NEWS
author wenzelm
Mon Feb 24 13:18:33 2014 +0100 (2014-02-24)
changeset 55716 2a6a8f9d52e1
parent 55686 e99ed112d303
child 55757 9fc71814b8c1
permissions -rw-r--r--
tuned;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
    25 supports input methods via ` (backquote), or << and >> (double angle
    26 brackets).
    27 
    28 
    29 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    30 
    31 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    32 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    33 
    34 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
    35 auxiliary ML files.
    36 
    37 * Improved completion based on context information about embedded
    38 languages: keywords are only completed for outer syntax, symbols or
    39 antiquotations for languages that support them.  E.g. no symbol
    40 completion for ML source, but within ML strings, comments,
    41 antiquotations.
    42 
    43 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
    44 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
    45 
    46 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
    47 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
    48 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
    49 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
    50 
    51 * New panel: Simplifier trace.  Provides an interactive view of the
    52 simplification process, enabled by the newly-introduced
    53 "simplifier_trace" declaration.
    54 
    55 
    56 *** Pure ***
    57 
    58 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
    59 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
    60 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
    61 'instance' with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem might be
    62 postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof finished
    63 trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous (without
    64 any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
    65 Axclass.axiomatize_class, Axclass.axiomatize_classrel,
    66 Axclass.axiomatize_arity.
    67 
    68 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
    69 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
    70 instantiated theorem.
    71 
    72 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
    73 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
    74 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
    75 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
    76 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
    77 
    78   attribute_setup standard =
    79     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
    80 
    81 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
    82 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
    83 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
    84 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
    85 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
    86 
    87 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
    88 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
    89 differently).
    90 
    91 
    92 *** HOL ***
    93 
    94 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.
    95 
    96 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures" option.
    97 
    98 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
    99 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   100 
   101 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
   102   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
   103   "primrec_new", "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" command are now part of
   104   "Main".
   105   Theory renamings:
   106     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   107     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   108     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   109     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   110     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   111     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   112     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   113     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   114     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   115     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   116     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   117     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   118     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   119     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   120     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   121     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   122     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   123     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   124     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   125     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   126     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   127     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   128   New theories:
   129     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   130     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   131     Library/BNF_Decl.thy
   132     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   133     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   134   Discontinued theories:
   135     BNF/BNF.thy
   136     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   137   Renamed commands:
   138     datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   139     primrec_new ~> primrec
   140     wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   141   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   142 
   143 * Old datatype package:
   144   * The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been renamed
   145     "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" -> "sum.case").
   146     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   147 
   148 * Old and new (co)datatype packages:
   149   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   150     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   151     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   152 
   153 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions, their
   154   relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new BNF-based
   155   datatype package.
   156   Renamed constants:
   157     Option.set ~> set_option
   158     Option.map ~> map_option
   159     option_rel ~> rel_option
   160   Renamed theorems:
   161     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   162     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   163     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   164     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   165     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   166     map.simps ~> list.map
   167     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   168     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   169     the.simps ~> option.sel
   170   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   171 
   172 * New theory:
   173     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   174 
   175 * Theory reorganizations:
   176   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   177 
   178 * Sledgehammer:
   179   - New option:
   180       smt_proofs
   181   - Renamed options:
   182       isar_compress ~> compress_isar
   183       isar_try0 ~> try0_isar
   184     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   185 
   186 * Metis:
   187   - Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis (full_types)' instead.
   188     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   189 
   190 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   191 
   192 * Command renaming: enriched_type ~> functor. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   193 
   194 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   195 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   196 
   197 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   198 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   199 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   200 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   201 
   202 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   203 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   204 
   205 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   206 with the given constants.
   207 
   208 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   209 
   210 Fact consolidations:
   211     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   212     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   213     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   214     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   215     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   216     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   217     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   218     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   219     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   220     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   221     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   222     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   223     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   224     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   225     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   226     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   227     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   228     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   229     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   230     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   231     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   232     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   233     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   234     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   235     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   236     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   237     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   238     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   239     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   240     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   241     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   242     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   243     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   244     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   245     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   246     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   247     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   248     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   249     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   250     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   251 
   252 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   253 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   254 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   255 
   256 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   257 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   258 
   259 For min_ac or max_ac, prefor more general collection ac_simps.
   260 
   261 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   262 
   263 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   264 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   265 
   266 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   267 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   268 
   269 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   270 operations on records.
   271 
   272 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   273 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   274 
   275 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   276     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   277 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   278 
   279 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   280     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   281     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   282 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   283 
   284 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   285   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   286   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   287   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   288     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   289   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   290     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   291   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   292 INCOMPATBILITY.
   293 
   294 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   295     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   296     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   297     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   298     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   299 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   300 
   301 * Fact name consolidation:
   302     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   303     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   304     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   305     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   306     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   307 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   308 
   309 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   310 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   311 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   312 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   313 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   314 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   315 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   316 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   317 
   318 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   319 
   320 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   321 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   322 
   323 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   324 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   325 
   326 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   327 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   328 or the brute way with
   329 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   330 
   331 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   332 
   333 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   334 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   335 
   336 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   337 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   338 
   339 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   340 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   341 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   342 INCOMPATIBILITY
   343 
   344 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   345 
   346 * Nitpick:
   347   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   348     infinite values.
   349 
   350 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   351   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   352   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   353     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   354     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   355     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   356     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   357     intervals.
   358 
   359 
   360 *** Scala ***
   361 
   362 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
   363 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
   364 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
   365 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
   366 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   367 
   368 
   369 *** ML ***
   370 
   371 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   372 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   373 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   374 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   375 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   376 of schematic variables.
   377 
   378 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   379 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   380 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   381 formal context.
   382 
   383 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   384 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   385 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   386 actually belongs to it).
   387 
   388 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
   389 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
   390 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
   391 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
   392 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
   393 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
   394 
   395 
   396 *** System ***
   397 
   398 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   399 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   400 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   401 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   402 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   403 
   404 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   405 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   406 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   407 
   408 
   409 
   410 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   411 -------------------------------------
   412 
   413 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   414 
   415 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   416 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   417 
   418 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   419 after edits surrounding the command location.
   420 
   421 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   422 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   423 e.g. out-of-memory).
   424 
   425 
   426 *** System ***
   427 
   428 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   429 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   430 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   431 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   432 
   433 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   434 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   435 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   436 
   437 
   438 
   439 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   440 -------------------------------------
   441 
   442 *** General ***
   443 
   444 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   445 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   446 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   447 
   448 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   449 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   450 
   451 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   452 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   453 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   454 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   455 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   456 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   457 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   458 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   459 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   460 syntax.
   461 
   462 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   463 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   464 
   465 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   466 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   467 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   468 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   469 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   470 
   471 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   472 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   473 
   474 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   475 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   476 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   477 
   478 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   479 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   480 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   481 
   482 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   483 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   484 
   485 
   486 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   487 
   488 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   489 Documentation panel.
   490 
   491 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   492 documentation.
   493 
   494 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   495 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   496 
   497 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   498 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   499 normal editing and checking process.
   500 
   501 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   502 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   503 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   504 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   505 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   506 
   507 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   508 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   509 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   510 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   511 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   512 
   513 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   514 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   515 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   516 
   517 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   518 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   519 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   520 to resolve conflict.
   521 
   522 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   523 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   524 
   525 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   526 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   527 such command executions while editing.
   528 
   529 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   530 document content.
   531 
   532 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   533 toplevel theorem statements.
   534 
   535 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   536 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   537 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   538 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   539 
   540 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   541 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   542 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   543 
   544 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   545 / Global Options / Appearance".
   546 
   547 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   548 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   549 
   550 
   551 *** Pure ***
   552 
   553 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   554 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   555 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   556 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   557 details.
   558 
   559 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   560 
   561 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   562 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   563 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   564 
   565 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   566 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   567 
   568 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   569 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   570 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   571 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   572 
   573 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   574 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   575 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   576 
   577 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   578 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   579 
   580 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   581 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   582 situations.
   583 
   584 
   585 *** HOL ***
   586 
   587 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   588 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   589 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   590 
   591 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   592 
   593 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   594 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   595 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   596 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   597 
   598   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   599 
   600 * Code generator:
   601   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   602     'code_instance'.
   603   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   604     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   605 
   606 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   607 examples.
   608 
   609 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   610 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   611 to distinguish both when desired.
   612 
   613 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   614 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   615 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   616 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   617 
   618 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   619 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   620 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   621 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   622 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   623 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   624 
   625 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   626 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   627 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   628 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   629 
   630 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   631 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   632 
   633 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   634 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   635 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   636 
   637 * Lifting:
   638   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   639     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   640       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   641       transfer rules
   642     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   643       correspondence relation can be generated
   644     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   645       parametricity
   646     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   647   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   648   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   649     copies
   650   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   651     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   652     anonymous context)
   653   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   654     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   655   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   656     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   657   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   658     INCOMPATIBILITY
   659 
   660 * Transfer:
   661   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   662     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   663   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   664   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   665     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   666   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   667 
   668 * Reification and reflection:
   669   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   670     "Reification".
   671   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   672   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   673 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   674 
   675 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   676   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   677     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   678     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   679   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   680     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   681   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   682     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   683     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   684     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   685     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   686     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   687     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   688     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   689   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   690     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   691   - Fact renames:
   692       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   693       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   694 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   695 
   696 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   697 
   698 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   699 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   700 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   701 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   702 
   703 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   704 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   705 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   706 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   707 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   708 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   709 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   710 lemmas.
   711 
   712 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   713 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   714 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   715 
   716 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   717 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   718 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   719 
   720 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   721 top and bottom elements.
