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NEWS

author | wenzelm |

Sun Jun 08 14:31:06 2008 +0200 (2008-06-08) | |

changeset 27094 | 2cf13a72e170 |

parent 27067 | f8a7aff41acb |

child 27104 | 791607529f6d |

permissions | -rw-r--r-- |

updated generated file;

1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes

2 ==============================================

4 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)

5 -------------------------------

7 *** General ***

9 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized

10 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.

12 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the

13 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in

14 conflict with concurrency. INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which

15 provides a proper context already.

17 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy

18 file are no longer supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and

19 'use' within a theory file will do the job.

21 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space

22 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first

23 space take precedence. INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to

24 swap theory imports.

26 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter. Potential

27 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.

29 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,

30 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

31 white space without escapes.

33 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes

34 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML). E.g. "foo\095bar" for

35 "foo_bar".

38 *** Pure ***

40 * Context-dependent token translations. Default setup reverts locally

41 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.

43 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.

44 There are three ways of invoking it:

46 (1) unused_thms

47 Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.

49 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -

50 Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,

51 excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.

53 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m

54 Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of

55 their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of

56 their ancestors.

58 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by

59 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance

60 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered

61 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in

62 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer

63 reported as unused. Moreover, if all theorems in the group are

64 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.

66 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for

67 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is

68 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).

70 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous

71 theorems within the same name space. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove

72 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications. Note

73 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using

74 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.

76 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.

78 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and

79 clasimpset. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear

80 update of theories within ML code.

82 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.

83 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require

84 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics

85 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.

87 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on

88 theory/local_theory. Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'

89 instead. Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.

90 INCOMPATIBILITY.

92 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.

94 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class

95 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.

96 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.

97 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and

98 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.

100 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only

101 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the

102 background context (locale etc.). Affects `prop` notation and method

103 "fact". INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare

104 situations.

106 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented

107 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the

108 proof text.

110 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".

111 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.

113 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';

114 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale

115 predicates.

118 *** Document preparation ***

120 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for

121 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed

122 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the

123 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default

124 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets

125 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).

127 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given

128 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method

129 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.

132 *** HOL ***

134 * New primrec package. Specification syntax conforms in style to

135 definition/function/.... No separate induction rule is provided. The

136 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications

137 by syntax. The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.

138 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style

139 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.

141 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works

142 with multithreading.

144 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a

145 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses. Theorems that

146 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.

148 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To

149 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]]. Attributes

150 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed

151 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts. INCOMPATIBILITY.

153 * Method "induction_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules

154 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors

155 out some operations that are done internally by the function package

156 and makes them available separately. See

157 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.

159 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination

160 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the

161 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.

162 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and

163 just guides the heuristic. To find suitable measure functions, the

164 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate

165 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using

166 the declared rules.

168 This setup also deals with rules like

170 "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"

172 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.

173 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.

175 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"

177 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

179 - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by

180 definitions on => and bool.

182 - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved

183 using the definitions of the operators on => and bool. Therefore,

184 the following theorems have been renamed:

186 subset_def -> subset_eq

187 psubset_def -> psubset_eq

188 set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq

189 Compl_def -> Compl_eq

190 Sup_set_def -> Sup_set_eq

191 Inf_set_def -> Inf_set_eq

192 sup_set_def -> sup_set_eq

193 inf_set_def -> inf_set_eq

195 - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some

196 rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of

197 the unknowns in the rule is a set.

199 - Higher order unification and forward proofs:

200 The proof pattern

202 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

203 then have "EX S. P S" ..

205 no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification

206 algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern

208 have "EX S. P S"

209 proof

210 show "P S" <...>

211 qed

213 - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):

214 The proof pattern

216 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

217 also have "S = T" <...>

218 finally have "P T" .

220 no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and

221 must be replaced by something like

223 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

224 moreover have "S = T" <...>

225 ultimately have "P T" by simp

227 - Tactics or packages written in ML code:

228 Code performing pattern matching on types via

230 Type ("set", [T]) => ...

232 must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or

233 binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a

234 type of the form

236 T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool

238 rather than

240 T1 => ... => Tn => U set

242 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and

243 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.

245 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality. INCOMPATIBILITY.

247 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter. Use class

248 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.

249 INCOMPATIBILITY.

251 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"

252 and "Cons". INCOMPATIBILITY.

254 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.

255 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

257 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and

258 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.

259 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd. INCOMPATIBILITY.

261 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of

262 the same name in theory Orderings:

264 less_trans

265 less_linear

266 le_imp_less_or_eq

267 le_less_trans

268 less_le_trans

269 less_not_sym

270 less_asym

272 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to

273 less_irrefl_nat. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types

274 and different variable names.

276 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.

278 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of

279 finite maps.

281 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.

283 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed. The infix

284 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have

285 disappeared. INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in

286 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively. Theorems

287 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"

288 accordingly.

290 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer

291 depend on well-founded relations. INCOMPATIBILITY. Definitions

292 le_def and less_def have disappeared. Consider lemmas not_less

293 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.

295 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin

296 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been

297 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes

298 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,

299 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.

300 INCOMPATIBILITY.

302 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper

303 case_names ("base" and "step"). INCOMPATIBILITY.

305 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete

306 lattices. The form set-specific version is available as

307 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.

309 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".

310 INCOMPATIBILITY.

312 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings

313 with division and modulo operations. Subsumes former class dvd_mod.

315 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory

316 Int. INCOMPATIBILITY.

318 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural

319 numbers rather than integers. INCOMPATIBILITY.

321 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class

322 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).

323 INCOMPATIBILITY.

325 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic

326 syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.

328 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,

329 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,

330 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,

331 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,

332 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object

333 equality. INCOMPATIBILITY.

335 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term

336 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.

337 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.

339 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.

341 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.

343 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of

344 pairs. Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and

345 well-orders on sets and on types.

348 *** ZF ***

350 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the

351 same session:

353 Datatype -> Datatype_ZF

354 Inductive -> Inductive_ZF

355 Int -> Int_ZF

356 IntDiv -> IntDiv_ZF

357 Nat -> Nat_ZF

358 List -> List_ZF

359 Main -> Main_ZF

361 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below

362 Main might need to be adapted. Regular theory Main is still

363 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.

366 *** ML ***

368 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const

369 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.

371 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact

372 (of the same name). Removed obsolete print command.

374 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.

376 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global

377 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes

378 non-critical. The global print_mode reference is for session

379 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,

380 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

382 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external

383 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML 5.2).

384 Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!

387 *** System ***

389 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---

390 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.

392 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;

393 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR

394 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".

396 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general

397 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.

399 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to

400 standard XML transfer syntax. See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and

401 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.

403 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)

404 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust

405 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.

407 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),

408 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).

410 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature. NB: the documented

411 way of changing the user's settings is via

412 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash

413 script.

415 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU

416 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for

417 optimal performance tuning. The corresponding usedir option -M allows

418 "max" as an alias for "0". WARNING: does not work on certain versions

419 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).

421 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the

422 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably

423 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).

427 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)

428 -----------------------------------

430 *** General ***

432 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a

433 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the

434 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:

435 legacy features will disappear eventually.

437 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been

438 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''. Use isatool

439 fixheaders to convert existing theory files. INCOMPATIBILITY.

441 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been

442 discontinued altogether. Note that ML proof scripts may still be used

443 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML

444 function use_legacy_bindings. INCOMPATIBILITY.

446 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',

447 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords. INCOMPATIBILITY, use double

448 quotes.

450 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory

451 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the

452 accidental file locations of previously successful loads. The strict

453 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by

454 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several

455 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header

456 specification, but without merging the results. Potential

457 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands

458 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.

460 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file

461 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical

462 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting

463 (cf. the system manual). The new scheme allows to work with

464 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source

465 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.

467 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy

468 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy

469 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader

470 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.

472 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is

473 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous

474 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the

475 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and

476 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit

477 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.

479 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',

480 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in

481 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations

482 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space

483 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse

484 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax

485 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and

486 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.

488 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required

489 to keep existing proof scripts running. Most other user-level

490 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open

491 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).

492 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because

493 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being

494 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().

496 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"

497 criterion; "with_dups" option. Certain ProofGeneral versions might

498 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).

500 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1

501 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are

502 suppressed from proof state output. Note that the ProofGeneral

503 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but

504 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems

505 limit is imposed.

507 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of

508 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''. The body may

509 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism

510 that has been implemented on top of these primitives. This concept

511 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility

512 and scalability.

514 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;

515 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).

518 *** Document preparation ***

520 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,

521 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the

522 current context.

524 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which

525 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.

527 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation

528 "c args == rhs" given in the current context. (Any number of

529 arguments may be given on the LHS.)

532 *** Pure ***

534 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to

535 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle. Definitions and

536 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with

537 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic

538 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class

539 context). Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate

540 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting

541 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.

542 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).

543 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.

545 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable

546 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes). A short usage

547 sketch:

549 internal compilation:

550 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML

551 writing SML code to a file:

552 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>

553 writing OCaml code to a file:

554 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>

555 writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:

556 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>

558 evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:

559 method ``eval''

561 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.

563 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:

565 [code fun]: select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

566 [code fun del]: deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

567 [code inline]: select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

568 [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

570 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):

572 code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>

573 {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+

575 code_type <and-list of type constructors>

576 {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+

578 code_instance <and-list of instances>

579 {(target)}+

580 where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>

582 code_class <and_list of classes>

583 {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+

584 where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?

586 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.

588 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and

589 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy. A separate tutorial on code

590 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc

591 codegen".

593 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now

594 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type

595 annotations).

597 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory

598 syntax.

600 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic

601 dependencies. The overloading scheme is slightly more general than

602 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact

603 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.

604 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more

605 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!

607 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the

608 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general

609 declaration given in the signature. For example, with the declaration

610 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented

611 as c(nat). Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural

612 recursion over such type arguments. Incomplete specification patterns

613 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the

614 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.

615 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive

616 equations, see section "definitions".

618 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof

619 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple

620 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data. Tools may

621 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to

622 these values using Config.get etc. Users may change options via an

623 associated attribute of the same name. This form of context

624 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or

625 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''. Thus it has become

626 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar

627 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.

629 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into

630 configuration options:

632 Unify.search_bound unify_search_bound

633 Unify.trace_bound unify_trace_bound

634 Unify.trace_simp unify_trace_simp

635 Unify.trace_types unify_trace_types

636 Simplifier.simp_depth_limit simp_depth_limit

637 Blast.depth_limit blast_depth_limit

638 DatatypeProp.dtK datatype_distinctness_limit

639 fast_arith_neq_limit fast_arith_neq_limit

640 fast_arith_split_limit fast_arith_split_limit

642 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context

643 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also

644 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML). The user may add or delete facts via

645 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command. This facility is

646 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way

647 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical

648 order.

650 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic

651 declaration functions written in ML. This enables arbitrary content

652 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the

653 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application

654 context encountered later on.

656 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures. Command

657 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body

658 text in ML). Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current

659 context. ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.

661 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations

662 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,

663 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on

664 the background context will persist. This form of in-place

665 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and

666 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.

668 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now

669 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying

670 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic

671 assumption steps. This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'

672 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",

673 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the

674 Isar proof context. POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is

675 more permissive.

677 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is

678 considered a legacy feature. Common applications like ``have A .''

679 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''. In general,

680 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and

681 maintainability of proof texts.

683 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives

684 the obtained context from the course of reasoning! For example:

686 assume "EX x y. A x & B y" -- "any previous fact"

687 then guess x and y by clarify

689 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and

690 proof tools being involved here.

692 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal

693 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax. This works wherever

694 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof

695 methods, attributes etc. Literal facts are retrieved from the context

696 according to unification of type and term parameters. For example,

697 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known

698 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:

699 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.

701 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition

702 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with

703 certain special cases of literal facts:

705 have "A" by fact == note `A`

706 have "A ==> B" by fact == note `A ==> B`

707 have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact == note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`

708 have "P a ==> Q a" by fact == note `P a ==> Q a`

710 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in

711 outer syntax. Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without

712 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.

714 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,

715 both named and unnamed ones.

717 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:

719 def x == "t" and y == "u"

721 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to

722 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given

723 rewrite rules. Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or

724 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.

726 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',

727 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities

728 (potentially conditional). The underlying notion of rewrite rule is

729 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the

730 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).

732 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the

733 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.

735 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a

736 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N

737 sub-goals, which need to exist. For example, ``simp_all [3]''

738 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]

739 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the

740 originally first one.

742 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order

743 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as

744 expected.

746 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either

747 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'

748 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and

749 assumptions). The latter allows to express general elimination rules

750 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:

752 lemma exE: -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

753 assumes "EX x. P x"

754 obtains x where "P x"

756 lemma conjE: -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

757 assumes "A & B"

758 obtains A and B

760 lemma disjE: -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

761 assumes "A | B"

762 obtains

763 A

764 | B

766 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"

767 explicitly:

769 lemma classical: -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

770 obtains "~ thesis"

772 lemma Peirce's_Law: -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

773 obtains "thesis ==> something"

775 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the

776 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.

777 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be

778 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the

779 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute

780 case_names).

782 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as

783 "assms" fact in the proof context. This is more appropriate than the

784 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current

785 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.

787 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or

788 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a

789 top-level lemma.

791 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context

792 introduction rule (default "that").

794 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

795 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens

796 to occur.

798 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant

799 according to the current context. This is particularly useful for

800 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant

801 representations independently of name spaces.

803 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"

804 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist

805 in the same context. INCOMPATIBILITY.

807 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'

808 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and

809 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation

810 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the

811 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the

812 current context.

814 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',

815 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit

816 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence). See also the

817 isar-ref manual. Examples:

819 axiomatization

820 eq (infix "===" 50) where

821 eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"

823 definition "f x y = x + y + 1"

824 definition g where "g x = f x x"

826 abbreviation

827 neq (infix "=!=" 50) where

828 "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"

830 These specifications may be also used in a locale context. Then the

831 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the

832 constant name is qualified by the locale base name. An internal

833 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the

834 parameters implicit and using the original short name. See also

835 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic

836 entities from a monomorphic theory.

838 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but

839 not inherited by general import expressions. Also note that

840 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +

841 'translations' in common applications. The "no_abbrevs" print mode

842 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.

844 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,

845 independently of name spaces. The parse tree representation is

846 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and

847 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.

849 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms

850 (e.g. 'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits

851 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_"). For example:

853 definition "K x _ = x"

855 inductive conj for A B

856 where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"

858 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of

859 the current context. Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of

860 abbreviations on output.

862 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and

863 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer

864 required to be injective. For example, this allows to define

865 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.

867 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.

868 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is

869 now an interpretation. INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of

870 locale expressions. In particular, in interpretations of locales with

871 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not

872 removed automatically. Use methods `intro_locales' and

873 `unfold_locales'; see below.

875 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'

876 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates. The methods are

877 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.

878 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not

879 unfold predicates to assumptions.

881 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated

882 has changed. This enables to override declarations from fragments due

883 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.

885 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been

886 extended. One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are

887 unfolded in interpreted theorems. This is useful for replacing

888 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by

889 concepts already existing in the target context. Example:

891 interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]

892 where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"

894 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a

895 definition specification element in the context of locale

896 partial_order.

898 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support

899 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level

900 connectives !! and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals

901 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long

902 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in

903 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also

904 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic

905 examples.

907 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of

908 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into

909 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested

910 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,

911 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.

913 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list

914 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide

915 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive

916 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify

917 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:

919 (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)

920 (induct set: foo bar)

921 (induct pred: foo bar)

922 (induct type: foo bar)

924 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the

925 new format.

927 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see

928 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.

930 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is

931 considered a legacy feature.

933 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic

934 variables (index 0). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

936 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level

937 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by

938 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The

939 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.

941 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format

942 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when

943 manipulating the claset.

945 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,

946 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at

947 least one premise.

949 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional

950 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions). Weights are

951 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single

952 rule steps.

954 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",

955 where the body does not mention the bound variable. Note that dummy

956 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes

957 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected. Potential

958 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic

959 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.

961 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated

962 parse translation. INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,

963 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".

965 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using

966 the graph browser tool.

968 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by

969 default; use '!' option for full details.

972 *** HOL ***

974 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose

975 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).

976 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples. WARNING: the

977 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with

978 multi-threading.

980 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as

981 background processes. It generates calls to the "metis" method if

982 successful. These can be pasted into the proof. Users do not have to

983 wait for the automatic provers to return. WARNING: does not really

984 work with multi-threading.

986 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for

987 potential counter-examples. Controlled by ML references

988 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default

989 5000 milliseconds). Fails silently if statements is outside of

990 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.

992 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".

994 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic

995 equality.

997 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in

998 the new 'class' package:

1000 HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs

1001 HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide

1002 0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero

1003 1 ~> HOL.one_class.one

1004 op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus

1005 op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus

1006 uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus

1007 op * ~> HOL.times_class.times

1008 op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less

1009 op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq

1010 Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power

1011 Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size

1012 Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of

1013 FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf

1014 FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup

1015 Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min

1016 Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max

1017 Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div

1018 Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod

1019 Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd

1021 INCOMPATIBILITY. Adaptions may be required in the following cases:

1023 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",

1024 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for

1025 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong. INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific

1026 names.

1028 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"

1029 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.

1031 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")

1032 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative

1033 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows

1034 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle

1035 distribution). INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs

1037 d) ML code directly refering to constant names

1038 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and

1039 so on. INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.

1040 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.

1042 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".

1044 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex

1045 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn". Two possible defs of

1046 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and

1047 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.

1048 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1050 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory

1051 Orderings), added parameter "less". INCOMPATIBILITY.

1053 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and

1054 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid

1055 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans". INCOMPATIBILITY.

1057 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to

1058 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.

1060 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up

1061 for classes "order" and "linorder". Instances of the reasoner are available

1062 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.

1063 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner

1064 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver. Diagnostic

1065 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner

1066 in the current context.

1068 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated

1069 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.

1070 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1072 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration

1073 with new class dense_linear_order.

1075 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.

1077 constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"

1078 constant "Meet" now named "Inf"

1080 classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named

1081 "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"

1082 class "lorder" now named "lattice"

1083 class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"

1085 Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions

1086 for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).

