 
  4015 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4016 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4017 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4018 
  4019 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4020 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4021 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4022 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4023 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4024 
  4025 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4026 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4027 useful in locale declarations.
  4028 
  4029 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4030 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4031 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4032 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4033 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4034 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4035 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4036 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4037 no longer generated.
  4038 
  4039 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4040 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4041 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4042 
  4043 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4044 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4045 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4046 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4047 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4048 
  4049 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4050 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4051 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4052 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4053 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4054 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4055 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4056 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4057 
  4058 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4059 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4060 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4061 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4062 
  4063 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4064 
  4065 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4066 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4067 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4068 
  4069 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4070 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4071 
  4072 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4073 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4074 in HOL, write
  4075 
  4076     class foo = ...
  4077 
  4078 instead of
  4079 
  4080     class foo = type + ...
  4081 
  4082 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4083 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4084 
  4085 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4086 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4087 
  4088 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4089 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4090 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4091 
  4092 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4093 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4094 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4095 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4096 directly in regular applications.
  4097 
  4098 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4099 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4100 
  4101 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4102 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4103 
  4104 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4105 theory context.
  4106 
  4107 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4108 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4109 
  4110 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4111 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4112 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4113 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4114 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4115 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4116 
  4117   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4118 
  4119 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4120 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4121 normalization.
  4122 
  4123 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4124 addressing etc.
  4125 
  4126 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4127 
  4128   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4129   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4130 
  4131 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4132 
  4133   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4134      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4135      parts of the code generator framework).
  4136 
  4137   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4138      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4139      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4140 
  4141 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4142 
  4143 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4144 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4145 
  4146 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4147 patterns, e.g.
  4148 
  4149     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4150 
  4151 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4152 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4153 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4154 hyphen:
  4155 
  4156     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4157 
  4158 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4159 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4160 
  4161 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4162 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4163 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4164 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4165 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4166 higher-order unification.
  4167 
  4168 
  4169 *** Document preparation ***
  4170 
  4171 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4172 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4173 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4174 
  4175 
  4176 *** HOL ***
  4177 
  4178 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4179 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4180 
  4181 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4182 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4183 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4184 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4185 Main, as before.
  4186 
  4187 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4188 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4189 
  4190 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4191 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4192 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4193 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4194 
  4195 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4196 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4197 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4198 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4199 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4200 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4201 
  4202 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4203 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4204 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4205 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4206 
  4207 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4208 menu.
  4209 
  4210 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4211 (contains the empty clause).
  4212 
  4213 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4214 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4215 
  4216 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4217 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4218 
  4219 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4220 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4221 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4222 
  4223 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4224 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4225 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4226 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4227 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4228 
  4229 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4230 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4231 
  4232 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4233 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4234 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4235 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4236 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4237 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4238 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4239 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4240 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4241 
  4242 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4243 
  4244 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4245 
  4246 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4247 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4248 
  4249 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4250 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4251 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4252 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4253 
  4254 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4255 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4256 
  4257     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4258     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4259     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4260     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4261     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4262     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4263     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4264     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4265 
  4266 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4267 theory Set.
  4268 
  4269 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4270 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4271 
  4272 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4273 
  4274 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4275 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4276 
  4277 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4278 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4279 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4280 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4281 allowed. For examples see
  4282 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4283 
  4284 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4285 
  4286 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4287 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4288 
  4289 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4290 structure:
  4291 
  4292     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4293     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4294     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4295     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4296     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4297     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4298     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4299     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4300     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4301     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4302     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4303     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4304     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4305     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4306     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4307     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4308     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4309     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4310     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4311     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4312     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4313     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4314     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4315     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4316     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4317     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4318     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4319     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4320     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4321     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4322     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4323     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4324     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4325 
  4326     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4327     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4328     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4329     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4330     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4331     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4332     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4333     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4334     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4335     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4336 
  4337     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4338     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4339     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4340     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4341     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4342     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4343 
  4344 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4345 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4346 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4347 
  4348 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4349 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4350 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4351 
  4352 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4353 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4354 
  4355 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4356 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4357 
  4358 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4359 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4360 proofs, e.g.
