src/HOL/Algebra/Group.thy
author ballarin
Tue Jul 15 16:50:09 2008 +0200 (2008-07-15)
changeset 27611 2c01c0bdb385
parent 26805 27941d7d9a11
child 27698 197f0517f0bd
permissions -rw-r--r--
Removed uses of context element includes.
     1 (*
     2   Title:  HOL/Algebra/Group.thy
     3   Id:     $Id$
     4   Author: Clemens Ballarin, started 4 February 2003
     5 
     6 Based on work by Florian Kammueller, L C Paulson and Markus Wenzel.
     7 *)
     8 
     9 theory Group imports FuncSet Lattice begin
    10 
    11 
    12 section {* Monoids and Groups *}
    13 
    14 subsection {* Definitions *}
    15 
    16 text {*
    17   Definitions follow \cite{Jacobson:1985}.
    18 *}
    19 
    20 record 'a monoid =  "'a partial_object" +
    21   mult    :: "['a, 'a] \<Rightarrow> 'a" (infixl "\<otimes>\<index>" 70)
    22   one     :: 'a ("\<one>\<index>")
    23 
    24 constdefs (structure G)
    25   m_inv :: "('a, 'b) monoid_scheme => 'a => 'a" ("inv\<index> _" [81] 80)
    26   "inv x == (THE y. y \<in> carrier G & x \<otimes> y = \<one> & y \<otimes> x = \<one>)"
    27 
    28   Units :: "_ => 'a set"
    29   --{*The set of invertible elements*}
    30   "Units G == {y. y \<in> carrier G & (\<exists>x \<in> carrier G. x \<otimes> y = \<one> & y \<otimes> x = \<one>)}"
    31 
    32 consts
    33   pow :: "[('a, 'm) monoid_scheme, 'a, 'b::number] => 'a" (infixr "'(^')\<index>" 75)
    34 
    35 defs (overloaded)
    36   nat_pow_def: "pow G a n == nat_rec \<one>\<^bsub>G\<^esub> (%u b. b \<otimes>\<^bsub>G\<^esub> a) n"
    37   int_pow_def: "pow G a z ==
    38     let p = nat_rec \<one>\<^bsub>G\<^esub> (%u b. b \<otimes>\<^bsub>G\<^esub> a)
    39     in if neg z then inv\<^bsub>G\<^esub> (p (nat (-z))) else p (nat z)"
    40 
    41 locale monoid =
    42   fixes G (structure)
    43   assumes m_closed [intro, simp]:
    44          "\<lbrakk>x \<in> carrier G; y \<in> carrier G\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> x \<otimes> y \<in> carrier G"
    45       and m_assoc:
    46          "\<lbrakk>x \<in> carrier G; y \<in> carrier G; z \<in> carrier G\<rbrakk> 
    47           \<Longrightarrow> (x \<otimes> y) \<otimes> z = x \<otimes> (y \<otimes> z)"
    48       and one_closed [intro, simp]: "\<one> \<in> carrier G"
    49       and l_one [simp]: "x \<in> carrier G \<Longrightarrow> \<one> \<otimes> x = x"
    50       and r_one [simp]: "x \<in> carrier G \<Longrightarrow> x \<otimes> \<one> = x"
    51 
    52 lemma monoidI:
    53   fixes G (structure)
    54   assumes m_closed:
    55       "!!x y. [| x \<in> carrier G; y \<in> carrier G |] ==> x \<otimes> y \<in> carrier G"
    56     and one_closed: "\<one> \<in> carrier G"
    57     and m_assoc:
    58       "!!x y z. [| x \<in> carrier G; y \<in> carrier G; z \<in> carrier G |] ==>
    59       (x \<otimes> y) \<otimes> z = x \<otimes> (y \<otimes> z)"
    60     and l_one: "!!x. x \<in> carrier G ==> \<one> \<otimes> x = x"
    61     and r_one: "!!x. x \<in> carrier G ==> x \<otimes> \<one> = x"
    62   shows "monoid G"
    63   by (fast intro!: monoid.intro intro: prems)
    64 
    65 lemma (in monoid) Units_closed [dest]:
    66   "x \<in> Units G ==> x \<in> carrier G"
    67   by (unfold Units_def) fast
    68 
    69 lemma (in monoid) inv_unique:
    70   assumes eq: "y \<otimes> x = \<one>"  "x \<otimes> y' = \<one>"
    71     and G: "x \<in> carrier G"  "y \<in> carrier G"  "y' \<in> carrier G"
    72   shows "y = y'"
    73 proof -
    74   from G eq have "y = y \<otimes> (x \<otimes> y')" by simp
    75   also from G have "... = (y \<otimes> x) \<otimes> y'" by (simp add: m_assoc)
    76   also from G eq have "... = y'" by simp
    77   finally show ?thesis .