1088 INCOMPATIBILITY. Theorem renames:

1090 meet_left_le ~> inf_le1

1091 meet_right_le ~> inf_le2

1092 join_left_le ~> sup_ge1

1093 join_right_le ~> sup_ge2

1094 meet_join_le ~> inf_sup_ord

1095 le_meetI ~> le_infI

1096 join_leI ~> le_supI

1097 le_meet ~> le_inf_iff

1098 le_join ~> ge_sup_conv

1099 meet_idempotent ~> inf_idem

1100 join_idempotent ~> sup_idem

1101 meet_comm ~> inf_commute

1102 join_comm ~> sup_commute

1103 meet_leI1 ~> le_infI1

1104 meet_leI2 ~> le_infI2

1105 le_joinI1 ~> le_supI1

1106 le_joinI2 ~> le_supI2

1107 meet_assoc ~> inf_assoc

1108 join_assoc ~> sup_assoc

1109 meet_left_comm ~> inf_left_commute

1110 meet_left_idempotent ~> inf_left_idem

1111 join_left_comm ~> sup_left_commute

1112 join_left_idempotent ~> sup_left_idem

1113 meet_aci ~> inf_aci

1114 join_aci ~> sup_aci

1115 le_def_meet ~> le_iff_inf

1116 le_def_join ~> le_iff_sup

1117 join_absorp2 ~> sup_absorb2

1118 join_absorp1 ~> sup_absorb1

1119 meet_absorp1 ~> inf_absorb1

1120 meet_absorp2 ~> inf_absorb2

1121 meet_join_absorp ~> inf_sup_absorb

1122 join_meet_absorp ~> sup_inf_absorb

1123 distrib_join_le ~> distrib_sup_le

1124 distrib_meet_le ~> distrib_inf_le

1126 add_meet_distrib_left ~> add_inf_distrib_left

1127 add_join_distrib_left ~> add_sup_distrib_left

1128 is_join_neg_meet ~> is_join_neg_inf

1129 is_meet_neg_join ~> is_meet_neg_sup

1130 add_meet_distrib_right ~> add_inf_distrib_right

1131 add_join_distrib_right ~> add_sup_distrib_right

1132 add_meet_join_distribs ~> add_sup_inf_distribs

1133 join_eq_neg_meet ~> sup_eq_neg_inf

1134 meet_eq_neg_join ~> inf_eq_neg_sup

1135 add_eq_meet_join ~> add_eq_inf_sup

1136 meet_0_imp_0 ~> inf_0_imp_0

1137 join_0_imp_0 ~> sup_0_imp_0

1138 meet_0_eq_0 ~> inf_0_eq_0

1139 join_0_eq_0 ~> sup_0_eq_0

1140 neg_meet_eq_join ~> neg_inf_eq_sup

1141 neg_join_eq_meet ~> neg_sup_eq_inf

1142 join_eq_if ~> sup_eq_if

1144 mono_meet ~> mono_inf

1145 mono_join ~> mono_sup

1146 meet_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_eq

1147 join_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_eq

1148 meet_fun_eq ~> inf_fun_eq

1149 join_fun_eq ~> sup_fun_eq

1150 meet_set_eq ~> inf_set_eq

1151 join_set_eq ~> sup_set_eq

1152 meet1_iff ~> inf1_iff

1153 meet2_iff ~> inf2_iff

1154 meet1I ~> inf1I

1155 meet2I ~> inf2I

1156 meet1D1 ~> inf1D1

1157 meet2D1 ~> inf2D1

1158 meet1D2 ~> inf1D2

1159 meet2D2 ~> inf2D2

1160 meet1E ~> inf1E

1161 meet2E ~> inf2E

1162 join1_iff ~> sup1_iff

1163 join2_iff ~> sup2_iff

1164 join1I1 ~> sup1I1

1165 join2I1 ~> sup2I1

1166 join1I1 ~> sup1I1

1167 join2I2 ~> sup1I2

1168 join1CI ~> sup1CI

1169 join2CI ~> sup2CI

1170 join1E ~> sup1E

1171 join2E ~> sup2E

1173 is_meet_Meet ~> is_meet_Inf

1174 Meet_bool_def ~> Inf_bool_def

1175 Meet_fun_def ~> Inf_fun_def

1176 Meet_greatest ~> Inf_greatest

1177 Meet_lower ~> Inf_lower

1178 Meet_set_def ~> Inf_set_def

1180 Sup_def ~> Sup_Inf

1181 Sup_bool_eq ~> Sup_bool_def

1182 Sup_fun_eq ~> Sup_fun_def

1183 Sup_set_eq ~> Sup_set_def

1185 listsp_meetI ~> listsp_infI

1186 listsp_meet_eq ~> listsp_inf_eq

1188 meet_min ~> inf_min

1189 join_max ~> sup_max

1191 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has

1192 type "'a::size ==> bool"

1194 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems

1195 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still

1196 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named

1197 "*.size".

1199 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".

1200 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1202 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,

1203 Linorder etc. have disappeared; operations defined in terms of

1204 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1206 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1208 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size

1209 machine words, with arithemtic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating

1210 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for

1211 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including

1212 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity. Instantiated to all appropriate

1213 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of

1214 numerals on all operations.

1216 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.

1218 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).

1220 * Code generator library theories:

1221 - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target

1222 languages.

1223 - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target

1224 languages.

1225 - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character

1226 codes; includes Code_Integer.

1227 - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.

1228 - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,

1229 denominator).

1230 - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those

1231 representable by rational numbers.

1232 - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will

1233 result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;

1234 includes Code_Integer.

1235 - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to

1236 target-language built-in integers.

1237 - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to

1238 strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.

1240 * New package for inductive predicates

1242 An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via

1244 inductive

1245 p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

1246 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

1247 where

1248 rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"

1249 | ...

1251 with full support for type-inference, rather than

1253 consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

1255 abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

1256 where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

1258 inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"

1259 intros

1260 rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

1261 ...

1263 For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive

1264 sets to be defined with the new package via

1266 inductive_set

1267 s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

1268 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

1269 where

1270 rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

1271 | ...

1273 or

1275 inductive_set

1276 s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

1277 and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

1278 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

1279 where

1280 "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

1281 | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"

1282 | ...

1284 if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.

1286 Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,

1287 src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.

1289 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

1291 - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates

1292 is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly

1293 introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the

1294 introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather

1295 than before the actual inductive definition.

1297 - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now

1298 quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction

1299 rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break

1300 some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by

1301 reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'

1302 statements of the form

1304 case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})

1306 or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding

1307 meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.

1309 | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"

1311 - The format of the elimination rules is now

1313 p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>

1314 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)

1315 ==> ... ==> P

1317 for predicates and

1319 (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>

1320 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)

1321 ==> ... ==> P

1323 for sets rather than

1325 x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>

1326 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)

1327 ==> ... ==> P

1329 This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples

1330 (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all

1331 rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.

1333 - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive

1334 sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The

1335 list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.

1337 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,

1338 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,

1339 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy

1340 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function

1341 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but

1342 users are encouraged to use the new package.

1344 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination

1345 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures.

1347 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including

1348 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional

1349 programming. Internally, this is translated into nested

1350 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined

1351 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show

1352 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow

1353 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an

1354 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new

1355 variable.

1357 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"

1358 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification

1359 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did

1360 previously. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:

1361 - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"

1362 - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules

1364 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using

1365 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the

1366 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for

1367 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding

1368 declarations for computation on the coefficients. The method is

1369 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class

1370 of idoms with numerals. See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at

1371 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this

1372 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.

1374 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over

1375 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to

1376 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class

1377 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,

1378 rat, etc.

1380 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append". Use ML

1381 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to

1382 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.

1384 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".

1386 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.

1387 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)

1389 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.

1390 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.

1392 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :

1393 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list

1394 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1396 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders. It used to be

1397 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]

1398 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1400 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD" to "set_takeWhileD".

1402 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.

1404 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for

1405 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all

1406 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or

1407 positive/negative (in inequations).

1409 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib

1410 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and

1411 ring_distribs. Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field

1412 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1414 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function

1415 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried. Infix syntax for

1416 algebraic operations.

1418 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.

1419 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1421 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.

1422 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1424 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the

1425 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update

1426 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.

1427 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be

1428 adapted.

1430 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0

1431 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring. Richer structures do not

1432 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem

1433 there, not an axiom. INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,

1434 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.

1436 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just

1437 commutative semirings. INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate

1438 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.

1440 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.

1441 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,

1442 better use 'abbreviation'.

1444 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member". INCOMPATIBILITY.

1446 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has

1447 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'. INCOMPATIBILITY --

1448 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:

1449 - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead

1450 of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.

1451 - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.

1452 - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.

1453 - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.

1455 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.

1457 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may

1458 contain free variables. For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''

1459 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof). This command is suitable for

1460 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML

1461 first. Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided. See

1462 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.

1464 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority

1465 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is

1466 "A = B" (with priority 50).

1468 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.

1469 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,

1470 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z". Potential

1471 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1473 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).

1475 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds

1476 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1478 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been

1479 removed. Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.

1481 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites

1482 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq"). INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using

1483 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.

1485 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to

1486 True/False.

1488 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".

1490 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.

1492 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the

1493 ``rule'' method.

1495 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:

1496 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences

1497 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form

1498 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.

1500 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.

1501 zChaff is still supported as well.

1503 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,

1504 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;

1506 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to

1507 Library.

1509 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.

1511 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists

1512 as greatest fixed-point.

1514 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as

1515 association lists.

1517 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)

1518 efficiently by compiling it to ML. The goal is "proved" (via an

1519 oracle) if it evaluates to True.

1521 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)

1522 also when invoked by the simplifier. This results in the Simplifier

1523 being more powerful on arithmetic goals. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1524 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old

1525 behavior.

1527 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.

1529 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an

1530 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional

1531 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the

1532 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The

1533 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs

1534 s. If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.

1536 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)

1537 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,

1538 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code

1539 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then

1540 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =

1541 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the

1542 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.

1544 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is

1545 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy

1547 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a

1548 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an

1549 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of

1550 HOL types. This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,

1551 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.

1554 *** HOL-Complex ***

1556 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real

1557 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.

1558 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so

1559 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential

1560 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1562 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and

1563 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a

1564 and norm :: 'a => real.

1566 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from

1567 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now

1568 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

1570 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.

1571 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.

1573 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the

1574 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector

1575 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential

1576 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1578 Infinitesimal :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

1579 HFinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

1580 HInfinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

1581 approx :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool

1582 monad :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

1583 galaxy :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

1584 (NS)LIMSEQ :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

1585 (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

1586 (NS)Bseq :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

1587 (NS)Cauchy :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

1588 (NS)LIM :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool

1589 is(NS)Cont :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

1590 deriv :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool

1591 sgn :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a

1592 exp :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a

1594 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for

1595 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =

1596 hnorm. Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the

1597 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

1599 approx <-- capprox

1600 HFinite <-- CFinite

1601 HInfinite <-- CInfinite

1602 Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal

1603 monad <-- cmonad

1604 galaxy <-- cgalaxy

1605 (NS)LIM <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM

1606 is(NS)Cont <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR

1607 (ns)deriv <-- (ns)cderiv

1610 *** HOL-Algebra ***

1612 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.

1614 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.

1615 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1617 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->

1618 greatest_closed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1620 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute. For examples see

1621 Ring.thy. INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations

1622 of algebraic structures.

1624 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.

1627 *** HOL-Nominal ***

1629 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding

1630 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic. See src/HOL/Nominal and

1631 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples. Prospective users should consult

1632 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/

1635 *** ML ***

1637 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int

1638 (even on SML/NJ).

1640 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked

1641 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at

1642 compile-time. For example:

1644 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}

1645 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}

1646 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}

1647 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}

1648 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}

1649 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}

1650 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}

1651 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}

1652 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}

1653 ML {* @{type_name c} *}

1654 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}

1655 ML {* @{const_name c} *}

1656 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}

1657 ML {* @{context} *}

1658 ML {* @{theory} *}

1659 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}

1660 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}

1661 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}

1662 ML {* @{simpset} *}

1663 ML {* @{claset} *}

1664 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}

1666 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.

1668 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with

1669 ML_Context.trace enabled.

1671 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions

1672 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and

1673 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.

1675 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now

1676 use Context.generic instead of just theory.

1678 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and

1679 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of

1680 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.

1682 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always

1683 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.

1684 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while

1685 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and

1686 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure

1687 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably

1688 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type

1689 declarations and definitions.

1691 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed

1692 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,

1693 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need

1694 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)

1696 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in

1697 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the

1698 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,

1699 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

1701 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with

1702 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed

1703 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --

1704 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and

1705 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede

1706 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.

1708 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --

1709 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been

1710 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted

1711 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for

1712 attributes, methods, etc.

1714 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."

1715 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to

1716 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and

1717 fold_map combinators.

1719 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional

1720 comments (tags) are now strictly separate. Name hints -- which are

1721 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the

1722 derivation.

1724 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an

1725 actual goal state (thm). Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to

1726 achieve the old behaviour.

1728 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a

1729 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule

1730 statements.

1732 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now

1733 enforced instead of silently assumed. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use

1734 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.

1736 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating

1737 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc. This replaces

1738 some popular functions from term.ML:

1740 Term.variant -> Name.variant

1741 Term.variantlist -> Name.variant_list

1742 Term.invent_names -> Name.invent_list

1744 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations

1745 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).

1747 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper

1748 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context. For example,

1749 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and

1750 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces

1751 various freeze_thaw operations.

1753 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for

1754 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former

1755 Tactic.prove). Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results

1756 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for

1757 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard. Note that

1758 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is

1759 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or

1760 in a locale context).

1762 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)

1763 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations

1764 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.

1765 which are considered legacy and await removal.

1767 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking

1768 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),

1769 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term

1770 etc.). Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still

1771 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using

1772 a mere theory instead of a full context.

1774 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception

1775 ERROR of string uniformly. Function error now merely raises ERROR,

1776 without any side effect on output channels. The Isar toplevel takes

1777 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions. ML code may use plain

1778 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:

1780 ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."

1782 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be

1783 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like

1784 this:

1786 Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)

1788 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed

1789 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,

1790 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)

1791 -- use plain ERROR instead.

1793 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a

1794 list. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.

1796 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to

1797 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.

1799 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the

1800 theory before entering a proof state. Transactions now always see a

1801 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and

1802 batch mode.

1804 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax. Renamed

1805 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords. Removed

1806 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in

1807 OuterSyntax.command etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1809 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now

1810 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the

1811 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by

1812 simpset_of/local_simpset_of). Consequently, all plug-in components

1813 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.

1815 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the

1816 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc

1817 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this! Removed

1818 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --

1819 INCOMPATIBILITY. Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to

1820 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.

1822 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces

1823 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a

1824 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --

1825 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1827 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired

1828 "Trueprop" etc.

1831 *** System ***

1833 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now

1834 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER. This simplifies use of multiple

1835 Isabelle installations.

1837 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical

1838 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source

1839 code.

1841 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.

1843 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of

1844 Poly/ML 5.1. The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing

1845 independent theories, according to the given theory header

1846 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via

1847 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A

1848 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up

1849 to 6 on a 8-core machine. User-code needs to observe certain

1850 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar

1851 Implementation manual.

1855 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)

1856 ----------------------------------

1858 *** General ***

1860 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is

1862 theory <name>

1863 imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>

1864 uses <file1> ... <fileM>

1865 begin

1867 where the 'uses' part is optional. The previous syntax

1869 theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:

1871 will disappear in the next release. Use isatool fixheaders to convert

1872 existing theory files. Note that there is no change in ancient

1873 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.

1875 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via

1876 relative and absolute paths.

1878 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a

1879 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,

1880 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select

1881 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that

1882 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified

1883 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose

1884 lhs match term. Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects

1885 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under

1886 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f. Example:

1888 C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."

1890 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",

1891 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."

1892 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).

1894 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of

1895 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.

1897 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that

1898 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both

1899 formal and informal parts). Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof

1900 General interface. Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):

1902 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html

1903 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html

1905 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the

1906 Classical Reasoner. Typical big applications run around 2 times

1907 faster.

1910 *** Document preparation ***

1912 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output

1913 of raw sources. Only those symbols that do not require additional

1914 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are

1915 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim. isatool display

1916 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the

1917 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).

1919 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,

1920 notably folding and hiding. Predefined tags include "theory" (for

1921 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for

1922 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and

1923 "invisible" are unused by default. Users may give explicit tag

1924 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''. The

1925 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document

1926 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of

1927 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,

1928 \isadroptag.

1930 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool

1931 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them). Typical

1932 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present

1933 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold

1934 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit

1935 these parts without any formal replacement text. The Isabelle site

1936 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as

1937 specified above.

1939 * Several new antiquotations:

1941 @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;

1943 @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;

1945 @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the

1946 argument is a known logical constant;

1948 @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or

1949 theorem applying a "style" to it

1951 @{ML text}

1953 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of

1954 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the

1955 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'

1956 to print the specified premise. TermStyle.add_style provides an ML

1957 interface for introducing further styles. See also the "LaTeX Sugar"

1958 document practical applications. The ML antiquotation prints

1959 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.

1961 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',

1962 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which

1963 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations. For

1964 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.

1966 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative

1967 context interpreting the subsequent argument. For example: @{thm

1968 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.

1970 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within

1971 a proof context.

1973 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a

1974 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').

1976 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX

1977 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).

1979 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option

1980 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false

1981 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.

1984 *** Pure ***

1986 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command. Now performs

1987 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for

1988 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also

1989 isar-ref manual. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly

1990 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'

1991 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier. If

1992 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.

1994 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures. First of all,

1995 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted

1996 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary

1997 expressions. Secondly, in a local context with structure

1998 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default

1999 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option

2000 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures. Typical

2001 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.

2003 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and

2004 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is

2005 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.

2007 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend

2008 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for

2009 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.

2011 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an

2012 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of

2013 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle

2014 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;

2015 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2017 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"

2018 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.

2019 INCOMPATIBILITY. This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for

2020 axclasses vs. locales.

2022 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes

2023 instead of base 26 numbers.

2025 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question

2026 marks in schematic variable names.

2028 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or

2029 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name. For example, the

2030 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:

2032 lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"

2033 by simp

2035 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).

2037 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix

2038 annotations as "(00...)".

2040 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter

2041 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.

2042 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class

2043 "logic" vs. "{}". Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper

2044 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'. Some very

2045 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption

2046 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).

2048 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.

2049 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'

2050 rather than 'types'. INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic

2051 specifications.

2053 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be

2054 locally fixed variables as well.

2056 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting

2057 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth

2058 Limit.

2060 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current

2061 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc

2062 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier

2063 recursively. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs

2064 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead. Moreover, the

2065 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to

2066 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.

2068 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!

2069 or ==>. More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of

2070 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.

2072 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2074 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived

2075 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already. Both

2076 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.

2077 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /

2078 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;

2079 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.

2081 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific

2082 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.

2084 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference

2085 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),

2086 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');

2088 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.

2090 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive

2091 theory development.

2093 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code

2094 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures

2095 for each theory). INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'

2096 must be quoted when used as identifiers.

2098 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using

2099 the code generator. INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be

2100 quoted when used as identifier.

2103 *** Locales ***

2105 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in

2106 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3). These generate

2107 proof obligations from the expression specification. After the

2108 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added

2109 to the theory, target locale or proof context. The synopsis of the

2110 commands is a follows:

2112 (1) interpretation expr inst

2113 (2) interpretation target < expr

2114 (3) interpret expr inst

2116 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter

2117 instantiation of terms from the current context. This is applied to

2118 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.

2119 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the

2120 locale expression. Interpretation is smart in that interpretations

2121 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are

2122 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate. Use 'print_interps' to

2123 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale. For details,

2124 see the Isar Reference manual. Examples can be found in

2125 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.

2127 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use

2128 'interpret' instead.

2130 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to

2131 parameters.

2133 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax

2134 redeclaration.

2136 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.

2138 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /

2139 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition

2140 context, independently of the context of later invocations. Moreover,

2141 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied

2142 to attribute arguments as expected.

2144 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of

2145 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to

2146 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.

2147 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static

2148 binding mechanism. Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and

2149 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further

2150 intervention. Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"

2151 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both

2152 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed

2153 values to argument tokens explicitly.

2155 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal

2156 statements with 'includes'. INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different

2157 theorem statement in rare situations.

2159 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements. Use

2160 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.

2163 *** Provers ***

2165 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for

2166 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is

2167 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption. INCOMPATIBILITY: may

2168 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is

2169 still available as 'simplesubst'.

2171 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only

2172 and quasi orders.

2174 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and

2175 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.

2177 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth

2178 limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.

2180 * Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup

2181 is peformed already. Object-logics merely need to finish their

2182 initial simpset configuration as before. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2185 *** HOL ***

2187 * Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:

2189 syntax (epsilon)

2190 "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a" ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)

2192 The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX

2193 and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.

2194 Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>

2195 becomes available as variable, constant etc. INCOMPATIBILITY,

2197 * "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".

2198 Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc. The x-symbol for >=

2199 is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to

2200 support corresponding Isar calculations.

2202 * "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"

2203 instead of ":".

2205 * theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:

2207 Old New

2208 {..n(} {..<n}

2209 {)n..} {n<..}

2210 {m..n(} {m..<n}

2211 {)m..n} {m<..n}

2212 {)m..n(} {m<..<n}

2214 The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next

2215 release. For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace

2216 patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):

2218 {)\([^\.]*\)\.\. -> {\1<\.\.}

2219 \.\.\([^(}]*\)(} -> \.\.<\1}

2221 * Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving

2222 equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic

2223 interface.

2225 * Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over

2226 finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is

2227 now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can

2228 be a tuple pattern.

2230 Some new syntax forms are available:

2232 "\<Sum>x | P. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"

2233 "\<Sum>x = a..b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"

2234 "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"

2235 "\<Sum>x < k. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"

2237 The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate

2238 function "Summation", which has been discontinued.

2240 * theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case

2241 is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case

2242 (insert F x)'.

2244 * The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger

2245 fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and

2246 typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.

2248 * New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.

2249 Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed. See

2250 HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.

2252 * Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the

2253 induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by

2254 induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather

2255 than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY

2256 in unstructured proof scripts.

2258 * Reworked implementation of records. Improved scalability for

2259 records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type

2260 inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but

2261 of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear

2262 in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields. The

2263 top-level (users) view on records is preserved. Potential

2264 INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the

2265 old record representation. The type generated for a record is called

2266 <record_name>_ext_type.

2268 Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the

2269 proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if

2270 quick_and_dirty is enabled). Definitions of large records can take

2271 quite long.

2273 New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record

2274 updates enabled by default. Moreover, trivial updates are also

2275 removed: r(|x := x r|) = r. INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break

2276 occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.