  4361 
  4362   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4363 
  4364 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4365 
  4366 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4367 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4368 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4369 
  4370 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4371 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4372 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4373 
  4374 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4375 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4376 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4377 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4378 
  4379 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4380 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4381 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4382 preorder_class.*.
  4383 
  4384 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4385 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4386 
  4387 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4388 
  4389   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4390 
  4391 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4392 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4393 fold_image.
  4394 
  4395 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4396 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4397 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4398 the former will disappear at some point.
  4399 
  4400 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4401 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4402 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4403 
  4404 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4405 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4406 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4407 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4408 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4409 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4410 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4411 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4412 
  4413 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4414 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4415 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4416 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4417 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4418 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4419 
  4420     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4421     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4422     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4423     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4424     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4425     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4426     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4427 
  4428 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4429 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4430 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4431 
  4432 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4433 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4434 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4435 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4436 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4437 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4438 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4439 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4440 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4441 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4442 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4443 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4444 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4445 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4446 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4447 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4448 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4449 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4450 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4451 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4452 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4453 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4454 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4455 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4456 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4457 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4458 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4459 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4460 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4461 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4462 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4463 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4464 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4465 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4466 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4467 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4468 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4469 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4470 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4471 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4472 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4473 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4474 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4475 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4476 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4477 
  4478 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4479 
  4480 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4481 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4482 
  4483 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4484 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4485 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4486 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4487 
  4488 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4489 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4490 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4491 theory RealVector.
  4492 
  4493 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4494 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4495 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4496 and inner products are included.
  4497 
  4498 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4499 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4500 supported.
  4501 
  4502 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4503 first diagonalization argument.
  4504 
  4505 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4506 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4507 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4508 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4509 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4510 
  4511     hide (open) const gcd
  4512     abbreviation gcd where
  4513       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4514     notation (output)
  4515       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4516 
  4517 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4518 
  4519 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4520 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4521 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4522 
  4523 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4524 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4525 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4526 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4527 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4528 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4529 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4530 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4531 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4532 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4533 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4534 cases.
  4535 
  4536 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4537 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4538 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4539 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4540 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4541 
  4542     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4543     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4544     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4545     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4546     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4547 
  4548 
  4549 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4550 
  4551 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4552 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4553 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4554 
  4555 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4556 
  4557 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4558 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4559 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4560 
  4561 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4562 
  4563 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4564 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4565 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4566 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4567 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4568 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4569 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4570 
  4571 
  4572 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4573 
  4574 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4575 
  4576 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4577 theory targets.
  4578 
  4579 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4580 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4581 'inductive' etc.
  4582 
  4583 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4584 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4585 
  4586 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4587 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4588 
  4589 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4590 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4591 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4592 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4593 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4594 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4595 the algorithm W:
  4596 
  4597  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4598  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4599          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4600 
  4601 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4602 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4603 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4604 
  4605 
  4606 *** HOLCF ***
  4607 
  4608 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4609 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4610 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4611 
  4612 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4613 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4614 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4615 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4616 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4617 
  4618 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4619 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4620 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4621 
  4622 
  4623 *** ZF ***
  4624 
  4625 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4626 
  4627 
  4628 *** ML ***
  4629 
  4630 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4631 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4632 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4633 5.2.1!
  4634 
  4635 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4636 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4637 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4638 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4639 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4640 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4641 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4642 
  4643 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4644 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4645 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4646 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4647 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4648 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4649 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4650 
  4651 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4652 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4653 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4654 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4655 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4656 
  4657 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4658 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4659 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4660 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4661 Method.add_method.
  4662 
  4663 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4664 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4665 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4666 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4667 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4668 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4669 
  4670 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4671 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4672 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4673 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4674 examples.
