NEWS
author wenzelm
Wed May 07 14:54:06 2014 +0200 (2014-05-07)
changeset 56901 2f73ef9eb272
parent 56889 48a745e1bde7
child 56923 c062543d380e
permissions -rw-r--r--
NEWS;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
    25 supports input via ` (backquote).
    26 
    27 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
    28 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
    29 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
    30 
    31 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
    32 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
    33 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
    34 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
    35 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
    36 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
    37 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
    38 proof tools.
    39 
    40 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
    41 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
    42 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
    43 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
    44 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
    45 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
    46 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
    47 some examples.
    48 
    49 
    50 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    51 
    52 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism:
    53 
    54   - No completion for Isar keywords that have already been recognized
    55     by the prover, e.g. ":" within accepted Isar syntax looses its
    56     meaning as abbreviation for symbol "\<in>".
    57 
    58   - Completion context provides information about embedded languages
    59     of Isabelle: keywords are only completed for outer syntax, symbols
    60     or antiquotations for languages that support them.  E.g. no symbol
    61     completion for ML source, but within ML strings, comments,
    62     antiquotations.
    63 
    64   - Support for semantic completion based on failed name space lookup.
    65     The error produced by the prover contains information about
    66     alternative names that are accessible in a particular position.
    67     This may be used with explicit completion (C+b) or implicit
    68     completion after some delay.
    69 
    70   - Semantic completions may get extended by appending a suffix of
    71     underscores to an already recognized name, e.g. "foo_" to complete
    72     "foo" or "foobar" if these are known in the context.  The special
    73     identifier "__" serves as a wild-card in this respect: it
    74     completes to the full collection of names from the name space
    75     (truncated according to the system option "completion_limit").
    76 
    77   - Syntax completion of the editor and semantic completion of the
    78     prover are merged.  Since the latter requires a full round-trip of
    79     document update to arrive, the default for option
    80     jedit_completion_delay has been changed to 0.5s to improve the
    81     user experience.
    82 
    83   - Option jedit_completion_immediate may now get used with
    84     jedit_completion_delay > 0, to complete symbol abbreviations
    85     aggressively while benefiting from combined syntactic and semantic
    86     completion.
    87 
    88   - Support for simple completion templates (with single
    89     place-holder), e.g. "`" for text cartouche, or "@{" for
    90     antiquotation.
    91 
    92   - Support for path completion within the formal text, based on
    93     file-system content.
    94 
    95   - Improved treatment of completion vs. various forms of jEdit text
    96     selection (multiple selections, rectangular selections,
    97     rectangular selection as "tall caret").
    98 
    99   - More reliable treatment of GUI events vs. completion popups: avoid
   100     loosing keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
   101 
   102 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
   103 completion popup and context-menu.  See also "Plugin Options /
   104 Isabelle / General / Spell Checker" for some system options.
   105 
   106 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
   107 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
   108 
   109 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
   110 auxiliary ML files.
   111 
   112 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
   113 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
   114 
   115 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
   116 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
   117 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
   118 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
   119 
   120 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
   121 to highlight text via regular expression.
   122 
   123 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
   124 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
   125 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
   126 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
   127 
   128 * New panel: Simplifier trace.  Provides an interactive view of the
   129 simplification process, enabled by the newly-introduced
   130 "simplifier_trace" declaration.
   131 
   132 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons).
   133 
   134 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
   135 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
   136 
   137 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
   138 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
   139 
   140 
   141 *** Pure ***
   142 
   143 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
   144 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
   145 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
   146 renaming needs to be applied:
   147 
   148   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
   149   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
   150   all            ~>  Pure.all
   151   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
   152   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
   153 
   154 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
   155 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
   156 old constants:
   157 
   158 setup {*
   159   fn thy => thy
   160     |> Sign.root_path
   161     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
   162     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
   163     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
   164     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
   165 *}
   166 
   167 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
   168 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
   169 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
   170 
   171 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
   172 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
   173 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
   174 'instance' with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem might be
   175 postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof finished
   176 trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous (without
   177 any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
   178 Axclass.axiomatize_class, Axclass.axiomatize_classrel,
   179 Axclass.axiomatize_arity.
   180 
   181 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
   182 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
   183 instantiated theorem.
   184 
   185 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
   186 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
   187 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
   188 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
   189 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
   190 
   191   attribute_setup standard =
   192     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
   193 
   194 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
   195 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
   196 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
   197 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
   198 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
   199 
   200 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
   201 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
   202 differently).
   203 
   204 
   205 *** HOL ***
   206 
   207 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
   208   * Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
   209   * Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF
   210   and SUP instead uniformly.
   211   * More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
   212   or SUP and Sup.
   213   * INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
   214   * Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
   215   * Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong,
   216   with simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace
   217   former INT_cong, SUP_cong
   218 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   219 
   220 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
   221   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   222   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   223   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   224   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   225   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   226 
   227 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules
   228   can now deal with conjunctions.
   229   For help with converting proofs, the old behaviour of the simplifier
   230   can be restored like this:  declare/using [[simp_legacy_precond]]
   231   This configuration option will disappear again in the future.
   232 
   233 * HOL-Word:
   234   * Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a
   235   duplicate of "word_arith_wis".
   236   * Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
   237   "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
   238   "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
   239 
   240 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict
   241 target language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   242 
   243 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   244 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   245 
   246 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.
   247 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   248 
   249 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures" option.
   250 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   251 
   252 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   253 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   254 
   255 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
   256   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
   257   "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" commands are now part of "Main".
   258   Theory renamings:
   259     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   260     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   261     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   262     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   263     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   264     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   265     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   266     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   267     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   268     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   269     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   270     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   271     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   272     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   273     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   274     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   275     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   276     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   277     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   278     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   279     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   280     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   281   New theories:
   282     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   283     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   284     Library/BNF_Decl.thy
   285     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   286     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   287   Discontinued theories:
   288     BNF/BNF.thy
   289     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   290   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   291 
   292 * New (co)datatype package:
   293   * "primcorec" is fully implemented.
   294   * "datatype_new" generates size functions ("size_xxx" and "size") as
   295     required by "fun".
   296   * BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style (co)datatypes
   297     with Transfer.
   298   * Renamed commands:
   299       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   300       primrec_new ~> primrec
   301       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   302     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   303   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   304     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   305     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   306   * The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer generated.
   307     Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually using "prim(co)rec".
   308     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   309 
   310 * Old datatype package:
   311   * The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been renamed
   312     "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" -> "sum.case").
   313     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   314   * The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have been
   315     renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~>
   316     "case_prod").
   317     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   318 
   319 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions, their
   320   relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new BNF-based
   321   datatype package.
   322   Renamed constants:
   323     Option.set ~> set_option
   324     Option.map ~> map_option
   325     option_rel ~> rel_option
   326   Renamed theorems:
   327     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   328     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   329     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   330     option.recs ~> option.rec
   331     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   332     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   333     map.simps ~> list.map
   334     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   335     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   336     the.simps ~> option.sel
   337   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   338 
   339 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   340     sum_map ~> map_sum
   341     map_pair ~> map_prod
   342     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   343     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   344     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   345     set_rel ~> rel_set
   346     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   347     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "Library/FSet.thy")
   348     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   349     vset ~> rel_vset (in "Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   350 
   351 * New theory:
   352     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   353 
   354 * Theory reorganizations:
   355   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   356 
   357 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof traces.
   358   This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and "dpll".
   359   Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT solvers should
   360   use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now the default SAT
   361   solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and corresponding tactics;
   362   the old default can be restored using
   363   "declare [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   364 
   365 * SMT module:
   366   * A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2
   367     and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g., 4.3). The new proof method is
   368     called "smt2", and the new Z3 is called "z3_new" in Sledgehammer and
   369     elsewhere.
   370 
   371 * Sledgehammer:
   372   - New prover "z3_new" with support for Isar proofs
   373   - New option:
   374       smt_proofs
   375   - Renamed options:
   376       isar_compress ~> compress_isar
   377       isar_try0 ~> try0_isar
   378     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   379 
   380 * Metis:
   381   - Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis (full_types)' instead.
   382     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   383 
   384 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   385 
   386 * Command renaming: enriched_type ~> functor. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   387 
   388 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   389 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   390 
   391 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   392 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   393 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   394 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   395 
   396 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   397 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   398 
   399 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   400 with the given constants.
   401 
   402 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   403 
   404 Fact consolidations:
   405     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   406     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   407     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   408     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   409     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   410     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   411     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   412     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   413     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   414     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   415     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   416     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   417     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   418     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   419     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   420     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   421     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   422     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   423     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   424     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   425     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   426     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   427     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   428     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   429     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   430     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   431     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   432     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   433     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   434     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   435     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   436     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   437     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   438     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   439     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   440     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   441     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   442     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   443     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   444     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   445 
   446 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   447 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   448 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   449 
   450 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   451 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   452 
   453 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
   454 
   455 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   456 
   457 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   458 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   459 
   460 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   461 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   462 
   463 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   464 operations on records.
   465 
   466 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   467 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   468 
   469 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   470     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   471 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   472 
   473 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   474     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   475     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   476 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   477 
   478 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   479   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   480   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   481   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   482     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   483   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   484     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   485   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   486 INCOMPATBILITY.