2278 * typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra

2279 type-variables in the term.

2281 * Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains

2282 involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics

2283 provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers. INCOMPATIBILITY:

2284 old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more

2285 goals than previously.

2287 * Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is

2288 present. Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular

2289 numbers and sets. For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y

2290 just like y <= x.

2292 * Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x". If a is a free or

2293 bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded. Otherwise

2294 first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If

2295 possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",

2296 otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g. The simproc can be

2297 enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc. Potential

2298 INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.

2300 * Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.

2302 * Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background

2303 jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.

2305 * Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and

2306 improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and

2307 inequalities.

2309 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

2310 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

2312 abs_eq now named abs_of_nonneg

2313 abs_of_ge_0 now named abs_of_nonneg

2314 abs_minus_eq now named abs_of_nonpos

2315 imp_abs_id now named abs_of_nonneg

2316 imp_abs_neg_id now named abs_of_nonpos

2317 mult_pos now named mult_pos_pos

2318 mult_pos_le now named mult_nonneg_nonneg

2319 mult_pos_neg_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos

2320 mult_pos_neg2_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2

2321 mult_neg now named mult_neg_neg

2322 mult_neg_le now named mult_nonpos_nonpos

2324 * The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:

2326 zero_le_square

2327 not_square_less_zero

2329 The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:

2331 realpow_zero_zero

2332 realpow_two

2333 realpow_less

2334 zero_le_power

2335 realpow_two_le

2336 abs_realpow_two

2337 realpow_two_abs

2339 * Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.

2341 * Theory List:

2343 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

2344 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

2346 list_all_Nil now named list_all.simps(1)

2347 list_all_Cons now named list_all.simps(2)

2348 list_all_conv now named list_all_iff

2349 set_mem_eq now named mem_iff

2351 * Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support

2352 asymptotic "big O" calculations. See the notes in BigO.thy.

2355 *** HOL-Complex ***

2357 * Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and

2358 integers in the reals.

2360 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

2361 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

2363 exp_ge_add_one_self now requires no hypotheses

2364 real_of_int_add reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

2365 real_of_int_minus reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

2366 real_of_int_diff reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

2367 real_of_int_mult reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

2369 * Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.

2371 * Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm

2373 * Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making

2374 nonstandard types. The old type names are now type synonyms:

2376 hypreal = real star

2377 hypnat = nat star

2378 hcomplex = complex star

2380 * Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been

2381 replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

2383 star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex

2385 starset <-- starsetNat, starsetC

2386 *s* <-- *sNat*, *sc*

2387 starset_n <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n

2388 *sn* <-- *sNatn*, *scn*

2389 InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets

2391 starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

2392 *f* <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*

2393 starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n

2394 *fn* <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*

2395 InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs

2397 * Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of

2398 theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):

2400 add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute

2401 add_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs

2402 OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left

2403 OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right

2404 right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus

2405 left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left

2406 mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute

2407 mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc

2408 mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left

2409 mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right

2410 mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left

2411 left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib

2412 right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2

2413 zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one

2414 right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse

2415 left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left

2416 order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl

2417 order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans

2418 order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym

2419 order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le

2420 linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear

2421 add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono

2422 mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2

2423 add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order

2425 * Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific

2426 versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the

2427 new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):

2429 STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set

2430 STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set

2431 STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un

2432 STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int

2433 STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl

2434 STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset

2435 STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem

2436 STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl

2437 STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff

2438 STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,

2439 STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset

2440 starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un

2441 starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int

2442 starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl

2443 starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff

2444 InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un

2445 InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int

2446 InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl

2447 InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff

2448 InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff

2449 InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n

2450 starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq

2451 starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}

2452 starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

2453 starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

2454 starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult

2455 starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add

2456 starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus

2457 starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff

2458 starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o

2459 starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2

2460 starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun

2461 starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse

2462 starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq

2463 starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff

2464 starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id

2465 starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx

2466 starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox

2467 starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs

2468 starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel

2469 starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2

2470 starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox

2471 starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox

2472 starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox

2473 starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx

2474 starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse

2475 starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide

2476 starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n

2477 starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult

2478 starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add

2479 starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus

2480 starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun

2481 starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus

2482 starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq

2484 star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add

2485 star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus

2486 star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff

2487 star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult

2488 star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse

2489 star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le

2490 star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less

2491 star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num

2492 star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num

2493 star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs

2494 star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide

2496 star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add

2497 star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus

2498 star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff

2499 star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult

2500 star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one

2501 star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero

2502 star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff

2503 star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff

2504 star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff

2505 star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse

2506 star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide

2507 star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat

2508 star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int

2509 star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of

2510 star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff

2511 star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff

2512 star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff

2513 star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff

2514 star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff

2515 star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power

2516 star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff

2518 * Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer

2519 principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions

2520 nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"

2521 replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.

2522 To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-

2523 standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.

2525 * Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.

2528 *** HOLCF ***

2530 * Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support

2531 continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full

2532 type-inference.

2534 * New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it

2535 is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic

2536 instead of exponential time).

2538 * New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.

2539 Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:

2541 domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")

2543 * New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern

2544 matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also

2545 supported. Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,

2546 sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given

2547 equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

2548 syntax and examples.

2550 * New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes

2551 of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,

2552 but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility

2553 requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,

2554 with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.

2556 * HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming

2557 scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):

2559 foo_inject: "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"

2560 foo_eq: "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"

2561 foo_less: "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"

2562 foo_strict: "foo$UU = UU"

2563 foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"

2564 foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"

2567 *** ZF ***

2569 * ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,

2570 including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel

2571 of a homomorphism).

2573 * ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually

2574 makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);

2575 the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.

2578 *** Cube ***

2580 * Converted to Isar theory format; use locales instead of axiomatic

2581 theories.

2584 *** ML ***

2586 * Pure/library.ML: added ##>, ##>>, #>> -- higher-order counterparts

2587 for ||>, ||>>, |>>,

2589 * Pure/library.ML no longer defines its own option datatype, but uses

2590 that of the SML basis, which has constructors NONE and SOME instead of

2591 None and Some, as well as exception Option.Option instead of OPTION.

2592 The functions the, if_none, is_some, is_none have been adapted

2593 accordingly, while Option.map replaces apsome.

2595 * Pure/library.ML: the exception LIST has been given up in favour of

2596 the standard exceptions Empty and Subscript, as well as

2597 Library.UnequalLengths. Function like Library.hd and Library.tl are

2598 superceded by the standard hd and tl functions etc.

2600 A number of basic list functions are no longer exported to the ML

2601 toplevel, as they are variants of predefined functions. The following

2602 suggests how one can translate existing code:

2604 rev_append xs ys = List.revAppend (xs, ys)

2605 nth_elem (i, xs) = List.nth (xs, i)

2606 last_elem xs = List.last xs

2607 flat xss = List.concat xss

2608 seq fs = List.app fs

2609 partition P xs = List.partition P xs

2610 mapfilter f xs = List.mapPartial f xs

2612 * Pure/library.ML: several combinators for linear functional

2613 transformations, notably reverse application and composition:

2615 x |> f f #> g

2616 (x, y) |-> f f #-> g

2618 * Pure/library.ML: introduced/changed precedence of infix operators:

2620 infix 1 |> |-> ||> ||>> |>> |>>> #> #->;

2621 infix 2 ?;

2622 infix 3 o oo ooo oooo;

2623 infix 4 ~~ upto downto;

2625 Maybe INCOMPATIBILITY when any of those is used in conjunction with other

2626 infix operators.

2628 * Pure/library.ML: natural list combinators fold, fold_rev, and

2629 fold_map support linear functional transformations and nesting. For

2630 example:

2632 fold f [x1, ..., xN] y =

2633 y |> f x1 |> ... |> f xN

2635 (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] y =

2636 y |> fold f xs1 |> ... |> fold f xsN

2638 fold f [x1, ..., xN] =

2639 f x1 #> ... #> f xN

2641 (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] =

2642 fold f xs1 #> ... #> fold f xsN

2644 * Pure/library.ML: the following selectors on type 'a option are

2645 available:

2647 the: 'a option -> 'a (*partial*)

2648 these: 'a option -> 'a where 'a = 'b list

2649 the_default: 'a -> 'a option -> 'a

2650 the_list: 'a option -> 'a list

2652 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides

2653 basic operations for association lists, following natural argument

2654 order; moreover the explicit equality predicate passed here avoids

2655 potentially expensive polymorphic runtime equality checks.

2656 The old functions may be expressed as follows:

2658 assoc = uncurry (AList.lookup (op =))

2659 assocs = these oo AList.lookup (op =)

2660 overwrite = uncurry (AList.update (op =)) o swap

2662 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides

2664 val make: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> ('a * 'b) list

2665 val find: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> ('c * 'b) list -> 'a -> 'c list

2667 replacing make_keylist and keyfilter (occassionally used)

2668 Naive rewrites:

2670 make_keylist = AList.make

2671 keyfilter = AList.find (op =)

2673 * eq_fst and eq_snd now take explicit equality parameter, thus

2674 avoiding eqtypes. Naive rewrites:

2676 eq_fst = eq_fst (op =)

2677 eq_snd = eq_snd (op =)

2679 * Removed deprecated apl and apr (rarely used).

2680 Naive rewrites:

2682 apl (n, op) =>>= curry op n

2683 apr (op, m) =>>= fn n => op (n, m)

2685 * Pure/General: structure OrdList (cf. Pure/General/ord_list.ML)

2686 provides a reasonably efficient light-weight implementation of sets as

2687 lists.

2689 * Pure/General: generic tables (cf. Pure/General/table.ML) provide a

2690 few new operations; existing lookup and update are now curried to

2691 follow natural argument order (for use with fold etc.);

2692 INCOMPATIBILITY, use (uncurry Symtab.lookup) etc. as last resort.

2694 * Pure/General: output via the Isabelle channels of

2695 writeln/warning/error etc. is now passed through Output.output, with a

2696 hook for arbitrary transformations depending on the print_mode

2697 (cf. Output.add_mode -- the first active mode that provides a output

2698 function wins). Already formatted output may be embedded into further

2699 text via Output.raw; the result of Pretty.string_of/str_of and derived

2700 functions (string_of_term/cterm/thm etc.) is already marked raw to

2701 accommodate easy composition of diagnostic messages etc. Programmers

2702 rarely need to care about Output.output or Output.raw at all, with

2703 some notable exceptions: Output.output is required when bypassing the

2704 standard channels (writeln etc.), or in token translations to produce

2705 properly formatted results; Output.raw is required when capturing

2706 already output material that will eventually be presented to the user

2707 a second time. For the default print mode, both Output.output and

2708 Output.raw have no effect.

2710 * Pure/General: Output.time_accumulator NAME creates an operator ('a

2711 -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b to measure runtime and count invocations; the

2712 cumulative results are displayed at the end of a batch session.

2714 * Pure/General: File.sysify_path and File.quote_sysify path have been

2715 replaced by File.platform_path and File.shell_path (with appropriate

2716 hooks). This provides a clean interface for unusual systems where the

2717 internal and external process view of file names are different.

2719 * Pure: more efficient orders for basic syntactic entities: added

2720 fast_string_ord, fast_indexname_ord, fast_term_ord; changed sort_ord

2721 and typ_ord to use fast_string_ord and fast_indexname_ord (term_ord is

2722 NOT affected); structures Symtab, Vartab, Typtab, Termtab use the fast

2723 orders now -- potential INCOMPATIBILITY for code that depends on a

2724 particular order for Symtab.keys, Symtab.dest, etc. (consider using

2725 Library.sort_strings on result).

2727 * Pure/term.ML: combinators fold_atyps, fold_aterms, fold_term_types,

2728 fold_types traverse types/terms from left to right, observing natural

2729 argument order. Supercedes previous foldl_XXX versions, add_frees,

2730 add_vars etc. have been adapted as well: INCOMPATIBILITY.

2732 * Pure: name spaces have been refined, with significant changes of the

2733 internal interfaces -- INCOMPATIBILITY. Renamed cond_extern(_table)

2734 to extern(_table). The plain name entry path is superceded by a

2735 general 'naming' context, which also includes the 'policy' to produce

2736 a fully qualified name and external accesses of a fully qualified

2737 name; NameSpace.extend is superceded by context dependent

2738 Sign.declare_name. Several theory and proof context operations modify

2739 the naming context. Especially note Theory.restore_naming and

2740 ProofContext.restore_naming to get back to a sane state; note that

2741 Theory.add_path is no longer sufficient to recover from

2742 Theory.absolute_path in particular.

2744 * Pure: new flags short_names (default false) and unique_names

2745 (default true) for controlling output of qualified names. If

2746 short_names is set, names are printed unqualified. If unique_names is

2747 reset, the name prefix is reduced to the minimum required to achieve

2748 the original result when interning again, even if there is an overlap

2749 with earlier declarations.

2751 * Pure/TheoryDataFun: change of the argument structure; 'prep_ext' is

2752 now 'extend', and 'merge' gets an additional Pretty.pp argument

2753 (useful for printing error messages). INCOMPATIBILITY.

2755 * Pure: major reorganization of the theory context. Type Sign.sg and

2756 Theory.theory are now identified, referring to the universal

2757 Context.theory (see Pure/context.ML). Actual signature and theory

2758 content is managed as theory data. The old code and interfaces were

2759 spread over many files and structures; the new arrangement introduces

2760 considerable INCOMPATIBILITY to gain more clarity:

2762 Context -- theory management operations (name, identity, inclusion,

2763 parents, ancestors, merge, etc.), plus generic theory data;

2765 Sign -- logical signature and syntax operations (declaring consts,

2766 types, etc.), plus certify/read for common entities;

2768 Theory -- logical theory operations (stating axioms, definitions,

2769 oracles), plus a copy of logical signature operations (consts,

2770 types, etc.); also a few basic management operations (Theory.copy,

2771 Theory.merge, etc.)

2773 The most basic sign_of operations (Theory.sign_of, Thm.sign_of_thm

2774 etc.) as well as the sign field in Thm.rep_thm etc. have been retained

2775 for convenience -- they merely return the theory.

2777 * Pure: type Type.tsig is superceded by theory in most interfaces.

2779 * Pure: the Isar proof context type is already defined early in Pure

2780 as Context.proof (note that ProofContext.context and Proof.context are

2781 aliases, where the latter is the preferred name). This enables other

2782 Isabelle components to refer to that type even before Isar is present.

2784 * Pure/sign/theory: discontinued named name spaces (i.e. classK,

2785 typeK, constK, axiomK, oracleK), but provide explicit operations for

2786 any of these kinds. For example, Sign.intern typeK is now

2787 Sign.intern_type, Theory.hide_space Sign.typeK is now

2788 Theory.hide_types. Also note that former

2789 Theory.hide_classes/types/consts are now

2790 Theory.hide_classes_i/types_i/consts_i, while the non '_i' versions

2791 internalize their arguments! INCOMPATIBILITY.

2793 * Pure: get_thm interface (of PureThy and ProofContext) expects

2794 datatype thmref (with constructors Name and NameSelection) instead of

2795 plain string -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

2797 * Pure: cases produced by proof methods specify options, where NONE

2798 means to remove case bindings -- INCOMPATIBILITY in

2799 (RAW_)METHOD_CASES.

2801 * Pure: the following operations retrieve axioms or theorems from a

2802 theory node or theory hierarchy, respectively:

2804 Theory.axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list

2805 Theory.all_axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list

2806 PureThy.thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list

2807 PureThy.all_thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list

2809 * Pure: print_tac now outputs the goal through the trace channel.

2811 * Isar toplevel: improved diagnostics, mostly for Poly/ML only.

2812 Reference Toplevel.debug (default false) controls detailed printing

2813 and tracing of low-level exceptions; Toplevel.profiling (default 0)

2814 controls execution profiling -- set to 1 for time and 2 for space

2815 (both increase the runtime).

2817 * Isar session: The initial use of ROOT.ML is now always timed,

2818 i.e. the log will show the actual process times, in contrast to the

2819 elapsed wall-clock time that the outer shell wrapper produces.

2821 * Simplifier: improved handling of bound variables (nameless

2822 representation, avoid allocating new strings). Simprocs that invoke

2823 the Simplifier recursively should use Simplifier.inherit_bounds to

2824 avoid local name clashes. Failure to do so produces warnings

2825 "Simplifier: renamed bound variable ..."; set Simplifier.debug_bounds

2826 for further details.

2828 * ML functions legacy_bindings and use_legacy_bindings produce ML fact

2829 bindings for all theorems stored within a given theory; this may help

2830 in porting non-Isar theories to Isar ones, while keeping ML proof

2831 scripts for the time being.

2833 * ML operator HTML.with_charset specifies the charset begin used for

2834 generated HTML files. For example:

2836 HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Hebrew";

2837 HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Chinese";

2840 *** System ***

2842 * Allow symlinks to all proper Isabelle executables (Isabelle,

2843 isabelle, isatool etc.).

2845 * ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT setting specifies preferred document format (for

2846 isatool doc, isatool mkdir, display_drafts etc.).

2848 * isatool usedir: option -f allows specification of the ML file to be

2849 used by Isabelle; default is ROOT.ML.

2851 * New isatool version outputs the version identifier of the Isabelle

2852 distribution being used.

2854 * HOL: new isatool dimacs2hol converts files in DIMACS CNF format

2855 (containing Boolean satisfiability problems) into Isabelle/HOL

2856 theories.

2860 New in Isabelle2004 (April 2004)

2861 --------------------------------

2863 *** General ***

2865 * Provers/order.ML: new efficient reasoner for partial and linear orders.

2866 Replaces linorder.ML.

2868 * Pure: Greek letters (except small lambda, \<lambda>), as well as Gothic

2869 (\<aa>...\<zz>\<AA>...\<ZZ>), calligraphic (\<A>...\<Z>), and Euler

2870 (\<a>...\<z>), are now considered normal letters, and can therefore

2871 be used anywhere where an ASCII letter (a...zA...Z) has until

2872 now. COMPATIBILITY: This obviously changes the parsing of some

2873 terms, especially where a symbol has been used as a binder, say

2874 '\<Pi>x. ...', which is now a type error since \<Pi>x will be parsed

2875 as an identifier. Fix it by inserting a space around former

2876 symbols. Call 'isatool fixgreek' to try to fix parsing errors in

2877 existing theory and ML files.

2879 * Pure: Macintosh and Windows line-breaks are now allowed in theory files.

2881 * Pure: single letter sub/superscripts (\<^isub> and \<^isup>) are now

2882 allowed in identifiers. Similar to Greek letters \<^isub> is now considered

2883 a normal (but invisible) letter. For multiple letter subscripts repeat

2884 \<^isub> like this: x\<^isub>1\<^isub>2.

2886 * Pure: There are now sub-/superscripts that can span more than one

2887 character. Text between \<^bsub> and \<^esub> is set in subscript in

2888 ProofGeneral and LaTeX, text between \<^bsup> and \<^esup> in

2889 superscript. The new control characters are not identifier parts.

2891 * Pure: Control-symbols of the form \<^raw:...> will literally print the

2892 content of "..." to the latex file instead of \isacntrl... . The "..."

2893 may consist of any printable characters excluding the end bracket >.

2895 * Pure: Using new Isar command "finalconsts" (or the ML functions

2896 Theory.add_finals or Theory.add_finals_i) it is now possible to

2897 declare constants "final", which prevents their being given a definition

2898 later. It is useful for constants whose behaviour is fixed axiomatically

2899 rather than definitionally, such as the meta-logic connectives.

2901 * Pure: 'instance' now handles general arities with general sorts

2902 (i.e. intersections of classes),

2904 * Presentation: generated HTML now uses a CSS style sheet to make layout

2905 (somewhat) independent of content. It is copied from lib/html/isabelle.css.

2906 It can be changed to alter the colors/layout of generated pages.

2909 *** Isar ***

2911 * Tactic emulation methods rule_tac, erule_tac, drule_tac, frule_tac,

2912 cut_tac, subgoal_tac and thin_tac:

2913 - Now understand static (Isar) contexts. As a consequence, users of Isar

2914 locales are no longer forced to write Isar proof scripts.

2915 For details see Isar Reference Manual, paragraph 4.3.2: Further tactic

2916 emulations.

2917 - INCOMPATIBILITY: names of variables to be instantiated may no

2918 longer be enclosed in quotes. Instead, precede variable name with `?'.

2919 This is consistent with the instantiation attribute "where".

2921 * Attributes "where" and "of":

2922 - Now take type variables of instantiated theorem into account when reading

2923 the instantiation string. This fixes a bug that caused instantiated

2924 theorems to have too special types in some circumstances.