  4675 
  4676 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4677 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4678 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4679 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4680 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4681 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4682 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4683 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4684 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4685 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4686 
  4687 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4688 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4689 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4690 
  4691 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4692 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4693 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4694 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4695 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4696 resort for legacy applications.
  4697 
  4698 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4699 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4700 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4701 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4702 explicit runtime argument.
  4703 
  4704 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4705 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4706 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4707 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4708 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4709 
  4710 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4711 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4712 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4713 theory state.
  4714 
  4715 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4716 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4717 
  4718   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4719   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4720   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4721   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4722   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4723   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4724   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4725   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4726   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4727   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4728 
  4729 
  4730 *** System ***
  4731 
  4732 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4733 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4734 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4735 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4736 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4737 
  4738 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4739 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4740 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4741 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4742 
  4743 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4744 
  4745 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4746 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4747 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4748 prover operations.
  4749 
  4750 
  4751 
  4752 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4753 -------------------------------
  4754 
  4755 *** General ***
  4756 
  4757 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4758 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4759 
  4760 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4761 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4762 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4763 provides a proper context already.
  4764 
  4765 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4766 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4767 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4768 
  4769 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4770 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4771 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4772 swap theory imports.
  4773 
  4774 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4775 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4776 
  4777 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4778 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4779 white space without escapes.
  4780 
  4781 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4782 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4783 "foo_bar".
  4784 
  4785 
  4786 *** Pure ***
  4787 
  4788 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4789 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4790 
  4791 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4792 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4793 
  4794 (1) unused_thms
  4795      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4796 
  4797 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4798      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4799      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4800 
  4801 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4802      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4803      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4804      their ancestors.
  4805 
  4806 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4807 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4808 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4809 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4810 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4811 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4812 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4813 
  4814 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4815 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4816 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4817 
  4818 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4819 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4820 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4821 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4822 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4823 
  4824 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4825 
  4826 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4827 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4828 update of theories within ML code.
  4829 
  4830 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4831 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4832 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4833 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4834 
  4835 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4836 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4837 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4838 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4839 
  4840 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4841 
  4842 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4843 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4844 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4845 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4846 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4847 
  4848 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4849 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4850 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4851 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4852 situations.
  4853 
  4854 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4855 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4856 proof text.
  4857 
  4858 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4859 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4860 
  4861 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4862 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4863 predicates.
  4864 
  4865 
  4866 *** Document preparation ***
  4867 
  4868 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4869 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4870 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4871 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4872 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4873 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4874 
  4875 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4876 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4877 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4878 
  4879 
  4880 *** HOL ***
  4881 
  4882 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4883 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4884 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4885 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4886 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4887 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4888 
  4889 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4890 with multithreading.
  4891 
  4892 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4893 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4894 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4895 
  4896 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4897 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4898 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4899 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4900 
  4901 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4902 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4903 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4904 and makes them available separately.  See
  4905 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4906 
  4907 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4908 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4909 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4910 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4911 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4912 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4913 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4914 the declared rules.
  4915 
  4916 This setup also deals with rules like 
  4917 
  4918   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4919 
  4920 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4921 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4922 
  4923 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4924 
  4925   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4926 
  4927   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4928     definitions on => and bool.
  4929 
  4930   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4931     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4932     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4933 
  4934       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4935       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4936       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4937       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4938       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4939       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4940       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4941       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4942 
  4943   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4944     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4945     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4946 
  4947   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4948     The proof pattern
  4949 
  4950       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4951       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4952 
  4953     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4954     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4955 
  4956       have "EX S. P S"
  4957       proof
  4958         show "P S" <...>
  4959       qed
  4960 
  4961   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4962     The proof pattern
  4963 
  4964       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4965       also have "S = T" <...>
  4966       finally have "P T" .