   487 
   488 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   489     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   490     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   491     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   492     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   493 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   494 
   495 * Fact name consolidation:
   496     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   497     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   498     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   499     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   500     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   501 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   502 
   503 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   504 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   505 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   506 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   507 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   508 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   509 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   510 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   511 
   512 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   513 
   514 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   515 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   516 
   517 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   518 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   519 
   520 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   521 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   522 or the brute way with
   523 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   524 
   525 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   526 
   527 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   528 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   529 
   530 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   531 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   532 
   533 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   534 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   535 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   536 INCOMPATIBILITY
   537 
   538 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
   539   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
   540   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
   541   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
   542   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
   543   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
   544   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
   545   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
   546   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
   547   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
   548   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
   549   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
   550 
   551   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
   552 
   553   removed auxiliary lemmas:
   554     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
   555     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr, real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded,
   556     summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2, sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom,
   557     sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero, summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
   558 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   559 
   560 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
   561   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
   562 
   563   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
   564 
   565   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
   566 
   567   - removed constant isDiff
   568 
   569   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as input
   570     syntax.
   571 
   572   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed
   573 
   574   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
   575 
   576   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
   577 
   578   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
   579 
   580   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which includes now rules for
   581     DERIV, has_derivative and has_vector_derivative.
   582 
   583   - Other renamings:
   584     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
   585     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
   586     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
   587     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
   588     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
   589     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
   590     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
   591 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   592 
   593 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the continuous_on_intros,
   594   isCont_intros collections, these facts are now in continuous_intros.
   595 
   596 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im, the Complex
   597   constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use primcorec to defined the
   598   behaviour of a complex-valued function.
   599 
   600   Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they are
   601   available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This especially
   602   removes
   603     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
   604 
   605   Instead the reverse direction is supported with
   606     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
   607 
   608   Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
   609 
   610   Renamings:
   611     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
   612     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
   613     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
   614     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
   615     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
   616     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
   617     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
   618     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
   619     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
   620     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
   621     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
   622     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
   623 
   624     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
   625     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
   626     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
   627 
   628   Removed theorems:
   629     complex_zero_def
   630     complex_add_def
   631     complex_minus_def
   632     complex_diff_def
   633     complex_one_def
   634     complex_mult_def
   635     complex_inverse_def
   636     complex_scaleR_def
   637 
   638 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   639 
   640 * Nitpick:
   641   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   642     infinite values.
   643   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as "Abs_Integ" and
   644     "Rep_Integ".
   645   - Removed "std" option.
   646   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   647     "hide_types".
   648 
   649 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   650   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   651   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   652     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   653     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   654     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   655     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   656     intervals.
   657 
   658   - renamed theorems:
   659     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
   660     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
   661     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
   662 
   663 
   664 *** Scala ***
   665 
   666 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
   667 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
   668 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
   669 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
   670 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   671 
   672 
   673 *** ML ***
   674 
   675 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
   676 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   677 
   678 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
   679 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context via
   680 "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   681 
   682 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
   683 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   684 
   685 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
   686 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
   687 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
   688 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   689 
   690 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   691 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   692 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   693 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   694 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   695 of schematic variables.
   696 
   697 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   698 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   699 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   700 formal context.
   701 
   702 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   703 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   704 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   705 actually belongs to it).
   706 
   707 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
   708 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
   709 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
   710 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
   711 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
   712 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
   713 
   714 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
   715 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   716 
   717 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
   718 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
   719 
   720 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
   721 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
   722 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
   723 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
   724 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
   725 
   726 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
   727 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
   728 purposes.
   729 
   730 
   731 *** System ***
   732 
   733 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
   734 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
   735 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
   736 processing is started.
   737 
   738 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   739 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   740 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   741 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   742 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   743 
   744 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   745 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   746 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   747 
   748 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
   749 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
   750 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
   751 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
   752 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the $ISABELLE_PROCESS
   753 settings variable yet.
   754 
   755 * Retired the now unused Isabelle tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality
   756 may be integrated into PIDE/jEdit at a later point.
   757 
   758 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   759 -------------------------------------
   760 
   761 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   762 
   763 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   764 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   765 
   766 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   767 after edits surrounding the command location.
   768 
   769 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   770 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   771 e.g. out-of-memory).
   772 
   773 
   774 *** System ***
   775 
   776 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   777 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   778 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   779 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   780 
   781 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   782 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   783 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   784 
   785 
   786 
   787 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   788 -------------------------------------
   789 
   790 *** General ***
   791 
   792 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   793 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   794 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   795 
   796 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   797 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   798 
   799 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   800 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   801 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   802 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   803 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   804 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   805 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   806 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   807 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   808 syntax.
   809 
   810 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   811 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   812 
   813 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   814 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   815 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   816 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   817 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   818 
   819 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   820 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   821 
   822 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   823 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   824 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   825 
   826 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   827 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   828 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   829 
   830 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   831 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   832 
   833 
   834 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   835 
   836 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   837 Documentation panel.
   838 
   839 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   840 documentation.
   841 
   842 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   843 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   844 
   845 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   846 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   847 normal editing and checking process.
   848 
   849 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   850 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   851 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   852 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   853 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   854 
   855 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   856 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   857 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   858 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   859 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   860 
   861 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   862 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   863 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   864 
   865 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   866 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   867 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   868 to resolve conflict.
   869 
   870 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   871 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   872 
   873 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   874 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   875 such command executions while editing.
   876 
   877 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   878 document content.
   879 
   880 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   881 toplevel theorem statements.
   882 
   883 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   884 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   885 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   886 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   887 
   888 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   889 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   890 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   891 
   892 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   893 / Global Options / Appearance".
   894 
   895 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   896 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   897 
   898 
   899 *** Pure ***
   900 
   901 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   902 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   903 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   904 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   905 details.
   906 
   907 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   908 
   909 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   910 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   911 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   912 
   913 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   914 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   915 
   916 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   917 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   918 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   919 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   920 
   921 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   922 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   923 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   924 
   925 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   926 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   927 
   928 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   929 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   930 situations.
   931 
   932 
   933 *** HOL ***
   934 
   935 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   936 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   937 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   938 
   939 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   940 
   941 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   942 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   943 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   944 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   945 
   946   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   947 
   948 * Code generator:
   949   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   950     'code_instance'.
   951   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   952     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   953 
   954 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   955 examples.
   956 
   957 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   958 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   959 to distinguish both when desired.
   960 
   961 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   962 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   963 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   964 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   965 
   966 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   967 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   968 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   969 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   970 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   971 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   972 
   973 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   974 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   975 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   976 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   977 
   978 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   979 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   980 
   981 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   982 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   983 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   984 
   985 * Lifting:
   986   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   987     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   988       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   989       transfer rules
   990     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   991       correspondence relation can be generated
   992     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   993       parametricity
   994     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   995   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   996   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   997     copies
   998   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   999     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  1000     anonymous context)
  1001   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  1002     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1003   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  1004     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  1005   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  1006     INCOMPATIBILITY
  1007 
  1008 * Transfer:
  1009   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  1010     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  1011   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  1012   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  1013     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  1014   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  1015 
  1016 * Reification and reflection:
  1017   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  1018     "Reification".
  1019   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  1020   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  1021 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1022 
  1023 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  1024   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  1025     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  1026     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  1027   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  1028     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  1029   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  1030     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  1031     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  1032     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  1033     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  1034     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  1035     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  1036     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  1037   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  1038     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  1039   - Fact renames:
  1040       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  1041       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  1042 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1043 
  1044 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  1045 
  1046 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  1047 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  1048 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  1049 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1050 
  1051 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  1052 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  1053 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  1054 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  1055 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  1056 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  1057 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  1058 lemmas.
  1059 
  1060 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  1061 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  1062 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1063 
  1064 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  1065 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  1066 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  1067 
  1068 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  1069 top and bottom elements.
  1070 
  1071 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  1072 
  1073 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  1074 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  1075 
  1076  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  1077    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  1078    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  1079 
  1080  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  1081    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  1082    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  1083 
  1084    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  1085    arbitrary filter.
  1086 
  1087  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  1088    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  1089    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  1090    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  1091    on a compact set.
  1092 
  1093  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  1094    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  1095    linear_continuum_topology).
  1096 
  1097  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  1098    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  1099    on all sequences converging to x.
  1100 
  1101  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  1102    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  1103    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  1104    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  1105    left or right.
  1106 
  1107  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  1108 
  1109      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  1110 
  1111  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  1112    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  1113 
  1114  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  1115    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  1116    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  1117    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  1118    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  1119    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  1120 
  1121  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  1122 
  1123    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  1124 
  1125    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  1126      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  1127 
  1128    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  1129 
  1130    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  1131      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  1132 
  1133    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  1134 
  1135    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  1136 
  1137  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  1138 
  1139 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1140 
  1141 * Nitpick:
  1142   - Added option "spy".
  1143   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  1144 
  1145 * Sledgehammer:
  1146   - Renamed option:
  1147       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  1148     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1149   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  1150   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  1151   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  1152 
  1153 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  1154 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  1155 
  1156 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  1157   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  1158   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  1159     generated code.
  1160   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  1161   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  1162   - Fact renames:
  1163     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  1164     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  1165     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  1166 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1167 
  1168 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  1169 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  1170 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  1171 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  1172 
  1173 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  1174 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  1175 
  1176 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1177 
  1178 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  1179 
  1180     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  1181     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  1182 
  1183 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1184 
  1185 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  1186 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  1187 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  1188 
  1189 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  1190 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  1191 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  1192 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1193 
  1194 * HOL-BNF:
  1195   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  1196     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  1197     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  1198     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  1199   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  1200     coinduct).
  1201   - Renamed keywords:
  1202     data ~> datatype_new
  1203     codata ~> codatatype
  1204     bnf_def ~> bnf
  1205   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  1206     discs ~> disc
  1207     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  1208     map_id' ~> map_id
  1209     sels ~> sel
  1210     set_map' ~> set_map
  1211     sets ~> set
  1212 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1213 
  1214 
  1215 *** ML ***
  1216 
  1217 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  1218 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  1219 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  1220 Examples.thy in particular.