2925 - "where" permits explicit instantiations of type variables.

2927 * Calculation commands "moreover" and "also" no longer interfere with

2928 current facts ("this"), admitting arbitrary combinations with "then"

2929 and derived forms.

2931 * Locales:

2932 - Goal statements involving the context element "includes" no longer

2933 generate theorems with internal delta predicates (those ending on

2934 "_axioms") in the premise.

2935 Resolve particular premise with <locale>.intro to obtain old form.

2936 - Fixed bug in type inference ("unify_frozen") that prevented mix of target

2937 specification and "includes" elements in goal statement.

2938 - Rule sets <locale>.intro and <locale>.axioms no longer declared as

2939 [intro?] and [elim?] (respectively) by default.

2940 - Experimental command for instantiation of locales in proof contexts:

2941 instantiate <label>[<attrs>]: <loc>

2942 Instantiates locale <loc> and adds all its theorems to the current context

2943 taking into account their attributes. Label and attrs are optional

2944 modifiers, like in theorem declarations. If present, names of

2945 instantiated theorems are qualified with <label>, and the attributes

2946 <attrs> are applied after any attributes these theorems might have already.

2947 If the locale has assumptions, a chained fact of the form

2948 "<loc> t1 ... tn" is expected from which instantiations of the parameters

2949 are derived. The command does not support old-style locales declared

2950 with "locale (open)".

2951 A few (very simple) examples can be found in FOL/ex/LocaleInst.thy.

2953 * HOL: Tactic emulation methods induct_tac and case_tac understand static

2954 (Isar) contexts.

2957 *** HOL ***

2959 * Proof import: new image HOL4 contains the imported library from

2960 the HOL4 system with about 2500 theorems. It is imported by

2961 replaying proof terms produced by HOL4 in Isabelle. The HOL4 image

2962 can be used like any other Isabelle image. See

2963 HOL/Import/HOL/README for more information.

2965 * Simplifier:

2966 - Much improved handling of linear and partial orders.

2967 Reasoners for linear and partial orders are set up for type classes

2968 "linorder" and "order" respectively, and are added to the default simpset

2969 as solvers. This means that the simplifier can build transitivity chains

2970 to solve goals from the assumptions.

2971 - INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break occasionally. Typically, applications

2972 of blast or auto after simplification become unnecessary because the goal

2973 is solved by simplification already.

2975 * Numerics: new theory Ring_and_Field contains over 250 basic numerical laws,

2976 all proved in axiomatic type classes for semirings, rings and fields.

2978 * Numerics:

2979 - Numeric types (nat, int, and in HOL-Complex rat, real, complex, etc.) are

2980 now formalized using the Ring_and_Field theory mentioned above.

2981 - INCOMPATIBILITY: simplification and arithmetic behaves somewhat differently

2982 than before, because now they are set up once in a generic manner.

2983 - INCOMPATIBILITY: many type-specific arithmetic laws have gone.

2984 Look for the general versions in Ring_and_Field (and Power if they concern

2985 exponentiation).

2987 * Type "rat" of the rational numbers is now available in HOL-Complex.

2989 * Records:

2990 - Record types are now by default printed with their type abbreviation

2991 instead of the list of all field types. This can be configured via

2992 the reference "print_record_type_abbr".

2993 - Simproc "record_upd_simproc" for simplification of multiple updates added

2994 (not enabled by default).

2995 - Simproc "record_ex_sel_eq_simproc" to simplify EX x. sel r = x resp.

2996 EX x. x = sel r to True (not enabled by default).

2997 - Tactic "record_split_simp_tac" to split and simplify records added.

2999 * 'specification' command added, allowing for definition by

3000 specification. There is also an 'ax_specification' command that

3001 introduces the new constants axiomatically.

3003 * arith(_tac) is now able to generate counterexamples for reals as well.

3005 * HOL-Algebra: new locale "ring" for non-commutative rings.

3007 * HOL-ex: InductiveInvariant_examples illustrates advanced recursive function

3008 definitions, thanks to Sava Krsti\'{c} and John Matthews.

3010 * HOL-Matrix: a first theory for matrices in HOL with an application of

3011 matrix theory to linear programming.

3013 * Unions and Intersections:

3014 The latex output syntax of UN and INT has been changed

3015 from "\Union x \in A. B" to "\Union_{x \in A} B"

3016 i.e. the index formulae has become a subscript.

3017 Similarly for "\Union x. B", and for \Inter instead of \Union.

3019 * Unions and Intersections over Intervals:

3020 There is new short syntax "UN i<=n. A" for "UN i:{0..n}. A". There is

3021 also an x-symbol version with subscripts "\<Union>\<^bsub>i <= n\<^esub>. A"

3022 like in normal math, and corresponding versions for < and for intersection.

3024 * HOL/List: Ordering "lexico" is renamed "lenlex" and the standard

3025 lexicographic dictonary ordering has been added as "lexord".

3027 * ML: the legacy theory structures Int and List have been removed. They had

3028 conflicted with ML Basis Library structures having the same names.

3030 * 'refute' command added to search for (finite) countermodels. Only works

3031 for a fragment of HOL. The installation of an external SAT solver is

3032 highly recommended. See "HOL/Refute.thy" for details.

3034 * 'quickcheck' command: Allows to find counterexamples by evaluating

3035 formulae under an assignment of free variables to random values.

3036 In contrast to 'refute', it can deal with inductive datatypes,

3037 but cannot handle quantifiers. See "HOL/ex/Quickcheck_Examples.thy"

3038 for examples.

3041 *** HOLCF ***

3043 * Streams now come with concatenation and are part of the HOLCF image

3047 New in Isabelle2003 (May 2003)

3048 ------------------------------

3050 *** General ***

3052 * Provers/simplifier:

3054 - Completely reimplemented method simp (ML: Asm_full_simp_tac):

3055 Assumptions are now subject to complete mutual simplification,

3056 not just from left to right. The simplifier now preserves

3057 the order of assumptions.

3059 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:

3061 -- simp sometimes diverges where the old version did

3062 not, e.g. invoking simp on the goal

3064 [| P (f x); y = x; f x = f y |] ==> Q

3066 now gives rise to the infinite reduction sequence

3068 P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> P(f y) --(y = x)--> P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> ...

3070 Using "simp (asm_lr)" (ML: Asm_lr_simp_tac) instead often solves this

3071 kind of problem.

3073 -- Tactics combining classical reasoner and simplification (such as auto)

3074 are also affected by this change, because many of them rely on

3075 simp. They may sometimes diverge as well or yield a different numbers

3076 of subgoals. Try to use e.g. force, fastsimp, or safe instead of auto

3077 in case of problems. Sometimes subsequent calls to the classical

3078 reasoner will fail because a preceeding call to the simplifier too

3079 eagerly simplified the goal, e.g. deleted redundant premises.

3081 - The simplifier trace now shows the names of the applied rewrite rules

3083 - You can limit the number of recursive invocations of the simplifier

3084 during conditional rewriting (where the simplifie tries to solve the

3085 conditions before applying the rewrite rule):

3086 ML "simp_depth_limit := n"

3087 where n is an integer. Thus you can force termination where previously

3088 the simplifier would diverge.

3090 - Accepts free variables as head terms in congruence rules. Useful in Isar.

3092 - No longer aborts on failed congruence proof. Instead, the

3093 congruence is ignored.

3095 * Pure: New generic framework for extracting programs from constructive

3096 proofs. See HOL/Extraction.thy for an example instantiation, as well

3097 as HOL/Extraction for some case studies.

3099 * Pure: The main goal of the proof state is no longer shown by default, only

3100 the subgoals. This behaviour is controlled by a new flag.

3101 PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Settings -> Show Main Goal

3102 (ML: Proof.show_main_goal).

3104 * Pure: You can find all matching introduction rules for subgoal 1, i.e. all

3105 rules whose conclusion matches subgoal 1:

3106 PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Show me -> matching rules

3107 The rules are ordered by how closely they match the subgoal.

3108 In particular, rules that solve a subgoal outright are displayed first

3109 (or rather last, the way they are printed).

3110 (ML: ProofGeneral.print_intros())

3112 * Pure: New flag trace_unify_fail causes unification to print

3113 diagnostic information (PG: in trace buffer) when it fails. This is

3114 useful for figuring out why single step proofs like rule, erule or

3115 assumption failed.

3117 * Pure: Locale specifications now produce predicate definitions

3118 according to the body of text (covering assumptions modulo local

3119 definitions); predicate "loc_axioms" covers newly introduced text,

3120 while "loc" is cumulative wrt. all included locale expressions; the

3121 latter view is presented only on export into the global theory

3122 context; potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use "(open)" option to fall back

3123 on the old view without predicates;

3125 * Pure: predefined locales "var" and "struct" are useful for sharing

3126 parameters (as in CASL, for example); just specify something like

3127 ``var x + var y + struct M'' as import;

3129 * Pure: improved thms_containing: proper indexing of facts instead of

3130 raw theorems; check validity of results wrt. current name space;

3131 include local facts of proof configuration (also covers active

3132 locales), cover fixed variables in index; may use "_" in term

3133 specification; an optional limit for the number of printed facts may

3134 be given (the default is 40);

3136 * Pure: disallow duplicate fact bindings within new-style theory files

3137 (batch-mode only);

3139 * Provers: improved induct method: assumptions introduced by case

3140 "foo" are split into "foo.hyps" (from the rule) and "foo.prems" (from

3141 the goal statement); "foo" still refers to all facts collectively;

3143 * Provers: the function blast.overloaded has been removed: all constants

3144 are regarded as potentially overloaded, which improves robustness in exchange

3145 for slight decrease in efficiency;

3147 * Provers/linorder: New generic prover for transitivity reasoning over

3148 linear orders. Note: this prover is not efficient!

3150 * Isar: preview of problems to finish 'show' now produce an error

3151 rather than just a warning (in interactive mode);

3154 *** HOL ***

3156 * arith(_tac)

3158 - Produces a counter example if it cannot prove a goal.

3159 Note that the counter example may be spurious if the goal is not a formula

3160 of quantifier-free linear arithmetic.

3161 In ProofGeneral the counter example appears in the trace buffer.

3163 - Knows about div k and mod k where k is a numeral of type nat or int.

3165 - Calls full Presburger arithmetic (by Amine Chaieb) if quantifier-free

3166 linear arithmetic fails. This takes account of quantifiers and divisibility.

3167 Presburger arithmetic can also be called explicitly via presburger(_tac).

3169 * simp's arithmetic capabilities have been enhanced a bit: it now

3170 takes ~= in premises into account (by performing a case split);

3172 * simp reduces "m*(n div m) + n mod m" to n, even if the two summands

3173 are distributed over a sum of terms;

3175 * New tactic "trans_tac" and method "trans" instantiate

3176 Provers/linorder.ML for axclasses "order" and "linorder" (predicates

3177 "<=", "<" and "=").

3179 * function INCOMPATIBILITIES: Pi-sets have been redefined and moved from main

3180 HOL to Library/FuncSet; constant "Fun.op o" is now called "Fun.comp";

3182 * 'typedef' command has new option "open" to suppress the set

3183 definition;

3185 * functions Min and Max on finite sets have been introduced (theory

3186 Finite_Set);

3188 * attribute [symmetric] now works for relations as well; it turns

3189 (x,y) : R^-1 into (y,x) : R, and vice versa;

3191 * induct over a !!-quantified statement (say !!x1..xn):

3192 each "case" automatically performs "fix x1 .. xn" with exactly those names.

3194 * Map: `empty' is no longer a constant but a syntactic abbreviation for

3195 %x. None. Warning: empty_def now refers to the previously hidden definition

3196 of the empty set.

3198 * Algebra: formalization of classical algebra. Intended as base for

3199 any algebraic development in Isabelle. Currently covers group theory

3200 (up to Sylow's theorem) and ring theory (Universal Property of

3201 Univariate Polynomials). Contributions welcome;

3203 * GroupTheory: deleted, since its material has been moved to Algebra;

3205 * Complex: new directory of the complex numbers with numeric constants,

3206 nonstandard complex numbers, and some complex analysis, standard and

3207 nonstandard (Jacques Fleuriot);

3209 * HOL-Complex: new image for analysis, replacing HOL-Real and HOL-Hyperreal;

3211 * Hyperreal: introduced Gauge integration and hyperreal logarithms (Jacques

3212 Fleuriot);

3214 * Real/HahnBanach: updated and adapted to locales;

3216 * NumberTheory: added Gauss's law of quadratic reciprocity (by Avigad,

3217 Gray and Kramer);

3219 * UNITY: added the Meier-Sanders theory of progress sets;

3221 * MicroJava: bytecode verifier and lightweight bytecode verifier

3222 as abstract algorithms, instantiated to the JVM;

3224 * Bali: Java source language formalization. Type system, operational

3225 semantics, axiomatic semantics. Supported language features:

3226 classes, interfaces, objects,virtual methods, static methods,

3227 static/instance fields, arrays, access modifiers, definite

3228 assignment, exceptions.

3231 *** ZF ***

3233 * ZF/Constructible: consistency proof for AC (Gdel's constructible

3234 universe, etc.);

3236 * Main ZF: virtually all theories converted to new-style format;

3239 *** ML ***

3241 * Pure: Tactic.prove provides sane interface for internal proofs;

3242 omits the infamous "standard" operation, so this is more appropriate

3243 than prove_goalw_cterm in many situations (e.g. in simprocs);

3245 * Pure: improved error reporting of simprocs;

3247 * Provers: Simplifier.simproc(_i) provides sane interface for setting

3248 up simprocs;

3251 *** Document preparation ***

3253 * uses \par instead of \\ for line breaks in theory text. This may

3254 shift some page breaks in large documents. To get the old behaviour

3255 use \renewcommand{\isanewline}{\mbox{}\\\mbox{}} in root.tex.

3257 * minimized dependencies of isabelle.sty and isabellesym.sty on

3258 other packages

3260 * \<euro> now needs package babel/greek instead of marvosym (which

3261 broke \Rightarrow)

3263 * normal size for \<zero>...\<nine> (uses \mathbf instead of

3264 textcomp package)

3268 New in Isabelle2002 (March 2002)

3269 --------------------------------

3271 *** Document preparation ***

3273 * greatly simplified document preparation setup, including more

3274 graceful interpretation of isatool usedir -i/-d/-D options, and more

3275 instructive isatool mkdir; users should basically be able to get

3276 started with "isatool mkdir HOL Test && isatool make"; alternatively,

3277 users may run a separate document processing stage manually like this:

3278 "isatool usedir -D output HOL Test && isatool document Test/output";

3280 * theory dependency graph may now be incorporated into documents;

3281 isatool usedir -g true will produce session_graph.eps/.pdf for use

3282 with \includegraphics of LaTeX;

3284 * proper spacing of consecutive markup elements, especially text

3285 blocks after section headings;

3287 * support bold style (for single symbols only), input syntax is like

3288 this: "\<^bold>\<alpha>" or "\<^bold>A";

3290 * \<bullet> is now output as bold \cdot by default, which looks much

3291 better in printed text;

3293 * added default LaTeX bindings for \<tturnstile> and \<TTurnstile>;

3294 note that these symbols are currently unavailable in Proof General /

3295 X-Symbol; new symbols \<zero>, \<one>, ..., \<nine>, and \<euro>;

3297 * isatool latex no longer depends on changed TEXINPUTS, instead

3298 isatool document copies the Isabelle style files to the target

3299 location;

3302 *** Isar ***

3304 * Pure/Provers: improved proof by cases and induction;

3305 - 'case' command admits impromptu naming of parameters (such as

3306 "case (Suc n)");

3307 - 'induct' method divinates rule instantiation from the inductive

3308 claim; no longer requires excessive ?P bindings for proper

3309 instantiation of cases;

3310 - 'induct' method properly enumerates all possibilities of set/type

3311 rules; as a consequence facts may be also passed through *type*

3312 rules without further ado;

3313 - 'induct' method now derives symbolic cases from the *rulified*

3314 rule (before it used to rulify cases stemming from the internal

3315 atomized version); this means that the context of a non-atomic

3316 statement becomes is included in the hypothesis, avoiding the

3317 slightly cumbersome show "PROP ?case" form;

3318 - 'induct' may now use elim-style induction rules without chaining

3319 facts, using ``missing'' premises from the goal state; this allows

3320 rules stemming from inductive sets to be applied in unstructured

3321 scripts, while still benefitting from proper handling of non-atomic

3322 statements; NB: major inductive premises need to be put first, all

3323 the rest of the goal is passed through the induction;

3324 - 'induct' proper support for mutual induction involving non-atomic

3325 rule statements (uses the new concept of simultaneous goals, see

3326 below);

3327 - append all possible rule selections, but only use the first

3328 success (no backtracking);

3329 - removed obsolete "(simplified)" and "(stripped)" options of methods;

3330 - undeclared rule case names default to numbers 1, 2, 3, ...;

3331 - added 'print_induct_rules' (covered by help item in recent Proof

3332 General versions);

3333 - moved induct/cases attributes to Pure, methods to Provers;

3334 - generic method setup instantiated for FOL and HOL;

3336 * Pure: support multiple simultaneous goal statements, for example

3337 "have a: A and b: B" (same for 'theorem' etc.); being a pure

3338 meta-level mechanism, this acts as if several individual goals had

3339 been stated separately; in particular common proof methods need to be

3340 repeated in order to cover all claims; note that a single elimination

3341 step is *not* sufficient to establish the two conjunctions, so this

3342 fails:

3344 assume "A & B" then have A and B .. (*".." fails*)

3346 better use "obtain" in situations as above; alternative refer to

3347 multi-step methods like 'auto', 'simp_all', 'blast+' etc.;

3349 * Pure: proper integration with ``locales''; unlike the original

3350 version by Florian Kammller, Isar locales package high-level proof

3351 contexts rather than raw logical ones (e.g. we admit to include

3352 attributes everywhere); operations on locales include merge and

3353 rename; support for implicit arguments (``structures''); simultaneous

3354 type-inference over imports and text; see also HOL/ex/Locales.thy for

3355 some examples;

3357 * Pure: the following commands have been ``localized'', supporting a

3358 target locale specification "(in name)": 'lemma', 'theorem',

3359 'corollary', 'lemmas', 'theorems', 'declare'; the results will be

3360 stored both within the locale and at the theory level (exported and

3361 qualified by the locale name);

3363 * Pure: theory goals may now be specified in ``long'' form, with

3364 ad-hoc contexts consisting of arbitrary locale elements. for example

3365 ``lemma foo: fixes x assumes "A x" shows "B x"'' (local syntax and

3366 definitions may be given, too); the result is a meta-level rule with

3367 the context elements being discharged in the obvious way;

3369 * Pure: new proof command 'using' allows to augment currently used

3370 facts after a goal statement ('using' is syntactically analogous to

3371 'apply', but acts on the goal's facts only); this allows chained facts

3372 to be separated into parts given before and after a claim, as in

3373 ``from a and b have C using d and e <proof>'';

3375 * Pure: renamed "antecedent" case to "rule_context";

3377 * Pure: new 'judgment' command records explicit information about the

3378 object-logic embedding (used by several tools internally); no longer

3379 use hard-wired "Trueprop";

3381 * Pure: added 'corollary' command;

3383 * Pure: fixed 'token_translation' command;

3385 * Pure: removed obsolete 'exported' attribute;

3387 * Pure: dummy pattern "_" in is/let is now automatically lifted over

3388 bound variables: "ALL x. P x --> Q x" (is "ALL x. _ --> ?C x")

3389 supersedes more cumbersome ... (is "ALL x. _ x --> ?C x");

3391 * Pure: method 'atomize' presents local goal premises as object-level

3392 statements (atomic meta-level propositions); setup controlled via

3393 rewrite rules declarations of 'atomize' attribute; example

3394 application: 'induct' method with proper rule statements in improper

3395 proof *scripts*;

3397 * Pure: emulation of instantiation tactics (rule_tac, cut_tac, etc.)

3398 now consider the syntactic context of assumptions, giving a better

3399 chance to get type-inference of the arguments right (this is

3400 especially important for locales);

3402 * Pure: "sorry" no longer requires quick_and_dirty in interactive

3403 mode;

3405 * Pure/obtain: the formal conclusion "thesis", being marked as

3406 ``internal'', may no longer be reference directly in the text;

3407 potential INCOMPATIBILITY, may need to use "?thesis" in rare

3408 situations;

3410 * Pure: generic 'sym' attribute which declares a rule both as pure

3411 'elim?' and for the 'symmetric' operation;

3413 * Pure: marginal comments ``--'' may now occur just anywhere in the

3414 text; the fixed correlation with particular command syntax has been

3415 discontinued;

3417 * Pure: new method 'rules' is particularly well-suited for proof

3418 search in intuitionistic logic; a bit slower than 'blast' or 'fast',

3419 but often produces more compact proof terms with less detours;

3421 * Pure/Provers/classical: simplified integration with pure rule

3422 attributes and methods; the classical "intro?/elim?/dest?"