   722 
   723 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   724 
   725 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   726 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   727 
   728  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   729    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   730    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   731 
   732  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   733    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   734    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   735 
   736    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   737    arbitrary filter.
   738 
   739  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   740    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   741    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   742    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   743    on a compact set.
   744 
   745  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   746    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   747    linear_continuum_topology).
   748 
   749  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   750    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   751    on all sequences converging to x.
   752 
   753  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   754    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   755    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   756    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   757    left or right.
   758 
   759  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   760 
   761      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   762 
   763  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   764    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   765 
   766  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   767    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   768    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   769    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   770    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   771    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   772 
   773  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   774 
   775    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   776 
   777    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   778      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   779 
   780    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   781 
   782    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   783      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   784 
   785    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   786 
   787    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   788 
   789  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   790 
   791 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   792 
   793 * Nitpick:
   794   - Added option "spy"
   795   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   796 
   797 * Sledgehammer:
   798   - Renamed option:
   799       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   800     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   801   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   802   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   803   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   804 
   805 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   806 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   807 
   808 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   809   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   810   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   811     generated code.
   812   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   813   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   814   - Fact renames:
   815     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   816     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   817     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   818 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   819 
   820 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   821 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   822 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   823 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   824 
   825 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   826 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   827 
   828 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   829 
   830 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   831 
   832     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   833     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   834 
   835 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   836 
   837 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   838 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   839 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   840 
   841 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   842 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   843 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   844 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   845 
   846 * HOL-BNF:
   847   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   848     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   849     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   850     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   851   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   852     coinduct).
   853   - Renamed keywords:
   854     data ~> datatype_new
   855     codata ~> codatatype
   856     bnf_def ~> bnf
   857   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   858     discs ~> disc
   859     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   860     map_id' ~> map_id
   861     sels ~> sel
   862     set_map' ~> set_map
   863     sets ~> set
   864 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   865 
   866 
   867 *** ML ***
   868 
   869 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   870 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   871 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   872 Examples.thy in particular.
   873 
   874 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   875 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   876 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   877 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   878 
   879 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   880 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   881 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   882 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   883 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   884 
   885 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   886 
   887     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   888     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   889 
   890 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   891 
   892 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   893 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   894 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   895 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   896 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   897 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   898 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   899 
   900 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   901 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   902 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   903 clasets separately from the context.
   904 
   905 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   906 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   907 
   908 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   909 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   910 
   911 
   912 *** System ***
   913 
   914 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   915 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   916 
   917 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   918 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   919 
   920 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   921 settings variable.
   922 
   923 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   924 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   925 always pdf.
   926 
   927 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   928 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   929 
   930 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   931 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   932 
   933 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   934 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   935 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   936 
   937 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   938 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   939 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   940 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   941 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   942 for HTML presentation of theories.
   943 
   944 
   945 
   946 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   947 -----------------------------------
   948 
   949 *** General ***
   950 
   951 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   952 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   953 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   954 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   955 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   956 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   957 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   958 
   959 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   960 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   961 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   962 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   963 
   964 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   965 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   966 
   967 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   968 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   969 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   970 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   971 dependencies properly.
   972 
   973 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   974 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   975 
   976 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   977 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   978 
   979 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   980 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   981 and "class ... context ...".
   982 
   983 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   984 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   985 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   986 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   987 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   988 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   989 
   990 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   991 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   992 
   993 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   994 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   995 
   996 
   997 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   998 
   999 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  1000 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  1001 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  1002 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  1003 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  1004 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  1005 
  1006 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  1007 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  1008 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  1009 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  1010 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  1011 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  1012 
  1013 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  1014 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  1015 browser on demand.
  1016 
  1017 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  1018 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  1019 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  1020 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  1021 
  1022 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  1023 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  1024 
  1025 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  1026 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  1027 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  1028 potentially infinite message streams.
  1029 
  1030 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  1031 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  1032 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  1033 schemes.
  1034 
  1035 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1036 symbols.
  1037 
  1038 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1039 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1040 
  1041 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1042 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1043 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1044 
  1045 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1046 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1047 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1048 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1049 
  1050 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1051 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1052 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1053 
  1054 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1055 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1056 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1057 Isabelle distribution.
  1058 
  1059 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1060 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1061 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1062 
  1063 
  1064 *** Pure ***
  1065 
  1066 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1067 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1068 
  1069 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1070 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1071 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1072 
  1073 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1074 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1075 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1076 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1077 with some care where this is really required.
  1078 
  1079 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1080 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1081 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1082 
  1083   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1084 
  1085 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1086 a Hasse diagram.
  1087 
  1088 
  1089 *** HOL ***
  1090 
  1091 * Sledgehammer:
  1092 
  1093   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1094     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1095   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1096   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1097   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1098   - Renamed options:
  1099       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1100       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1101       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1102       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1103 
  1104 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1105 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1106 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1107 
  1108 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1109 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1110 
  1111 * Lifting:
  1112   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1113   - quot_del attribute
  1114   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1115 
  1116 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1117 expressions.
  1118 
  1119 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1120 pointfree expressions.
  1121 
  1122 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1123 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1124 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1125 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1126 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1127 
  1128 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1129 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1130 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1131 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1132 accordingly.
  1133 
  1134 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1135 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1136 
  1137 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1138 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1139 
  1140 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1141 
  1142 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1143 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1144 
  1145 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1146 
  1147 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1148 
  1149   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1150   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1151 
  1152 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1153 
  1154 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1155 
  1156   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1157   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1158 
  1159 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1160 
  1161 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1162 
  1163   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1164     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1165     output f x converges to G.
  1166 
  1167   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1168     infinity (at_bot).
  1169 
  1170   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1171     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1172 
  1173   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1174     at_top".
  1175 
  1176 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1177 
  1178 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1179 lattice type classes.
  1180 
  1181 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1182 
  1183     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1184     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1185 
  1186 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1187 
  1188 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1189 changes as follows.
  1190 
  1191   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1192 
  1193       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1194       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1195 
  1196   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1197     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1198     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1199     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1200 
  1201   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1202     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1203     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1204 
  1205   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1206     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1207     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1208     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1209 
  1210   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1211     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1212 
  1213       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1214       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1215       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1216       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1217       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1218       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1219       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1220       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1221       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1222       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1223       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1224       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1225       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1226       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1227       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1228       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1229 
  1230 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1231 
  1232 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1233 
  1234 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1235 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1236 
  1237 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1238 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1239 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1240 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1241 
  1242   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1243   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1244   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1245   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1246   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1247   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1248   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1249   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1250   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1251   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1252 
  1253 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1254 
  1255 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1256 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1257 Data").
  1258 
  1259 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1260 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1261 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1262 code.
  1263 
  1264 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1265 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1266 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1267 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1268 
  1269 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1270 
  1271 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1272 
  1273 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1274 
  1275   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1276   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1277 
  1278 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1279 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1280 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1281 
  1282   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1283 
  1284     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1285     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1286     cart_base i  removed
  1287     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1288 
  1289   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1290 
  1291   Renamed lemmas:
  1292 
  1293     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1294     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1295     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1296     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1297     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1298     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1299     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1300     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1301     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1302     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1303 
  1304 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1305 
  1306 * HOL/Probability:
  1307 
  1308   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1309 
  1310   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1311     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1312     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1313 
  1314   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1315     projective family).
  1316 
  1317 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1318 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1319 
  1320 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1321 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1322 datatypes.
  1323 
  1324 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1325 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1326 
  1327 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1328 trees for the code generator.
  1329 
  1330 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1331 Lifting/Transfer.
  1332 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1333 
  1334 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1335 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1336 
  1337 
  1338 *** Document preparation ***
  1339 
  1340 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1341 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1342 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1343 
  1344 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1345 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1346 
  1347 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1348 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1349 document/root.tex.
  1350 
  1351 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1352 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1353 
  1354 
  1355 *** ML ***
  1356 
  1357 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1358 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1359 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1360 
  1361 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1362 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1363 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1364 
  1365 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1366 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1367 necessarily printing visible text.
  1368 
  1369 
  1370 *** System ***
  1371 
  1372 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1373 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1374 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1375 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1376 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1377 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1378 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1379 
  1380 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1381 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1382 
  1383   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1384 
  1385 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1386 
  1387 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1388 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1389 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1390 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1391 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1392 
  1393 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1394 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1395 
  1396 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1397 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1398 
  1399 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1400 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1401 
  1402 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1403 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1404 version of Isabelle.
  1405 
  1406 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1407 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1408 
  1409 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1410 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1411 for home-made settings.
  1412 
  1413 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1414 
  1415 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1416 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1417 configuration.
  1418 
  1419 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1420 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1421 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1422 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1423 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1424 
  1425 
  1426 
  1427 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1428 ------------------------------
  1429 
  1430 *** General ***
  1431 
  1432 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1433 
  1434   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1435     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1436   - markup for bound variables
  1437   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1438   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1439   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1440     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1441 
  1442 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1443 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1444 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1445 
  1446 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1447 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1448 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1449 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1450 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1451 
  1452   context
  1453     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1454     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1455   begin
  1456 
  1457   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1458 
  1459   end
  1460 
  1461   thm my_trans
  1462 
  1463 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1464 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1465 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1466 
  1467 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1468 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1469 
  1470 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1471 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1472 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1473 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1474 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1475 
  1476 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1477 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1478 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1479 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1480 indices of schematic variables.
  1481 
  1482 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1483 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1484 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1485 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1486 etc. was exploited.
  1487 
  1488 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1489 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1490 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1491 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1492 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1493 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1494 
  1495 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1496 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1497 manual.
  1498 
  1499 
  1500 *** Pure ***
  1501 
  1502 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1503 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1504 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1505 
  1506 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1507 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1508 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1509 undocumented feature.)