  1221 
  1222 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  1223 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  1224 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  1225 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  1226 
  1227 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  1228 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  1229 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  1230 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  1231 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1232 
  1233 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  1234 
  1235     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  1236     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  1237 
  1238 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1239 
  1240 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  1241 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  1242 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  1243 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  1244 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  1245 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  1246 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  1247 
  1248 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  1249 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  1250 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  1251 clasets separately from the context.
  1252 
  1253 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  1254 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  1255 
  1256 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  1257 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  1258 
  1259 
  1260 *** System ***
  1261 
  1262 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  1263 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1264 
  1265 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  1266 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1267 
  1268 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  1269 settings variable.
  1270 
  1271 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  1272 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  1273 always pdf.
  1274 
  1275 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  1276 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  1277 
  1278 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  1279 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  1280 
  1281 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  1282 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  1283 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  1284 
  1285 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  1286 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  1287 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  1288 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  1289 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1290 for HTML presentation of theories.
  1291 
  1292 
  1293 
  1294 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  1295 -----------------------------------
  1296 
  1297 *** General ***
  1298 
  1299 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  1300 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  1301 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  1302 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  1303 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  1304 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  1305 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  1306 
  1307 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  1308 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  1309 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  1310 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  1311 
  1312 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  1313 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  1314 
  1315 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  1316 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  1317 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  1318 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  1319 dependencies properly.
  1320 
  1321 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  1322 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  1323 
  1324 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  1325 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  1326 
  1327 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  1328 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  1329 and "class ... context ...".
  1330 
  1331 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  1332 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  1333 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  1334 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  1335 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  1336 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  1337 
  1338 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  1339 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  1340 
  1341 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  1342 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  1343 
  1344 
  1345 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1346 
  1347 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  1348 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  1349 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  1350 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  1351 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  1352 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  1353 
  1354 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  1355 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  1356 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  1357 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  1358 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  1359 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  1360 
  1361 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  1362 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  1363 browser on demand.
  1364 
  1365 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  1366 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  1367 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  1368 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  1369 
  1370 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  1371 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  1372 
  1373 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  1374 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  1375 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  1376 potentially infinite message streams.
  1377 
  1378 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  1379 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  1380 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  1381 schemes.
  1382 
  1383 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1384 symbols.
  1385 
  1386 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1387 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1388 
  1389 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1390 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1391 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1392 
  1393 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1394 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1395 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1396 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1397 
  1398 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1399 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1400 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1401 
  1402 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1403 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1404 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1405 Isabelle distribution.
  1406 
  1407 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1408 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1409 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1410 
  1411 
  1412 *** Pure ***
  1413 
  1414 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1415 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1416 
  1417 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1418 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1419 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1420 
  1421 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1422 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1423 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1424 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1425 with some care where this is really required.
  1426 
  1427 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1428 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1429 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1430 
  1431   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1432 
  1433 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1434 a Hasse diagram.
  1435 
  1436 
  1437 *** HOL ***
  1438 
  1439 * Sledgehammer:
  1440 
  1441   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1442     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1443   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1444   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1445   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1446   - Renamed options:
  1447       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1448       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1449       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1450       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1451 
  1452 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1453 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1454 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1455 
  1456 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1457 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1458 
  1459 * Lifting:
  1460   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1461   - quot_del attribute
  1462   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1463 
  1464 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1465 expressions.
  1466 
  1467 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1468 pointfree expressions.
  1469 
  1470 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1471 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1472 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1473 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1474 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1475 
  1476 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1477 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1478 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1479 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1480 accordingly.
  1481 
  1482 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1483 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1484 
  1485 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1486 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1487 
  1488 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1489 
  1490 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1491 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1492 
  1493 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1494 
  1495 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1496 
  1497   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1498   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1499 
  1500 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1501 
  1502 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1503 
  1504   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1505   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1506 
  1507 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1508 
  1509 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1510 
  1511   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1512     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1513     output f x converges to G.
  1514 
  1515   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1516     infinity (at_bot).
  1517 
  1518   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1519     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1520 
  1521   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1522     at_top".
  1523 
  1524 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1525 
  1526 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1527 lattice type classes.
  1528 
  1529 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1530 
  1531     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1532     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1533 
  1534 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1535 
  1536 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1537 changes as follows.
  1538 
  1539   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1540 
  1541       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1542       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1543 
  1544   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1545     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1546     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1547     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1548 
  1549   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1550     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1551     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1552 
  1553   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1554     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1555     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1556     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1557 
  1558   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1559     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1560 
  1561       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1562       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1563       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1564       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1565       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1566       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1567       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1568       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1569       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1570       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1571       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1572       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1573       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1574       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1575       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1576       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1577 
  1578 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1579 
  1580 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1581 
  1582 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1583 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1584 
  1585 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1586 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1587 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1588 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1589 
  1590   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1591   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1592   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1593   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1594   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1595   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1596   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1597   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1598   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1599   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1600 
  1601 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1602 
  1603 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1604 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1605 Data").
  1606 
  1607 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1608 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1609 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1610 code.
  1611 
  1612 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1613 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1614 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1615 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1616 
  1617 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1618 
  1619 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1620 
  1621 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1622 
  1623   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1624   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1625 
  1626 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1627 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1628 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1629 
  1630   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1631 
  1632     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1633     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1634     cart_base i  removed
  1635     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1636 
  1637   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1638 
  1639   Renamed lemmas:
  1640 
  1641     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1642     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1643     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1644     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1645     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1646     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1647     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1648     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1649     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1650     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1651 
  1652 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1653 
  1654 * HOL/Probability:
  1655 
  1656   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1657 
  1658   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1659     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1660     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1661 
  1662   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1663     projective family).
  1664 
  1665 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1666 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1667 
  1668 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1669 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1670 datatypes.
  1671 
  1672 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1673 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1674 
  1675 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1676 trees for the code generator.
  1677 
  1678 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1679 Lifting/Transfer.
  1680 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1681 
  1682 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1683 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1684 
  1685 
  1686 *** Document preparation ***
  1687 
  1688 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1689 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1690 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1691 
  1692 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1693 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1694 
  1695 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1696 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1697 document/root.tex.
  1698 
  1699 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1700 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1701 
  1702 
  1703 *** ML ***
  1704 
  1705 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1706 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1707 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1708 
  1709 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1710 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1711 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1712 
  1713 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1714 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1715 necessarily printing visible text.
  1716 
  1717 
  1718 *** System ***
  1719 
  1720 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1721 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1722 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1723 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1724 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1725 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1726 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1727 
  1728 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1729 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1730 
  1731   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1732 
  1733 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1734 
  1735 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1736 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1737 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1738 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1739 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1740 
  1741 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1742 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1743 
  1744 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1745 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1746 
  1747 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1748 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1749 
  1750 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1751 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1752 version of Isabelle.
  1753 
  1754 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1755 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1756 
  1757 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1758 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1759 for home-made settings.
  1760 
  1761 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1762 
  1763 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1764 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1765 configuration.
  1766 
  1767 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1768 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1769 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1770 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1771 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1772 
  1773 
  1774 
  1775 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1776 ------------------------------
  1777 
  1778 *** General ***
  1779 
  1780 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1781 
  1782   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1783     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1784   - markup for bound variables
  1785   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1786   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1787   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1788     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1789 
  1790 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1791 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1792 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1793 
  1794 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1795 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1796 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1797 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1798 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1799 
  1800   context
  1801     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1802     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1803   begin
  1804 
  1805   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1806 
  1807   end
  1808 
  1809   thm my_trans
  1810 
  1811 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1812 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1813 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1814 
  1815 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1816 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1817 
  1818 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1819 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1820 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1821 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1822 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1823 
  1824 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1825 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1826 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1827 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1828 indices of schematic variables.
  1829 
  1830 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1831 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1832 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1833 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1834 etc. was exploited.
  1835 
  1836 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1837 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1838 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1839 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1840 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1841 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1842 
  1843 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1844 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1845 manual.
  1846 
  1847 
  1848 *** Pure ***
  1849 
  1850 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1851 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1852 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1853 
  1854 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1855 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1856 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1857 undocumented feature.)
  1858 
  1859 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1860 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1861 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1862 
  1863   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1864 
  1865   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1866     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1867 
  1868 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1869 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1870 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1871 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1872 
  1873 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1874 
  1875     num ~> num_token
  1876     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1877     xstr ~> str_token
  1878 
  1879 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1880 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1881 position information via constraints).
  1882 
  1883 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1884 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1885 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1886 
  1887 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1888 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1889 
  1890 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1891 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1892 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1893 
  1894 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1895 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1896 
  1897 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1898 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1899 
  1900   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1901 
  1902 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1903 
  1904 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1905 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1906 
  1907 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1908 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1909 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1910 
  1911 
  1912 *** HOL ***
  1913 
  1914 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1915 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1916 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1917 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1918 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1919 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1920 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1921 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1922 possible.
  1923 
  1924 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1925 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1926 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1927 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1928 
  1929 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1930 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1931 
  1932 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1933 
  1934 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1935 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1936 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1937 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1938 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1939 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1940 
  1941   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1942     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1943 
  1944   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1945     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1946     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1947 
  1948   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1949     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1950 
  1951   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1952     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1953     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1954 
  1955   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1956     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1957 
  1958 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1959 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1960 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1961 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1962 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1963 
  1964   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1965     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1966     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1967     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1968     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1969 
  1970     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1971     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1972 
  1973   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1974     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1975     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1976     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1977     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1978     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1979     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1980     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1981 
  1982   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1983     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1984     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1985     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1986 
  1987   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1988     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1989     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1990     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1991 
  1992   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1993     from type nat to type int.