  4967 
  4968     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4969     must be replaced by something like
  4970 
  4971       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4972       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4973       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4974 
  4975   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4976     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4977 
  4978       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4979 
  4980     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4981     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4982     type of the form
  4983 
  4984       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4985 
  4986     rather than
  4987 
  4988       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4989 
  4990 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4991 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4992 
  4993 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4994 
  4995 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4996 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4997 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4998 
  4999 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5000 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5001 
  5002 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5003 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5004 
  5005 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5006 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5007 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5008 
  5009 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5010 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5011 
  5012   less_trans
  5013   less_linear
  5014   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5015   le_less_trans
  5016   less_le_trans
  5017   less_not_sym
  5018   less_asym
  5019 
  5020 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5021 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5022 and different variable names.
  5023 
  5024 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5025 
  5026 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5027 finite maps.
  5028 
  5029 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5030 
  5031 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5032 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5033 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5034 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5035 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5036 accordingly.
  5037 
  5038 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5039 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5040 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5041 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5042 
  5043 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5044 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5045 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5046 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5047 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5048 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5049 
  5050 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5051 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5052 
  5053 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5054 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5055 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5056 
  5057 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5058 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5059 
  5060 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5061 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5062 
  5063 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5064 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5065 
  5066 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5067 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5068 
  5069 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5070 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5071 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5072 
  5073 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5074 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5075 
  5076 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5077 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5078 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5079 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5080 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5081 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5082 
  5083 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5084 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5085 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5086 
  5087 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5088 
  5089 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5090 
  5091 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5092 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5093 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5094 
  5095 
  5096 *** ZF ***
  5097 
  5098 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5099 same session:
  5100 
  5101   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5102   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5103   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5104   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5105   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5106   List      -> List_ZF
  5107   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5108 
  5109 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5110 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5111 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5112 
  5113 
  5114 *** ML ***
  5115 
  5116 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5117 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5118 
  5119 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5120 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5121 
  5122 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5123 
  5124 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5125 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5126 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5127 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5128 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5129 
  5130 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5131 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5132 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5133 
  5134 
  5135 *** System ***
  5136 
  5137 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5138 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5139 
  5140 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5141 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5142 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5143 
  5144 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5145 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5146 
  5147 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5148 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5149 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5150 
  5151 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5152 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5153 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5154 
  5155 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5156 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5157 
  5158 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5159 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5160 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5161 script.
  5162 
  5163 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5164 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5165 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5166 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5167 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5168 
  5169 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5170 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5171 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5172 
  5173 
  5174 
  5175 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5176 -----------------------------------
  5177 
  5178 *** General ***
  5179 
  5180 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5181 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5182 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5183 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5184 
  5185 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5186 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5187 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5188 
  5189 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5190 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5191 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5192 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5193 
  5194 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5195 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5196 quotes.
  5197 
  5198 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5199 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5200 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5201 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5202 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5203 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5204 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5205 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5206 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5207 
  5208 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5209 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5210 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5211 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5212 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5213 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5214 
  5215 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5216 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5217 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5218 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5219 
  5220 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5221 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5222 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5223 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5224 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5225 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5226 
  5227 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5228 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5229 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5230 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5231 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5232 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5233 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5234 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5235 
  5236 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5237 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5238 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5239 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5240 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5241 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5242 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5243 
  5244 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5245 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5246 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5247 
  5248 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5249 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5250 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5251 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5252 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5253 limit is imposed.
  5254 
  5255 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5256 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5257 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5258 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5259 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5260 and scalability.
  5261 
  5262 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5263 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5264 
  5265 
  5266 *** Document preparation ***
  5267 
  5268 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5269 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5270 current context.
  5271 
  5272 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5273 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5274 
  5275 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5276 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5277 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5278 
  5279 
  5280 *** Pure ***
  5281 
  5282 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5283 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5284 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5285 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5286 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5287 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5288 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5289 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5290 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5291 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5292 
  5293 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5294 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5295 sketch:
  5296 
  5297     internal compilation:
  5298         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5299     writing SML code to a file:
  5300         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5301     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5302         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5303     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5304         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5305 
  5306     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5307         method ``eval''
  5308 
  5309 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5310 
  5311 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5312 
  5313     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5314     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5315     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5316     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5317 
  5318 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5319 
  5320     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5321       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5322 
  5323     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5324       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5325 
  5326     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5327       {(target)}+
  5328         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5329 
  5330     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5331       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5332         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5333 
  5334 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5335 
  5336 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5337 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5338 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5339 codegen".