    78 qed
    79 
    80 lemma (in monoid) Units_one_closed [intro, simp]:
    81   "\<one> \<in> Units G"
    82   by (unfold Units_def) auto
    83 
    84 lemma (in monoid) Units_inv_closed [intro, simp]:
    85   "x \<in> Units G ==> inv x \<in> carrier G"
    86   apply (unfold Units_def m_inv_def, auto)
    87   apply (rule theI2, fast)
    88    apply (fast intro: inv_unique, fast)
    89   done
    90 
    91 lemma (in monoid) Units_l_inv_ex:
    92   "x \<in> Units G ==> \<exists>y \<in> carrier G. y \<otimes> x = \<one>"
    93   by (unfold Units_def) auto
    94 
    95 lemma (in monoid) Units_r_inv_ex:
    96   "x \<in> Units G ==> \<exists>y \<in> carrier G. x \<otimes> y = \<one>"
    97   by (unfold Units_def) auto
    98 
    99 lemma (in monoid) Units_l_inv:
   100   "x \<in> Units G ==> inv x \<otimes> x = \<one>"
   101   apply (unfold Units_def m_inv_def, auto)
   102   apply (rule theI2, fast)
   103    apply (fast intro: inv_unique, fast)
   104   done
   105 
   106 lemma (in monoid) Units_r_inv:
   107   "x \<in> Units G ==> x \<otimes> inv x = \<one>"
   108   apply (unfold Units_def m_inv_def, auto)
   109   apply (rule theI2, fast)
   110    apply (fast intro: inv_unique, fast)
   111   done
   112 
   113 lemma (in monoid) Units_inv_Units [intro, simp]:
   114   "x \<in> Units G ==> inv x \<in> Units G"
   115 proof -
   116   assume x: "x \<in> Units G"
   117   show "inv x \<in> Units G"
   118     by (auto simp add: Units_def
   119       intro: Units_l_inv Units_r_inv x Units_closed [OF x])
   120 qed
   121 
   122 lemma (in monoid) Units_l_cancel [simp]:
   123   "[| x \<in> Units G; y \<in> carrier G; z \<in> carrier G |] ==>
   124    (x \<otimes> y = x \<otimes> z) = (y = z)"
   125 proof
   126   assume eq: "x \<otimes> y = x \<otimes> z"
   127     and G: "x \<in> Units G"  "y \<in> carrier G"  "z \<in> carrier G"
   128   then have "(inv x \<otimes> x) \<otimes> y = (inv x \<otimes> x) \<otimes> z"
   129     by (simp add: m_assoc Units_closed)
   130   with G show "y = z" by (simp add: Units_l_inv)
   131 next
   132   assume eq: "y = z"
   133     and G: "x \<in> Units G"  "y \<in> carrier G"  "z \<in> carrier G"
   134   then show "x \<otimes> y = x \<otimes> z" by simp
   135 qed
   136 
   137 lemma (in monoid) Units_inv_inv [simp]:
   138   "x \<in> Units G ==> inv (inv x) = x"
   139 proof -
   140   assume x: "x \<in> Units G"
   141   then have "inv x \<otimes> inv (inv x) = inv x \<otimes> x"
   142     by (simp add: Units_l_inv Units_r_inv)
   143   with x show ?thesis by (simp add: Units_closed)
   144 qed
   145 
   146 lemma (in monoid) inv_inj_on_Units:
   147   "inj_on (m_inv G) (Units G)"
   148 proof (rule inj_onI)
   149   fix x y
   150   assume G: "x \<in> Units G"  "y \<in> Units G" and eq: "inv x = inv y"
   151   then have "inv (inv x) = inv (inv y)" by simp
   152   with G show "x = y" by simp
   153 qed
   154 
   155 lemma (in monoid) Units_inv_comm:
   156   assumes inv: "x \<otimes> y = \<one>"
   157     and G: "x \<in> Units G"  "y \<in> Units G"
   158   shows "y \<otimes> x = \<one>"
   159 proof -
   160   from G have "x \<otimes> y \<otimes> x = x \<otimes> \<one>" by (auto simp add: inv Units_closed)
   161   with G show ?thesis by (simp del: r_one add: m_assoc Units_closed)
   162 qed
   163 
   164 text {* Power *}
   165 
   166 lemma (in monoid) nat_pow_closed [intro, simp]:
   167   "x \<in> carrier G ==> x (^) (n::nat) \<in> carrier G"
   168   by (induct n) (simp_all add: nat_pow_def)
   169 
   170 lemma (in monoid) nat_pow_0 [simp]:
   171   "x (^) (0::nat) = \<one>"
   172   by (simp add: nat_pow_def)
   173 
   174 lemma (in monoid) nat_pow_Suc [simp]:
   175   "x (^) (Suc n) = x (^) n \<otimes> x"
   176   by (simp add: nat_pow_def)
   177 
   178 lemma (in monoid) nat_pow_one [simp]:
   179   "\<one> (^) (n::nat) = \<one>"
   180   by (induct n) simp_all
   181 
   182 lemma (in monoid) nat_pow_mult:
   183   "x \<in> carrier G ==> x (^) (n::nat) \<otimes> x (^) m = x (^) (n + m)"
   184   by (induct m) (simp_all add: m_assoc [THEN sym])
   185 
   186 lemma (in monoid) nat_pow_pow:
   187   "x \<in> carrier G ==> (x (^) n) (^) m = x (^) (n * m::nat)"
   188   by (induct m) (simp, simp add: nat_pow_mult add_commute)