  1510 
  1511 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1512 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1513 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1514 
  1515   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1516 
  1517   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1518     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1519 
  1520 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1521 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1522 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1523 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1524 
  1525 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1526 
  1527     num ~> num_token
  1528     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1529     xstr ~> str_token
  1530 
  1531 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1532 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1533 position information via constraints).
  1534 
  1535 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1536 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1537 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1538 
  1539 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1540 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1541 
  1542 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1543 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1544 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1545 
  1546 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1547 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1548 
  1549 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1550 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1551 
  1552   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1553 
  1554 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1555 
  1556 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1557 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1558 
  1559 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1560 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1561 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1562 
  1563 
  1564 *** HOL ***
  1565 
  1566 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1567 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1568 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1569 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1570 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1571 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1572 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1573 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1574 possible.
  1575 
  1576 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1577 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1578 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1579 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1580 
  1581 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1582 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1583 
  1584 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1585 
  1586 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1587 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1588 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1589 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1590 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1591 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1592 
  1593   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1594     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1595 
  1596   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1597     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1598     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1599 
  1600   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1601     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1602 
  1603   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1604     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1605     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1606 
  1607   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1608     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1609 
  1610 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1611 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1612 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1613 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1614 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1615 
  1616   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1617     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1618     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1619     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1620     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1621 
  1622     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1623     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1624 
  1625   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1626     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1627     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1628     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1629     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1630     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1631     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1632     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1633 
  1634   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1635     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1636     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1637     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1638 
  1639   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1640     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1641     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1642     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1643 
  1644   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1645     from type nat to type int.
  1646 
  1647 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1648 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1649 
  1650   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1651     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1652     type.  Example syntax:
  1653 
  1654     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1655       is List.insert
  1656 
  1657     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1658     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1659     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1660     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1661     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1662     by the package.
  1663 
  1664   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1665     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1666     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1667     code generation for each constant.
  1668 
  1669   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1670     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1671     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1672     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1673     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1674 
  1675   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1676     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1677     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1678 
  1679 * Quotient package:
  1680 
  1681   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1682     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1683 
  1684   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1685     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1686 
  1687   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1688     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1689     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1690 
  1691   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1692     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1693 
  1694 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1695 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1696 
  1697 * Quickcheck:
  1698 
  1699   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1700     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1701     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1702     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1703     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1704 
  1705     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1706     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1707     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1708 
  1709     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1710     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1711 
  1712     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1713     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1714     show genuine counterexamples.
  1715 
  1716   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1717     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1718 
  1719     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1720     constructors of that type.
  1721 
  1722   - Support for multisets.
  1723 
  1724   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1725 
  1726   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1727     conjectures in a locale context.
  1728 
  1729 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1730 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1731 
  1732 * Sledgehammer:
  1733   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1734     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1735   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1736   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1737     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1738   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1739   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1740   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1741   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1742 
  1743 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1744 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1745 
  1746 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1747 
  1748 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1749 
  1750 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1751 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1752 
  1753   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1754 
  1755 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1756 a list and a nat.
  1757 
  1758 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1759 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1760 
  1761 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1762 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1763 default.
  1764 
  1765 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1766 
  1767   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1768 
  1769 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1770 
  1771 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1772 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1773 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1774 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1775 one_case.
  1776 
  1777 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1778 the result of the fact expression.
  1779 
  1780 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1781 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1782 of some relation theorems:
  1783 
  1784   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1785   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1786   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1787   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1788   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1789   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1790 
  1791 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1792 
  1793 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1794 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1795 
  1796 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1797 
  1798 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1799 to match the constant's name:
  1800 
  1801   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1802   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1803   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1804   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1805   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1806   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1807   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1808   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1809   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1810   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1811   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1812   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1813   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1814   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1815   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1816   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1817   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1818   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1819   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1820   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1821   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1822   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1823   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1824   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1825 
  1826 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1827 
  1828 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1829 and corresponding theorem names:
  1830 
  1831   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1832 
  1833   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1834 
  1835   - Renamed theorems:
  1836 
  1837     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1838     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1839     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1840     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1841     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1842     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1843     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1844     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1845     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1846     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1847     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1848     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1849     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1850     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1851     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1852     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1853     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1854     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1855     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1856     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1857     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1858     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1859     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1860 
  1861     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1862 
  1863     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1864 
  1865 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1866 
  1867 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1868 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1869 
  1870   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1871   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1872   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1873   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1874   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1875   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1876   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1877   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1878   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1879   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1880   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1881   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1882   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1883   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1884   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1885   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1886   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1887   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1888   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1889   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1890   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1891 
  1892 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1893 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1894 
  1895 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1896 
  1897 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1898 
  1899   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1900   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1901   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1902   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1903   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1904   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1905   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1906   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1907   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1908   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1909   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1910   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1911   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1912   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1913   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1914   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1915   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1916   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1917 
  1918 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1919 
  1920 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1921 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1922 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1923 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1924 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1925 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1926 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1927 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1928 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1929 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1930 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1931 
  1932 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1933 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1934 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1935 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1936 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1937 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1938 
  1939 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1940 through option types.
  1941 
  1942 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1943 relations.
  1944 
  1945 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1946 
  1947 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1948 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1949 
  1950   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1951   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1952   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1953   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1954   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1955   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1956   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1957   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1958   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1959   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1960   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1961   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1962   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1963   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1964   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1965   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1966   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1967   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1968   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1969   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1970   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1971   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1972   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1973   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1974   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1975   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1976   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1977   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1978   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1979   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1980   zless_le ~> less_le
  1981   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1982   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1983   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1984 
  1985 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1986 
  1987   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1988 
  1989 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1990 
  1991 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1992 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1993 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1994 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1995 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1996 
  1997 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1998 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1999 
  2000 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  2001 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  2002 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  2003 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  2004 follows:
  2005 
  2006   Operations:
  2007   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  2008   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  2009   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  2010   del -> rbt_del
  2011   delete -> rbt_delete
  2012   ins -> rbt_ins
  2013   insert -> rbt_insert
  2014   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  2015   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  2016   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  2017   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  2018   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  2019   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  2020   tree_less -> rbt_less
  2021   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  2022   union -> rbt_union
  2023   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  2024   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  2025 
  2026   Lemmas:
  2027   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  2028   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  2029   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  2030   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  2031   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  2032   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  2033   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2034   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2035   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2036   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2037   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2038   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2039   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2040   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2041   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2042   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2043   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2044   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2045   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2046   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2047   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2048   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2049   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2050   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2051   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2052   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2053   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2054   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2055   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2056   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2057   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2058   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2059   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2060   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2061   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2062   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2063   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2064   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2065   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2066   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2067   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2068   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2069   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2070   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2071   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2072   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2073   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2074   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2075   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2076   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2077   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2078   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2079   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2080   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2081   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2082   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2083   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2084   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2085   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2086   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2087   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2088   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2089   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2090   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2091   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2092   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2093   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2094   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2095   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2096   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2097   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2098   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2099   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2100   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2101   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2102   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2103   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2104   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2105   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2106   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2107   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2108   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2109   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2110 
  2111 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2112 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2113 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2114 
  2115   Changed Operations:
  2116   float_abs -> abs
  2117   float_nprt -> nprt
  2118   float_pprt -> pprt
  2119   pow2 -> use powr
  2120   round_down -> float_round_down
  2121   round_up -> float_round_up
  2122   scale -> exponent
  2123 
  2124   Removed Operations:
  2125   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2126 
  2127   Renamed Lemmas:
  2128   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2129   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2130   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2131   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2132   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2133   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2134   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2135   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2136   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2137   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2138   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2139   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2140   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2141   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2142   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2143   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2144   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2145   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2146   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2147   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2148   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2149   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2150   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2151   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2152   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2153   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2154   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2155   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2156   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2157   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2158   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2159   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2160   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2161   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2162   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2163   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2164 
  2165   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2166   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2167   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2168   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2169   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2170   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2171   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2172   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2173   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2174   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2175 
  2176 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2177 association lists with distinct keys.
  2178 
  2179 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2180 annotated commands.
  2181 
  2182 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2183 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2184 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2185 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2186 
  2187 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2188 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2189 instead.
  2190 
  2191   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2192   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2193   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2194   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2195   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2196   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2197   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2198   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2199   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2200   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2201   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2202   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2203   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2204   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2205   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2206   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2207   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2208   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2209   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2210   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2211   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2212   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2213   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2214   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2215   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2216   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2217   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2218   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2219   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2220   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2221   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2222   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2223   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2224   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2225   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2226   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2227   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2228   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2229   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2230   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2231   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2232 
  2233 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2234 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2235 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2236 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2237 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2238 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2239 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2240 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2241 
  2242 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2243 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2244 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2245 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2246 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2247 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2248 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2249 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2250 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2251 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2252 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2253 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2254 
  2255   Renamed constants:
  2256   measure -> emeasure
  2257   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2258   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2259   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2260   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2261 
  2262   Removed locales:
  2263   completeable_measure_space
  2264   finite_measure_space
  2265   finite_prob_space
  2266   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2267   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2268   finite_sigma_algebra
  2269   measure_space
  2270   pair_finite_prob_space
  2271   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2272   pair_finite_space
  2273   pair_sigma_algebra
  2274   product_sigma_algebra
  2275 
  2276   Removed constants:
  2277   conditional_space
  2278   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2279   image_space
  2280   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2281   pair_measure_generator
  2282   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2283   subvimage
  2284 
  2285   Replacement theorems:
  2286   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2287   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2288   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2289   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2290   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2291   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2292   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2293   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2294   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2295   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2296   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2297   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2298   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2299   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2300   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2301   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2302   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2303   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2304   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2305   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2306   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2307   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2308   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2309   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2310   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2311   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2312   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2313   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2314   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2315   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2316   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2317   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2318   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2319   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2320   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2321   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2322   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2323   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2324   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2325   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2326   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2327   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2328   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2329   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2330   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2331   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2332   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2333   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2334   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2335   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2336   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2337   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2338   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2339   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2340   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2341   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2342   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2343   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2344   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2345   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2346   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2347   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2348   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2349   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2350   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2351   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2352   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2353   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2354   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2355   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2356   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2357   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2358   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2359   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2360   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2361   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2362   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2363   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2364   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2365   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2366   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2367   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2368   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2369   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2370   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2371   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2372   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2373   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2374   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2375   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2376   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2377   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2378   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2379   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2380   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2381   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2382   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2383   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2384   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2385   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2386   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2387   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2388   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2389   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2390   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2391   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2392   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2393   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2394   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2395   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2396   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2397   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2398   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2399   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2400   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2401   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2402   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2403   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2404   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2405   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2406   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2407   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2408   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2409   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2410   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2411   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2412   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2413   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2414 
  2415 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2416 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2417 
  2418 
  2419 *** FOL ***
  2420 
  2421 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2422 
  2423 
  2424 *** ZF ***
  2425 
  2426 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2427 analysis.