  5340 
  5341 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5342 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5343 annotations).
  5344 
  5345 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5346 syntax.
  5347 
  5348 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5349 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5350 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5351 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5352 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5353 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5354 
  5355 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5356 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5357 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5358 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5359 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5360 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5361 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5362 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5363 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5364 equations, see section "definitions".
  5365 
  5366 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5367 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5368 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5369 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5370 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5371 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5372 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5373 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5374 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5375 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5376 
  5377 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5378 configuration options:
  5379 
  5380   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5381   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5382   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5383   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5384   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5385   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5386   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5387   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5388   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5389 
  5390 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5391 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5392 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5393 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5394 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5395 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5396 order.
  5397 
  5398 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5399 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5400 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5401 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5402 context encountered later on.
  5403 
  5404 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5405 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5406 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5407 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5408 
  5409 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5410 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5411 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5412 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5413 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5414 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5415 
  5416 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5417 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5418 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5419 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5420 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5421 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5422 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5423 more permissive.
  5424 
  5425 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5426 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5427 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5428 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5429 maintainability of proof texts.
  5430 
  5431 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5432 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5433 
  5434   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5435   then guess x and y by clarify
  5436 
  5437 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5438 proof tools being involved here.
  5439 
  5440 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5441 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5442 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5443 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5444 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5445 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5446 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5447 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5448 
  5449 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5450 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5451 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5452 
  5453   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5454   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5455   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5456   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5457 
  5458 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5459 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5460 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5461 
  5462 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5463 both named and unnamed ones.
  5464 
  5465 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5466 
  5467   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5468 
  5469 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5470 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5471 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5472 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5473 
  5474 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5475 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5476 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5477 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5478 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5479 
  5480 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5481 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5482 
  5483 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5484 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5485 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5486 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5487 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5488 originally first one.
  5489 
  5490 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5491 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5492 expected.
  5493 
  5494 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5495 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5496 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5497 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5498 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5499 
  5500   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5501     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5502     obtains x where "P x"
  5503 
  5504   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5505     assumes "A & B"
  5506     obtains A and B
  5507 
  5508   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5509     assumes "A | B"
  5510     obtains
  5511       A
  5512     | B
  5513 
  5514 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5515 explicitly:
  5516 
  5517   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5518     obtains "~ thesis"
  5519 
  5520   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5521     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5522 
  5523 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5524 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5525 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5526 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5527 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5528 case_names).
  5529 
  5530 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5531 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5532 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5533 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5534 
  5535 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5536 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5537 top-level lemma.
  5538 
  5539 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5540 introduction rule (default "that").
  5541 
  5542 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5543 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5544 to occur.
  5545 
  5546 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5547 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5548 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5549 representations independently of name spaces.
  5550 
  5551 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5552 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5553 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5554 
  5555 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5556 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5557 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5558 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5559 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5560 current context.
  5561 
  5562 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5563 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5564 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5565 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5566 
  5567   axiomatization
  5568     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5569     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5570 
  5571   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5572   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5573 
  5574   abbreviation
  5575     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5576     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5577 
  5578 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5579 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5580 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5581 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5582 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5583 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5584 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5585 
  5586 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5587 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5588 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5589 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5590 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5591 
  5592 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5593 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5594 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5595 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5596 
  5597 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5598 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5599 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5600 
  5601   definition "K x _ = x"
  5602 
  5603   inductive conj for A B
  5604   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5605 
  5606 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5607 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5608 abbreviations on output.