   189 
   190 text {*
   191   A group is a monoid all of whose elements are invertible.
   192 *}
   193 
   194 locale group = monoid +
   195   assumes Units: "carrier G <= Units G"
   196 
   197 
   198 lemma (in group) is_group: "group G" by (rule group_axioms)
   199 
   200 theorem groupI:
   201   fixes G (structure)
   202   assumes m_closed [simp]:
   203       "!!x y. [| x \<in> carrier G; y \<in> carrier G |] ==> x \<otimes> y \<in> carrier G"
   204     and one_closed [simp]: "\<one> \<in> carrier G"
   205     and m_assoc:
   206       "!!x y z. [| x \<in> carrier G; y \<in> carrier G; z \<in> carrier G |] ==>
   207       (x \<otimes> y) \<otimes> z = x \<otimes> (y \<otimes> z)"
   208     and l_one [simp]: "!!x. x \<in> carrier G ==> \<one> \<otimes> x = x"
   209     and l_inv_ex: "!!x. x \<in> carrier G ==> \<exists>y \<in> carrier G. y \<otimes> x = \<one>"
   210   shows "group G"
   211 proof -
   212   have l_cancel [simp]:
   213     "!!x y z. [| x \<in> carrier G; y \<in> carrier G; z \<in> carrier G |] ==>
   214     (x \<otimes> y = x \<otimes> z) = (y = z)"
   215   proof
   216     fix x y z
   217     assume eq: "x \<otimes> y = x \<otimes> z"
   218       and G: "x \<in> carrier G"  "y \<in> carrier G"  "z \<in> carrier G"
   219     with l_inv_ex obtain x_inv where xG: "x_inv \<in> carrier G"
   220       and l_inv: "x_inv \<otimes> x = \<one>" by fast
   221     from G eq xG have "(x_inv \<otimes> x) \<otimes> y = (x_inv \<otimes> x) \<otimes> z"
   222       by (simp add: m_assoc)
   223     with G show "y = z" by (simp add: l_inv)
   224   next
   225     fix x y z
   226     assume eq: "y = z"
   227       and G: "x \<in> carrier G"  "y \<in> carrier G"  "z \<in> carrier G"
   228     then show "x \<otimes> y = x \<otimes> z" by simp
   229   qed
   230   have r_one:
   231     "!!x. x \<in> carrier G ==> x \<otimes> \<one> = x"
   232   proof -
   233     fix x
   234     assume x: "x \<in> carrier G"
   235     with l_inv_ex obtain x_inv where xG: "x_inv \<in> carrier G"
   236       and l_inv: "x_inv \<otimes> x = \<one>" by fast
   237     from x xG have "x_inv \<otimes> (x \<otimes> \<one>) = x_inv \<otimes> x"
   238       by (simp add: m_assoc [symmetric] l_inv)
   239     with x xG show "x \<otimes> \<one> = x" by simp
   240   qed
   241   have inv_ex:
   242     "!!x. x \<in> carrier G ==> \<exists>y \<in> carrier G. y \<otimes> x = \<one> & x \<otimes> y = \<one>"
   243   proof -
   244     fix x
   245     assume x: "x \<in> carrier G"
   246     with l_inv_ex obtain y where y: "y \<in> carrier G"
   247       and l_inv: "y \<otimes> x = \<one>" by fast
   248     from x y have "y \<otimes> (x \<otimes> y) = y \<otimes> \<one>"
   249       by (simp add: m_assoc [symmetric] l_inv r_one)
   250     with x y have r_inv: "x \<otimes> y = \<one>"
   251       by simp
   252     from x y show "\<exists>y \<in> carrier G. y \<otimes> x = \<one> & x \<otimes> y = \<one>"
   253       by (fast intro: l_inv r_inv)
   254   qed
   255   then have carrier_subset_Units: "carrier G <= Units G"
   256     by (unfold Units_def) fast
   257   show ?thesis
   258     by (fast intro!: group.intro monoid.intro group_axioms.intro
   259       carrier_subset_Units intro: prems r_one)
   260 qed
   261 
   262 lemma (in monoid) monoid_groupI:
   263   assumes l_inv_ex:
   264     "!!x. x \<in> carrier G ==> \<exists>y \<in> carrier G. y \<otimes> x = \<one>"
   265   shows "group G"
   266   by (rule groupI) (auto intro: m_assoc l_inv_ex)
   267 
   268 lemma (in group) Units_eq [simp]:
   269   "Units G = carrier G"
   270 proof
   271   show "Units G <= carrier G" by fast
   272 next
   273   show "carrier G <= Units G" by (rule Units)
   274 qed
   275 
   276 lemma (in group) inv_closed [intro, simp]:
   277   "x \<in> carrier G ==> inv x \<in> carrier G"
   278   using Units_inv_closed by simp
   279 
   280 lemma (in group) l_inv_ex [simp]:
   281   "x \<in> carrier G ==> \<exists>y \<in> carrier G. y \<otimes> x = \<one>"
   282   using Units_l_inv_ex by simp
   283 
   284 lemma (in group) r_inv_ex [simp]:
   285   "x \<in> carrier G ==> \<exists>y \<in> carrier G. x \<otimes> y = \<one>"
   286   using Units_r_inv_ex by simp
   287 
   288 lemma (in group) l_inv [simp]:
   289   "x \<in> carrier G ==> inv x \<otimes> x = \<one>"
   290   using Units_l_inv by simp
   291 
   292 
   293 subsection {* Cancellation Laws and Basic Properties *}
   294 
   295 lemma (in group) l_cancel [simp]:
   296   "[| x \<in> carrier G; y \<in> carrier G; z \<in> carrier G |] ==>