3423 declarations coincide with the pure ones; the "rule" method no longer

3424 includes classically swapped intros; "intro" and "elim" methods no

3425 longer pick rules from the context; also got rid of ML declarations

3426 AddXIs/AddXEs/AddXDs; all of this has some potential for

3427 INCOMPATIBILITY;

3429 * Provers/classical: attribute 'swapped' produces classical inversions

3430 of introduction rules;

3432 * Provers/simplifier: 'simplified' attribute may refer to explicit

3433 rules instead of full simplifier context; 'iff' attribute handles

3434 conditional rules;

3436 * HOL: 'typedef' now allows alternative names for Rep/Abs morphisms;

3438 * HOL: 'recdef' now fails on unfinished automated proofs, use

3439 "(permissive)" option to recover old behavior;

3441 * HOL: 'inductive' no longer features separate (collective) attributes

3442 for 'intros' (was found too confusing);

3444 * HOL: properly declared induction rules less_induct and

3445 wf_induct_rule;

3448 *** HOL ***

3450 * HOL: moved over to sane numeral syntax; the new policy is as

3451 follows:

3453 - 0 and 1 are polymorphic constants, which are defined on any

3454 numeric type (nat, int, real etc.);

3456 - 2, 3, 4, ... and -1, -2, -3, ... are polymorphic numerals, based

3457 binary representation internally;

3459 - type nat has special constructor Suc, and generally prefers Suc 0

3460 over 1::nat and Suc (Suc 0) over 2::nat;

3462 This change may cause significant problems of INCOMPATIBILITY; here

3463 are some hints on converting existing sources:

3465 - due to the new "num" token, "-0" and "-1" etc. are now atomic

3466 entities, so expressions involving "-" (unary or binary minus) need

3467 to be spaced properly;

3469 - existing occurrences of "1" may need to be constraint "1::nat" or

3470 even replaced by Suc 0; similar for old "2";

3472 - replace "#nnn" by "nnn", and "#-nnn" by "-nnn";

3474 - remove all special provisions on numerals in proofs;

3476 * HOL: simp rules nat_number expand numerals on nat to Suc/0

3477 representation (depends on bin_arith_simps in the default context);

3479 * HOL: symbolic syntax for x^2 (numeral 2);

3481 * HOL: the class of all HOL types is now called "type" rather than

3482 "term"; INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt references to this type class

3483 in axclass/classes, instance/arities, and (usually rare) occurrences

3484 in typings (of consts etc.); internally the class is called

3485 "HOL.type", ML programs should refer to HOLogic.typeS;

3487 * HOL/record package improvements:

3488 - new derived operations "fields" to build a partial record section,

3489 "extend" to promote a fixed record to a record scheme, and

3490 "truncate" for the reverse; cf. theorems "xxx.defs", which are *not*

3491 declared as simp by default;

3492 - shared operations ("more", "fields", etc.) now need to be always

3493 qualified) --- potential INCOMPATIBILITY;

3494 - removed "make_scheme" operations (use "make" with "extend") --

3495 INCOMPATIBILITY;

3496 - removed "more" class (simply use "term") -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

3497 - provides cases/induct rules for use with corresponding Isar

3498 methods (for concrete records, record schemes, concrete more

3499 parts, and schematic more parts -- in that order);

3500 - internal definitions directly based on a light-weight abstract

3501 theory of product types over typedef rather than datatype;

3503 * HOL: generic code generator for generating executable ML code from

3504 specifications; specific support for HOL constructs such as inductive

3505 datatypes and sets, as well as recursive functions; can be invoked

3506 via 'generate_code' theory section;

3508 * HOL: canonical cases/induct rules for n-tuples (n = 3..7);

3510 * HOL: consolidated and renamed several theories. In particular:

3511 Ord.thy has been absorbed into HOL.thy

3512 String.thy has been absorbed into List.thy

3514 * HOL: concrete setsum syntax "\<Sum>i:A. b" == "setsum (%i. b) A"

3515 (beware of argument permutation!);

3517 * HOL: linorder_less_split superseded by linorder_cases;

3519 * HOL/List: "nodups" renamed to "distinct";

3521 * HOL: added "The" definite description operator; move Hilbert's "Eps"

3522 to peripheral theory "Hilbert_Choice"; some INCOMPATIBILITIES:

3523 - Ex_def has changed, now need to use some_eq_ex

3525 * HOL: made split_all_tac safe; EXISTING PROOFS MAY FAIL OR LOOP, so

3526 in this (rare) case use:

3528 delSWrapper "split_all_tac"

3529 addSbefore ("unsafe_split_all_tac", unsafe_split_all_tac)

3531 * HOL: added safe wrapper "split_conv_tac" to claset; EXISTING PROOFS

3532 MAY FAIL;

3534 * HOL: introduced f^n = f o ... o f; warning: due to the limits of

3535 Isabelle's type classes, ^ on functions and relations has too general

3536 a domain, namely ('a * 'b) set and 'a => 'b; this means that it may be

3537 necessary to attach explicit type constraints;

3539 * HOL/Relation: the prefix name of the infix "O" has been changed from

3540 "comp" to "rel_comp"; INCOMPATIBILITY: a few theorems have been

3541 renamed accordingly (eg "compI" -> "rel_compI").

3543 * HOL: syntax translations now work properly with numerals and records

3544 expressions;

3546 * HOL: bounded abstraction now uses syntax "%" / "\<lambda>" instead

3547 of "lam" -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

3549 * HOL: got rid of some global declarations (potential INCOMPATIBILITY

3550 for ML tools): const "()" renamed "Product_Type.Unity", type "unit"

3551 renamed "Product_Type.unit";

3553 * HOL: renamed rtrancl_into_rtrancl2 to converse_rtrancl_into_rtrancl

3555 * HOL: removed obsolete theorem "optionE" (use "option.exhaust", or

3556 the "cases" method);

3558 * HOL/GroupTheory: group theory examples including Sylow's theorem (by

3559 Florian Kammller);

3561 * HOL/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory format; several

3562 parts turned into readable document, with proper Isar proof texts and

3563 some explanations (by Gerwin Klein);

3565 * HOL-Real: added Complex_Numbers (by Gertrud Bauer);

3567 * HOL-Hyperreal is now a logic image;

3570 *** HOLCF ***

3572 * Isar: consts/constdefs supports mixfix syntax for continuous

3573 operations;

3575 * Isar: domain package adapted to new-style theory format, e.g. see

3576 HOLCF/ex/Dnat.thy;

3578 * theory Lift: proper use of rep_datatype lift instead of ML hacks --

3579 potential INCOMPATIBILITY; now use plain induct_tac instead of former

3580 lift.induct_tac, always use UU instead of Undef;

3582 * HOLCF/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory;

3585 *** ZF ***

3587 * Isar: proper integration of logic-specific tools and packages,

3588 including theory commands '(co)inductive', '(co)datatype',

3589 'rep_datatype', 'inductive_cases', as well as methods 'ind_cases',

3590 'induct_tac', 'case_tac', and 'typecheck' (with attribute 'TC');

3592 * theory Main no longer includes AC; for the Axiom of Choice, base

3593 your theory on Main_ZFC;

3595 * the integer library now covers quotients and remainders, with many

3596 laws relating division to addition, multiplication, etc.;

3598 * ZF/UNITY: Chandy and Misra's UNITY is now available in ZF, giving a

3599 typeless version of the formalism;

3601 * ZF/AC, Coind, IMP, Resid: updated and converted to new-style theory

3602 format;

3604 * ZF/Induct: new directory for examples of inductive definitions,

3605 including theory Multiset for multiset orderings; converted to

3606 new-style theory format;

3608 * ZF: many new theorems about lists, ordinals, etc.;

3611 *** General ***

3613 * Pure/kernel: meta-level proof terms (by Stefan Berghofer); reference

3614 variable proof controls level of detail: 0 = no proofs (only oracle

3615 dependencies), 1 = lemma dependencies, 2 = compact proof terms; see

3616 also ref manual for further ML interfaces;

3618 * Pure/axclass: removed obsolete ML interface

3619 goal_subclass/goal_arity;

3621 * Pure/syntax: new token syntax "num" for plain numerals (without "#"

3622 of "xnum"); potential INCOMPATIBILITY, since -0, -1 etc. are now

3623 separate tokens, so expressions involving minus need to be spaced

3624 properly;

3626 * Pure/syntax: support non-oriented infixes, using keyword "infix"

3627 rather than "infixl" or "infixr";

3629 * Pure/syntax: concrete syntax for dummy type variables admits genuine

3630 sort constraint specifications in type inference; e.g. "x::_::foo"

3631 ensures that the type of "x" is of sort "foo" (but not necessarily a

3632 type variable);

3634 * Pure/syntax: print modes "type_brackets" and "no_type_brackets"

3635 control output of nested => (types); the default behavior is

3636 "type_brackets";

3638 * Pure/syntax: builtin parse translation for "_constify" turns valued

3639 tokens into AST constants;

3641 * Pure/syntax: prefer later declarations of translations and print

3642 translation functions; potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to reverse

3643 multiple declarations for same syntax element constant;

3645 * Pure/show_hyps reset by default (in accordance to existing Isar

3646 practice);

3648 * Provers/classical: renamed addaltern to addafter, addSaltern to

3649 addSafter;

3651 * Provers/clasimp: ``iff'' declarations now handle conditional rules

3652 as well;

3654 * system: tested support for MacOS X; should be able to get Isabelle +

3655 Proof General to work in a plain Terminal after installing Poly/ML

3656 (e.g. from the Isabelle distribution area) and GNU bash alone

3657 (e.g. from http://www.apple.com); full X11, XEmacs and X-Symbol

3658 support requires further installations, e.g. from

3659 http://fink.sourceforge.net/);

3661 * system: support Poly/ML 4.1.1 (able to manage larger heaps);

3663 * system: reduced base memory usage by Poly/ML (approx. 20 MB instead

3664 of 40 MB), cf. ML_OPTIONS;

3666 * system: Proof General keywords specification is now part of the

3667 Isabelle distribution (see etc/isar-keywords.el);

3669 * system: support for persistent Proof General sessions (refrain from

3670 outdating all loaded theories on startup); user may create writable

3671 logic images like this: ``isabelle -q HOL Test'';

3673 * system: smart selection of Isabelle process versus Isabelle

3674 interface, accommodates case-insensitive file systems (e.g. HFS+); may

3675 run both "isabelle" and "Isabelle" even if file names are badly

3676 damaged (executable inspects the case of the first letter of its own

3677 name); added separate "isabelle-process" and "isabelle-interface";

3679 * system: refrain from any attempt at filtering input streams; no

3680 longer support ``8bit'' encoding of old isabelle font, instead proper

3681 iso-latin characters may now be used; the related isatools

3682 "symbolinput" and "nonascii" have disappeared as well;

3684 * system: removed old "xterm" interface (the print modes "xterm" and

3685 "xterm_color" are still available for direct use in a suitable

3686 terminal);

3690 New in Isabelle99-2 (February 2001)

3691 -----------------------------------

3693 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES ***

3695 * HOL: please note that theories in the Library and elsewhere often use the

3696 new-style (Isar) format; to refer to their theorems in an ML script you must

3697 bind them to ML identifers by e.g. val thm_name = thm "thm_name";

3699 * HOL: inductive package no longer splits induction rule aggressively,

3700 but only as far as specified by the introductions given; the old

3701 format may be recovered via ML function complete_split_rule or attribute

3702 'split_rule (complete)';

3704 * HOL: induct renamed to lfp_induct, lfp_Tarski to lfp_unfold,

3705 gfp_Tarski to gfp_unfold;

3707 * HOL: contrapos, contrapos2 renamed to contrapos_nn, contrapos_pp;

3709 * HOL: infix "dvd" now has priority 50 rather than 70 (because it is a

3710 relation); infix "^^" has been renamed "``"; infix "``" has been

3711 renamed "`"; "univalent" has been renamed "single_valued";

3713 * HOL/Real: "rinv" and "hrinv" replaced by overloaded "inverse"

3714 operation;

3716 * HOLCF: infix "`" has been renamed "$"; the symbol syntax is \<cdot>;

3718 * Isar: 'obtain' no longer declares "that" fact as simp/intro;

3720 * Isar/HOL: method 'induct' now handles non-atomic goals; as a

3721 consequence, it is no longer monotonic wrt. the local goal context

3722 (which is now passed through the inductive cases);

3724 * Document preparation: renamed standard symbols \<ll> to \<lless> and

3725 \<gg> to \<ggreater>;

3728 *** Document preparation ***

3730 * \isabellestyle{NAME} selects version of Isabelle output (currently

3731 available: are "it" for near math-mode best-style output, "sl" for

3732 slanted text style, and "tt" for plain type-writer; if no

3733 \isabellestyle command is given, output is according to slanted

3734 type-writer);

3736 * support sub/super scripts (for single symbols only), input syntax is

3737 like this: "A\<^sup>*" or "A\<^sup>\<star>";

3739 * some more standard symbols; see Appendix A of the system manual for

3740 the complete list of symbols defined in isabellesym.sty;

3742 * improved isabelle style files; more abstract symbol implementation

3743 (should now use \isamath{...} and \isatext{...} in custom symbol

3744 definitions);

3746 * antiquotation @{goals} and @{subgoals} for output of *dynamic* goals

3747 state; Note that presentation of goal states does not conform to

3748 actual human-readable proof documents. Please do not include goal

3749 states into document output unless you really know what you are doing!

3751 * proper indentation of antiquoted output with proportional LaTeX

3752 fonts;

3754 * no_document ML operator temporarily disables LaTeX document

3755 generation;

3757 * isatool unsymbolize tunes sources for plain ASCII communication;

3760 *** Isar ***

3762 * Pure: Isar now suffers initial goal statements to contain unbound

3763 schematic variables (this does not conform to actual readable proof

3764 documents, due to unpredictable outcome and non-compositional proof

3765 checking); users who know what they are doing may use schematic goals

3766 for Prolog-style synthesis of proven results;

3768 * Pure: assumption method (an implicit finishing) now handles actual

3769 rules as well;

3771 * Pure: improved 'obtain' --- moved to Pure, insert "that" into

3772 initial goal, declare "that" only as Pure intro (only for single

3773 steps); the "that" rule assumption may now be involved in implicit

3774 finishing, thus ".." becomes a feasible for trivial obtains;

3776 * Pure: default proof step now includes 'intro_classes'; thus trivial

3777 instance proofs may be performed by "..";

3779 * Pure: ?thesis / ?this / "..." now work for pure meta-level

3780 statements as well;

3782 * Pure: more robust selection of calculational rules;

3784 * Pure: the builtin notion of 'finished' goal now includes the ==-refl

3785 rule (as well as the assumption rule);

3787 * Pure: 'thm_deps' command visualizes dependencies of theorems and

3788 lemmas, using the graph browser tool;

3790 * Pure: predict failure of "show" in interactive mode;

3792 * Pure: 'thms_containing' now takes actual terms as arguments;

3794 * HOL: improved method 'induct' --- now handles non-atomic goals

3795 (potential INCOMPATIBILITY); tuned error handling;

3797 * HOL: cases and induct rules now provide explicit hints about the

3798 number of facts to be consumed (0 for "type" and 1 for "set" rules);

3799 any remaining facts are inserted into the goal verbatim;

3801 * HOL: local contexts (aka cases) may now contain term bindings as

3802 well; the 'cases' and 'induct' methods new provide a ?case binding for

3803 the result to be shown in each case;

3805 * HOL: added 'recdef_tc' command;

3807 * isatool convert assists in eliminating legacy ML scripts;

3810 *** HOL ***

3812 * HOL/Library: a collection of generic theories to be used together

3813 with main HOL; the theory loader path already includes this directory

3814 by default; the following existing theories have been moved here:

3815 HOL/Induct/Multiset, HOL/Induct/Acc (as Accessible_Part), HOL/While

3816 (as While_Combinator), HOL/Lex/Prefix (as List_Prefix);

3818 * HOL/Unix: "Some aspects of Unix file-system security", a typical

3819 modelling and verification task performed in Isabelle/HOL +

3820 Isabelle/Isar + Isabelle document preparation (by Markus Wenzel).

3822 * HOL/Algebra: special summation operator SUM no longer exists, it has

3823 been replaced by setsum; infix 'assoc' now has priority 50 (like

3824 'dvd'); axiom 'one_not_zero' has been moved from axclass 'ring' to

3825 'domain', this makes the theory consistent with mathematical

3826 literature;

3828 * HOL basics: added overloaded operations "inverse" and "divide"

3829 (infix "/"), syntax for generic "abs" operation, generic summation

3830 operator \<Sum>;

3832 * HOL/typedef: simplified package, provide more useful rules (see also

3833 HOL/subset.thy);

3835 * HOL/datatype: induction rule for arbitrarily branching datatypes is

3836 now expressed as a proper nested rule (old-style tactic scripts may

3837 require atomize_strip_tac to cope with non-atomic premises);

3839 * HOL: renamed theory "Prod" to "Product_Type", renamed "split" rule

3840 to "split_conv" (old name still available for compatibility);

3842 * HOL: improved concrete syntax for strings (e.g. allows translation

3843 rules with string literals);

3845 * HOL-Real-Hyperreal: this extends HOL-Real with the hyperreals

3846 and Fleuriot's mechanization of analysis, including the transcendental

3847 functions for the reals;

3849 * HOL/Real, HOL/Hyperreal: improved arithmetic simplification;

3852 *** CTT ***

3854 * CTT: x-symbol support for Pi, Sigma, -->, : (membership); note that

3855 "lam" is displayed as TWO lambda-symbols

3857 * CTT: theory Main now available, containing everything (that is, Bool

3858 and Arith);

3861 *** General ***

3863 * Pure: the Simplifier has been implemented properly as a derived rule

3864 outside of the actual kernel (at last!); the overall performance

3865 penalty in practical applications is about 50%, while reliability of

3866 the Isabelle inference kernel has been greatly improved;

3868 * print modes "brackets" and "no_brackets" control output of nested =>

3869 (types) and ==> (props); the default behaviour is "brackets";

3871 * Provers: fast_tac (and friends) now handle actual object-logic rules

3872 as assumptions as well;

3874 * system: support Poly/ML 4.0;

3876 * system: isatool install handles KDE version 1 or 2;

3880 New in Isabelle99-1 (October 2000)

3881 ----------------------------------

3883 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES ***

3885 * HOL: simplification of natural numbers is much changed; to partly

3886 recover the old behaviour (e.g. to prevent n+n rewriting to #2*n)

3887 issue the following ML commands:

3889 Delsimprocs Nat_Numeral_Simprocs.cancel_numerals;

3890 Delsimprocs [Nat_Numeral_Simprocs.combine_numerals];

3892 * HOL: simplification no longer dives into case-expressions; this is

3893 controlled by "t.weak_case_cong" for each datatype t;

3895 * HOL: nat_less_induct renamed to less_induct;

3897 * HOL: systematic renaming of the SOME (Eps) rules, may use isatool

3898 fixsome to patch .thy and .ML sources automatically;

3900 select_equality -> some_equality

3901 select_eq_Ex -> some_eq_ex

3902 selectI2EX -> someI2_ex

3903 selectI2 -> someI2

3904 selectI -> someI

3905 select1_equality -> some1_equality

3906 Eps_sym_eq -> some_sym_eq_trivial

3907 Eps_eq -> some_eq_trivial

3909 * HOL: exhaust_tac on datatypes superceded by new generic case_tac;

3911 * HOL: removed obsolete theorem binding expand_if (refer to split_if

3912 instead);

3914 * HOL: the recursion equations generated by 'recdef' are now called

3915 f.simps instead of f.rules;

3917 * HOL: qed_spec_mp now also handles bounded ALL as well;

3919 * HOL: 0 is now overloaded, so the type constraint ":: nat" may

3920 sometimes be needed;

3922 * HOL: the constant for "f``x" is now "image" rather than "op ``";

3924 * HOL: the constant for "f-``x" is now "vimage" rather than "op -``";

3926 * HOL: the disjoint sum is now "<+>" instead of "Plus"; the cartesian

3927 product is now "<*>" instead of "Times"; the lexicographic product is

3928 now "<*lex*>" instead of "**";

3930 * HOL: theory Sexp is now in HOL/Induct examples (it used to be part

3931 of main HOL, but was unused); better use HOL's datatype package;