  2428 
  2429 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2430 
  2431 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2432 
  2433 
  2434 *** ML ***
  2435 
  2436 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2437 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2438 
  2439 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2440 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2441 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2442 
  2443 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2444 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2445 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2446 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2447 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2448 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2449 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2450 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2451 
  2452 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2453 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2454 
  2455 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2456 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2457 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2458 
  2459 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2460 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2461 
  2462 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2463 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2464 context as well.
  2465 
  2466 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2467 
  2468   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2469   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2470   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2471   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2472   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2473   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2474   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2475   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2476   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2477   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2478   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2479   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2480 
  2481 
  2482 *** System ***
  2483 
  2484 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2485 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2486 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2487 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2488 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2489 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2490 the generic user home was intended.
  2491 
  2492 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2493 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2494 
  2495 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2496 (not just JRE).
  2497 
  2498 
  2499 
  2500 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2501 ------------------------------------
  2502 
  2503 *** General ***
  2504 
  2505 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2506 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2507 
  2508   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2509     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2510     files for checking).
  2511 
  2512   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2513     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2514     positions.
  2515 
  2516   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2517     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2518     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2519 
  2520   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2521     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2522     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2523 
  2524   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2525     cores.
  2526 
  2527   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2528     versions (garbage collection).
  2529 
  2530 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2531 including some remaining limitations.
  2532 
  2533 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2534 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2535 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2536 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2537 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2538 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2539 
  2540 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2541 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2542 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2543 
  2544 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2545 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2546 usedir option -Q.
  2547 
  2548 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2549 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2550 
  2551   long_names   ~> names_long
  2552   short_names  ~> names_short
  2553   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2554 
  2555 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2556 
  2557   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2558 
  2559 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2560 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2561 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2562 
  2563 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2564 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2565 
  2566 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2567   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2568   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2569   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2570     "Classical Reasoner".
  2571 
  2572 
  2573 *** HOL ***
  2574 
  2575 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2576 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2577 
  2578 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2579 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2580 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2581 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2582 class complete_linorder.
  2583 
  2584 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2585 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2586 
  2587 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2588 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2589 
  2590   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2591   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2592   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2593   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2594   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2595   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2596   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2597   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2598   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2599   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2600   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2601 
  2602 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2603 
  2604   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2605   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2606   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2607   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2608   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2609   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2610   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2611   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2612   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2613   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2614   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2615   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2616   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2617   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2618   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2619   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2620 
  2621 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2622 
  2623 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2624 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2625 
  2626 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2627 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2628 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2629 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2630 
  2631 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2632 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2633 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2634 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2635 
  2636 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2637 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2638 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2639 
  2640 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2641 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2642 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2643 
  2644 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2645 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2646 
  2647 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2648 
  2649     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2650     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2651 
  2652 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2653 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2654 
  2655 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2656 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2657 
  2658 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2659 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2660 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2661 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2662 
  2663   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2664   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2665   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2666   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2667   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2668   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2669   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2670 
  2671 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2672 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2673 
  2674   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2675   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2676   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2677   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2678   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2679   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2680   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2681   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2682   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2683   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2684   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2685   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2686   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2687   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2688   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2689   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2690   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2691   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2692   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2693   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2694   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2695   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2696   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2697   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2698   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2699   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2700   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2701   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2702   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2703   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2704   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2705   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2706   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2707   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2708   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2709   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2710   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2711   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2712   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2713   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2714   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2715   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2716   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2717   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2718   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2719   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2720   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2721   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2722   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2723   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2724   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2725   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2726   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2727   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2728   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2729   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2730   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2731   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2732   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2733   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2734   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2735   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2736   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2737   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2738   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2739   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2740   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2741   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2742   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2743   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2744   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2745   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2746   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2747   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2748   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2749   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2750   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2751   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2752   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2753   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2754   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2755   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2756 
  2757 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2758 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2759 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2760 
  2761 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2762 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2763 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2764 
  2765 * Code generation:
  2766 
  2767   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2768     characters in the target language.
  2769 
  2770   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2771     instead.
  2772 
  2773   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2774 
  2775   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2776     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2777 
  2778       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2779 
  2780 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2781 
  2782 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2783 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2784 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2785 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2786 syntax.
  2787 
  2788 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2789 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2790 
  2791 * Nitpick:
  2792   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2793   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2794   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2795     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2796 
  2797 * Sledgehammer:
  2798   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2799   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2800     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2801   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2802     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2803   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2804     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2805   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2806     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2807   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2808     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2809 
  2810 * Metis:
  2811   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2812   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2813     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2814 
  2815 * Command 'try':
  2816   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2817     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2818   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2819     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2820 
  2821 * Quickcheck:
  2822   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2823     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2824   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2825     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2826   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2827     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2828     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2829     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2830   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2831     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2832 
  2833 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2834 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2835 
  2836 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2837 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2838 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2839 
  2840 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2841 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2842 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2843 
  2844 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2845 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2846 
  2847 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2848 arithmetic.
  2849 
  2850 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2851 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2852 and lattice type classes.
  2853 
  2854 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2855 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2856 
  2857 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2858 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2859 
  2860 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2861 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2862 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2863 
  2864   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2865   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2866   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2867   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2868 
  2869 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2870 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2871 constants:
  2872 
  2873   type inat   ~> type enat
  2874   Fin         ~> enat
  2875   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2876   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2877   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2878 
  2879 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2880 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2881 
  2882 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2883 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2884 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2885 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2886 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2887 
  2888 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2889 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2890 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2891 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2892 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2893 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2894 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2895 
  2896   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2897   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2898   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2899   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2900 
  2901 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2902 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2903 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2904 
  2905   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2906   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2907   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2908   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2909   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2910   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2911   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2912   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2913   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2914   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2915   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2916   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2917   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2918   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2919   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2920   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2921   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2922   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2923   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2924   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2925   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2926   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2927   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2928   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2929   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2930   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2931   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2932   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2933   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2934   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2935   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2936   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2937   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2938   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2939   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2940   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2941   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2942   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2943   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2944   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2945   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2946   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2947   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2948   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2949   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2950   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2951   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2952   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2953   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2954   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2955   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2956 
  2957 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2958   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2959   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2960   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2961   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2962     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2963 
  2964 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2965 
  2966   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2967   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2968   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2969   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2970   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2971   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2972   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2973   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2974   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2975   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2976   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2977   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2978   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2979   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2980   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2981   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2982   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2983   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2984   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2985   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2986   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2987   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2988   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2989   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2990   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2991 
  2992 
  2993 *** Document preparation ***
  2994 
  2995 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2996 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2997 same.
  2998 
  2999 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  3000 result.
  3001 
  3002 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  3003 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  3004 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  3005 
  3006 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  3007 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  3008 
  3009 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  3010 like this:
  3011 
  3012   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  3013   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  3014 
  3015 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  3016 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  3017 layouts.
  3018 
  3019 
  3020 *** ML ***
  3021 
  3022 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  3023 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  3024 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  3025 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  3026 under external program control.
  3027 
  3028 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  3029 data, which requires explicit setup.
  3030 
  3031 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  3032 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  3033 (better known as Proof General).
  3034 
  3035 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3036 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3037 
  3038 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3039 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3040 
  3041 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3042 (including quotes etc.).
  3043 
  3044 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3045 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3046 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3047 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3048 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3049 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3050 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3051 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3052 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3053 
  3054 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3055 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3056 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3057 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3058 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3059 
  3060 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3061 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3062 
  3063 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3064 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3065 
  3066 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3067 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3068 
  3069 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3070 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3071 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3072 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3073 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3074 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3075 proper Proof.context.