   297    (x \<otimes> y = x \<otimes> z) = (y = z)"
   298   using Units_l_inv by simp
   299 
   300 lemma (in group) r_inv [simp]:
   301   "x \<in> carrier G ==> x \<otimes> inv x = \<one>"
   302 proof -
   303   assume x: "x \<in> carrier G"
   304   then have "inv x \<otimes> (x \<otimes> inv x) = inv x \<otimes> \<one>"
   305     by (simp add: m_assoc [symmetric] l_inv)
   306   with x show ?thesis by (simp del: r_one)
   307 qed
   308 
   309 lemma (in group) r_cancel [simp]:
   310   "[| x \<in> carrier G; y \<in> carrier G; z \<in> carrier G |] ==>
   311    (y \<otimes> x = z \<otimes> x) = (y = z)"
   312 proof
   313   assume eq: "y \<otimes> x = z \<otimes> x"
   314     and G: "x \<in> carrier G"  "y \<in> carrier G"  "z \<in> carrier G"
   315   then have "y \<otimes> (x \<otimes> inv x) = z \<otimes> (x \<otimes> inv x)"
   316     by (simp add: m_assoc [symmetric] del: r_inv)
   317   with G show "y = z" by simp
   318 next
   319   assume eq: "y = z"
   320     and G: "x \<in> carrier G"  "y \<in> carrier G"  "z \<in> carrier G"
   321   then show "y \<otimes> x = z \<otimes> x" by simp
   322 qed
   323 
   324 lemma (in group) inv_one [simp]:
   325   "inv \<one> = \<one>"
   326 proof -
   327   have "inv \<one> = \<one> \<otimes> (inv \<one>)" by (simp del: r_inv)
   328   moreover have "... = \<one>" by simp
   329   finally show ?thesis .
   330 qed
   331 
   332 lemma (in group) inv_inv [simp]:
   333   "x \<in> carrier G ==> inv (inv x) = x"
   334   using Units_inv_inv by simp
   335 
   336 lemma (in group) inv_inj:
   337   "inj_on (m_inv G) (carrier G)"
   338   using inv_inj_on_Units by simp
   339 
   340 lemma (in group) inv_mult_group:
   341   "[| x \<in> carrier G; y \<in> carrier G |] ==> inv (x \<otimes> y) = inv y \<otimes> inv x"
   342 proof -
   343   assume G: "x \<in> carrier G"  "y \<in> carrier G"
   344   then have "inv (x \<otimes> y) \<otimes> (x \<otimes> y) = (inv y \<otimes> inv x) \<otimes> (x \<otimes> y)"
   345     by (simp add: m_assoc l_inv) (simp add: m_assoc [symmetric])
   346   with G show ?thesis by (simp del: l_inv)
   347 qed
   348 
   349 lemma (in group) inv_comm:
   350   "[| x \<otimes> y = \<one>; x \<in> carrier G; y \<in> carrier G |] ==> y \<otimes> x = \<one>"
   351   by (rule Units_inv_comm) auto
   352 
   353 lemma (in group) inv_equality:
   354      "[|y \<otimes> x = \<one>; x \<in> carrier G; y \<in> carrier G|] ==> inv x = y"
   355 apply (simp add: m_inv_def)
   356 apply (rule the_equality)
   357  apply (simp add: inv_comm [of y x])
   358 apply (rule r_cancel [THEN iffD1], auto)
   359 done
   360 
   361 text {* Power *}
   362 
   363 lemma (in group) int_pow_def2:
   364   "a (^) (z::int) = (if neg z then inv (a (^) (nat (-z))) else a (^) (nat z))"
   365   by (simp add: int_pow_def nat_pow_def Let_def)
   366 
   367 lemma (in group) int_pow_0 [simp]:
   368   "x (^) (0::int) = \<one>"
   369   by (simp add: int_pow_def2)
   370 
   371 lemma (in group) int_pow_one [simp]:
   372   "\<one> (^) (z::int) = \<one>"
   373   by (simp add: int_pow_def2)
   374 
   375 
   376 subsection {* Subgroups *}
   377 
   378 locale subgroup =
   379   fixes H and G (structure)
   380   assumes subset: "H \<subseteq> carrier G"
   381     and m_closed [intro, simp]: "\<lbrakk>x \<in> H; y \<in> H\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> x \<otimes> y \<in> H"
   382     and one_closed [simp]: "\<one> \<in> H"
   383     and m_inv_closed [intro,simp]: "x \<in> H \<Longrightarrow> inv x \<in> H"
   384 
   385 lemma (in subgroup) is_subgroup:
   386   "subgroup H G" by (rule subgroup_axioms)
   387 
   388 declare (in subgroup) group.intro [intro]
   389 
   390 lemma (in subgroup) mem_carrier [simp]:
   391   "x \<in> H \<Longrightarrow> x \<in> carrier G"
   392   using subset by blast
   393 
   394 lemma subgroup_imp_subset:
   395   "subgroup H G \<Longrightarrow> H \<subseteq> carrier G"
   396   by (rule subgroup.subset)
   397 
   398 lemma (in subgroup) subgroup_is_group [intro]:
   399   assumes "group G"
   400   shows "group (G\<lparr>carrier := H\<rparr>)"
   401 proof -
   402   interpret group [G] by fact
   403   show ?thesis
   404     by (rule groupI) (auto intro: m_assoc l_inv mem_carrier)
   405 qed
   406 
   407 text {*
   408   Since @{term H} is nonempty, it contains some element @{term x}.  Since
   409   it is closed under inverse, it contains @{text "inv x"}.  Since
   410   it is closed under product, it contains @{text "x \<otimes> inv x = \<one>"}.