3933 * HOL: removed "symbols" syntax for constant "override" of theory Map;

3934 the old syntax may be recovered as follows:

3936 syntax (symbols)

3937 override :: "('a ~=> 'b) => ('a ~=> 'b) => ('a ~=> 'b)"

3938 (infixl "\\<oplus>" 100)

3940 * HOL/Real: "rabs" replaced by overloaded "abs" function;

3942 * HOL/ML: even fewer consts are declared as global (see theories Ord,

3943 Lfp, Gfp, WF); this only affects ML packages that refer to const names

3944 internally;

3946 * HOL and ZF: syntax for quotienting wrt an equivalence relation

3947 changed from A/r to A//r;

3949 * ZF: new treatment of arithmetic (nat & int) may break some old

3950 proofs;

3952 * Isar: renamed some attributes (RS -> THEN, simplify -> simplified,

3953 rulify -> rule_format, elimify -> elim_format, ...);

3955 * Isar/Provers: intro/elim/dest attributes changed; renamed

3956 intro/intro!/intro!! flags to intro!/intro/intro? (in most cases, one

3957 should have to change intro!! to intro? only); replaced "delrule" by

3958 "rule del";

3960 * Isar/HOL: renamed "intrs" to "intros" in inductive definitions;

3962 * Provers: strengthened force_tac by using new first_best_tac;

3964 * LaTeX document preparation: several changes of isabelle.sty (see

3965 lib/texinputs);

3968 *** Document preparation ***

3970 * formal comments (text blocks etc.) in new-style theories may now

3971 contain antiquotations of thm/prop/term/typ/text to be presented

3972 according to latex print mode; concrete syntax is like this:

3973 @{term[show_types] "f(x) = a + x"};

3975 * isatool mkdir provides easy setup of Isabelle session directories,

3976 including proper document sources;

3978 * generated LaTeX sources are now deleted after successful run

3979 (isatool document -c); may retain a copy somewhere else via -D option

3980 of isatool usedir;

3982 * isatool usedir -D now lets isatool latex -o sty update the Isabelle

3983 style files, achieving self-contained LaTeX sources and simplifying

3984 LaTeX debugging;

3986 * old-style theories now produce (crude) LaTeX output as well;

3988 * browser info session directories are now self-contained (may be put

3989 on WWW server seperately); improved graphs of nested sessions; removed

3990 graph for 'all sessions';

3992 * several improvements in isabelle style files; \isabellestyle{it}

3993 produces fake math mode output; \isamarkupheader is now \section by

3994 default; see lib/texinputs/isabelle.sty etc.;

3997 *** Isar ***

3999 * Isar/Pure: local results and corresponding term bindings are now

4000 subject to Hindley-Milner polymorphism (similar to ML); this

4001 accommodates incremental type-inference very nicely;

4003 * Isar/Pure: new derived language element 'obtain' supports

4004 generalized existence reasoning;

4006 * Isar/Pure: new calculational elements 'moreover' and 'ultimately'

4007 support accumulation of results, without applying any rules yet;

4008 useful to collect intermediate results without explicit name

4009 references, and for use with transitivity rules with more than 2

4010 premises;

4012 * Isar/Pure: scalable support for case-analysis type proofs: new

4013 'case' language element refers to local contexts symbolically, as

4014 produced by certain proof methods; internally, case names are attached

4015 to theorems as "tags";

4017 * Isar/Pure: theory command 'hide' removes declarations from

4018 class/type/const name spaces;

4020 * Isar/Pure: theory command 'defs' supports option "(overloaded)" to

4021 indicate potential overloading;

4023 * Isar/Pure: changed syntax of local blocks from {{ }} to { };

4025 * Isar/Pure: syntax of sorts made 'inner', i.e. have to write

4026 "{a,b,c}" instead of {a,b,c};

4028 * Isar/Pure now provides its own version of intro/elim/dest

4029 attributes; useful for building new logics, but beware of confusion

4030 with the version in Provers/classical;

4032 * Isar/Pure: the local context of (non-atomic) goals is provided via

4033 case name 'antecedent';

4035 * Isar/Pure: removed obsolete 'transfer' attribute (transfer of thms

4036 to the current context is now done automatically);

4038 * Isar/Pure: theory command 'method_setup' provides a simple interface

4039 for definining proof methods in ML;

4041 * Isar/Provers: intro/elim/dest attributes changed; renamed

4042 intro/intro!/intro!! flags to intro!/intro/intro? (INCOMPATIBILITY, in

4043 most cases, one should have to change intro!! to intro? only);

4044 replaced "delrule" by "rule del";

4046 * Isar/Provers: new 'hypsubst' method, plain 'subst' method and

4047 'symmetric' attribute (the latter supercedes [RS sym]);

4049 * Isar/Provers: splitter support (via 'split' attribute and 'simp'

4050 method modifier); 'simp' method: 'only:' modifier removes loopers as

4051 well (including splits);

4053 * Isar/Provers: Simplifier and Classical methods now support all kind

4054 of modifiers used in the past, including 'cong', 'iff', etc.

4056 * Isar/Provers: added 'fastsimp' and 'clarsimp' methods (combination

4057 of Simplifier and Classical reasoner);

4059 * Isar/HOL: new proof method 'cases' and improved version of 'induct'

4060 now support named cases; major packages (inductive, datatype, primrec,

4061 recdef) support case names and properly name parameters;

4063 * Isar/HOL: new transitivity rules for substitution in inequalities --

4064 monotonicity conditions are extracted to be proven at end of

4065 calculations;

4067 * Isar/HOL: removed 'case_split' thm binding, should use 'cases' proof

4068 method anyway;

4070 * Isar/HOL: removed old expand_if = split_if; theorems if_splits =

4071 split_if split_if_asm; datatype package provides theorems foo.splits =

4072 foo.split foo.split_asm for each datatype;

4074 * Isar/HOL: tuned inductive package, rename "intrs" to "intros"

4075 (potential INCOMPATIBILITY), emulation of mk_cases feature for proof

4076 scripts: new 'inductive_cases' command and 'ind_cases' method; (Note:

4077 use "(cases (simplified))" method in proper proof texts);

4079 * Isar/HOL: added global 'arith_split' attribute for 'arith' method;

4081 * Isar: names of theorems etc. may be natural numbers as well;

4083 * Isar: 'pr' command: optional arguments for goals_limit and

4084 ProofContext.prems_limit; no longer prints theory contexts, but only

4085 proof states;

4087 * Isar: diagnostic commands 'pr', 'thm', 'prop', 'term', 'typ' admit

4088 additional print modes to be specified; e.g. "pr(latex)" will print

4089 proof state according to the Isabelle LaTeX style;

4091 * Isar: improved support for emulating tactic scripts, including proof

4092 methods 'rule_tac' etc., 'cut_tac', 'thin_tac', 'subgoal_tac',

4093 'rename_tac', 'rotate_tac', 'tactic', and 'case_tac' / 'induct_tac'

4094 (for HOL datatypes);

4096 * Isar: simplified (more robust) goal selection of proof methods: 1st

4097 goal, all goals, or explicit goal specifier (tactic emulation); thus

4098 'proof method scripts' have to be in depth-first order;

4100 * Isar: tuned 'let' syntax: replaced 'as' keyword by 'and';

4102 * Isar: removed 'help' command, which hasn't been too helpful anyway;

4103 should instead use individual commands for printing items

4104 (print_commands, print_methods etc.);

4106 * Isar: added 'nothing' --- the empty list of theorems;

4109 *** HOL ***

4111 * HOL/MicroJava: formalization of a fragment of Java, together with a

4112 corresponding virtual machine and a specification of its bytecode

4113 verifier and a lightweight bytecode verifier, including proofs of

4114 type-safety; by Gerwin Klein, Tobias Nipkow, David von Oheimb, and

4115 Cornelia Pusch (see also the homepage of project Bali at

4116 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/Bali/);

4118 * HOL/Algebra: new theory of rings and univariate polynomials, by

4119 Clemens Ballarin;

4121 * HOL/NumberTheory: fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, Chinese

4122 Remainder Theorem, Fermat/Euler Theorem, Wilson's Theorem, by Thomas M

4123 Rasmussen;

4125 * HOL/Lattice: fundamental concepts of lattice theory and order

4126 structures, including duals, properties of bounds versus algebraic

4127 laws, lattice operations versus set-theoretic ones, the Knaster-Tarski

4128 Theorem for complete lattices etc.; may also serve as a demonstration

4129 for abstract algebraic reasoning using axiomatic type classes, and

4130 mathematics-style proof in Isabelle/Isar; by Markus Wenzel;

4132 * HOL/Prolog: a (bare-bones) implementation of Lambda-Prolog, by David

4133 von Oheimb;

4135 * HOL/IMPP: extension of IMP with local variables and mutually

4136 recursive procedures, by David von Oheimb;

4138 * HOL/Lambda: converted into new-style theory and document;

4140 * HOL/ex/Multiquote: example of multiple nested quotations and

4141 anti-quotations -- basically a generalized version of de-Bruijn

4142 representation; very useful in avoiding lifting of operations;

4144 * HOL/record: added general record equality rule to simpset; fixed

4145 select-update simplification procedure to handle extended records as

4146 well; admit "r" as field name;

4148 * HOL: 0 is now overloaded over the new sort "zero", allowing its use with

4149 other numeric types and also as the identity of groups, rings, etc.;

4151 * HOL: new axclass plus_ac0 for addition with the AC-laws and 0 as identity.

4152 Types nat and int belong to this axclass;

4154 * HOL: greatly improved simplification involving numerals of type nat, int, real:

4155 (i + #8 + j) = Suc k simplifies to #7 + (i + j) = k

4156 i*j + k + j*#3*i simplifies to #4*(i*j) + k

4157 two terms #m*u and #n*u are replaced by #(m+n)*u

4158 (where #m, #n and u can implicitly be 1; this is simproc combine_numerals)

4159 and the term/formula #m*u+x ~~ #n*u+y simplifies simplifies to #(m-n)+x ~~ y

4160 or x ~~ #(n-m)+y, where ~~ is one of = < <= or - (simproc cancel_numerals);

4162 * HOL: meson_tac is available (previously in ex/meson.ML); it is a

4163 powerful prover for predicate logic but knows nothing of clasets; see

4164 ex/mesontest.ML and ex/mesontest2.ML for example applications;

4166 * HOL: new version of "case_tac" subsumes both boolean case split and

4167 "exhaust_tac" on datatypes; INCOMPATIBILITY: exhaust_tac no longer

4168 exists, may define val exhaust_tac = case_tac for ad-hoc portability;

4170 * HOL: simplification no longer dives into case-expressions: only the

4171 selector expression is simplified, but not the remaining arms; to

4172 enable full simplification of case-expressions for datatype t, you may

4173 remove t.weak_case_cong from the simpset, either globally (Delcongs

4174 [thm"t.weak_case_cong"];) or locally (delcongs [...]).

4176 * HOL/recdef: the recursion equations generated by 'recdef' for

4177 function 'f' are now called f.simps instead of f.rules; if all

4178 termination conditions are proved automatically, these simplification

4179 rules are added to the simpset, as in primrec; rules may be named

4180 individually as well, resulting in a separate list of theorems for

4181 each equation;

4183 * HOL/While is a new theory that provides a while-combinator. It

4184 permits the definition of tail-recursive functions without the

4185 provision of a termination measure. The latter is necessary once the

4186 invariant proof rule for while is applied.

4188 * HOL: new (overloaded) notation for the set of elements below/above

4189 some element: {..u}, {..u(}, {l..}, {)l..}. See theory SetInterval.

4191 * HOL: theorems impI, allI, ballI bound as "strip";

4193 * HOL: new tactic induct_thm_tac: thm -> string -> int -> tactic

4194 induct_tac th "x1 ... xn" expects th to have a conclusion of the form

4195 P v1 ... vn and abbreviates res_inst_tac [("v1","x1"),...,("vn","xn")] th;

4197 * HOL/Real: "rabs" replaced by overloaded "abs" function;

4199 * HOL: theory Sexp now in HOL/Induct examples (it used to be part of

4200 main HOL, but was unused);

4202 * HOL: fewer consts declared as global (e.g. have to refer to

4203 "Lfp.lfp" instead of "lfp" internally; affects ML packages only);

4205 * HOL: tuned AST representation of nested pairs, avoiding bogus output

4206 in case of overlap with user translations (e.g. judgements over

4207 tuples); (note that the underlying logical represenation is still

4208 bogus);

4211 *** ZF ***

4213 * ZF: simplification automatically cancels common terms in arithmetic

4214 expressions over nat and int;

4216 * ZF: new treatment of nat to minimize type-checking: all operators

4217 coerce their operands to a natural number using the function natify,

4218 making the algebraic laws unconditional;

4220 * ZF: as above, for int: operators coerce their operands to an integer

4221 using the function intify;

4223 * ZF: the integer library now contains many of the usual laws for the

4224 orderings, including $<=, and monotonicity laws for $+ and $*;

4226 * ZF: new example ZF/ex/NatSum to demonstrate integer arithmetic

4227 simplification;

4229 * FOL and ZF: AddIffs now available, giving theorems of the form P<->Q

4230 to the simplifier and classical reasoner simultaneously;

4233 *** General ***

4235 * Provers: blast_tac now handles actual object-logic rules as

4236 assumptions; note that auto_tac uses blast_tac internally as well;

4238 * Provers: new functions rulify/rulify_no_asm: thm -> thm for turning

4239 outer -->/All/Ball into ==>/!!; qed_spec_mp now uses rulify_no_asm;

4241 * Provers: delrules now handles destruct rules as well (no longer need

4242 explicit make_elim);

4244 * Provers: Blast_tac now warns of and ignores "weak elimination rules" e.g.

4245 [| inj ?f; ?f ?x = ?f ?y; ?x = ?y ==> ?W |] ==> ?W

4246 use instead the strong form,

4247 [| inj ?f; ~ ?W ==> ?f ?x = ?f ?y; ?x = ?y ==> ?W |] ==> ?W

4248 in HOL, FOL and ZF the function cla_make_elim will create such rules

4249 from destruct-rules;

4251 * Provers: Simplifier.easy_setup provides a fast path to basic

4252 Simplifier setup for new object-logics;

4254 * Pure: AST translation rules no longer require constant head on LHS;

4256 * Pure: improved name spaces: ambiguous output is qualified; support

4257 for hiding of names;

4259 * system: smart setup of canonical ML_HOME, ISABELLE_INTERFACE, and

4260 XSYMBOL_HOME; no longer need to do manual configuration in most

4261 situations;

4263 * system: compression of ML heaps images may now be controlled via -c

4264 option of isabelle and isatool usedir (currently only observed by

4265 Poly/ML);

4267 * system: isatool installfonts may handle X-Symbol fonts as well (very

4268 useful for remote X11);

4270 * system: provide TAGS file for Isabelle sources;

4272 * ML: infix 'OF' is a version of 'MRS' with more appropriate argument

4273 order;

4275 * ML: renamed flags Syntax.trace_norm_ast to Syntax.trace_ast; global

4276 timing flag supersedes proof_timing and Toplevel.trace;

4278 * ML: new combinators |>> and |>>> for incremental transformations

4279 with secondary results (e.g. certain theory extensions):

4281 * ML: PureThy.add_defs gets additional argument to indicate potential

4282 overloading (usually false);

4284 * ML: PureThy.add_thms/add_axioms/add_defs now return theorems as

4285 results;

4289 New in Isabelle99 (October 1999)

4290 --------------------------------

4292 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES (see below for more details) ***

4294 * HOL: The THEN and ELSE parts of conditional expressions (if P then x else y)

4295 are no longer simplified. (This allows the simplifier to unfold recursive

4296 functional programs.) To restore the old behaviour, declare

4298 Delcongs [if_weak_cong];

4300 * HOL: Removed the obsolete syntax "Compl A"; use -A for set

4301 complement;

4303 * HOL: the predicate "inj" is now defined by translation to "inj_on";

4305 * HOL/datatype: mutual_induct_tac no longer exists --

4306 use induct_tac "x_1 ... x_n" instead of mutual_induct_tac ["x_1", ..., "x_n"]

4308 * HOL/typedef: fixed type inference for representing set; type

4309 arguments now have to occur explicitly on the rhs as type constraints;

4311 * ZF: The con_defs part of an inductive definition may no longer refer

4312 to constants declared in the same theory;

4314 * HOL, ZF: the function mk_cases, generated by the inductive

4315 definition package, has lost an argument. To simplify its result, it

4316 uses the default simpset instead of a supplied list of theorems.

4318 * HOL/List: the constructors of type list are now Nil and Cons;

4320 * Simplifier: the type of the infix ML functions

4321 setSSolver addSSolver setSolver addSolver

4322 is now simpset * solver -> simpset where `solver' is a new abstract type

4323 for packaging solvers. A solver is created via

4324 mk_solver: string -> (thm list -> int -> tactic) -> solver

4325 where the string argument is only a comment.

4328 *** Proof tools ***

4330 * Provers/Arith/fast_lin_arith.ML contains a functor for creating a

4331 decision procedure for linear arithmetic. Currently it is used for

4332 types `nat', `int', and `real' in HOL (see below); it can, should and

4333 will be instantiated for other types and logics as well.

4335 * The simplifier now accepts rewrite rules with flexible heads, eg

4336 hom ?f ==> ?f(?x+?y) = ?f ?x + ?f ?y

4337 They are applied like any rule with a non-pattern lhs, i.e. by first-order

4338 matching.

4341 *** General ***

4343 * New Isabelle/Isar subsystem provides an alternative to traditional

4344 tactical theorem proving; together with the ProofGeneral/isar user

4345 interface it offers an interactive environment for developing human

4346 readable proof documents (Isar == Intelligible semi-automated

4347 reasoning); for further information see isatool doc isar-ref,

4348 src/HOL/Isar_examples and http://isabelle.in.tum.de/Isar/

4350 * improved and simplified presentation of theories: better HTML markup

4351 (including colors), graph views in several sizes; isatool usedir now

4352 provides a proper interface for user theories (via -P option); actual

4353 document preparation based on (PDF)LaTeX is available as well (for

4354 new-style theories only); see isatool doc system for more information;

4356 * native support for Proof General, both for classic Isabelle and

4357 Isabelle/Isar;

4359 * ML function thm_deps visualizes dependencies of theorems and lemmas,

4360 using the graph browser tool;

4362 * Isabelle manuals now also available as PDF;

4364 * theory loader rewritten from scratch (may not be fully

4365 bug-compatible); old loadpath variable has been replaced by show_path,

4366 add_path, del_path, reset_path functions; new operations such as

4367 update_thy, touch_thy, remove_thy, use/update_thy_only (see also

4368 isatool doc ref);

4370 * improved isatool install: option -k creates KDE application icon,

4371 option -p DIR installs standalone binaries;

4373 * added ML_PLATFORM setting (useful for cross-platform installations);

4374 more robust handling of platform specific ML images for SML/NJ;

4376 * the settings environment is now statically scoped, i.e. it is never

4377 created again in sub-processes invoked from isabelle, isatool, or

4378 Isabelle;

4380 * path element specification '~~' refers to '$ISABELLE_HOME';

4382 * in locales, the "assumes" and "defines" parts may be omitted if

4383 empty;

4385 * new print_mode "xsymbols" for extended symbol support (e.g. genuine

4386 long arrows);

4388 * new print_mode "HTML";

4390 * new flag show_tags controls display of tags of theorems (which are

4391 basically just comments that may be attached by some tools);

4393 * Isamode 2.6 requires patch to accomodate change of Isabelle font

4394 mode and goal output format:

4396 diff -r Isamode-2.6/elisp/isa-load.el Isamode/elisp/isa-load.el

4397 244c244

4398 < (list (isa-getenv "ISABELLE") "-msymbols" logic-name)

4399 ---

4400 > (list (isa-getenv "ISABELLE") "-misabelle_font" "-msymbols" logic-name)

4401 diff -r Isabelle-2.6/elisp/isa-proofstate.el Isamode/elisp/isa-proofstate.el

4402 181c181

4403 < (defconst proofstate-proofstart-regexp "^Level [0-9]+$"

4404 ---

4405 > (defconst proofstate-proofstart-regexp "^Level [0-9]+"

4407 * function bind_thms stores lists of theorems (cf. bind_thm);

4409 * new shorthand tactics ftac, eatac, datac, fatac;

4411 * qed (and friends) now accept "" as result name; in that case the

4412 theorem is not stored, but proper checks and presentation of the

4413 result still apply;

4415 * theorem database now also indexes constants "Trueprop", "all",

4416 "==>", "=="; thus thms_containing, findI etc. may retrieve more rules;

4419 *** HOL ***

4421 ** HOL arithmetic **

4423 * There are now decision procedures for linear arithmetic over nat and

4424 int:

4426 1. arith_tac copes with arbitrary formulae involving `=', `<', `<=',

4427 `+', `-', `Suc', `min', `max' and numerical constants; other subterms

4428 are treated as atomic; subformulae not involving type `nat' or `int'

4429 are ignored; quantified subformulae are ignored unless they are

4430 positive universal or negative existential. The tactic has to be

4431 invoked by hand and can be a little bit slow. In particular, the

4432 running time is exponential in the number of occurrences of `min' and

4433 `max', and `-' on `nat'.