  1994 
  1995 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1996 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1997 
  1998   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1999     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  2000     type.  Example syntax:
  2001 
  2002     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  2003       is List.insert
  2004 
  2005     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  2006     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  2007     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  2008     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  2009     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  2010     by the package.
  2011 
  2012   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  2013     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  2014     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  2015     code generation for each constant.
  2016 
  2017   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  2018     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  2019     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  2020     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  2021     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  2022 
  2023   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  2024     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  2025     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  2026 
  2027 * Quotient package:
  2028 
  2029   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  2030     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  2031 
  2032   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  2033     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  2034 
  2035   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  2036     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  2037     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2038 
  2039   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  2040     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2041 
  2042 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  2043 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  2044 
  2045 * Quickcheck:
  2046 
  2047   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  2048     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  2049     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  2050     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  2051     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  2052 
  2053     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  2054     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  2055     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  2056 
  2057     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  2058     continues searching for genuine ones.
  2059 
  2060     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  2061     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  2062     show genuine counterexamples.
  2063 
  2064   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  2065     value generators for a given type and operations.
  2066 
  2067     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  2068     constructors of that type.
  2069 
  2070   - Support for multisets.
  2071 
  2072   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  2073 
  2074   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  2075     conjectures in a locale context.
  2076 
  2077 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  2078 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  2079 
  2080 * Sledgehammer:
  2081   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  2082     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  2083   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  2084   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  2085     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  2086   - Sped up the minimizer.
  2087   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  2088   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  2089   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  2090 
  2091 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  2092 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  2093 
  2094 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  2095 
  2096 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2097 
  2098 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  2099 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  2100 
  2101   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  2102 
  2103 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  2104 a list and a nat.
  2105 
  2106 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  2107 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  2108 
  2109 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  2110 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  2111 default.
  2112 
  2113 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  2114 
  2115   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  2116 
  2117 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  2118 
  2119 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  2120 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  2121 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  2122 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  2123 one_case.
  2124 
  2125 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  2126 the result of the fact expression.
  2127 
  2128 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  2129 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  2130 of some relation theorems:
  2131 
  2132   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  2133   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2134   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  2135   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  2136   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  2137   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  2138 
  2139 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  2140 
  2141 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  2142 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  2143 
  2144 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2145 
  2146 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  2147 to match the constant's name:
  2148 
  2149   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  2150   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  2151   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  2152   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  2153   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  2154   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  2155   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  2156   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  2157   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  2158   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  2159   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  2160   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  2161   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  2162   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  2163   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  2164   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  2165   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  2166   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  2167   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  2168   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  2169   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  2170   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2171   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2172   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  2173 
  2174 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2175 
  2176 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  2177 and corresponding theorem names:
  2178 
  2179   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  2180 
  2181   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  2182 
  2183   - Renamed theorems:
  2184 
  2185     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  2186     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  2187     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  2188     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  2189     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  2190     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  2191     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  2192     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  2193     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  2194     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  2195     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  2196     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  2197     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2198     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  2199     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  2200     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  2201     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  2202     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  2203     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  2204     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  2205     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  2206     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  2207     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  2208 
  2209     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  2210 
  2211     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  2212 
  2213 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2214 
  2215 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  2216 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2217 
  2218   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  2219   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  2220   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  2221   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  2222   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  2223   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  2224   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  2225   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  2226   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  2227   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  2228   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  2229   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  2230   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  2231   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  2232   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  2233   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  2234   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  2235   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  2236   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  2237   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  2238   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  2239 
  2240 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  2241 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2242 
  2243 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2244 
  2245 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  2246 
  2247   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  2248   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  2249   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  2250   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  2251   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  2252   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  2253   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  2254   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  2255   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  2256   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  2257   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  2258   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  2259   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  2260   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  2261   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  2262   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  2263   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  2264   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  2265 
  2266 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2267 
  2268 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  2269 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  2270 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  2271 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  2272 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  2273 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  2274 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  2275 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  2276 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  2277 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  2278 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  2279 
  2280 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  2281 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  2282 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  2283 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  2284 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  2285 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  2286 
  2287 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  2288 through option types.
  2289 
  2290 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  2291 relations.
  2292 
  2293 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2294 
  2295 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  2296 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2297 
  2298   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  2299   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  2300   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  2301   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  2302   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2303   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2304   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  2305   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2306   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  2307   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2308   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  2309   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  2310   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2311   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2312   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2313   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  2314   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  2315   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  2316   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2317   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2318   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  2319   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  2320   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2321   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2322   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  2323   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2324   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  2325   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  2326   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  2327   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  2328   zless_le ~> less_le
  2329   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  2330   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  2331   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  2332 
  2333 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  2334 
  2335   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  2336 
  2337 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  2338 
  2339 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  2340 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  2341 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  2342 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  2343 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2344 
  2345 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2346 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  2347 
  2348 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  2349 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  2350 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  2351 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  2352 follows:
  2353 
  2354   Operations:
  2355   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  2356   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  2357   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  2358   del -> rbt_del
  2359   delete -> rbt_delete
  2360   ins -> rbt_ins
  2361   insert -> rbt_insert
  2362   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  2363   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  2364   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  2365   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  2366   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  2367   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  2368   tree_less -> rbt_less
  2369   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  2370   union -> rbt_union
  2371   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  2372   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  2373 
  2374   Lemmas:
  2375   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  2376   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  2377   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  2378   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  2379   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  2380   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  2381   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2382   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2383   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2384   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2385   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2386   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2387   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2388   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2389   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2390   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2391   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2392   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2393   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2394   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2395   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2396   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2397   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2398   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2399   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2400   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2401   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2402   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2403   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2404   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2405   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2406   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2407   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2408   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2409   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2410   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2411   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2412   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2413   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2414   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2415   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2416   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2417   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2418   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2419   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2420   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2421   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2422   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2423   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2424   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2425   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2426   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2427   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2428   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2429   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2430   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2431   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2432   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2433   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2434   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2435   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2436   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2437   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2438   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2439   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2440   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2441   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2442   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2443   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2444   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2445   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2446   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2447   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2448   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2449   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2450   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2451   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2452   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2453   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2454   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2455   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2456   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2457   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2458 
  2459 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2460 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2461 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2462 
  2463   Changed Operations:
  2464   float_abs -> abs
  2465   float_nprt -> nprt
  2466   float_pprt -> pprt
  2467   pow2 -> use powr
  2468   round_down -> float_round_down
  2469   round_up -> float_round_up
  2470   scale -> exponent
  2471 
  2472   Removed Operations:
  2473   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2474 
  2475   Renamed Lemmas:
  2476   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2477   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2478   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2479   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2480   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2481   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2482   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2483   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2484   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2485   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2486   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2487   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2488   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2489   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2490   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2491   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2492   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2493   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2494   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2495   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2496   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2497   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2498   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2499   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2500   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2501   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2502   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2503   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2504   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2505   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2506   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2507   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2508   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2509   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2510   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2511   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2512 
  2513   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2514   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2515   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2516   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2517   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2518   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2519   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2520   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2521   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2522   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2523 
  2524 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2525 association lists with distinct keys.
  2526 
  2527 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2528 annotated commands.
  2529 
  2530 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2531 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2532 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2533 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2534 
  2535 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2536 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2537 instead.
  2538 
  2539   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2540   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2541   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2542   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2543   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2544   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2545   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2546   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2547   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2548   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2549   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2550   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2551   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2552   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2553   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2554   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2555   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2556   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2557   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2558   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2559   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2560   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2561   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2562   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2563   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2564   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2565   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2566   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2567   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2568   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2569   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2570   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2571   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2572   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2573   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2574   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2575   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2576   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2577   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2578   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2579   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2580 
  2581 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2582 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2583 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2584 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2585 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2586 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2587 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2588 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2589 
  2590 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2591 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2592 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2593 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2594 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2595 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2596 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2597 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2598 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2599 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2600 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2601 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2602 
  2603   Renamed constants:
  2604   measure -> emeasure
  2605   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2606   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2607   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2608   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2609 
  2610   Removed locales:
  2611   completeable_measure_space
  2612   finite_measure_space
  2613   finite_prob_space
  2614   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2615   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2616   finite_sigma_algebra
  2617   measure_space
  2618   pair_finite_prob_space
  2619   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2620   pair_finite_space
  2621   pair_sigma_algebra
  2622   product_sigma_algebra
  2623 
  2624   Removed constants:
  2625   conditional_space
  2626   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2627   image_space
  2628   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2629   pair_measure_generator
  2630   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2631   subvimage
  2632 
  2633   Replacement theorems:
  2634   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2635   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2636   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2637   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2638   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2639   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2640   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2641   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2642   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2643   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2644   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2645   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2646   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2647   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2648   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2649   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2650   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2651   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2652   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2653   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2654   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2655   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2656   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2657   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2658   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2659   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2660   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2661   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2662   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2663   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2664   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2665   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2666   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2667   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2668   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2669   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2670   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2671   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2672   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2673   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2674   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2675   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2676   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2677   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2678   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2679   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2680   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2681   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2682   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2683   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2684   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2685   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2686   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2687   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2688   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2689   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2690   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2691   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2692   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2693   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2694   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2695   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2696   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2697   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2698   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2699   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2700   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2701   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2702   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2703   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2704   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2705   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2706   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2707   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2708   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2709   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2710   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2711   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2712   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2713   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2714   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2715   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2716   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2717   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2718   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2719   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2720   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2721   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2722   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2723   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2724   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2725   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2726   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2727   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2728   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2729   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2730   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2731   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2732   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2733   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2734   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2735   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2736   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2737   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2738   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2739   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2740   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2741   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2742   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2743   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2744   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2745   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2746   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2747   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2748   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2749   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2750   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2751   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2752   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2753   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2754   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2755   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2756   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2757   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2758   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2759   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2760   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2761   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2762 
  2763 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2764 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2765 
  2766 
  2767 *** FOL ***
  2768 
  2769 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2770 
  2771 
  2772 *** ZF ***
  2773 
  2774 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2775 analysis.