  5609 
  5610 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5611 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5612 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5613 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5614 
  5615 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5616 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5617 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5618 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5619 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5620 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5621 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5622 
  5623 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5624 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5625 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5626 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5627 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5628 
  5629 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5630 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5631 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5632 
  5633 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5634 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5635 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5636 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5637 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5638 
  5639   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5640     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5641 
  5642 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5643 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5644 partial_order.
  5645 
  5646 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5647 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5648 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5649 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5650 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5651 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5652 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5653 examples.
  5654 
  5655 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5656 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5657 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5658 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5659 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5660 
  5661 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5662 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5663 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5664 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5665 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5666 
  5667   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5668   (induct set: foo bar)
  5669   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5670   (induct type: foo bar)
  5671 
  5672 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5673 new format.
  5674 
  5675 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5676 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5677 
  5678 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5679 considered a legacy feature.
  5680 
  5681 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5682 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5683 
  5684 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5685 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5686 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5687 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5688   
  5689 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5690 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5691 manipulating the claset.
  5692 
  5693 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5694 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5695 least one premise.
  5696 
  5697 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5698 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5699 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5700 rule steps.
  5701 
  5702 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5703 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5704 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5705 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5706 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5707 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5708 
  5709 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5710 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5711 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5712 
  5713 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5714 the graph browser tool.
  5715 
  5716 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5717 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5718 
  5719 
  5720 *** HOL ***
  5721 
  5722 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5723 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5724 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5725 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5726 multi-threading.
  5727   
  5728 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5729 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5730 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5731 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5732 work with multi-threading.
  5733 
  5734 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5735 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5736 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5737 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5738 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5739 
  5740 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5741 
  5742 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5743 equality.
  5744 
  5745 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5746 the new 'class' package:
  5747 
  5748     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5749     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5750     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5751     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5752     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5753     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5754     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5755     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5756     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5757     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5758     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5759     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5760     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5761     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5762     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5763     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5764     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5765     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5766     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5767     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5768 
  5769 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5770 
  5771 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5772 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5773 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5774 names.
  5775 
  5776 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5777 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5778 
  5779 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5780 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5781 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5782 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5783 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5784 
  5785 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5786 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5787 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5788 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5789 
  5790 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5791 
  5792 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5793 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5794 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5795 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5796 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5797 
  5798 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5799 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5800 
  5801 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5802 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5803 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5804 
  5805 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5806 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5807 
  5808 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5809 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5810 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5811 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5812 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5813 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5814 in the current context.
  5815 
  5816 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5817 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5818 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5819 
  5820 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5821 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5822 
  5823 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5824 
  5825     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5826     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5827 
  5828     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5829       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5830     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5831     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5832 
  5833     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5834     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5835 
  5836   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5837 
  5838     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5839     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5840     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5841     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5842     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5843     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5844     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5845     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5846     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5847     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5848     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5849     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5850     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5851     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5852     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5853     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5854     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5855     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5856     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5857     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5858     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5859     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5860     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5861     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5862     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5863     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5864     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5865     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5866     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5867     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5868     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5869     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5870     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5871     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5872     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5873 
  5874     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5875     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5876     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5877     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5878     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5879     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5880     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5881     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5882     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5883     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5884     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5885     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5886     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5887     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5888     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5889     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5890     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5891 
  5892     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5893     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5894     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5895     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5896     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5897     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5898     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5899     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5900     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5901     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5902     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5903     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5904     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5905     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5906     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5907     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5908     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5909     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5910     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5911     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5912     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5913     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5914     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5915     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5916     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5917     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5918     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5919     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5920 
  5921     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5922     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5923     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5924     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5925     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5926     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5927 
  5928     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5929     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5930     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5931     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5932 
  5933     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5934     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5935 
  5936     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5937     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5938 
  5939 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5940 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5941 
  5942 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5943 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5944 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5945 "*.size".
  5946 
  5947 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5948 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5949 
  5950 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5951 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5952 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5953 
  5954 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5955 
  5956 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5957 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5958 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5959 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5960 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5961 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5962 numerals on all operations.