   411 *}
   412 
   413 lemma (in group) one_in_subset:
   414   "[| H \<subseteq> carrier G; H \<noteq> {}; \<forall>a \<in> H. inv a \<in> H; \<forall>a\<in>H. \<forall>b\<in>H. a \<otimes> b \<in> H |]
   415    ==> \<one> \<in> H"
   416 by (force simp add: l_inv)
   417 
   418 text {* A characterization of subgroups: closed, non-empty subset. *}
   419 
   420 lemma (in group) subgroupI:
   421   assumes subset: "H \<subseteq> carrier G" and non_empty: "H \<noteq> {}"
   422     and inv: "!!a. a \<in> H \<Longrightarrow> inv a \<in> H"
   423     and mult: "!!a b. \<lbrakk>a \<in> H; b \<in> H\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> a \<otimes> b \<in> H"
   424   shows "subgroup H G"
   425 proof (simp add: subgroup_def prems)
   426   show "\<one> \<in> H" by (rule one_in_subset) (auto simp only: prems)
   427 qed
   428 
   429 declare monoid.one_closed [iff] group.inv_closed [simp]
   430   monoid.l_one [simp] monoid.r_one [simp] group.inv_inv [simp]
   431 
   432 lemma subgroup_nonempty:
   433   "~ subgroup {} G"
   434   by (blast dest: subgroup.one_closed)
   435 
   436 lemma (in subgroup) finite_imp_card_positive:
   437   "finite (carrier G) ==> 0 < card H"
   438 proof (rule classical)
   439   assume "finite (carrier G)" "~ 0 < card H"
   440   then have "finite H" by (blast intro: finite_subset [OF subset])
   441   with prems have "subgroup {} G" by simp
   442   with subgroup_nonempty show ?thesis by contradiction
   443 qed
   444 
   445 (*
   446 lemma (in monoid) Units_subgroup:
   447   "subgroup (Units G) G"
   448 *)
   449 
   450 
   451 subsection {* Direct Products *}
   452 
   453 constdefs
   454   DirProd :: "_ \<Rightarrow> _ \<Rightarrow> ('a \<times> 'b) monoid"  (infixr "\<times>\<times>" 80)
   455   "G \<times>\<times> H \<equiv> \<lparr>carrier = carrier G \<times> carrier H,
   456                 mult = (\<lambda>(g, h) (g', h'). (g \<otimes>\<^bsub>G\<^esub> g', h \<otimes>\<^bsub>H\<^esub> h')),
   457                 one = (\<one>\<^bsub>G\<^esub>, \<one>\<^bsub>H\<^esub>)\<rparr>"
   458 
   459 lemma DirProd_monoid:
   460   assumes "monoid G" and "monoid H"
   461   shows "monoid (G \<times>\<times> H)"
   462 proof -
   463   interpret G: monoid [G] by fact
   464   interpret H: monoid [H] by fact
   465   from prems
   466   show ?thesis by (unfold monoid_def DirProd_def, auto) 
   467 qed
   468 
   469 
   470 text{*Does not use the previous result because it's easier just to use auto.*}
   471 lemma DirProd_group:
   472   assumes "group G" and "group H"
   473   shows "group (G \<times>\<times> H)"
   474 proof -
   475   interpret G: group [G] by fact
   476   interpret H: group [H] by fact
   477   show ?thesis by (rule groupI)
   478      (auto intro: G.m_assoc H.m_assoc G.l_inv H.l_inv
   479            simp add: DirProd_def)
   480 qed
   481 
   482 lemma carrier_DirProd [simp]:
   483      "carrier (G \<times>\<times> H) = carrier G \<times> carrier H"
   484   by (simp add: DirProd_def)
   485 
   486 lemma one_DirProd [simp]:
   487      "\<one>\<^bsub>G \<times>\<times> H\<^esub> = (\<one>\<^bsub>G\<^esub>, \<one>\<^bsub>H\<^esub>)"
   488   by (simp add: DirProd_def)
   489 
   490 lemma mult_DirProd [simp]:
   491      "(g, h) \<otimes>\<^bsub>(G \<times>\<times> H)\<^esub> (g', h') = (g \<otimes>\<^bsub>G\<^esub> g', h \<otimes>\<^bsub>H\<^esub> h')"
   492   by (simp add: DirProd_def)
   493 
   494 lemma inv_DirProd [simp]:
   495   assumes "group G" and "group H"
   496   assumes g: "g \<in> carrier G"
   497       and h: "h \<in> carrier H"
   498   shows "m_inv (G \<times>\<times> H) (g, h) = (inv\<^bsub>G\<^esub> g, inv\<^bsub>H\<^esub> h)"
   499 proof -
   500   interpret G: group [G] by fact
   501   interpret H: group [H] by fact
   502   show ?thesis apply (rule group.inv_equality [OF DirProd_group])
   503   apply (simp_all add: prems group.l_inv)
   504   done
   505 qed
   506 
   507 text{*This alternative proof of the previous result demonstrates interpret.