  2776 
  2777 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2778 
  2779 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2780 
  2781 
  2782 *** ML ***
  2783 
  2784 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2785 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2786 
  2787 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2788 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2789 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2790 
  2791 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2792 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2793 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2794 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2795 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2796 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2797 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2798 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2799 
  2800 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2801 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2802 
  2803 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2804 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2805 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2806 
  2807 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2808 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2809 
  2810 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2811 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2812 context as well.
  2813 
  2814 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2815 
  2816   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2817   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2818   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2819   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2820   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2821   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2822   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2823   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2824   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2825   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2826   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2827   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2828 
  2829 
  2830 *** System ***
  2831 
  2832 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2833 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2834 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2835 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2836 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2837 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2838 the generic user home was intended.
  2839 
  2840 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2841 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2842 
  2843 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2844 (not just JRE).
  2845 
  2846 
  2847 
  2848 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2849 ------------------------------------
  2850 
  2851 *** General ***
  2852 
  2853 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2854 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2855 
  2856   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2857     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2858     files for checking).
  2859 
  2860   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2861     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2862     positions.
  2863 
  2864   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2865     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2866     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2867 
  2868   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2869     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2870     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2871 
  2872   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2873     cores.
  2874 
  2875   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2876     versions (garbage collection).
  2877 
  2878 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2879 including some remaining limitations.
  2880 
  2881 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2882 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2883 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2884 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2885 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2886 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2887 
  2888 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2889 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2890 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2891 
  2892 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2893 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2894 usedir option -Q.
  2895 
  2896 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2897 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2898 
  2899   long_names   ~> names_long
  2900   short_names  ~> names_short
  2901   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2902 
  2903 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2904 
  2905   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2906 
  2907 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2908 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2909 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2910 
  2911 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2912 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2913 
  2914 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2915   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2916   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2917   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2918     "Classical Reasoner".
  2919 
  2920 
  2921 *** HOL ***
  2922 
  2923 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2924 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2925 
  2926 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2927 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2928 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2929 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2930 class complete_linorder.
  2931 
  2932 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2933 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2934 
  2935 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2936 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2937 
  2938   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2939   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2940   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2941   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2942   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2943   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2944   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2945   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2946   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2947   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2948   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2949 
  2950 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2951 
  2952   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2953   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2954   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2955   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2956   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2957   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2958   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2959   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2960   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2961   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2962   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2963   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2964   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2965   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2966   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2967   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2968 
  2969 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2970 
  2971 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2972 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2973 
  2974 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2975 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2976 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2977 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2978 
  2979 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2980 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2981 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2982 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2983 
  2984 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2985 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2986 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2987 
  2988 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2989 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2990 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2991 
  2992 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2993 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2994 
  2995 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2996 
  2997     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2998     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2999 
  3000 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  3001 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3002 
  3003 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  3004 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3005 
  3006 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  3007 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  3008 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  3009 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3010 
  3011   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  3012   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  3013   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  3014   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  3015   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  3016   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  3017   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  3018 
  3019 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  3020 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3021 
  3022   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  3023   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  3024   real_less_def ~> less_le
  3025   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  3026   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  3027   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3028   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3029   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3030   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3031   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  3032   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  3033   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  3034   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  3035   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3036   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  3037   real_le_linear ~> linear
  3038   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  3039   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  3040   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  3041   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  3042   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  3043   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  3044   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  3045   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  3046   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  3047   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  3048   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  3049   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  3050   expi_add ~> exp_add
  3051   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  3052   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  3053   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  3054   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  3055   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3056   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  3057   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3058   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  3059   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3060   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3061   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3062   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3063   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3064   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  3065   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  3066   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  3067   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  3068   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3069   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3070   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3071   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  3072   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3073   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3074   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  3075   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  3076   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  3077   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  3078   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  3079   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3080   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3081   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3082   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  3083   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  3084   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3085   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3086   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  3087   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  3088   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3089   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  3090   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3091   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3092   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  3093   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  3094   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3095   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  3096   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  3097   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3098   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  3099   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3100   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  3101   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  3102   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  3103   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  3104 
  3105 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  3106 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  3107 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  3108 
  3109 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  3110 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  3111 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  3112 
  3113 * Code generation:
  3114 
  3115   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  3116     characters in the target language.
  3117 
  3118   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  3119     instead.
  3120 
  3121   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  3122 
  3123   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  3124     reactivated by the following theory command:
  3125 
  3126       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  3127 
  3128 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3129 
  3130 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  3131 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  3132 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  3133 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  3134 syntax.
  3135 
  3136 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  3137 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  3138 
  3139 * Nitpick:
  3140   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  3141   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  3142   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  3143     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3144 
  3145 * Sledgehammer:
  3146   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  3147   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  3148     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  3149   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  3150     this can be done within reasonable time.
  3151   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  3152     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3153   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  3154     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  3155   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  3156     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3157 
  3158 * Metis:
  3159   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3160   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  3161     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3162 
  3163 * Command 'try':
  3164   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  3165     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3166   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  3167     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  3168 
  3169 * Quickcheck:
  3170   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  3171     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3172   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  3173     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3174   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  3175     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  3176     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  3177     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  3178   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  3179     (formly in HOL/Library).
  3180 
  3181 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3182 use 'partial_function' instead.
  3183 
  3184 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  3185 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  3186 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  3187 
  3188 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  3189 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  3190 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3191 
  3192 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  3193 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3194 
  3195 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  3196 arithmetic.
  3197 
  3198 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  3199 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  3200 and lattice type classes.
  3201 
  3202 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  3203 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  3204 
  3205 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  3206 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  3207 
  3208 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  3209 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  3210 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3211 
  3212   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  3213   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  3214   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  3215   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  3216 
  3217 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  3218 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  3219 constants:
  3220 
  3221   type inat   ~> type enat
  3222   Fin         ~> enat
  3223   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  3224   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  3225   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  3226 
  3227 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  3228 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3229 
  3230 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  3231 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  3232 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  3233 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  3234 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  3235 
  3236 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  3237 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  3238 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  3239 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  3240 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  3241 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  3242 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3243 
  3244   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  3245   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  3246   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  3247   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  3248 
  3249 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  3250 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  3251 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3252 
  3253   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  3254   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  3255   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  3256   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  3257   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  3258   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  3259   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  3260   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  3261   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  3262   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  3263   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  3264   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  3265   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3266   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3267   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  3268   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3269   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  3270   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  3271   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  3272   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  3273   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  3274   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  3275   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  3276   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  3277   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  3278   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  3279   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  3280   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  3281   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  3282   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3283   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3284   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  3285   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  3286   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  3287   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  3288   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  3289   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  3290   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  3291   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  3292   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  3293   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  3294   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  3295   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  3296   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  3297   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  3298   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  3299   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  3300   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  3301   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  3302   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  3303   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  3304 
  3305 * Session HOL-Probability:
  3306   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  3307   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  3308   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  3309   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  3310     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3311 
  3312 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3313 
  3314   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  3315   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  3316   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3317   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  3318   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  3319   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  3320   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  3321   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  3322   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  3323   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  3324   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3325   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  3326   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  3327   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  3328   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  3329   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  3330   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  3331   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  3332   UU_I ~> bottomI
  3333   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  3334   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3335   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3336   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  3337   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  3338   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  3339 
  3340 
  3341 *** Document preparation ***
  3342 
  3343 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  3344 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  3345 same.
  3346 
  3347 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  3348 result.
  3349 
  3350 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  3351 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  3352 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  3353 
  3354 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  3355 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  3356 
  3357 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  3358 like this:
  3359 
  3360   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  3361   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  3362 
  3363 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  3364 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  3365 layouts.
  3366 
  3367 
  3368 *** ML ***
  3369 
  3370 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  3371 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  3372 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  3373 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  3374 under external program control.
  3375 
  3376 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  3377 data, which requires explicit setup.
  3378 
  3379 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  3380 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  3381 (better known as Proof General).
  3382 
  3383 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3384 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3385 
  3386 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3387 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3388 
  3389 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3390 (including quotes etc.).
  3391 
  3392 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3393 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3394 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3395 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3396 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3397 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3398 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3399 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3400 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3401 
  3402 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3403 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3404 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3405 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3406 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3407 
  3408 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3409 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3410 
  3411 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3412 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3413 
  3414 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3415 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3416 
  3417 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3418 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3419 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3420 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3421 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3422 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3423 proper Proof.context.
  3424 
  3425 
  3426 *** System ***
  3427 
  3428 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3429 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3430 
  3431 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3432 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3433 
  3434 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3435 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3436 
  3437   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3438   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3439   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3440   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3441   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3442 
  3443 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3444 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3445 
  3446 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3447 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3448 example:
  3449 
  3450   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3451 
  3452 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3453 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3454 
  3455 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3456 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3457 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3458 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3459 
  3460 
  3461 
  3462 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3463 ----------------------------------
  3464 
  3465 *** General ***
  3466 
  3467 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3468 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3469 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3470 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3471 like this:
  3472 
  3473   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3474 
  3475 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3476 
  3477 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3478 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3479 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3480 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3481 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3482 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3483 
  3484 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3485 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3486 the following package declarations:
  3487 
  3488   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3489   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3490 
  3491 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3492 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3493 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3494 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3495 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3496 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3497 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3498 
  3499 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3500 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3501 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3502 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3503 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3504 
  3505 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3506 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3507 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3508 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3509 
  3510 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3511 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3512 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3513 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3514 
  3515   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3516 
  3517   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3518   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3519   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3520   show_types                    show_types
  3521   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3522   show_consts                   show_consts
  3523   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3524 
  3525   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3526   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3527   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3528 
  3529   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3530   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3531 
  3532   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3533 
  3534   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3535   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3536   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3537   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3538   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3539 
  3540 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3541 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3542 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3543 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3544 
  3545 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3546 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3547 
  3548   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3549   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3550 
  3551 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3552 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3553 float_token.