  3076 
  3077 
  3078 *** System ***
  3079 
  3080 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3081 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3082 
  3083 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3084 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3085 
  3086 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3087 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3088 
  3089   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3090   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3091   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3092   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3093   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3094 
  3095 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3096 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3097 
  3098 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3099 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3100 example:
  3101 
  3102   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3103 
  3104 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3105 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3106 
  3107 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3108 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3109 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3110 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3111 
  3112 
  3113 
  3114 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3115 ----------------------------------
  3116 
  3117 *** General ***
  3118 
  3119 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3120 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3121 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3122 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3123 like this:
  3124 
  3125   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3126 
  3127 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3128 
  3129 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3130 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3131 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3132 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3133 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3134 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3135 
  3136 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3137 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3138 the following package declarations:
  3139 
  3140   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3141   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3142 
  3143 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3144 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3145 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3146 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3147 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3148 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3149 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3150 
  3151 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3152 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3153 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3154 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3155 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3156 
  3157 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3158 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3159 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3160 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3161 
  3162 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3163 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3164 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3165 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3166 
  3167   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3168 
  3169   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3170   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3171   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3172   show_types                    show_types
  3173   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3174   show_consts                   show_consts
  3175   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3176 
  3177   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3178   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3179   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3180 
  3181   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3182   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3183 
  3184   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3185 
  3186   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3187   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3188   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3189   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3190   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3191 
  3192 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3193 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3194 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3195 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3196 
  3197 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3198 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3199 
  3200   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3201   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3202 
  3203 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3204 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3205 float_token.
  3206 
  3207 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3208 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3209 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3210 
  3211 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3212 DejaVu Sans.
  3213 
  3214 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3215 
  3216 
  3217 *** Pure ***
  3218 
  3219 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3220 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3221 time.
  3222 
  3223 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3224 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3225 
  3226 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3227 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3228 
  3229 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3230 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3231 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3232 command already provided this functionality.
  3233 
  3234 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3235 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3236 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3237 without interpretations.
  3238 
  3239 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3240 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3241 
  3242 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3243 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3244 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3245 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3246 
  3247 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3248 'definition' instead.
  3249 
  3250 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3251 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3252 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3253 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3254 
  3255 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3256 constructors.
  3257 
  3258 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3259 the local file system.
  3260 
  3261 
  3262 *** HOL ***
  3263 
  3264 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3265 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3266 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3267 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3268 
  3269   declare [[coercion f]]
  3270 
  3271 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3272 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3273 
  3274   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3275 
  3276 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3277 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3278 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3279 other theories like this:
  3280 
  3281   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3282 
  3283 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3284 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3285 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3286 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3287 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3288 for examples.
  3289 
  3290 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3291 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3292 
  3293 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3294 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3295 
  3296 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3297 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3298 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3299 
  3300 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3301 functorial structure of types.
  3302 
  3303 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3304 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3305 
  3306 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3307 languages.
  3308 
  3309 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3310 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3311 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3312 
  3313 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3314 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3315 
  3316 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3317 combinators any longer.
  3318 
  3319 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3320 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3321 
  3322 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3323 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3324 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3325 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3326 
  3327   record 'a foo = ...
  3328   ...
  3329   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3330 
  3331 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3332 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3333 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3334 
  3335 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3336 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3337 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3338 
  3339 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3340 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3341 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3342 
  3343 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3344 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3345 
  3346 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3347 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3348 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3349 independently.
  3350 
  3351 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3352 counter example search.
  3353 
  3354 * Sledgehammer:
  3355   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3356     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3357     sledgehammer").
  3358   - Renamed commands:
  3359     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3360     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3361     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3362     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3363   - Renamed options:
  3364     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3365     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3366     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3367     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3368     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3369 
  3370 * Nitpick:
  3371   - Renamed options:
  3372     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3373     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3374     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3375   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3376   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3377   - Added "whack" option.
  3378   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3379   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3380   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3381   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3382     higher cardinalities.
  3383   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3384 
  3385 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3386 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3387 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3388 
  3389     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3390 
  3391 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3392 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3393 
  3394 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3395 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3396 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3397 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3398 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3399 "smt_solver".
  3400 
  3401 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3402 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3403 
  3404 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3405 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3406 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3407 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3408 
  3409 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3410   - Renamed:
  3411     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3412     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3413     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3414   - Added:
  3415     smt_verbose
  3416     smt_random_seed
  3417     smt_datatypes
  3418     smt_infer_triggers
  3419     smt_monomorph_limit
  3420     cvc3_options
  3421     remote_cvc3_options
  3422     remote_z3_options
  3423     yices_options
  3424 
  3425 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3426 header.
  3427 
  3428 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3429 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3430 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3431 
  3432   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3433 
  3434 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3435 
  3436 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3437 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3438 
  3439 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3440 
  3441 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3442 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3443 
  3444 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3445 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3446 
  3447 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3448 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3449 
  3450 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3451 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3452 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3453 
  3454 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3455 
  3456 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3457 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3458 
  3459 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3460 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3461 
  3462 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3463 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3464 for congruent(2)).
  3465 
  3466 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3467 
  3468   types
  3469     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3470     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3471 
  3472   constants
  3473     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3474     True ~> HOL.True
  3475     False ~> HOL.False
  3476     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3477     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3478     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3479     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3480     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3481     The ~> HOL.The
  3482     All ~> HOL.All
  3483     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3484     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3485     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3486     If ~> HOL.If
  3487     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3488     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3489     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3490     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3491     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3492     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3493     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3494     op : ~> Set.member
  3495     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3496 
  3497 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3498 
  3499 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3500 
  3501     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3502     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3503     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3504     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3505     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3506     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3507     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3508     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3509 
  3510 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3511 
  3512 * More stylized fact names:
  3513 
  3514   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3515   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3516   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3517   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3518 
  3519 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3520 
  3521 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3522 
  3523   constants
  3524     null ~> List.null
  3525 
  3526   facts
  3527     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3528     null_empty ~> null_def
  3529 
  3530 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3531 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3532 generation.
  3533 
  3534 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3535 Haskell code.
  3536 
  3537 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3538 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3539 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3540 
  3541 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3542 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3543 
  3544 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3545 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3546 
  3547 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3548 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3549 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3550 
  3551 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3552 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3553 
  3554 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3555 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3556 
  3557 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3558 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3559 referred to by its qualified name.
  3560 
  3561   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3562   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3563   product ~>  Enum.product
  3564 
  3565 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3566 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3567 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3568 
  3569 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3570 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3571 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3572 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3573 
  3574 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3575 sort_key.
  3576 
  3577 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3578 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3579 
  3580 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3581 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3582 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3583 
  3584   types
  3585     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3586               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3587               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3588         (depends on your needs)
  3589 
  3590   constants
  3591      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3592      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3593      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3594 
  3595 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3596 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3597 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3598 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3599 
  3600 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3601 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3602 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3603 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3604 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3605 
  3606 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3607 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3608 
  3609 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3610 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3611 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3612 
  3613 
  3614 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3615 
  3616 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3617 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3618 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3619 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3620 compatibility.
  3621 
  3622 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3623 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3624 
  3625 
  3626 *** HOLCF ***
  3627 
  3628 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3629 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3630 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3631 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3632 
  3633 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3634 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3635 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3636 
  3637   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3638   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3639   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3640 
  3641 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3642 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3643 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3644 
  3645 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3646 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3647 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3648 domain definition now works:
  3649 
  3650   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3651 
  3652 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3653 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3654 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3655 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3656 
  3657   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3658     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3659 
  3660   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3661 
  3662 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3663 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3664 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3665 
  3666 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3667 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3668 
  3669 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3670 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3671 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3672 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3673 
  3674 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3675 
  3676 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3677 
  3678 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3679 
  3680 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3681 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3682 
  3683 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3684 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3685 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3686 
  3687 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3688 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3689 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3690 
  3691 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3692 still supported as an input translation.
  3693 
  3694 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3695 
  3696   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3697   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3698   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3699   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3700   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3701   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3702   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3703 
  3704 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3705 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3706 
  3707   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3708   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3709   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3710   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3711   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3712   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3713 
  3714 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3715 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3716 
  3717 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3718 
  3719   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3720   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3721   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3722   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3723 
  3724 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3725 
  3726 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3727 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3728 
  3729 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3730 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3731 
  3732   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3733   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3734   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3735   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3736   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3737   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3738   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3739   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3740   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3741   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3742   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3743   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3744   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3745   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3746   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3747   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3748   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3749   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3750   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3751   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3752 
  3753 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3754 
  3755   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3756   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3757   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3758   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3759   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3760   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3761   box_less             ~> box_below
  3762   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3763   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3764   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3765   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3766   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3767   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3768   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3769   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3770   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3771   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3772   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3773   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3774   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3775   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3776   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3777   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3778   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3779   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3780   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3781   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3782   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3783   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3784   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3785   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3786   up_less              ~> up_below
  3787   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3788   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3789   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3790   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3791   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3792   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3793   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3794   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3795   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3796   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3797   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3798   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3799   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3800 
  3801 
  3802 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3803 
  3804 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3805 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3806 
  3807 
  3808 *** ML ***
  3809 
  3810 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3811 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3812 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3813 
  3814 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3815 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3816 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3817 
  3818 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3819 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3820 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3821 
  3822 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3823 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3824 
  3825 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3826 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3827 
  3828 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3829 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3830 
  3831 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3832 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3833 
  3834 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3835 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3836 almost all situations.
  3837 
  3838 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3839 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3840 Isabelle/ML.
  3841 
  3842 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3843 meaning.
  3844 
  3845 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3846 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3847 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3848 
  3849 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3850 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3851 
  3852 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3853 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3854 
  3855 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3856 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3857 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3858 
  3859 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3860 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3861 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3862 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3863 configuration options.
  3864 
  3865 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3866 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3867 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3868 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3869 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3870 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3871 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3872 
  3873 
  3874 
  3875 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3876 ---------------------------------
  3877 
  3878 *** General ***
  3879 
  3880 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3881 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3882 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3883 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3884 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3885 their full internal name.
  3886 
  3887 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3888 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3889 Some hints on upgrading:
  3890 
  3891   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3892     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3893     which are independent of this issue.
  3894 
  3895   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3896     provides the following special forms:
  3897 
  3898       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3899       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3900       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3901 
  3902     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3903     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3904     extra variables".