   508    It uses @{text Prod.inv_equality} (available after @{text interpret})
   509    instead of @{text "group.inv_equality [OF DirProd_group]"}. *}
   510 lemma
   511   assumes "group G" and "group H"
   512   assumes g: "g \<in> carrier G"
   513       and h: "h \<in> carrier H"
   514   shows "m_inv (G \<times>\<times> H) (g, h) = (inv\<^bsub>G\<^esub> g, inv\<^bsub>H\<^esub> h)"
   515 proof -
   516   interpret G: group [G] by fact
   517   interpret H: group [H] by fact
   518   interpret Prod: group ["G \<times>\<times> H"]
   519     by (auto intro: DirProd_group group.intro group.axioms prems)
   520   show ?thesis by (simp add: Prod.inv_equality g h)
   521 qed
   522   
   523 
   524 subsection {* Homomorphisms and Isomorphisms *}
   525 
   526 constdefs (structure G and H)
   527   hom :: "_ => _ => ('a => 'b) set"
   528   "hom G H ==
   529     {h. h \<in> carrier G -> carrier H &
   530       (\<forall>x \<in> carrier G. \<forall>y \<in> carrier G. h (x \<otimes>\<^bsub>G\<^esub> y) = h x \<otimes>\<^bsub>H\<^esub> h y)}"
   531 
   532 lemma hom_mult:
   533   "[| h \<in> hom G H; x \<in> carrier G; y \<in> carrier G |]
   534    ==> h (x \<otimes>\<^bsub>G\<^esub> y) = h x \<otimes>\<^bsub>H\<^esub> h y"
   535   by (simp add: hom_def)
   536 
   537 lemma hom_closed:
   538   "[| h \<in> hom G H; x \<in> carrier G |] ==> h x \<in> carrier H"
   539   by (auto simp add: hom_def funcset_mem)
   540 
   541 lemma (in group) hom_compose:
   542      "[|h \<in> hom G H; i \<in> hom H I|] ==> compose (carrier G) i h \<in> hom G I"
   543 apply (auto simp add: hom_def funcset_compose) 
   544 apply (simp add: compose_def funcset_mem)
   545 done
   546 
   547 constdefs
   548   iso :: "_ => _ => ('a => 'b) set"  (infixr "\<cong>" 60)
   549   "G \<cong> H == {h. h \<in> hom G H & bij_betw h (carrier G) (carrier H)}"
   550 
   551 lemma iso_refl: "(%x. x) \<in> G \<cong> G"
   552 by (simp add: iso_def hom_def inj_on_def bij_betw_def Pi_def) 
   553 
   554 lemma (in group) iso_sym:
   555      "h \<in> G \<cong> H \<Longrightarrow> Inv (carrier G) h \<in> H \<cong> G"
   556 apply (simp add: iso_def bij_betw_Inv) 
   557 apply (subgoal_tac "Inv (carrier G) h \<in> carrier H \<rightarrow> carrier G") 
   558  prefer 2 apply (simp add: bij_betw_imp_funcset [OF bij_betw_Inv]) 
   559 apply (simp add: hom_def bij_betw_def Inv_f_eq funcset_mem f_Inv_f) 
   560 done
   561 
   562 lemma (in group) iso_trans: 
   563      "[|h \<in> G \<cong> H; i \<in> H \<cong> I|] ==> (compose (carrier G) i h) \<in> G \<cong> I"
   564 by (auto simp add: iso_def hom_compose bij_betw_compose)
   565 
   566 lemma DirProd_commute_iso:
   567   shows "(\<lambda>(x,y). (y,x)) \<in> (G \<times>\<times> H) \<cong> (H \<times>\<times> G)"
   568 by (auto simp add: iso_def hom_def inj_on_def bij_betw_def Pi_def) 
   569 
   570 lemma DirProd_assoc_iso:
   571   shows "(\<lambda>(x,y,z). (x,(y,z))) \<in> (G \<times>\<times> H \<times>\<times> I) \<cong> (G \<times>\<times> (H \<times>\<times> I))"
   572 by (auto simp add: iso_def hom_def inj_on_def bij_betw_def Pi_def) 
   573 
   574 
   575 text{*Basis for homomorphism proofs: we assume two groups @{term G} and
   576   @{term H}, with a homomorphism @{term h} between them*}
   577 locale group_hom = group G + group H + var h +
   578   assumes homh: "h \<in> hom G H"
   579   notes hom_mult [simp] = hom_mult [OF homh]
   580     and hom_closed [simp] = hom_closed [OF homh]
   581 
   582 lemma (in group_hom) one_closed [simp]:
   583   "h \<one> \<in> carrier H"
   584   by simp
   585 
   586 lemma (in group_hom) hom_one [simp]:
   587   "h \<one> = \<one>\<^bsub>H\<^esub>"
   588 proof -
   589   have "h \<one> \<otimes>\<^bsub>H\<^esub> \<one>\<^bsub>H\<^esub> = h \<one> \<otimes>\<^bsub>H\<^esub> h \<one>"
   590     by (simp add: hom_mult [symmetric] del: hom_mult)
   591   then show ?thesis by (simp del: r_one)
   592 qed
   593 
   594 lemma (in group_hom) inv_closed [simp]:
   595   "x \<in> carrier G ==> h (inv x) \<in> carrier H"
   596   by simp
   597 
   598 lemma (in group_hom) hom_inv [simp]:
   599   "x \<in> carrier G ==> h (inv x) = inv\<^bsub>H\<^esub> (h x)"
   600 proof -
   601   assume x: "x \<in> carrier G"
   602   then have "h x \<otimes>\<^bsub>H\<^esub> h (inv x) = \<one>\<^bsub>H\<^esub>"
   603     by (simp add: hom_mult [symmetric] del: hom_mult)
   604   also from x have "... = h x \<otimes>\<^bsub>H\<^esub> inv\<^bsub>H\<^esub> (h x)"
   605     by (simp add: hom_mult [symmetric] del: hom_mult)
   606   finally have "h x \<otimes>\<^bsub>H\<^esub> h (inv x) = h x \<otimes>\<^bsub>H\<^esub> inv\<^bsub>H\<^esub> (h x)" .