  3554 
  3555 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3556 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3557 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3558 
  3559 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3560 DejaVu Sans.
  3561 
  3562 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3563 
  3564 
  3565 *** Pure ***
  3566 
  3567 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3568 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3569 time.
  3570 
  3571 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3572 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3573 
  3574 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3575 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3576 
  3577 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3578 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3579 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3580 command already provided this functionality.
  3581 
  3582 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3583 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3584 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3585 without interpretations.
  3586 
  3587 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3588 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3589 
  3590 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3591 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3592 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3593 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3594 
  3595 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3596 'definition' instead.
  3597 
  3598 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3599 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3600 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3601 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3602 
  3603 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3604 constructors.
  3605 
  3606 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3607 the local file system.
  3608 
  3609 
  3610 *** HOL ***
  3611 
  3612 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3613 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3614 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3615 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3616 
  3617   declare [[coercion f]]
  3618 
  3619 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3620 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3621 
  3622   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3623 
  3624 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3625 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3626 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3627 other theories like this:
  3628 
  3629   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3630 
  3631 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3632 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3633 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3634 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3635 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3636 for examples.
  3637 
  3638 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3639 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3640 
  3641 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3642 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3643 
  3644 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3645 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3646 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3647 
  3648 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3649 functorial structure of types.
  3650 
  3651 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3652 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3653 
  3654 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3655 languages.
  3656 
  3657 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3658 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3659 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3660 
  3661 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3662 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3663 
  3664 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3665 combinators any longer.
  3666 
  3667 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3668 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3669 
  3670 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3671 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3672 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3673 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3674 
  3675   record 'a foo = ...
  3676   ...
  3677   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3678 
  3679 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3680 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3681 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3682 
  3683 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3684 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3685 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3686 
  3687 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3688 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3689 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3690 
  3691 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3692 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3693 
  3694 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3695 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3696 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3697 independently.
  3698 
  3699 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3700 counter example search.
  3701 
  3702 * Sledgehammer:
  3703   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3704     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3705     sledgehammer").
  3706   - Renamed commands:
  3707     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3708     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3709     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3710     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3711   - Renamed options:
  3712     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3713     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3714     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3715     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3716     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3717 
  3718 * Nitpick:
  3719   - Renamed options:
  3720     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3721     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3722     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3723   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3724   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3725   - Added "whack" option.
  3726   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3727   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3728   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3729   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3730     higher cardinalities.
  3731   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3732 
  3733 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3734 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3735 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3736 
  3737     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3738 
  3739 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3740 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3741 
  3742 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3743 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3744 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3745 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3746 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3747 "smt_solver".
  3748 
  3749 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3750 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3751 
  3752 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3753 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3754 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3755 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3756 
  3757 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3758   - Renamed:
  3759     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3760     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3761     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3762   - Added:
  3763     smt_verbose
  3764     smt_random_seed
  3765     smt_datatypes
  3766     smt_infer_triggers
  3767     smt_monomorph_limit
  3768     cvc3_options
  3769     remote_cvc3_options
  3770     remote_z3_options
  3771     yices_options
  3772 
  3773 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3774 header.
  3775 
  3776 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3777 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3778 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3779 
  3780   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3781 
  3782 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3783 
  3784 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3785 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3786 
  3787 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3788 
  3789 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3790 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3791 
  3792 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3793 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3794 
  3795 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3796 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3797 
  3798 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3799 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3800 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3801 
  3802 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3803 
  3804 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3805 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3806 
  3807 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3808 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3809 
  3810 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3811 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3812 for congruent(2)).
  3813 
  3814 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3815 
  3816   types
  3817     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3818     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3819 
  3820   constants
  3821     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3822     True ~> HOL.True
  3823     False ~> HOL.False
  3824     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3825     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3826     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3827     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3828     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3829     The ~> HOL.The
  3830     All ~> HOL.All
  3831     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3832     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3833     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3834     If ~> HOL.If
  3835     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3836     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3837     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3838     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3839     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3840     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3841     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3842     op : ~> Set.member
  3843     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3844 
  3845 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3846 
  3847 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3848 
  3849     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3850     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3851     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3852     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3853     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3854     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3855     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3856     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3857 
  3858 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3859 
  3860 * More stylized fact names:
  3861 
  3862   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3863   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3864   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3865   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3866 
  3867 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3868 
  3869 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3870 
  3871   constants
  3872     null ~> List.null
  3873 
  3874   facts
  3875     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3876     null_empty ~> null_def
  3877 
  3878 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3879 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3880 generation.
  3881 
  3882 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3883 Haskell code.
  3884 
  3885 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3886 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3887 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3888 
  3889 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3890 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3891 
  3892 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3893 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3894 
  3895 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3896 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3897 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3898 
  3899 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3900 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3901 
  3902 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3903 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3904 
  3905 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3906 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3907 referred to by its qualified name.
  3908 
  3909   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3910   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3911   product ~>  Enum.product
  3912 
  3913 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3914 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3915 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3916 
  3917 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3918 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3919 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3920 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3921 
  3922 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3923 sort_key.
  3924 
  3925 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3926 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3927 
  3928 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3929 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3930 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3931 
  3932   types
  3933     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3934               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3935               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3936         (depends on your needs)
  3937 
  3938   constants
  3939      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3940      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3941      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3942 
  3943 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3944 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3945 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3946 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3947 
  3948 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3949 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3950 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3951 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3952 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3953 
  3954 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3955 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3956 
  3957 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3958 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3959 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3960 
  3961 
  3962 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3963 
  3964 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3965 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3966 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3967 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3968 compatibility.
  3969 
  3970 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3971 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3972 
  3973 
  3974 *** HOLCF ***
  3975 
  3976 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3977 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3978 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3979 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3980 
  3981 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3982 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3983 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3984 
  3985   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3986   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3987   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3988 
  3989 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3990 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3991 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3992 
  3993 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3994 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3995 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3996 domain definition now works:
  3997 
  3998   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3999 
  4000 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  4001 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  4002 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  4003 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  4004 
  4005   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  4006     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  4007 
  4008   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  4009 
  4010 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  4011 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  4012 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4013 
  4014 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  4015 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4016 
  4017 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  4018 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  4019 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  4020 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  4021 
  4022 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  4023 
  4024 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4025 
  4026 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4027 
  4028 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  4029 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4030 
  4031 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  4032 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  4033 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  4034 
  4035 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  4036 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  4037 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4038 
  4039 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  4040 still supported as an input translation.
  4041 
  4042 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  4043 
  4044   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  4045   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  4046   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  4047   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  4048   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  4049   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  4050   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  4051 
  4052 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  4053 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4054 
  4055   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  4056   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  4057   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  4058   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  4059   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  4060   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  4061 
  4062 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  4063 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4064 
  4065 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  4066 
  4067   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  4068   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  4069   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  4070   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  4071 
  4072 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4073 
  4074 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  4075 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4076 
  4077 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  4078 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4079 
  4080   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  4081   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  4082   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  4083   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  4084   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  4085   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  4086   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  4087   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  4088   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  4089   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  4090   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  4091   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  4092   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  4093   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  4094   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  4095   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  4096   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  4097   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  4098   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  4099   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  4100 
  4101 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4102 
  4103   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  4104   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  4105   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  4106   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  4107   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  4108   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  4109   box_less             ~> box_below
  4110   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  4111   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  4112   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  4113   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  4114   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  4115   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  4116   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  4117   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  4118   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  4119   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  4120   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  4121   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  4122   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  4123   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  4124   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  4125   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  4126   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  4127   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  4128   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  4129   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  4130   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  4131   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  4132   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  4133   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  4134   up_less              ~> up_below
  4135   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  4136   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  4137   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  4138   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  4139   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  4140   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  4141   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  4142   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  4143   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  4144   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  4145   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  4146   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  4147   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  4148 
  4149 
  4150 *** FOL and ZF ***
  4151 
  4152 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  4153 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4154 
  4155 
  4156 *** ML ***
  4157 
  4158 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  4159 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  4160 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  4161 
  4162 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  4163 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  4164 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  4165 
  4166 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  4167 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  4168 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  4169 
  4170 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  4171 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  4172 
  4173 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  4174 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  4175 
  4176 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  4177 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  4178 
  4179 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  4180 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  4181 
  4182 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  4183 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  4184 almost all situations.
  4185 
  4186 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  4187 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  4188 Isabelle/ML.
  4189 
  4190 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  4191 meaning.
  4192 
  4193 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  4194 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  4195 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  4196 
  4197 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  4198 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  4199 
  4200 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  4201 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  4202 
  4203 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  4204 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  4205 @{thms} for most purposes.
  4206 
  4207 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  4208 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  4209 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  4210 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  4211 configuration options.
  4212 
  4213 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  4214 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  4215 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  4216 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  4217 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  4218 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  4219 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  4220 
  4221 
  4222 
  4223 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  4224 ---------------------------------
  4225 
  4226 *** General ***
  4227 
  4228 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  4229 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  4230 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  4231 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  4232 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  4233 their full internal name.
  4234 
  4235 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  4236 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  4237 Some hints on upgrading:
  4238 
  4239   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  4240     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  4241     which are independent of this issue.