4435 2. fast_arith_tac is a cut-down version of arith_tac: it only takes

4436 (negated) (in)equalities among the premises and the conclusion into

4437 account (i.e. no compound formulae) and does not know about `min' and

4438 `max', and `-' on `nat'. It is fast and is used automatically by the

4439 simplifier.

4441 NB: At the moment, these decision procedures do not cope with mixed

4442 nat/int formulae where the two parts interact, such as `m < n ==>

4443 int(m) < int(n)'.

4445 * HOL/Numeral provides a generic theory of numerals (encoded

4446 efficiently as bit strings); setup for types nat/int/real is in place;

4447 INCOMPATIBILITY: since numeral syntax is now polymorphic, rather than

4448 int, existing theories and proof scripts may require a few additional

4449 type constraints;

4451 * integer division and remainder can now be performed on constant

4452 arguments;

4454 * many properties of integer multiplication, division and remainder

4455 are now available;

4457 * An interface to the Stanford Validity Checker (SVC) is available through the

4458 tactic svc_tac. Propositional tautologies and theorems of linear arithmetic

4459 are proved automatically. SVC must be installed separately, and its results

4460 must be TAKEN ON TRUST (Isabelle does not check the proofs, but tags any

4461 invocation of the underlying oracle). For SVC see

4462 http://verify.stanford.edu/SVC

4464 * IsaMakefile: the HOL-Real target now builds an actual image;

4467 ** HOL misc **

4469 * HOL/Real/HahnBanach: the Hahn-Banach theorem for real vector spaces

4470 (in Isabelle/Isar) -- by Gertrud Bauer;

4472 * HOL/BCV: generic model of bytecode verification, i.e. data-flow

4473 analysis for assembly languages with subtypes;

4475 * HOL/TLA (Lamport's Temporal Logic of Actions): major reorganization

4476 -- avoids syntactic ambiguities and treats state, transition, and

4477 temporal levels more uniformly; introduces INCOMPATIBILITIES due to

4478 changed syntax and (many) tactics;

4480 * HOL/inductive: Now also handles more general introduction rules such

4481 as "ALL y. (y, x) : r --> y : acc r ==> x : acc r"; monotonicity

4482 theorems are now maintained within the theory (maintained via the

4483 "mono" attribute);

4485 * HOL/datatype: Now also handles arbitrarily branching datatypes

4486 (using function types) such as

4488 datatype 'a tree = Atom 'a | Branch "nat => 'a tree"

4490 * HOL/record: record_simproc (part of the default simpset) takes care

4491 of selectors applied to updated records; record_split_tac is no longer

4492 part of the default claset; update_defs may now be removed from the

4493 simpset in many cases; COMPATIBILITY: old behavior achieved by

4495 claset_ref () := claset() addSWrapper record_split_wrapper;

4496 Delsimprocs [record_simproc]

4498 * HOL/typedef: fixed type inference for representing set; type

4499 arguments now have to occur explicitly on the rhs as type constraints;

4501 * HOL/recdef (TFL): 'congs' syntax now expects comma separated list of theorem

4502 names rather than an ML expression;

4504 * HOL/defer_recdef (TFL): like recdef but the well-founded relation can be

4505 supplied later. Program schemes can be defined, such as

4506 "While B C s = (if B s then While B C (C s) else s)"

4507 where the well-founded relation can be chosen after B and C have been given.

4509 * HOL/List: the constructors of type list are now Nil and Cons;

4510 INCOMPATIBILITY: while [] and infix # syntax is still there, of

4511 course, ML tools referring to List.list.op # etc. have to be adapted;

4513 * HOL_quantifiers flag superseded by "HOL" print mode, which is

4514 disabled by default; run isabelle with option -m HOL to get back to

4515 the original Gordon/HOL-style output;

4517 * HOL/Ord.thy: new bounded quantifier syntax (input only): ALL x<y. P,

4518 ALL x<=y. P, EX x<y. P, EX x<=y. P;

4520 * HOL basic syntax simplified (more orthogonal): all variants of

4521 All/Ex now support plain / symbolic / HOL notation; plain syntax for

4522 Eps operator is provided as well: "SOME x. P[x]";

4524 * HOL/Sum.thy: sum_case has been moved to HOL/Datatype;

4526 * HOL/Univ.thy: infix syntax <*>, <+>, <**>, <+> eliminated and made

4527 thus available for user theories;

4529 * HOLCF/IOA/Sequents: renamed 'Cons' to 'Consq' to avoid clash with

4530 HOL/List; hardly an INCOMPATIBILITY since '>>' syntax is used all the

4531 time;

4533 * HOL: new tactic smp_tac: int -> int -> tactic, which applies spec

4534 several times and then mp;

4537 *** LK ***

4539 * the notation <<...>> is now available as a notation for sequences of

4540 formulas;

4542 * the simplifier is now installed

4544 * the axiom system has been generalized (thanks to Soren Heilmann)

4546 * the classical reasoner now has a default rule database

4549 *** ZF ***

4551 * new primrec section allows primitive recursive functions to be given

4552 directly (as in HOL) over datatypes and the natural numbers;

4554 * new tactics induct_tac and exhaust_tac for induction (or case

4555 analysis) over datatypes and the natural numbers;

4557 * the datatype declaration of type T now defines the recursor T_rec;

4559 * simplification automatically does freeness reasoning for datatype

4560 constructors;

4562 * automatic type-inference, with AddTCs command to insert new

4563 type-checking rules;

4565 * datatype introduction rules are now added as Safe Introduction rules

4566 to the claset;

4568 * the syntax "if P then x else y" is now available in addition to

4569 if(P,x,y);

4572 *** Internal programming interfaces ***

4574 * tuned simplifier trace output; new flag debug_simp;

4576 * structures Vartab / Termtab (instances of TableFun) offer efficient

4577 tables indexed by indexname_ord / term_ord (compatible with aconv);

4579 * AxClass.axclass_tac lost the theory argument;

4581 * tuned current_goals_markers semantics: begin / end goal avoids

4582 printing empty lines;

4584 * removed prs and prs_fn hook, which was broken because it did not

4585 include \n in its semantics, forcing writeln to add one

4586 uncoditionally; replaced prs_fn by writeln_fn; consider std_output:

4587 string -> unit if you really want to output text without newline;

4589 * Symbol.output subject to print mode; INCOMPATIBILITY: defaults to

4590 plain output, interface builders may have to enable 'isabelle_font'

4591 mode to get Isabelle font glyphs as before;

4593 * refined token_translation interface; INCOMPATIBILITY: output length

4594 now of type real instead of int;

4596 * theory loader actions may be traced via new ThyInfo.add_hook

4597 interface (see src/Pure/Thy/thy_info.ML); example application: keep

4598 your own database of information attached to *whole* theories -- as

4599 opposed to intra-theory data slots offered via TheoryDataFun;

4601 * proper handling of dangling sort hypotheses (at last!);

4602 Thm.strip_shyps and Drule.strip_shyps_warning take care of removing

4603 extra sort hypotheses that can be witnessed from the type signature;

4604 the force_strip_shyps flag is gone, any remaining shyps are simply

4605 left in the theorem (with a warning issued by strip_shyps_warning);

4609 New in Isabelle98-1 (October 1998)

4610 ----------------------------------

4612 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES (see below for more details) ***

4614 * several changes of automated proof tools;

4616 * HOL: major changes to the inductive and datatype packages, including

4617 some minor incompatibilities of theory syntax;

4619 * HOL: renamed r^-1 to 'converse' from 'inverse'; 'inj_onto' is now

4620 called `inj_on';

4622 * HOL: removed duplicate thms in Arith:

4623 less_imp_add_less should be replaced by trans_less_add1

4624 le_imp_add_le should be replaced by trans_le_add1

4626 * HOL: unary minus is now overloaded (new type constraints may be

4627 required);

4629 * HOL and ZF: unary minus for integers is now #- instead of #~. In

4630 ZF, expressions such as n#-1 must be changed to n#- 1, since #-1 is

4631 now taken as an integer constant.

4633 * Pure: ML function 'theory_of' renamed to 'theory';

4636 *** Proof tools ***

4638 * Simplifier:

4639 1. Asm_full_simp_tac is now more aggressive.

4640 1. It will sometimes reorient premises if that increases their power to

4641 simplify.

4642 2. It does no longer proceed strictly from left to right but may also

4643 rotate premises to achieve further simplification.

4644 For compatibility reasons there is now Asm_lr_simp_tac which is like the

4645 old Asm_full_simp_tac in that it does not rotate premises.

4646 2. The simplifier now knows a little bit about nat-arithmetic.

4648 * Classical reasoner: wrapper mechanism for the classical reasoner now

4649 allows for selected deletion of wrappers, by introduction of names for

4650 wrapper functionals. This implies that addbefore, addSbefore,

4651 addaltern, and addSaltern now take a pair (name, tactic) as argument,

4652 and that adding two tactics with the same name overwrites the first

4653 one (emitting a warning).

4654 type wrapper = (int -> tactic) -> (int -> tactic)

4655 setWrapper, setSWrapper, compWrapper and compSWrapper are replaced by

4656 addWrapper, addSWrapper: claset * (string * wrapper) -> claset

4657 delWrapper, delSWrapper: claset * string -> claset

4658 getWrapper is renamed to appWrappers, getSWrapper to appSWrappers;

4660 * Classical reasoner: addbefore/addSbefore now have APPEND/ORELSE

4661 semantics; addbefore now affects only the unsafe part of step_tac

4662 etc.; this affects addss/auto_tac/force_tac, so EXISTING PROOFS MAY

4663 FAIL, but proofs should be fixable easily, e.g. by replacing Auto_tac

4664 by Force_tac;

4666 * Classical reasoner: setwrapper to setWrapper and compwrapper to

4667 compWrapper; added safe wrapper (and access functions for it);

4669 * HOL/split_all_tac is now much faster and fails if there is nothing

4670 to split. Some EXISTING PROOFS MAY REQUIRE ADAPTION because the order

4671 and the names of the automatically generated variables have changed.

4672 split_all_tac has moved within claset() from unsafe wrappers to safe

4673 wrappers, which means that !!-bound variables are split much more

4674 aggressively, and safe_tac and clarify_tac now split such variables.

4675 If this splitting is not appropriate, use delSWrapper "split_all_tac".

4676 Note: the same holds for record_split_tac, which does the job of

4677 split_all_tac for record fields.

4679 * HOL/Simplifier: Rewrite rules for case distinctions can now be added

4680 permanently to the default simpset using Addsplits just like

4681 Addsimps. They can be removed via Delsplits just like

4682 Delsimps. Lower-case versions are also available.

4684 * HOL/Simplifier: The rule split_if is now part of the default

4685 simpset. This means that the simplifier will eliminate all occurrences

4686 of if-then-else in the conclusion of a goal. To prevent this, you can

4687 either remove split_if completely from the default simpset by

4688 `Delsplits [split_if]' or remove it in a specific call of the

4689 simplifier using `... delsplits [split_if]'. You can also add/delete

4690 other case splitting rules to/from the default simpset: every datatype

4691 generates suitable rules `split_t_case' and `split_t_case_asm' (where

4692 t is the name of the datatype).

4694 * Classical reasoner / Simplifier combination: new force_tac (and

4695 derivatives Force_tac, force) combines rewriting and classical

4696 reasoning (and whatever other tools) similarly to auto_tac, but is

4697 aimed to solve the given subgoal completely.

4700 *** General ***

4702 * new top-level commands `Goal' and `Goalw' that improve upon `goal'

4703 and `goalw': the theory is no longer needed as an explicit argument -

4704 the current theory context is used; assumptions are no longer returned

4705 at the ML-level unless one of them starts with ==> or !!; it is

4706 recommended to convert to these new commands using isatool fixgoal

4707 (backup your sources first!);

4709 * new top-level commands 'thm' and 'thms' for retrieving theorems from

4710 the current theory context, and 'theory' to lookup stored theories;

4712 * new theory section 'locale' for declaring constants, assumptions and

4713 definitions that have local scope;

4715 * new theory section 'nonterminals' for purely syntactic types;

4717 * new theory section 'setup' for generic ML setup functions

4718 (e.g. package initialization);

4720 * the distribution now includes Isabelle icons: see

4721 lib/logo/isabelle-{small,tiny}.xpm;

4723 * isatool install - install binaries with absolute references to

4724 ISABELLE_HOME/bin;

4726 * isatool logo -- create instances of the Isabelle logo (as EPS);

4728 * print mode 'emacs' reserved for Isamode;

4730 * support multiple print (ast) translations per constant name;

4732 * theorems involving oracles are now printed with a suffixed [!];

4735 *** HOL ***

4737 * there is now a tutorial on Isabelle/HOL (do 'isatool doc tutorial');

4739 * HOL/inductive package reorganized and improved: now supports mutual

4740 definitions such as

4742 inductive EVEN ODD

4743 intrs

4744 null "0 : EVEN"

4745 oddI "n : EVEN ==> Suc n : ODD"

4746 evenI "n : ODD ==> Suc n : EVEN"

4748 new theorem list "elims" contains an elimination rule for each of the

4749 recursive sets; inductive definitions now handle disjunctive premises

4750 correctly (also ZF);

4752 INCOMPATIBILITIES: requires Inductive as an ancestor; component

4753 "mutual_induct" no longer exists - the induction rule is always

4754 contained in "induct";

4757 * HOL/datatype package re-implemented and greatly improved: now

4758 supports mutually recursive datatypes such as

4760 datatype

4761 'a aexp = IF_THEN_ELSE ('a bexp) ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

4762 | SUM ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

4763 | DIFF ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

4764 | NUM 'a

4765 and

4766 'a bexp = LESS ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

4767 | AND ('a bexp) ('a bexp)

4768 | OR ('a bexp) ('a bexp)

4770 as well as indirectly recursive datatypes such as

4772 datatype

4773 ('a, 'b) term = Var 'a

4774 | App 'b ((('a, 'b) term) list)

4776 The new tactic mutual_induct_tac [<var_1>, ..., <var_n>] i performs

4777 induction on mutually / indirectly recursive datatypes.

4779 Primrec equations are now stored in theory and can be accessed via

4780 <function_name>.simps.

4782 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

4784 - Theories using datatypes must now have theory Datatype as an

4785 ancestor.

4786 - The specific <typename>.induct_tac no longer exists - use the

4787 generic induct_tac instead.

4788 - natE has been renamed to nat.exhaust - use exhaust_tac

4789 instead of res_inst_tac ... natE. Note that the variable

4790 names in nat.exhaust differ from the names in natE, this

4791 may cause some "fragile" proofs to fail.

4792 - The theorems split_<typename>_case and split_<typename>_case_asm

4793 have been renamed to <typename>.split and <typename>.split_asm.

4794 - Since default sorts of type variables are now handled correctly,

4795 some datatype definitions may have to be annotated with explicit

4796 sort constraints.

4797 - Primrec definitions no longer require function name and type

4798 of recursive argument.

4800 Consider using isatool fixdatatype to adapt your theories and proof

4801 scripts to the new package (backup your sources first!).

4804 * HOL/record package: considerably improved implementation; now

4805 includes concrete syntax for record types, terms, updates; theorems

4806 for surjective pairing and splitting !!-bound record variables; proof

4807 support is as follows:

4809 1) standard conversions (selectors or updates applied to record

4810 constructor terms) are part of the standard simpset;

4812 2) inject equations of the form ((x, y) = (x', y')) == x=x' & y=y' are

4813 made part of standard simpset and claset via addIffs;

4815 3) a tactic for record field splitting (record_split_tac) is part of

4816 the standard claset (addSWrapper);

4818 To get a better idea about these rules you may retrieve them via

4819 something like 'thms "foo.simps"' or 'thms "foo.iffs"', where "foo" is

4820 the name of your record type.

4822 The split tactic 3) conceptually simplifies by the following rule:

4824 "(!!x. PROP ?P x) == (!!a b. PROP ?P (a, b))"

4826 Thus any record variable that is bound by meta-all will automatically

4827 blow up into some record constructor term, consequently the

4828 simplifications of 1), 2) apply. Thus force_tac, auto_tac etc. shall

4829 solve record problems automatically.

4832 * reorganized the main HOL image: HOL/Integ and String loaded by

4833 default; theory Main includes everything;

4835 * automatic simplification of integer sums and comparisons, using cancellation;

4837 * added option_map_eq_Some and not_Some_eq to the default simpset and claset;

4839 * added disj_not1 = "(~P | Q) = (P --> Q)" to the default simpset;

4841 * many new identities for unions, intersections, set difference, etc.;

4843 * expand_if, expand_split, expand_sum_case and expand_nat_case are now

4844 called split_if, split_split, split_sum_case and split_nat_case (to go

4845 with add/delsplits);

4847 * HOL/Prod introduces simplification procedure unit_eq_proc rewriting

4848 (?x::unit) = (); this is made part of the default simpset, which COULD

4849 MAKE EXISTING PROOFS FAIL under rare circumstances (consider

4850 'Delsimprocs [unit_eq_proc];' as last resort); also note that

4851 unit_abs_eta_conv is added in order to counter the effect of

4852 unit_eq_proc on (%u::unit. f u), replacing it by f rather than by

4853 %u.f();

4855 * HOL/Fun INCOMPATIBILITY: `inj_onto' is now called `inj_on' (which

4856 makes more sense);

4858 * HOL/Set INCOMPATIBILITY: rule `equals0D' is now a well-formed destruct rule;

4859 It and 'sym RS equals0D' are now in the default claset, giving automatic

4860 disjointness reasoning but breaking a few old proofs.

4862 * HOL/Relation INCOMPATIBILITY: renamed the relational operator r^-1

4863 to 'converse' from 'inverse' (for compatibility with ZF and some

4864 literature);

4866 * HOL/recdef can now declare non-recursive functions, with {} supplied as

4867 the well-founded relation;

4869 * HOL/Set INCOMPATIBILITY: the complement of set A is now written -A instead of

4870 Compl A. The "Compl" syntax remains available as input syntax for this

4871 release ONLY.

4873 * HOL/Update: new theory of function updates:

4874 f(a:=b) == %x. if x=a then b else f x

4875 may also be iterated as in f(a:=b,c:=d,...);

4877 * HOL/Vimage: new theory for inverse image of a function, syntax f-``B;

4879 * HOL/List:

4880 - new function list_update written xs[i:=v] that updates the i-th

4881 list position. May also be iterated as in xs[i:=a,j:=b,...].

4882 - new function `upt' written [i..j(] which generates the list

4883 [i,i+1,...,j-1], i.e. the upper bound is excluded. To include the upper

4884 bound write [i..j], which is a shorthand for [i..j+1(].

4885 - new lexicographic orderings and corresponding wellfoundedness theorems.

4887 * HOL/Arith:

4888 - removed 'pred' (predecessor) function;

4889 - generalized some theorems about n-1;

4890 - many new laws about "div" and "mod";

4891 - new laws about greatest common divisors (see theory ex/Primes);

4893 * HOL/Relation: renamed the relational operator r^-1 "converse"

4894 instead of "inverse";

4896 * HOL/Induct/Multiset: a theory of multisets, including the wellfoundedness

4897 of the multiset ordering;

4899 * directory HOL/Real: a construction of the reals using Dedekind cuts

4900 (not included by default);

4902 * directory HOL/UNITY: Chandy and Misra's UNITY formalism;

4904 * directory HOL/Hoare: a new version of Hoare logic which permits many-sorted

4905 programs, i.e. different program variables may have different types.

4907 * calling (stac rew i) now fails if "rew" has no effect on the goal

4908 [previously, this check worked only if the rewrite rule was unconditional]

4909 Now rew can involve either definitions or equalities (either == or =).

4912 *** ZF ***

4914 * theory Main includes everything; INCOMPATIBILITY: theory ZF.thy contains

4915 only the theorems proved on ZF.ML;

4917 * ZF INCOMPATIBILITY: rule `equals0D' is now a well-formed destruct rule;

4918 It and 'sym RS equals0D' are now in the default claset, giving automatic

4919 disjointness reasoning but breaking a few old proofs.