   607   with x show ?thesis by (simp del: H.r_inv)
   608 qed
   609 
   610 
   611 subsection {* Commutative Structures *}
   612 
   613 text {*
   614   Naming convention: multiplicative structures that are commutative
   615   are called \emph{commutative}, additive structures are called
   616   \emph{Abelian}.
   617 *}
   618 
   619 locale comm_monoid = monoid +
   620   assumes m_comm: "\<lbrakk>x \<in> carrier G; y \<in> carrier G\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> x \<otimes> y = y \<otimes> x"
   621 
   622 lemma (in comm_monoid) m_lcomm:
   623   "\<lbrakk>x \<in> carrier G; y \<in> carrier G; z \<in> carrier G\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow>
   624    x \<otimes> (y \<otimes> z) = y \<otimes> (x \<otimes> z)"
   625 proof -
   626   assume xyz: "x \<in> carrier G"  "y \<in> carrier G"  "z \<in> carrier G"
   627   from xyz have "x \<otimes> (y \<otimes> z) = (x \<otimes> y) \<otimes> z" by (simp add: m_assoc)
   628   also from xyz have "... = (y \<otimes> x) \<otimes> z" by (simp add: m_comm)
   629   also from xyz have "... = y \<otimes> (x \<otimes> z)" by (simp add: m_assoc)
   630   finally show ?thesis .
   631 qed
   632 
   633 lemmas (in comm_monoid) m_ac = m_assoc m_comm m_lcomm
   634 
   635 lemma comm_monoidI:
   636   fixes G (structure)
   637   assumes m_closed:
   638       "!!x y. [| x \<in> carrier G; y \<in> carrier G |] ==> x \<otimes> y \<in> carrier G"
   639     and one_closed: "\<one> \<in> carrier G"
   640     and m_assoc:
   641       "!!x y z. [| x \<in> carrier G; y \<in> carrier G; z \<in> carrier G |] ==>
   642       (x \<otimes> y) \<otimes> z = x \<otimes> (y \<otimes> z)"
   643     and l_one: "!!x. x \<in> carrier G ==> \<one> \<otimes> x = x"
   644     and m_comm:
   645       "!!x y. [| x \<in> carrier G; y \<in> carrier G |] ==> x \<otimes> y = y \<otimes> x"
   646   shows "comm_monoid G"
   647   using l_one
   648     by (auto intro!: comm_monoid.intro comm_monoid_axioms.intro monoid.intro 
   649              intro: prems simp: m_closed one_closed m_comm)
   650 
   651 lemma (in monoid) monoid_comm_monoidI:
   652   assumes m_comm:
   653       "!!x y. [| x \<in> carrier G; y \<in> carrier G |] ==> x \<otimes> y = y \<otimes> x"
   654   shows "comm_monoid G"
   655   by (rule comm_monoidI) (auto intro: m_assoc m_comm)
   656 
   657 (*lemma (in comm_monoid) r_one [simp]:
   658   "x \<in> carrier G ==> x \<otimes> \<one> = x"
   659 proof -
   660   assume G: "x \<in> carrier G"
   661   then have "x \<otimes> \<one> = \<one> \<otimes> x" by (simp add: m_comm)
   662   also from G have "... = x" by simp
   663   finally show ?thesis .