  4242 
  4243   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  4244     provides the following special forms:
  4245 
  4246       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  4247       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  4248       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  4249 
  4250     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  4251     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  4252     extra variables".
  4253 
  4254     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  4255     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  4256     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  4257     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  4258     "logic".
  4259 
  4260   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  4261     antiquotations:
  4262 
  4263       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  4264       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  4265       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  4266       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  4267 
  4268   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  4269     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  4270     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  4271     antiquotations.
  4272 
  4273 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  4274 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  4275 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  4276 diagnose syntax problems.
  4277 
  4278 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  4279 
  4280 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  4281 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  4282 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  4283 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  4284 
  4285 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  4286 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  4287 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  4288 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4289 
  4290 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  4291 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  4292 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  4293 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  4294 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4295 
  4296 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  4297 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  4298 
  4299 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  4300 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  4301 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  4302 
  4303   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  4304 
  4305 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  4306 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  4307 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  4308 
  4309 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  4310 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  4311 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4312 
  4313 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  4314 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  4315 
  4316 
  4317 *** Pure ***
  4318 
  4319 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  4320 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  4321 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  4322 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  4323 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  4324 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  4325 inspect proof terms.
  4326 
  4327 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  4328 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  4329 are added internally.  For example:
  4330 
  4331   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  4332 
  4333 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  4334 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4335 
  4336 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4337 
  4338 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4339 'class' instead.
  4340 
  4341 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  4342 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  4343 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4344 
  4345 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  4346 invariants.
  4347 
  4348 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  4349 user space functionality any longer.
  4350 
  4351 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  4352 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  4353 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4354 
  4355 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  4356 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  4357 
  4358 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  4359 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  4360 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  4361 
  4362 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  4363 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  4364 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  4365 
  4366 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  4367 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4368 
  4369 
  4370 *** HOL ***
  4371 
  4372 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  4373 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  4374 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  4375 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  4376 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  4377 
  4378 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  4379 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  4380 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  4381 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4382 
  4383   fun
  4384     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4385   where
  4386     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4387 
  4388   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4389     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4390 
  4391   quotient_definition
  4392     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4393 
  4394 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4395 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4396 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4397 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4398 
  4399 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4400 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4401 
  4402 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4403 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4404 
  4405 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4406 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4407 
  4408 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4409 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4410 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4411 
  4412 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4413 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4414 
  4415 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4416 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4417 
  4418 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4419 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4420 
  4421 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4422 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4423 
  4424 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4425 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4426 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4427 
  4428   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4429   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4430   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4431   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4432   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4433   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4434   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4435   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4436   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4437   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4438   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4439   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4440   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4441   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4442   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4443   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4444   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4445   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4446   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4447   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4448   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4449   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4450   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4451   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4452   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4453   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4454   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4455   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4456   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4457   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4458 
  4459 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4460 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4461 
  4462 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4463 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4464 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4465 
  4466 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4467 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4468 
  4469 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4470 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4471 
  4472 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4473 
  4474 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4475 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4476 
  4477 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4478 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4479 
  4480 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4481 
  4482 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4483 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4484 
  4485 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4486 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4487 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4488 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4489 
  4490 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4491   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4492   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4493   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4494 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4495 
  4496 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4497 lattices):
  4498 
  4499     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4500     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4501 
  4502     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4503 
  4504     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4505     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4506     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4507     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4508     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4509     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4510     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4511     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4512     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4513     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4514     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4515     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4516     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4517 
  4518     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4519     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4520     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4521     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4522     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4523     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4524     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4525     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4526     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4527     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4528     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4529     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4530     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4531     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4532     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4533     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4534     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4535     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4536 
  4537   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4538   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4539 
  4540     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4541     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4542     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4543     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4544     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4545 
  4546 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4547 
  4548 * Refined field classes:
  4549   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4550     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4551     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4552   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4553 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4554 
  4555 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4556   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4557   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4558   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4559     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4560   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4561     equal_neg_zero.
  4562 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4563 
  4564 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4565 sets to lattices:
  4566 
  4567   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4568   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4569   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4570   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4571   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4572   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4573   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4574   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4575   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4576   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4577 
  4578 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4579 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4580 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4581 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4582 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4583 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4584 
  4585 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4586 multiset order:
  4587 
  4588   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4589     <= and <;
  4590   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4591     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4592     multiset_order;
  4593   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4594     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4595     generation;
  4596   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4597     if needed.
  4598 
  4599 Renamed:
  4600 
  4601   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4602   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4603   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4604 
  4605 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4606 
  4607 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4608 
  4609 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4610 
  4611 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4612 
  4613 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4614 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4615 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4616 
  4617   Constants:
  4618   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4619   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4620   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4621   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4622   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4623   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4624   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4625   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4626   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4627   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4628   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4629   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4630   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4631 
  4632   Lemmas:
  4633   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4634   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4635   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4636   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4637   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4638   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4639   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4640   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4641   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4642   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4643   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4644   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4645   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4646 
  4647 * Sledgehammer:
  4648   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4649     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4650     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4651     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4652     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4653     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4654     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4655   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4656   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4657     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4658   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4659     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4660     is still experimental.)
  4661   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4662     full-typed mode.
  4663   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4664 
  4665 * Nitpick:
  4666   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4667   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4668   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4669     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4670   - Added support for quotient types.
  4671   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4672     constructs.
  4673   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4674     "termination" proofs).
  4675   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4676   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4677   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4678   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4679     record getters.
  4680   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4681   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4682   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4683   - Added "atoms" option.
  4684   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4685     problems.
  4686   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4687     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4688     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4689   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4690     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4691   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4692 
  4693 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4694   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4695   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4696   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4697   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4698   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4699   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4700   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4701   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4702   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4703 
  4704 
  4705 *** HOLCF ***
  4706 
  4707 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4708 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4709 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4710 
  4711 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4712 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4713 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4714 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4715 
  4716 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4717 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4718 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4719 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4720 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4721 
  4722 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4723 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4724 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4725 
  4726 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4727 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4728 
  4729   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4730   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4731 
  4732 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4733 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4734 
  4735   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4736   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4737   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4738   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4739   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4740 
  4741 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4742 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4743 
  4744   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4745   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4746   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4747 
  4748 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4749 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4750 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4751 
  4752 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4753 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4754 
  4755 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4756 
  4757 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4758 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4759 
  4760 
  4761 *** ML ***
  4762 
  4763 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4764 
  4765     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4766     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4767 
  4768     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4769     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4770     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4771     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4772 
  4773     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4774     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4775     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4776 
  4777 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4778 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4779 
  4780 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4781 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4782 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4783 
  4784 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4785 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4786 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4787 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4788 
  4789 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4790 the context or even global references.
  4791 
  4792 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4793 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4794 
  4795 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4796 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4797 
  4798   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4799   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4800   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4801   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4802   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4803   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4804   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4805   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4806   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4807   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4808 
  4809 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4810 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4811 
  4812 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4813 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4814 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4815 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4816 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4817 
  4818 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4819 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4820 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4821 Theory_Data version.
  4822 
  4823 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4824 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4825 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4826 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4827 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4828 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4829 explicitly in rare situations.
  4830 
  4831 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4832 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4833 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4834 
  4835 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4836 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4837 
  4838 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4839 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4840 quite rare).
  4841 
  4842 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4843 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4844 
  4845 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4846 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4847 terms.
  4848 
  4849 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4850 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4851 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4852 
  4853 
  4854 *** System ***
  4855 
  4856 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4857 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4858 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4859 
  4860 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4861 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4862 respectively.
  4863 
  4864 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4865 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4866 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4867 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4868 
  4869   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4870 
  4871 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4872 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4873 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4874 component.
  4875 
  4876 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4877 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4878 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4879 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4880 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4881 the user for manual installation.
  4882 
  4883 
  4884 
  4885 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4886 -------------------------------------
  4887 
  4888 *** General ***
  4889 
  4890 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4891 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4892 
  4893 
  4894 *** Pure ***
  4895 
  4896 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4897 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4898 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4899 
  4900 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4901 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4902 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4903 
  4904 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4905 interpretation.
  4906 
  4907 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4908 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4909 
  4910 
  4911 *** Document preparation ***
  4912 
  4913 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4914 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4915 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4916 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4917 
  4918 
  4919 *** HOL ***
  4920 
  4921 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4922 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4923 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4924 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4925 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4926 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4927 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4928 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4929 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4930 
  4931 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4932 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4933 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4934 
  4935 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4936 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4937 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4938 
  4939 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4940 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4941 
  4942 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4943 
  4944 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4945 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4946 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4947 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4948 
  4949 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4950 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4951 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4952 "mirabelle" utility.
  4953 
  4954 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4955 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4956 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4957 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4958 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4959 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4960 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4961 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4962 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4963 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4964 
  4965 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4966 procedure only.
  4967 
  4968 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4969 
  4970 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4971 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4972 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4973 that fail later.
  4974 
  4975 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4976 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4977 
  4978 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4979 the same method as the approximation method.
  4980 
  4981 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4982 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4983 series expansion.
  4984 
  4985 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4986 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4987 
  4988 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4989 reals.
  4990 
  4991 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4992 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4993 
  4994 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4995 fixpoint theorem.
  4996 
  4997 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4998   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4999     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  5000   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  5001     accordingly
  5002   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  5003     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  5004   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  5005     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  5006 
  5007 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  5008 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  5009 lattice.