4921 * ZF/Update: new theory of function updates

4922 with default rewrite rule f(x:=y) ` z = if(z=x, y, f`z)

4923 may also be iterated as in f(a:=b,c:=d,...);

4925 * in let x=t in u(x), neither t nor u(x) has to be an FOL term.

4927 * calling (stac rew i) now fails if "rew" has no effect on the goal

4928 [previously, this check worked only if the rewrite rule was unconditional]

4929 Now rew can involve either definitions or equalities (either == or =).

4931 * case_tac provided for compatibility with HOL

4932 (like the old excluded_middle_tac, but with subgoals swapped)

4935 *** Internal programming interfaces ***

4937 * Pure: several new basic modules made available for general use, see

4938 also src/Pure/README;

4940 * improved the theory data mechanism to support encapsulation (data

4941 kind name replaced by private Object.kind, acting as authorization

4942 key); new type-safe user interface via functor TheoryDataFun; generic

4943 print_data function becomes basically useless;

4945 * removed global_names compatibility flag -- all theory declarations

4946 are qualified by default;

4948 * module Pure/Syntax now offers quote / antiquote translation

4949 functions (useful for Hoare logic etc. with implicit dependencies);

4950 see HOL/ex/Antiquote for an example use;

4952 * Simplifier now offers conversions (asm_)(full_)rewrite: simpset ->

4953 cterm -> thm;

4955 * new tactical CHANGED_GOAL for checking that a tactic modifies a

4956 subgoal;

4958 * Display.print_goals function moved to Locale.print_goals;

4960 * standard print function for goals supports current_goals_markers

4961 variable for marking begin of proof, end of proof, start of goal; the

4962 default is ("", "", ""); setting current_goals_markers := ("<proof>",

4963 "</proof>", "<goal>") causes SGML like tagged proof state printing,

4964 for example;

4968 New in Isabelle98 (January 1998)

4969 --------------------------------

4971 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES (see below for more details) ***

4973 * changed lexical syntax of terms / types: dots made part of long

4974 identifiers, e.g. "%x.x" no longer possible, should be "%x. x";

4976 * simpset (and claset) reference variable replaced by functions

4977 simpset / simpset_ref;

4979 * no longer supports theory aliases (via merge) and non-trivial

4980 implicit merge of thms' signatures;

4982 * most internal names of constants changed due to qualified names;

4984 * changed Pure/Sequence interface (see Pure/seq.ML);

4987 *** General Changes ***

4989 * hierachically structured name spaces (for consts, types, axms, thms

4990 etc.); new lexical class 'longid' (e.g. Foo.bar.x) may render much of

4991 old input syntactically incorrect (e.g. "%x.x"); COMPATIBILITY:

4992 isatool fixdots ensures space after dots (e.g. "%x. x"); set

4993 long_names for fully qualified output names; NOTE: ML programs

4994 (special tactics, packages etc.) referring to internal names may have

4995 to be adapted to cope with fully qualified names; in case of severe

4996 backward campatibility problems try setting 'global_names' at compile

4997 time to have enrything declared within a flat name space; one may also

4998 fine tune name declarations in theories via the 'global' and 'local'

4999 section;

5001 * reimplemented the implicit simpset and claset using the new anytype

5002 data filed in signatures; references simpset:simpset ref etc. are

5003 replaced by functions simpset:unit->simpset and

5004 simpset_ref:unit->simpset ref; COMPATIBILITY: use isatool fixclasimp

5005 to patch your ML files accordingly;

5007 * HTML output now includes theory graph data for display with Java

5008 applet or isatool browser; data generated automatically via isatool

5009 usedir (see -i option, ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS);

5011 * defs may now be conditional; improved rewrite_goals_tac to handle

5012 conditional equations;

5014 * defs now admits additional type arguments, using TYPE('a) syntax;

5016 * theory aliases via merge (e.g. M=A+B+C) no longer supported, always

5017 creates a new theory node; implicit merge of thms' signatures is

5018 restricted to 'trivial' ones; COMPATIBILITY: one may have to use

5019 transfer:theory->thm->thm in (rare) cases;

5021 * improved handling of draft signatures / theories; draft thms (and

5022 ctyps, cterms) are automatically promoted to real ones;

5024 * slightly changed interfaces for oracles: admit many per theory, named

5025 (e.g. oracle foo = mlfun), additional name argument for invoke_oracle;

5027 * print_goals: optional output of const types (set show_consts and

5028 show_types);

5030 * improved output of warnings (###) and errors (***);

5032 * subgoal_tac displays a warning if the new subgoal has type variables;

5034 * removed old README and Makefiles;

5036 * replaced print_goals_ref hook by print_current_goals_fn and result_error_fn;

5038 * removed obsolete init_pps and init_database;

5040 * deleted the obsolete tactical STATE, which was declared by

5041 fun STATE tacfun st = tacfun st st;

5043 * cd and use now support path variables, e.g. $ISABELLE_HOME, or ~

5044 (which abbreviates $HOME);

5046 * changed Pure/Sequence interface (see Pure/seq.ML); COMPATIBILITY:

5047 use isatool fixseq to adapt your ML programs (this works for fully

5048 qualified references to the Sequence structure only!);

5050 * use_thy no longer requires writable current directory; it always

5051 reloads .ML *and* .thy file, if either one is out of date;

5054 *** Classical Reasoner ***

5056 * Clarify_tac, clarify_tac, clarify_step_tac, Clarify_step_tac: new

5057 tactics that use classical reasoning to simplify a subgoal without

5058 splitting it into several subgoals;

5060 * Safe_tac: like safe_tac but uses the default claset;

5063 *** Simplifier ***

5065 * added simplification meta rules:

5066 (asm_)(full_)simplify: simpset -> thm -> thm;

5068 * simplifier.ML no longer part of Pure -- has to be loaded by object

5069 logics (again);

5071 * added prems argument to simplification procedures;

5073 * HOL, FOL, ZF: added infix function `addsplits':

5074 instead of `<simpset> setloop (split_tac <thms>)'

5075 you can simply write `<simpset> addsplits <thms>'

5078 *** Syntax ***

5080 * TYPE('a) syntax for type reflection terms;

5082 * no longer handles consts with name "" -- declare as 'syntax' instead;

5084 * pretty printer: changed order of mixfix annotation preference (again!);

5086 * Pure: fixed idt/idts vs. pttrn/pttrns syntactic categories;

5089 *** HOL ***

5091 * HOL: there is a new splitter `split_asm_tac' that can be used e.g.

5092 with `addloop' of the simplifier to faciliate case splitting in premises.

5094 * HOL/TLA: Stephan Merz's formalization of Lamport's Temporal Logic of Actions;

5096 * HOL/Auth: new protocol proofs including some for the Internet

5097 protocol TLS;

5099 * HOL/Map: new theory of `maps' a la VDM;

5101 * HOL/simplifier: simplification procedures nat_cancel_sums for

5102 cancelling out common nat summands from =, <, <= (in)equalities, or

5103 differences; simplification procedures nat_cancel_factor for

5104 cancelling common factor from =, <, <= (in)equalities over natural

5105 sums; nat_cancel contains both kinds of procedures, it is installed by

5106 default in Arith.thy -- this COULD MAKE EXISTING PROOFS FAIL;

5108 * HOL/simplifier: terms of the form

5109 `? x. P1(x) & ... & Pn(x) & x=t & Q1(x) & ... Qn(x)' (or t=x)

5110 are rewritten to

5111 `P1(t) & ... & Pn(t) & Q1(t) & ... Qn(t)',

5112 and those of the form

5113 `! x. P1(x) & ... & Pn(x) & x=t & Q1(x) & ... Qn(x) --> R(x)' (or t=x)

5114 are rewritten to

5115 `P1(t) & ... & Pn(t) & Q1(t) & ... Qn(t) --> R(t)',

5117 * HOL/datatype

5118 Each datatype `t' now comes with a theorem `split_t_case' of the form

5120 P(t_case f1 ... fn x) =

5121 ( (!y1 ... ym1. x = C1 y1 ... ym1 --> P(f1 y1 ... ym1)) &

5122 ...

5123 (!y1 ... ymn. x = Cn y1 ... ymn --> P(f1 y1 ... ymn))

5124 )

5126 and a theorem `split_t_case_asm' of the form

5128 P(t_case f1 ... fn x) =

5129 ~( (? y1 ... ym1. x = C1 y1 ... ym1 & ~P(f1 y1 ... ym1)) |

5130 ...

5131 (? y1 ... ymn. x = Cn y1 ... ymn & ~P(f1 y1 ... ymn))

5132 )

5133 which can be added to a simpset via `addsplits'. The existing theorems

5134 expand_list_case and expand_option_case have been renamed to

5135 split_list_case and split_option_case.

5137 * HOL/Arithmetic:

5138 - `pred n' is automatically converted to `n-1'.

5139 Users are strongly encouraged not to use `pred' any longer,

5140 because it will disappear altogether at some point.

5141 - Users are strongly encouraged to write "0 < n" rather than

5142 "n ~= 0". Theorems and proof tools have been modified towards this

5143 `standard'.

5145 * HOL/Lists:

5146 the function "set_of_list" has been renamed "set" (and its theorems too);

5147 the function "nth" now takes its arguments in the reverse order and

5148 has acquired the infix notation "!" as in "xs!n".

5150 * HOL/Set: UNIV is now a constant and is no longer translated to Compl{};

5152 * HOL/Set: The operator (UN x.B x) now abbreviates (UN x:UNIV. B x) and its

5153 specialist theorems (like UN1_I) are gone. Similarly for (INT x.B x);

5155 * HOL/record: extensible records with schematic structural subtyping

5156 (single inheritance); EXPERIMENTAL version demonstrating the encoding,

5157 still lacks various theorems and concrete record syntax;

5160 *** HOLCF ***

5162 * removed "axioms" and "generated by" sections;

5164 * replaced "ops" section by extended "consts" section, which is capable of

5165 handling the continuous function space "->" directly;

5167 * domain package:

5168 . proves theorems immediately and stores them in the theory,

5169 . creates hierachical name space,

5170 . now uses normal mixfix annotations (instead of cinfix...),

5171 . minor changes to some names and values (for consistency),

5172 . e.g. cases -> casedist, dists_eq -> dist_eqs, [take_lemma] -> take_lemmas,

5173 . separator between mutual domain defs: changed "," to "and",

5174 . improved handling of sort constraints; now they have to

5175 appear on the left-hand side of the equations only;

5177 * fixed LAM <x,y,zs>.b syntax;

5179 * added extended adm_tac to simplifier in HOLCF -- can now discharge

5180 adm (%x. P (t x)), where P is chainfinite and t continuous;

5183 *** FOL and ZF ***

5185 * FOL: there is a new splitter `split_asm_tac' that can be used e.g.

5186 with `addloop' of the simplifier to faciliate case splitting in premises.

5188 * qed_spec_mp, qed_goal_spec_mp, qed_goalw_spec_mp are available, as

5189 in HOL, they strip ALL and --> from proved theorems;

5193 New in Isabelle94-8 (May 1997)

5194 ------------------------------

5196 *** General Changes ***

5198 * new utilities to build / run / maintain Isabelle etc. (in parts

5199 still somewhat experimental); old Makefiles etc. still functional;

5201 * new 'Isabelle System Manual';

5203 * INSTALL text, together with ./configure and ./build scripts;

5205 * reimplemented type inference for greater efficiency, better error

5206 messages and clean internal interface;

5208 * prlim command for dealing with lots of subgoals (an easier way of

5209 setting goals_limit);

5212 *** Syntax ***

5214 * supports alternative (named) syntax tables (parser and pretty

5215 printer); internal interface is provided by add_modesyntax(_i);

5217 * Pure, FOL, ZF, HOL, HOLCF now support symbolic input and output; to

5218 be used in conjunction with the Isabelle symbol font; uses the

5219 "symbols" syntax table;

5221 * added token_translation interface (may translate name tokens in

5222 arbitrary ways, dependent on their type (free, bound, tfree, ...) and

5223 the current print_mode); IMPORTANT: user print translation functions

5224 are responsible for marking newly introduced bounds

5225 (Syntax.mark_boundT);

5227 * token translations for modes "xterm" and "xterm_color" that display

5228 names in bold, underline etc. or colors (which requires a color

5229 version of xterm);

5231 * infixes may now be declared with names independent of their syntax;

5233 * added typed_print_translation (like print_translation, but may

5234 access type of constant);

5237 *** Classical Reasoner ***

5239 Blast_tac: a new tactic! It is often more powerful than fast_tac, but has

5240 some limitations. Blast_tac...

5241 + ignores addss, addbefore, addafter; this restriction is intrinsic

5242 + ignores elimination rules that don't have the correct format

5243 (the conclusion MUST be a formula variable)

5244 + ignores types, which can make HOL proofs fail

5245 + rules must not require higher-order unification, e.g. apply_type in ZF

5246 [message "Function Var's argument not a bound variable" relates to this]

5247 + its proof strategy is more general but can actually be slower

5249 * substitution with equality assumptions no longer permutes other

5250 assumptions;

5252 * minor changes in semantics of addafter (now called addaltern); renamed

5253 setwrapper to setWrapper and compwrapper to compWrapper; added safe wrapper

5254 (and access functions for it);

5256 * improved combination of classical reasoner and simplifier:

5257 + functions for handling clasimpsets

5258 + improvement of addss: now the simplifier is called _after_ the

5259 safe steps.

5260 + safe variant of addss called addSss: uses safe simplifications

5261 _during_ the safe steps. It is more complete as it allows multiple

5262 instantiations of unknowns (e.g. with slow_tac).

5264 *** Simplifier ***

5266 * added interface for simplification procedures (functions that

5267 produce *proven* rewrite rules on the fly, depending on current

5268 redex);

5270 * ordering on terms as parameter (used for ordered rewriting);

5272 * new functions delcongs, deleqcongs, and Delcongs. richer rep_ss;

5274 * the solver is now split into a safe and an unsafe part.

5275 This should be invisible for the normal user, except that the

5276 functions setsolver and addsolver have been renamed to setSolver and

5277 addSolver; added safe_asm_full_simp_tac;

5280 *** HOL ***

5282 * a generic induction tactic `induct_tac' which works for all datatypes and

5283 also for type `nat';

5285 * a generic case distinction tactic `exhaust_tac' which works for all

5286 datatypes and also for type `nat';

5288 * each datatype comes with a function `size';

5290 * patterns in case expressions allow tuple patterns as arguments to

5291 constructors, for example `case x of [] => ... | (x,y,z)#ps => ...';

5293 * primrec now also works with type nat;

5295 * recdef: a new declaration form, allows general recursive functions to be

5296 defined in theory files. See HOL/ex/Fib, HOL/ex/Primes, HOL/Subst/Unify.

5298 * the constant for negation has been renamed from "not" to "Not" to

5299 harmonize with FOL, ZF, LK, etc.;

5301 * HOL/ex/LFilter theory of a corecursive "filter" functional for

5302 infinite lists;

5304 * HOL/Modelcheck demonstrates invocation of model checker oracle;

5306 * HOL/ex/Ring.thy declares cring_simp, which solves equational

5307 problems in commutative rings, using axiomatic type classes for + and *;

5309 * more examples in HOL/MiniML and HOL/Auth;

5311 * more default rewrite rules for quantifiers, union/intersection;

5313 * a new constant `arbitrary == @x.False';

5315 * HOLCF/IOA replaces old HOL/IOA;

5317 * HOLCF changes: derived all rules and arities

5318 + axiomatic type classes instead of classes

5319 + typedef instead of faking type definitions

5320 + eliminated the internal constants less_fun, less_cfun, UU_fun, UU_cfun etc.

5321 + new axclasses cpo, chfin, flat with flat < chfin < pcpo < cpo < po

5322 + eliminated the types void, one, tr

5323 + use unit lift and bool lift (with translations) instead of one and tr

5324 + eliminated blift from Lift3.thy (use Def instead of blift)

5325 all eliminated rules are derived as theorems --> no visible changes ;

5328 *** ZF ***

5330 * ZF now has Fast_tac, Simp_tac and Auto_tac. Union_iff is a now a default

5331 rewrite rule; this may affect some proofs. eq_cs is gone but can be put back

5332 as ZF_cs addSIs [equalityI];

5336 New in Isabelle94-7 (November 96)

5337 ---------------------------------

5339 * allowing negative levels (as offsets) in prlev and choplev;

5341 * super-linear speedup for large simplifications;

5343 * FOL, ZF and HOL now use miniscoping: rewriting pushes

5344 quantifications in as far as possible (COULD MAKE EXISTING PROOFS

5345 FAIL); can suppress it using the command Delsimps (ex_simps @

5346 all_simps); De Morgan laws are also now included, by default;

5348 * improved printing of ==> : ~:

5350 * new object-logic "Sequents" adds linear logic, while replacing LK

5351 and Modal (thanks to Sara Kalvala);

5353 * HOL/Auth: correctness proofs for authentication protocols;

5355 * HOL: new auto_tac combines rewriting and classical reasoning (many

5356 examples on HOL/Auth);

5358 * HOL: new command AddIffs for declaring theorems of the form P=Q to

5359 the rewriter and classical reasoner simultaneously;

5361 * function uresult no longer returns theorems in "standard" format;

5362 regain previous version by: val uresult = standard o uresult;

5366 New in Isabelle94-6

5367 -------------------

5369 * oracles -- these establish an interface between Isabelle and trusted

5370 external reasoners, which may deliver results as theorems;

5372 * proof objects (in particular record all uses of oracles);

5374 * Simp_tac, Fast_tac, etc. that refer to implicit simpset / claset;

5376 * "constdefs" section in theory files;

5378 * "primrec" section (HOL) no longer requires names;

5380 * internal type "tactic" now simply "thm -> thm Sequence.seq";

5384 New in Isabelle94-5

5385 -------------------

5387 * reduced space requirements;

5389 * automatic HTML generation from theories;

5391 * theory files no longer require "..." (quotes) around most types;

5393 * new examples, including two proofs of the Church-Rosser theorem;

5395 * non-curried (1994) version of HOL is no longer distributed;

5399 New in Isabelle94-4

5400 -------------------

5402 * greatly reduced space requirements;

5404 * theory files (.thy) no longer require \...\ escapes at line breaks;

5406 * searchable theorem database (see the section "Retrieving theorems" on

5407 page 8 of the Reference Manual);

5409 * new examples, including Grabczewski's monumental case study of the

5410 Axiom of Choice;

5412 * The previous version of HOL renamed to Old_HOL;

5414 * The new version of HOL (previously called CHOL) uses a curried syntax

5415 for functions. Application looks like f a b instead of f(a,b);

5417 * Mutually recursive inductive definitions finally work in HOL;

5419 * In ZF, pattern-matching on tuples is now available in all abstractions and

5420 translates to the operator "split";

5424 New in Isabelle94-3

5425 -------------------

5427 * new infix operator, addss, allowing the classical reasoner to

5428 perform simplification at each step of its search. Example:

5429 fast_tac (cs addss ss)

5431 * a new logic, CHOL, the same as HOL, but with a curried syntax

5432 for functions. Application looks like f a b instead of f(a,b). Also pairs

5433 look like (a,b) instead of <a,b>;

5435 * PLEASE NOTE: CHOL will eventually replace HOL!

5437 * In CHOL, pattern-matching on tuples is now available in all abstractions.

5438 It translates to the operator "split". A new theory of integers is available;

5440 * In ZF, integer numerals now denote two's-complement binary integers.

5441 Arithmetic operations can be performed by rewriting. See ZF/ex/Bin.ML;

5443 * Many new examples: I/O automata, Church-Rosser theorem, equivalents

5444 of the Axiom of Choice;

5448 New in Isabelle94-2

5449 -------------------

5451 * Significantly faster resolution;

5453 * the different sections in a .thy file can now be mixed and repeated

5454 freely;

5456 * Database of theorems for FOL, HOL and ZF. New

5457 commands including qed, qed_goal and bind_thm store theorems in the database.

5459 * Simple database queries: return a named theorem (get_thm) or all theorems of

5460 a given theory (thms_of), or find out what theory a theorem was proved in

5461 (theory_of_thm);

5463 * Bugs fixed in the inductive definition and datatype packages;

5465 * The classical reasoner provides deepen_tac and depth_tac, making FOL_dup_cs

5466 and HOL_dup_cs obsolete;

5468 * Syntactic ambiguities caused by the new treatment of syntax in Isabelle94-1

5469 have been removed;

5471 * Simpler definition of function space in ZF;

5473 * new results about cardinal and ordinal arithmetic in ZF;

5475 * 'subtype' facility in HOL for introducing new types as subsets of existing

5476 types;

5478 :mode=text:wrap=hard:maxLineLen=72:

5480 $Id$