  5963 
  5964 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5965 
  5966 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5967 
  5968 * Code generator library theories:
  5969   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5970     languages.
  5971   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5972     languages.
  5973   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5974     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5975   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5976   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5977     denominator).
  5978   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5979     representable by rational numbers.
  5980   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5981     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5982     includes Code_Integer.
  5983   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5984     target-language built-in integers.
  5985   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5986     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5987 
  5988 * New package for inductive predicates
  5989 
  5990   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5991 
  5992     inductive
  5993       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5994       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5995     where
  5996       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5997     | ...
  5998 
  5999   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  6000 
  6001     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  6002 
  6003     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  6004     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6005 
  6006     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  6007     intros
  6008       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6009       ...
  6010 
  6011   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  6012   sets to be defined with the new package via
  6013 
  6014     inductive_set
  6015       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  6016       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  6017     where
  6018       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6019     | ...
  6020 
  6021   or
  6022 
  6023     inductive_set
  6024       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  6025       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  6026       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  6027     where
  6028       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6029     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  6030     | ...
  6031 
  6032   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  6033 
  6034   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  6035   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  6036 
  6037   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  6038 
  6039   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  6040     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  6041     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  6042     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  6043     than before the actual inductive definition.
  6044 
  6045   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  6046     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  6047     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  6048     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  6049     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  6050     statements of the form
  6051 
  6052       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  6053 
  6054     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  6055     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  6056 
  6057       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  6058 
  6059   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  6060 
  6061       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  6062         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  6063         ==> ... ==> P
  6064 
  6065     for predicates and
  6066 
  6067       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  6068         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  6069         ==> ... ==> P
  6070 
  6071     for sets rather than
  6072 
  6073       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  6074         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  6075         ==> ... ==> P
  6076 
  6077     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  6078     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  6079     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  6080 
  6081   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  6082     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  6083     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  6084 
  6085 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  6086 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  6087 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  6088 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  6089 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  6090 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  6091 
  6092 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  6093 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  6094 
  6095 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  6096 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  6097 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  6098 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  6099 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  6100 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  6101 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  6102 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  6103 variable.
  6104 
  6105 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  6106 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  6107 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  6108 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6109   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  6110   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  6111 
  6112 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  6113 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  6114 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  6115 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  6116 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  6117 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  6118 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  6119 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  6120 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  6121 
  6122 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  6123 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  6124 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  6125 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  6126 rat, etc.
  6127 
  6128 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  6129 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  6130 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  6131 
  6132 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  6133 
  6134 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  6135 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  6136 
  6137 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  6138 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  6139 
  6140 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  6141 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  6142 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6143 
  6144 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  6145 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  6146 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6147 
  6148 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  6149 
  6150 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  6151 
  6152 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  6153 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  6154 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  6155 positive/negative (in inequations).
  6156 
  6157 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  6158 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  6159 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  6160 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6161 
  6162 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  6163 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  6164 algebraic operations.
  6165 
  6166 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  6167 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6168 
  6169 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  6170 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6171 
  6172 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  6173 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  6174 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  6175 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  6176 adapted.
  6177  
  6178 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  6179 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  6180 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  6181 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  6182 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  6183 
  6184 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  6185 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  6186 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  6187 
  6188 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  6189 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  6190 better use 'abbreviation'.
  6191 
  6192 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6193 
  6194 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  6195 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  6196 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  6197   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  6198       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  6199   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  6200   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  6201   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  6202 
  6203 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  6204 
  6205 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  6206 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  6207 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  6208 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  6209 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  6210 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  6211 
  6212 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  6213 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  6214 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  6215 
  6216 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  6217 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  6218 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  6219 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6220 
  6221 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  6222 
  6223 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  6224 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6225 
  6226 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  6227 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  6228 
  6229 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  6230 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  6231 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  6232 
  6233 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  6234 True/False.
  6235 
  6236 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  6237 
  6238 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  6239 
  6240 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  6241 ``rule'' method.
  6242 
  6243 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  6244 g