   664 qed*)
   665 
   666 lemma (in comm_monoid) nat_pow_distr:
   667   "[| x \<in> carrier G; y \<in> carrier G |] ==>
   668   (x \<otimes> y) (^) (n::nat) = x (^) n \<otimes> y (^) n"
   669   by (induct n) (simp, simp add: m_ac)
   670 
   671 locale comm_group = comm_monoid + group
   672 
   673 lemma (in group) group_comm_groupI:
   674   assumes m_comm: "!!x y. [| x \<in> carrier G; y \<in> carrier G |] ==>
   675       x \<otimes> y = y \<otimes> x"
   676   shows "comm_group G"
   677   by unfold_locales (simp_all add: m_comm)
   678 
   679 lemma comm_groupI:
   680   fixes G (structure)
   681   assumes m_closed:
   682       "!!x y. [| x \<in> carrier G; y \<in> carrier G |] ==> x \<otimes> y \<in> carrier G"
   683     and one_closed: "\<one> \<in> carrier G"
   684     and m_assoc:
   685       "!!x y z. [| x \<in> carrier G; y \<in> carrier G; z \<in> carrier G |] ==>
   686       (x \<otimes> y) \<otimes> z = x \<otimes> (y \<otimes> z)"
   687     and m_comm:
   688       "!!x y. [| x \<in> carrier G; y \<in> carrier G |] ==> x \<otimes> y = y \<otimes> x"
   689     and l_one: "!!x. x \<in> carrier G ==> \<one> \<otimes> x = x"
   690     and l_inv_ex: "!!x. x \<in> carrier G ==> \<exists>y \<in> carrier G. y \<otimes> x = \<one>"
   691   shows "comm_group G"
   692   by (fast intro: group.group_comm_groupI groupI prems)
   693 
   694 lemma (in comm_group) inv_mult:
   695   "[| x \<in> carrier G; y \<in> carrier G |] ==> inv (x \<otimes> y) = inv x \<otimes> inv y"
   696   by (simp add: m_ac inv_mult_group)
   697 
   698 
   699 subsection {* The Lattice of Subgroups of a Group *}
   700 
   701 text_raw {* \label{sec:subgroup-lattice} *}
   702 
   703 theorem (in group) subgroups_partial_order:
   704   "partial_order (| carrier = {H. subgroup H G}, le = op \<subseteq> |)"
   705   by (rule partial_order.intro) simp_all
   706 
   707 lemma (in group) subgroup_self:
   708   "subgroup (carrier G) G"
   709   by (rule subgroupI) auto
   710 
   711 lemma (in group) subgroup_imp_group:
   712   "subgroup H G ==> group (G(| carrier := H |))"
   713   by (erule subgroup.subgroup_is_group) (rule group_axioms)
   714 
   715 lemma (in group) is_monoid [intro, simp]:
   716   "monoid G"
   717   by (auto intro: monoid.intro m_assoc) 
   718 
   719 lemma (in group) subgroup_inv_equality:
   720   "[| subgroup H G; x \<in> H |] ==> m_inv (G (| carrier := H |)) x = inv x"
   721 apply (rule_tac inv_equality [THEN sym])
   722   apply (rule group.l_inv [OF subgroup_imp_group, simplified], assumption+)
   723  apply (rule subsetD [OF subgroup.subset], assumption+)
   724 apply (rule subsetD [OF subgroup.subset], assumption)
   725 apply (rule_tac group.inv_closed [OF subgroup_imp_group, simplified], assumption+)
   726 done
   727 
   728 theorem (in group) subgroups_Inter:
   729   assumes subgr: "(!!H. H \<in> A ==> subgroup H G)"
   730     and not_empty: "A ~= {}"
   731   shows "subgroup (\<Inter>A) G"
   732 proof (rule subgroupI)
   733   from subgr [THEN subgroup.subset] and not_empty
   734   show "\<Inter>A \<subseteq> carrier G" by blast
   735 next
   736   from subgr [THEN subgroup.one_closed]
   737   show "\<Inter>A ~= {}" by blast
   738 next
   739   fix x assume "x \<in> \<Inter>A"
   740   with subgr [THEN subgroup.m_inv_closed]
   741   show "inv x \<in> \<Inter>A" by blast
   742 next
   743   fix x y assume "x \<in> \<Inter>A" "y \<in> \<Inter>A"
   744   with subgr [THEN subgroup.m_closed]
   745   show "x \<otimes> y \<in> \<Inter>A" by blast
   746 qed
   747 
   748 theorem (in group) subgroups_complete_lattice:
   749   "complete_lattice (| carrier = {H. subgroup H G}, le = op \<subseteq> |)"
   750     (is "complete_lattice ?L")
   751 proof (rule partial_order.complete_lattice_criterion1)
   752   show "partial_order ?L" by (rule subgroups_partial_order)
   753 next
   754   show "\<exists>G. greatest ?L G (carrier ?L)"
   755   proof
   756     show "greatest ?L (carrier G) (carrier ?L)"
   757       by (unfold greatest_def)
   758         (simp add: subgroup.subset subgroup_self)
   759   qed
   760 next
   761   fix A
   762   assume L: "A \<subseteq> carrier ?L" and non_empty: "A ~= {}"
   763   then have Int_subgroup: "subgroup (\<Inter>A) G"
   764     by (fastsimp intro: subgroups_Inter)
   765   show "\<exists>I. greatest ?L I (Lower ?L A)"
   766   proof
   767     show "greatest ?L (\<Inter>A) (Lower ?L A)"
   768       (is "greatest _ ?Int _")
   769     proof (rule greatest_LowerI)
   770       fix H
   771       assume H: "H \<in> A"
   772       with L have subgroupH: "subgroup H G" by auto
   773       from subgroupH have groupH: "group (G (| carrier := H |))" (is "group ?H")
   774 	by (rule subgroup_imp_group)
   775       from groupH have monoidH: "monoid ?H"
   776 	by (rule group.is_monoid)
   777       from H have Int_subset: "?Int \<subseteq> H" by fastsimp
   778       then show "le ?L ?Int H" by simp
   779     next
   780       fix H
   781       assume H: "H \<in> Lower ?L A"
   782       with L Int_subgroup show "le ?L H ?Int"
   783 	by (fastsimp simp: Lower_def intro: Inter_greatest)
   784     next
   785       show "A \<subseteq> carrier ?L" by (rule L)
   786     next
   787       show "?Int \<in> carrier ?L" by simp (rule Int_subgroup)
   788     qed
   789   qed
   790 qed
   791 
   792 end