  3905 
  3906     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3907     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3908     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3909     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3910     "logic".
  3911 
  3912   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3913     antiquotations:
  3914 
  3915       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3916       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3917       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3918       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3919 
  3920   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3921     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3922     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3923     antiquotations.
  3924 
  3925 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3926 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3927 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3928 diagnose syntax problems.
  3929 
  3930 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3931 
  3932 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3933 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3934 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3935 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3936 
  3937 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3938 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3939 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3940 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3941 
  3942 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3943 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3944 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3945 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3946 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3947 
  3948 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3949 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3950 
  3951 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3952 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3953 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3954 
  3955   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3956 
  3957 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3958 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3959 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3960 
  3961 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3962 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3963 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3964 
  3965 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3966 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3967 
  3968 
  3969 *** Pure ***
  3970 
  3971 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3972 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3973 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3974 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3975 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3976 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3977 inspect proof terms.
  3978 
  3979 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3980 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3981 are added internally.  For example:
  3982 
  3983   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3984 
  3985 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3986 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3987 
  3988 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3989 
  3990 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3991 'class' instead.
  3992 
  3993 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3994 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3995 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3996 
  3997 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3998 invariants.
  3999 
  4000 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  4001 user space functionality any longer.
  4002 
  4003 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  4004 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  4005 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4006 
  4007 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  4008 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  4009 
  4010 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  4011 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  4012 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  4013 
  4014 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  4015 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  4016 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  4017 
  4018 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  4019 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4020 
  4021 
  4022 *** HOL ***
  4023 
  4024 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  4025 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  4026 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  4027 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  4028 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  4029 
  4030 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  4031 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  4032 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  4033 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4034 
  4035   fun
  4036     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4037   where
  4038     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4039 
  4040   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4041     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4042 
  4043   quotient_definition
  4044     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4045 
  4046 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4047 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4048 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4049 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4050 
  4051 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4052 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4053 
  4054 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4055 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4056 
  4057 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4058 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4059 
  4060 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4061 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4062 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4063 
  4064 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4065 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4066 
  4067 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4068 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4069 
  4070 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4071 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4072 
  4073 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4074 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4075 
  4076 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4077 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4078 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4079 
  4080   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4081   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4082   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4083   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4084   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4085   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4086   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4087   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4088   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4089   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4090   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4091   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4092   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4093   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4094   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4095   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4096   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4097   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4098   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4099   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4100   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4101   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4102   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4103   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4104   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4105   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4106   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4107   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4108   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4109   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4110 
  4111 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4112 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4113 
  4114 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4115 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4116 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4117 
  4118 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4119 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4120 
  4121 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4122 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4123 
  4124 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4125 
  4126 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4127 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4128 
  4129 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4130 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4131 
  4132 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4133 
  4134 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4135 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4136 
  4137 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4138 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4139 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4140 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4141 
  4142 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4143   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4144   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4145   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4146 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4147 
  4148 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4149 lattices):
  4150 
  4151     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4152     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4153 
  4154     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4155 
  4156     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4157     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4158     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4159     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4160     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4161     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4162     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4163     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4164     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4165     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4166     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4167     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4168     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4169 
  4170     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4171     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4172     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4173     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4174     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4175     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4176     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4177     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4178     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4179     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4180     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4181     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4182     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4183     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4184     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4185     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4186     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4187     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4188 
  4189   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4190   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4191 
  4192     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4193     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4194     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4195     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4196     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4197 
  4198 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4199 
  4200 * Refined field classes:
  4201   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4202     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4203     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4204   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4205 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4206 
  4207 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4208   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4209   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4210   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4211     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4212   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4213     equal_neg_zero.
  4214 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4215 
  4216 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4217 sets to lattices:
  4218 
  4219   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4220   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4221   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4222   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4223   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4224   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4225   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4226   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4227   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4228   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4229 
  4230 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4231 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4232 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4233 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4234 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4235 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4236 
  4237 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4238 multiset order:
  4239 
  4240   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4241     <= and <;
  4242   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4243     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4244     multiset_order;
  4245   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4246     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4247     generation;
  4248   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4249     if needed.
  4250 
  4251 Renamed:
  4252 
  4253   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4254   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4255   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4256 
  4257 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4258 
  4259 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4260 
  4261 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4262 
  4263 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4264 
  4265 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4266 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4267 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4268 
  4269   Constants:
  4270   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4271   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4272   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4273   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4274   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4275   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4276   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4277   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4278   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4279   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4280   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4281   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4282   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4283 
  4284   Lemmas:
  4285   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4286   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4287   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4288   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4289   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4290   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4291   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4292   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4293   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4294   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4295   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4296   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4297   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4298 
  4299 * Sledgehammer:
  4300   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4301     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4302     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4303     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4304     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4305     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4306     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4307   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4308   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4309     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4310   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4311     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4312     is still experimental.)
  4313   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4314     full-typed mode.
  4315   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4316 
  4317 * Nitpick:
  4318   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4319   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4320   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4321     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4322   - Added support for quotient types.
  4323   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4324     constructs.
  4325   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4326     "termination" proofs).
  4327   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4328   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4329   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4330   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4331     record getters.
  4332   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4333   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4334   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4335   - Added "atoms" option.
  4336   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4337     problems.
  4338   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4339     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4340     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4341   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4342     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4343   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4344 
  4345 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4346   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4347   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4348   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4349   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4350   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4351   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4352   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4353   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4354   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4355 
  4356 
  4357 *** HOLCF ***
  4358 
  4359 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4360 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4361 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4362 
  4363 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4364 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4365 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4366 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4367 
  4368 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4369 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4370 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4371 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4372 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4373 
  4374 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4375 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4376 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4377 
  4378 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4379 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4380 
  4381   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4382   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4383 
  4384 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4385 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4386 
  4387   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4388   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4389   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4390   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4391   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4392 
  4393 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4394 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4395 
  4396   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4397   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4398   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4399 
  4400 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4401 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4402 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4403 
  4404 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4405 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4406 
  4407 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4408 
  4409 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4410 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4411 
  4412 
  4413 *** ML ***
  4414 
  4415 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4416 
  4417     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4418     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4419 
  4420     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4421     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4422     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4423     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4424 
  4425     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4426     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4427     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4428 
  4429 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4430 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4431 
  4432 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4433 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4434 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4435 
  4436 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4437 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4438 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4439 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4440 
  4441 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4442 the context or even global references.
  4443 
  4444 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4445 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4446 
  4447 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4448 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4449 
  4450   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4451   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4452   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4453   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4454   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4455   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4456   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4457   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4458   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4459   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4460 
  4461 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4462 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4463 
  4464 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4465 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4466 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4467 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4468 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4469 
  4470 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4471 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4472 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4473 Theory_Data version.
  4474 
  4475 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4476 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4477 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4478 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4479 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4480 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4481 explicitly in rare situations.
  4482 
  4483 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4484 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4485 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4486 
  4487 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4488 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4489 
  4490 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4491 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4492 quite rare).
  4493 
  4494 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4495 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4496 
  4497 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4498 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4499 terms.
  4500 
  4501 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4502 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4503 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4504 
  4505 
  4506 *** System ***
  4507 
  4508 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4509 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4510 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4511 
  4512 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4513 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4514 respectively.
  4515 
  4516 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4517 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4518 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4519 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4520 
  4521   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4522 
  4523 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4524 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4525 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4526 component.
  4527 
  4528 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4529 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4530 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4531 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4532 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4533 the user for manual installation.
  4534 
  4535 
  4536 
  4537 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4538 -------------------------------------
  4539 
  4540 *** General ***
  4541 
  4542 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4543 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4544 
  4545 
  4546 *** Pure ***
  4547 
  4548 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4549 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4550 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4551 
  4552 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4553 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4554 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4555 
  4556 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4557 interpretation.
  4558 
  4559 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4560 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4561 
  4562 
  4563 *** Document preparation ***
  4564 
  4565 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4566 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4567 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4568 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4569 
  4570 
  4571 *** HOL ***
  4572 
  4573 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4574 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4575 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4576 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4577 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4578 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4579 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4580 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4581 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4582 
  4583 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4584 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4585 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4586 
  4587 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4588 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4589 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4590 
  4591 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4592 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4593 
  4594 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4595 
  4596 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4597 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4598 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4599 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4600 
  4601 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4602 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4603 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4604 "mirabelle" utility.
  4605 
  4606 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4607 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4608 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4609 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4610 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4611 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4612 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4613 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4614 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4615 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4616 
  4617 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4618 procedure only.
  4619 
  4620 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4621 
  4622 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4623 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4624 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4625 that fail later.
  4626 
  4627 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4628 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4629 
  4630 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4631 the same method as the approximation method.
  4632 
  4633 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4634 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4635 series expansion.
  4636 
  4637 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4638 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4639 
  4640 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4641 reals.
  4642 
  4643 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4644 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4645 
  4646 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4647 fixpoint theorem.
  4648 
  4649 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4650   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4651     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4652   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4653     accordingly
  4654   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4655     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4656   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4657     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4658 
  4659 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4660 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4661 lattice.
  4662 
  4663 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4664 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4665 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4666 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4667 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4668 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4669 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4670 
  4671 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4672   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4673     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4674   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4675     le_inf_iff
  4676   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4677     sup_aci)
  4678   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4679   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4680   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4681     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4682     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4683     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4684     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4685     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4686     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4687     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4688     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4689     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4690     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4691   - authentic syntax for
  4692     Set.Pow
  4693     Set.image
  4694   - mere abbreviations:
  4695     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4696     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4697     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4698     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4699     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4700     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4701     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4702     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4703   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4704 
  4705 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4706 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4707 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4708 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4709 
  4710 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4711 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4712 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4713 
  4714 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4715 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4716 
  4717 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4718 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4719 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4720 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4721 
  4722 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4723 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4724 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4725 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4726 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4727 
  4728 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4729 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4730 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4731 
  4732 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4733 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4734 
  4735 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4736 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4737 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4738 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4739 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4740 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4741 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4742 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4743 
  4744 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4745     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4746     code_post       replaces    code post
  4747     etc.
  4748   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4749 
  4750 * Renamed methods:
  4751     sizechange -> size_change
  4752     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4753   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4754 
  4755 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4756 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4757 
  4758 * Renamed theorems:
  4759     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4760     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4761     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4762     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4763     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4764   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4765 
  4766 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4767 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4768 
  4769 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4770 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4771 
  4772 
  4773 *** HOLCF ***
  4774 
  4775 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4776 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4777 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4778 
  4779 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4780 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4781 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4782 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4783 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4784 
  4785 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4786 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4787 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4788 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4789 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4790 
  4791 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4792 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4793 constructor are pre-configured.
  4794 
  4795 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4796 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4797 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4798 
  4799 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4800 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4801 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4802 as well.)
  4803 
  4804 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4805 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4806 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4807 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4808 examples.
  4809 
  4810 
  4811 *** ML ***
  4812 
  4813 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4814 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4815 
  4816 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4817 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4818 position, logical grouping etc.
  4819 
  4820 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4821 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4822 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4823 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4824 
  4825 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4826 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4827 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4828 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4829 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4830 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4831 
  4832 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4833 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4834 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4835 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4836 experiments with references.
  4837 
  4838 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4839 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4840 
  4841 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4842 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4843 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4844 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4845 
  4846 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4847 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4848 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4849 
  4850 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4851 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4852 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4853 
  4854 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4855 
  4856 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4857 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4858 
  4859 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4860 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4861 
  4862 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4863 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4864 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4865 
  4866 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4867 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4868 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4869 
  4870 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4871 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4872 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4873 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4874 
  4875 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4876 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4877 instead of global theory.
  4878 
  4879 
  4880 *** System ***
  4881 
  4882 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4883 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4884 usedir option -q.
  4885 
  4886 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4887 also the system manual.
  4888 
  4889 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4890 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4891 
  4892 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4893 this is always enabled.
  4894 
  4895 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4896 
  4897 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4898 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4899 currently supported on Linux only.
  4900 
  4901 
  4902 
  4903 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4904 --------------------------------
  4905 
  4906 *** General ***
  4907 
  4908 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4909 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4910 
  4911   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4912     "isatool."
  4913 
  4914   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4915     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4916 
  4917   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4918     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4919 
  4920 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4921 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4922 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4923 
  4924 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4925 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4926 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4927 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4928 via "isabelle emacs".
  4929 
  4930 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4931 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4932 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4933 
  4934 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4935 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4936 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4937 
  4938 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4939 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4940 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4941 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4942 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4943 
  4944 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4945 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4946 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4947 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4948 
  4949 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4950 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4951 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4952 
  4953 
  4954 *** Pure ***
  4955 
  4956 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4957 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4958 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4959 
  4960 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4961 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4962 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4963 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4964 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4965 
  4966 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4967 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4968 useful in locale declarations.
  4969 
  4970 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4971 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4972 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4973 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4974 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4975 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4976 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4977 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4978 no longer generated.
  4979 
  4980 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4981 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4982 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4983 
  4984 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4985 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4986 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4987 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4988 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4989 
  4990 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4991 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4992 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4993 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4994 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4995 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4996 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4997 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4998 
  4999 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  5000 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  5001 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  5002 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  5003 
  5004 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5005 
  5006 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  5007 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  5008 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  5009 
  5010 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  5011 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5012 
  5013 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  5014 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  5015 in HOL, write
  5016 
  5017     class foo = ...
  5018 
  5019 instead of
  5020 
  5021     class foo = type + ...
  5022 
  5023 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  5024 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5025 
  5026 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  5027 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  5028 
  5029 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  5030 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  5031 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  5032 
  5033 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5034 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5035 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5036 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5037 directly in regular applications.
  5038 
  5039 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5040 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5041 
  5042 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5043 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5044 
  5045 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5046 theory context.
  5047 
  5048 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5049 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5050 
  5051 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5052 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5053 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5054 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5055 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5056 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5057 
  5058   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5059 
  5060 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5061 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5062 normalization.
  5063 
  5064 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5065 addressing etc.
  5066 
  5067 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5068 
  5069   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5070   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5071 
  5072 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5073 
  5074   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5075      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5076      parts of the code generator framework).
  5077 
  5078   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5079      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5080      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5081 
  5082 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5083 
  5084 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5085 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5086 
  5087 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5088 patterns, e.g.
  5089 
  5090     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5091 
  5092 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5093 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5094 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5095 hyphen:
  5096 
  5097     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5098 
  5099 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5100 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5101 
  5102 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5103 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5104 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5105 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5106 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5107 higher-order unification.
  5108 
  5109 
  5110 *** Document preparation ***
  5111 
  5112 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5113 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5114 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5115 
  5116 
  5117 *** HOL ***
  5118 
  5119 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5120 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5121 
  5122 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5123 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5124 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5125 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5126 Main, as before.
  5127 
  5128 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5129 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5130 
  5131 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5132 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5133 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5134 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5135 
  5136 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5137 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5138 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5139 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5140 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5141 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5142 
  5143 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5144 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5145 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5146 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5147 
  5148 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5149 menu.
  5150 
  5151 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5152 (contains the empty clause).
  5153 
  5154 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5155 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5156 
  5157 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5158 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5159 
  5160 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5161 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5162 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5163 
  5164 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5165 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5166 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5167 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5168 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5169 
  5170 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5171 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5172 
  5173 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5174 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5175 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5176 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5177 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5178 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5179 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5180 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5181 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5182 
  5183 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5184 
  5185 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5186 
  5187 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5188 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5189 
  5190 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5191 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5192 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5193 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5194 
  5195 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5196 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5197 
  5198     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5199     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5200     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5201     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5202     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5203     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5204     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5205     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5206 
  5207 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5208 theory Set.
  5209 
  5210 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5211 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5212 
  5213 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5214 
  5215 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5216 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5217 
  5218 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5219 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5220 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5221 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5222 allowed. For examples see
  5223 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5224 
  5225 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5226 
  5227 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5228 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5229 
  5230 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5231 structure:
  5232 
  5233     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5234     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5235     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5236     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5237     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5238     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5239     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5240     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5241     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5242     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5243     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5244     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5245     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5246     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5247     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5248     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5249     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5250     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5251     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5252     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5253     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5254     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5255     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5256     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5257     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5258     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5259     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5260     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5261     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5262     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5263     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5264     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5265     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5266 
  5267     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5268     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5269     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5270     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5271     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5272     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5273     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5274     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5275     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5276     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5277 
  5278     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5279     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5280     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5281     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5282     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5283     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5284 
  5285 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5286 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5287 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5288 
  5289 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5290 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5291 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5292 
  5293 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5294 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5295 
  5296 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5297 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5298 
  5299 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5300 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5301 proofs, e.g.
  5302 
  5303   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5304 
  5305 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5306 
  5307 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5308 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5309 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5310 
  5311 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5312 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5313 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5314 
  5315 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5316 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5317 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5318 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5319 
  5320 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5321 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5322 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5323 preorder_class.*.
  5324 
  5325 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5326 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5327 
  5328 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5329 
  5330   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5331 
  5332 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5333 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5334 fold_image.
  5335 
  5336 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5337 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5338 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5339 the former will disappear at some point.
  5340 
  5341 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5342 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5343 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5344 
  5345 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5346 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5347 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5348 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5349 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5350 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5351 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5352 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5353 
  5354 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5355 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5356 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5357 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5358 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5359 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5360 
  5361     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5362     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5363     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5364     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5365     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5366     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5367     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5368 
  5369 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5370 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5371 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5372 
  5373 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5374 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5375 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5376 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5377 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5378 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5379 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5380 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5381 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5382 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5383 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5384 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5385 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5386 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5387 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5388 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5389 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5390 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5391 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5392 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5393 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5394 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5395 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5396 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5397 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5398 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5399 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5400 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5401 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5402 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5403 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5404 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5405 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5406 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5407 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5408 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5409 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5410 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5411 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5412 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5413 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5414 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5415 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5416 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5417 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5418 
  5419 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5420 
  5421 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5422 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5423 
  5424 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5425 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5426 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5427 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5428 
  5429 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5430 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5431 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5432 theory RealVector.
  5433 
  5434 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5435 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5436 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5437 and inner products are included.
  5438 
  5439 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5440 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5441 supported.
  5442 
  5443 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5444 first diagonalization argument.
  5445 
  5446 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5447 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5448 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5449 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5450 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5451 
  5452     hide (open) const gcd
  5453     abbreviation gcd where
  5454       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5455     notation (output)
  5456       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5457 
  5458 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5459 
  5460 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5461 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5462 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5463 
  5464 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5465 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5466 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5467 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5468 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5469 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5470 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5471 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5472 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5473 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5474 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5475 cases.
  5476 
  5477 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5478 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5479 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5480 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5481 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5482 
  5483     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5484     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5485     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5486     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5487     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5488 
  5489 
  5490 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5491 
  5492 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5493 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5494 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5495 
  5496 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5497 
  5498 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5499 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5500 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5501 
  5502 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5503 
  5504 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5505 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5506 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5507 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5508 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5509 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5510 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5511 
  5512 
  5513 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5514 
  5515 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5516 
  5517 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5518 theory targets.
  5519 
  5520 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5521 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5522 'inductive' etc.
  5523 
  5524 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5525 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5526 
  5527 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5528 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5529 
  5530 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5531 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5532 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5533 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5534 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5535 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5536 the algorithm W:
  5537 
  5538  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5539  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5540          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5541 
  5542 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5543 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5544 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5545 
  5546 
  5547 *** HOLCF ***
  5548 
  5549 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5550 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5551 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5552 
  5553 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5554 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5555 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5556 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5557 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5558 
  5559 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5560 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5561 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5562 
  5563 
  5564 *** ZF ***
  5565 
  5566 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5567 
  5568 
  5569 *** ML ***
  5570 
  5571 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5572 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5573 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5574 5.2.1!
  5575 
  5576 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5577 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5578 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5579 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5580 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5581 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5582 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5583 
  5584 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5585 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5586 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5587 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5588 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5589 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5590 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5591 
  5592 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5593 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5594 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5595 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5596 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5597 
  5598 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5599 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5600 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5601 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5602 Method.add_method.
  5603 
  5604 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5605 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5606 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5607 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5608 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5609 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5610 
  5611 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5612 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5613 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5614 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5615 examples.
  5616 
  5617 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5618 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5619 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5620 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5621 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5622 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5623 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5624 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5625 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5626 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5627 
  5628 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5629 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5630 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5631 
  5632 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5633 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5634 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5635 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5636 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5637 resort for legacy applications.
  5638 
  5639 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5640 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5641 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5642 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5643 explicit runtime argument.
  5644 
  5645 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5646 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5647 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5648 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5649 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5650 
  5651 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5652 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5653 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5654 theory state.
  5655 
  5656 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5657 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5658 
  5659   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5660   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5661   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5662   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5663   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5664   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5665   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5666   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5667   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5668   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5669 
  5670 
  5671 *** System ***
  5672 
  5673 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5674 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5675 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5676 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5677 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5678 
  5679 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5680 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5681 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5682 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5683 
  5684 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5685 
  5686 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5687 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5688 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5689 prover operations.
  5690 
  5691 
  5692 
  5693 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5694 -------------------------------
  5695 
  5696 *** General ***
  5697 
  5698 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5699 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5700 
  5701 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5702 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5703 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5704 provides a proper context already.
  5705 
  5706 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5707 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5708 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5709 
  5710 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5711 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5712 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5713 swap theory imports.
  5714 
  5715 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5716 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5717 
  5718 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5719 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5720 white space without escapes.
  5721 
  5722 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5723 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5724 "foo_bar".
  5725 
  5726 
  5727 *** Pure ***
  5728 
  5729 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5730 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5731 
  5732 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5733 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5734 
  5735 (1) unused_thms
  5736      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5737 
  5738 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5739      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5740      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5741 
  5742 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5743      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5744      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5745      their ancestors.
  5746 
  5747 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5748 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5749 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5750 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5751 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5752 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5753 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5754 
  5755 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5756 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5757 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5758 
  5759 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5760 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5761 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5762 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5763 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5764 
  5765 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5766 
  5767 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5768 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5769 update of theories within ML code.
  5770 
  5771 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5772 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5773 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5774 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5775 
  5776 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5777 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5778 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5779 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5780 
  5781 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5782 
  5783 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5784 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5785 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5786 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5787 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5788 
  5789 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5790 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5791 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5792 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5793 situations.
  5794 
  5795 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5796 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5797 proof text.
  5798 
  5799 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5800 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5801 
  5802 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5803 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5804 predicates.
  5805 
  5806 
  5807 *** Document preparation ***
  5808 
  5809 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5810 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5811 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5812 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5813 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5814 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5815 
  5816 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5817 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5818 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5819 
  5820 
  5821 *** HOL ***
  5822 
  5823 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5824 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5825 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5826 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5827 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5828 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5829 
  5830 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5831 with multithreading.
  5832 
  5833 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5834 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5835 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5836 
  5837 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5838 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5839 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5840 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5841 
  5842 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5843 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5844 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5845 and makes them available separately.  See
  5846 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5847 
  5848 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5849 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5850 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5851 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5852 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5853 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5854 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5855 the declared rules.
  5856 
  5857 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5858 
  5859   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5860 
  5861 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5862 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5863 
  5864 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5865 
  5866   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5867 
  5868   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5869     definitions on => and bool.
  5870 
  5871   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5872     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5873     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5874 
  5875       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5876       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5877       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5878       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5879       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5880       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5881       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5882       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5883 
  5884   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5885     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5886     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5887 
  5888   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5889     The proof pattern
  5890 
  5891       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5892       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5893 
  5894     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5895     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5896 
  5897       have "EX S. P S"
  5898       proof
  5899         show "P S" <...>
  5900       qed
  5901 
  5902   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5903     The proof pattern
  5904 
  5905       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5906       also have "S = T" <...>
  5907       finally have "P T" .
  5908 
  5909     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5910     must be replaced by something like
  5911 
  5912       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5913       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5914       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5915 
  5916   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5917     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5918 
  5919       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5920 
  5921     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5922     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5923     type of the form
  5924 
  5925       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5926 
  5927     rather than
  5928 
  5929       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5930 
  5931 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5932 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5933 
  5934 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5935 
  5936 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5937 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5938 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5939 
  5940 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5941 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5942 
  5943 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5944 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5945 
  5946 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5947 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5948 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5949 
  5950 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5951 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5952 
  5953   less_trans
  5954   less_linear
  5955   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5956   le_less_trans
  5957   less_le_trans
  5958   less_not_sym
  5959   less_asym
  5960 
  5961 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5962 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5963 and different variable names.
  5964 
  5965 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5966 
  5967 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5968 finite maps.
  5969 
  5970 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5971 
  5972 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5973 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5974 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5975 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5976 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5977 accordingly.
  5978 
  5979 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5980 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5981 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5982 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5983 
  5984 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5985 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5986 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5987 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5988 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5989 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5990 
  5991 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5992 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5993 
  5994 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5995 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5996 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5997 
  5998 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5999 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6000 
  6001 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  6002 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  6003 
  6004 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  6005 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6006 
  6007 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  6008 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6009 
  6010 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  6011 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  6012 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6013 
  6014 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  6015 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6016 
  6017 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  6018 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  6019 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  6020 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  6021 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  6022 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6023 
  6024 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  6025 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  6026 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  6027 
  6028 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  6029 
  6030 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  6031 
  6032 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  6033 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  6034 well-orders on sets and on types.
  6035 
  6036 
  6037 *** ZF ***
  6038 
  6039 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  6040 same session:
  6041 
  6042   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  6043   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  6044   Int       -> Int_ZF
  6045   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  6046   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  6047   List      -> List_ZF
  6048   Main      -> Main_ZF
  6049 
  6050 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  6051 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  6052 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  6053 
  6054 
  6055 *** ML ***
  6056 
  6057 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  6058 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  6059 
  6060 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  6061 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  6062 
  6063 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  6064 
  6065 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  6066 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  6067 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  6068 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  6069 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6070 
  6071 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  6072 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  6073 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  6074 
  6075 
  6076 *** System ***
  6077 
  6078 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  6079 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  6080 
  6081 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  6082 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  6083 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  6084 
  6085 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  6086 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  6087 
  6088 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  6089 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  6090 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  6091 
  6092 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  6093 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  6094 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  6095 
  6096 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  6097 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  6098 
  6099 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  6100 way of changing the user's settings is via
  6101 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  6102 script.
  6103 
  6104 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  6105 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  6106 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  6107 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  6108 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  6109 
  6110 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  6111 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  6112 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  6113 
  6114 
  6115 
  6116 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  6117 -----------------------------------
  6118 
  6119 *** General ***
  6120 
  6121 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  6122 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  6123 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6124 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  6125 
  6126 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  6127 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  6128 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6129 
  6130 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  6131 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  6132 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  6133 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6134 
  6135 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  6136 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  6137 quotes.
  6138 
  6139 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  6140 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  6141 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  6142 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  6143 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  6144 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  6145 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  6146 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  6147 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  6148 
  6149 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  6150 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  6151 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  6152 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  6153 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  6154 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  6155 
  6156 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  6157 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  6158 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  6159 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  6160 
  6161 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  6162 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  6163 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  6164 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  6165 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  6166 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  6167 
  6168 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  6169 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  6170 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  6171 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  6172 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  6173 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  6174 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  6175 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  6176 
  6177 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  6178 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  6179 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  6180 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  6181 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  6182 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  6183 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  6184 
  6185 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  6186 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  6187 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  6188 
  6189 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  6190 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  6191 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  6192 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  6193 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  6194 limit is imposed.
  6195 
  6196 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  6197 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  6198 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  6199 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  6200 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  6201 and scalability.
  6202 
  6203 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  6204 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  6205 
  6206 
  6207 *** Document preparation ***
  6208 
  6209 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  6210 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  6211 current context.
  6212 
  6213 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  6214 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  6215 
  6216 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  6217 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  6218 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  6219 
  6220 
  6221 *** Pure ***
  6222 
  6223 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  6224 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  6225 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  6226 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  6227 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  6228 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  6229 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  6230 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  6231 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  6232 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  6233 
  6234 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  6235 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  6236 sketch:
  6237 
  6238     internal compilation:
  6239         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  6240     writing SML code to a file:
  6241         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  6242     writing OCaml code to a file:
  6243         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  6244     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  6245         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  6246 
  6247     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  6248         method ``eval''
  6249 
  6250 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  6251 
  6252 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  6253 
  6254     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  6255     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  6256     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  6257     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  6258 
  6259 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  6260 
  6261     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  6262       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  6263 
  6264     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  6265       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  6266 
  6267     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  6268       {(target)}+
  6269         where instance ::= <type