  5010 
  5011 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  5012 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  5013 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  5014 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  5015 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  5016 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  5017 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5018 
  5019 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  5020   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  5021     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  5022   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  5023     le_inf_iff
  5024   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  5025     sup_aci)
  5026   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  5027   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  5028   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  5029     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  5030     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  5031     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  5032     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  5033     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  5034     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  5035     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  5036     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  5037     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  5038     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  5039   - authentic syntax for
  5040     Set.Pow
  5041     Set.image
  5042   - mere abbreviations:
  5043     Set.empty               (for bot)
  5044     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  5045     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  5046     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  5047     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  5048     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  5049     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  5050     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  5051   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  5052 
  5053 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  5054 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  5055 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  5056 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  5057 
  5058 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  5059 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  5060 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5061 
  5062 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  5063 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5064 
  5065 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  5066 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  5067 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  5068 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5069 
  5070 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  5071 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5072 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  5073 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  5074 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  5075 
  5076 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  5077 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  5078 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5079 
  5080 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  5081 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5082 
  5083 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  5084 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  5085 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  5086 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  5087 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  5088 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  5089 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  5090 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5091 
  5092 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  5093     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  5094     code_post       replaces    code post
  5095     etc.
  5096   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5097 
  5098 * Renamed methods:
  5099     sizechange -> size_change
  5100     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  5101   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5102 
  5103 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  5104 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  5105 
  5106 * Renamed theorems:
  5107     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5108     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  5109     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5110     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  5111     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  5112   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5113 
  5114 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  5115 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5116 
  5117 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  5118 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5119 
  5120 
  5121 *** HOLCF ***
  5122 
  5123 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  5124 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  5125 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  5126 
  5127 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  5128 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  5129 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  5130 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  5131 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  5132 
  5133 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  5134 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  5135 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  5136 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  5137 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  5138 
  5139 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  5140 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  5141 constructor are pre-configured.
  5142 
  5143 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  5144 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  5145 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  5146 
  5147 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  5148 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  5149 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  5150 as well.)
  5151 
  5152 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  5153 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  5154 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  5155 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5156 examples.
  5157 
  5158 
  5159 *** ML ***
  5160 
  5161 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  5162 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  5163 
  5164 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  5165 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  5166 position, logical grouping etc.
  5167 
  5168 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  5169 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  5170 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  5171 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  5172 
  5173 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  5174 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  5175 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  5176 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  5177 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  5178 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  5179 
  5180 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  5181 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  5182 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  5183 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  5184 experiments with references.
  5185 
  5186 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  5187 parallel tactical reasoning.
  5188 
  5189 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  5190 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  5191 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  5192 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  5193 
  5194 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  5195 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  5196 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  5197 
  5198 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  5199 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  5200 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5201 
  5202 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5203 
  5204 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  5205 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5206 
  5207 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  5208 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  5209 
  5210 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  5211 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  5212 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  5213 
  5214 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  5215 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  5216 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5217 
  5218 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  5219 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  5220 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  5221 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5222 
  5223 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5224 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  5225 instead of global theory.
  5226 
  5227 
  5228 *** System ***
  5229 
  5230 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  5231 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  5232 usedir option -q.
  5233 
  5234 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  5235 also the system manual.
  5236 
  5237 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  5238 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  5239 
  5240 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  5241 this is always enabled.
  5242 
  5243 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  5244 
  5245 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  5246 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  5247 currently supported on Linux only.
  5248 
  5249 
  5250 
  5251 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  5252 --------------------------------
  5253 
  5254 *** General ***
  5255 
  5256 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  5257 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5258 
  5259   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  5260     "isatool."
  5261 
  5262   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  5263     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  5264 
  5265   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  5266     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  5267 
  5268 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  5269 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  5270 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  5271 
  5272 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  5273 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  5274 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  5275 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  5276 via "isabelle emacs".
  5277 
  5278 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  5279 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  5280 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  5281 
  5282 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  5283 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  5284 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5285 
  5286 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  5287 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  5288 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  5289 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  5290 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  5291 
  5292 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  5293 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  5294 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  5295 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5296 
  5297 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  5298 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  5299 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  5300 
  5301 
  5302 *** Pure ***
  5303 
  5304 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  5305 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  5306 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  5307 
  5308 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  5309 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  5310 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  5311 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  5312 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  5313 
  5314 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  5315 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  5316 useful in locale declarations.
  5317 
  5318 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  5319 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  5320 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  5321 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  5322 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  5323 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  5324 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  5325 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  5326 no longer generated.
  5327 
  5328 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  5329 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  5330 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  5331 
  5332 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  5333 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  5334 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  5335 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  5336 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  5337 
  5338 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5339 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  5340 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  5341 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  5342 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  5343 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  5344 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  5345 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  5346 
  5347 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  5348 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  5349 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  5350 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  5351 
  5352 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5353 
  5354 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  5355 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  5356 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  5357 
  5358 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  5359 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5360 
  5361 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  5362 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  5363 in HOL, write
  5364 
  5365     class foo = ...
  5366 
  5367 instead of
  5368 
  5369     class foo = type + ...
  5370 
  5371 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  5372 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5373 
  5374 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  5375 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  5376 
  5377 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  5378 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  5379 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  5380 
  5381 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5382 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5383 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5384 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5385 directly in regular applications.
  5386 
  5387 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5388 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5389 
  5390 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5391 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5392 
  5393 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5394 theory context.
  5395 
  5396 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5397 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5398 
  5399 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5400 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5401 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5402 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5403 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5404 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5405 
  5406   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5407 
  5408 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5409 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5410 normalization.
  5411 
  5412 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5413 addressing etc.
  5414 
  5415 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5416 
  5417   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5418   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5419 
  5420 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5421 
  5422   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5423      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5424      parts of the code generator framework).
  5425 
  5426   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5427      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5428      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5429 
  5430 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5431 
  5432 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5433 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5434 
  5435 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5436 patterns, e.g.
  5437 
  5438     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5439 
  5440 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5441 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5442 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5443 hyphen:
  5444 
  5445     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5446 
  5447 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5448 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5449 
  5450 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5451 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5452 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5453 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5454 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5455 higher-order unification.
  5456 
  5457 
  5458 *** Document preparation ***
  5459 
  5460 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5461 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5462 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5463 
  5464 
  5465 *** HOL ***
  5466 
  5467 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5468 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5469 
  5470 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5471 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5472 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5473 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5474 Main, as before.
  5475 
  5476 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5477 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5478 
  5479 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5480 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5481 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5482 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5483 
  5484 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5485 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5486 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5487 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5488 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5489 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5490 
  5491 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5492 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5493 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5494 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5495 
  5496 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5497 menu.
  5498 
  5499 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5500 (contains the empty clause).
  5501 
  5502 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5503 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5504 
  5505 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5506 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5507 
  5508 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5509 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5510 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5511 
  5512 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5513 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5514 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5515 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5516 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5517 
  5518 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5519 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5520 
  5521 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5522 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5523 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5524 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5525 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5526 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5527 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5528 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5529 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5530 
  5531 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5532 
  5533 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5534 
  5535 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5536 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5537 
  5538 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5539 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5540 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5541 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5542 
  5543 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5544 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5545 
  5546     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5547     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5548     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5549     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5550     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5551     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5552     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5553     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5554 
  5555 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5556 theory Set.
  5557 
  5558 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5559 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5560 
  5561 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5562 
  5563 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5564 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5565 
  5566 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5567 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5568 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5569 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5570 allowed. For examples see
  5571 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5572 
  5573 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5574 
  5575 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5576 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5577 
  5578 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5579 structure:
  5580 
  5581     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5582     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5583     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5584     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5585     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5586     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5587     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5588     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5589     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5590     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5591     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5592     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5593     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5594     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5595     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5596     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5597     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5598     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5599     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5600     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5601     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5602     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5603     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5604     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5605     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5606     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5607     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5608     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5609     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5610     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5611     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5612     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5613     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5614 
  5615     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5616     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5617     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5618     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5619     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5620     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5621     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5622     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5623     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5624     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5625 
  5626     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5627     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5628     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5629     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5630     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5631     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5632 
  5633 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5634 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5635 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5636 
  5637 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5638 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5639 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5640 
  5641 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5642 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5643 
  5644 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5645 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5646 
  5647 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5648 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5649 proofs, e.g.
  5650 
  5651   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5652 
  5653 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5654 
  5655 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5656 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5657 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5658 
  5659 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5660 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5661 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5662 
  5663 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5664 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5665 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5666 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5667 
  5668 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5669 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5670 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5671 preorder_class.*.
  5672 
  5673 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5674 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5675 
  5676 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5677 
  5678   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5679 
  5680 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5681 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5682 fold_image.
  5683 
  5684 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5685 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5686 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5687 the former will disappear at some point.
  5688 
  5689 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5690 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5691 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5692 
  5693 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5694 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5695 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5696 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5697 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5698 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5699 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5700 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5701 
  5702 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5703 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5704 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5705 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5706 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5707 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5708 
  5709     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5710     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5711     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5712     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5713     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5714     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5715     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5716 
  5717 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5718 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5719 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5720 
  5721 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5722 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5723 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5724 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5725 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5726 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5727 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5728 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5729 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5730 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5731 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5732 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5733 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5734 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5735 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5736 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5737 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5738 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5739 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5740 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5741 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5742 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5743 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5744 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5745 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5746 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5747 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5748 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5749 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5750 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5751 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5752 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5753 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5754 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5755 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5756 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5757 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5758 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5759 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5760 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5761 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5762 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5763 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5764 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5765 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5766 
  5767 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5768 
  5769 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5770 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5771 
  5772 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5773 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5774 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5775 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5776 
  5777 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5778 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5779 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5780 theory RealVector.
  5781 
  5782 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5783 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5784 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5785 and inner products are included.
  5786 
  5787 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5788 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5789 supported.
  5790 
  5791 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5792 first diagonalization argument.
  5793 
  5794 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5795 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5796 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5797 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5798 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5799 
  5800     hide (open) const gcd
  5801     abbreviation gcd where
  5802       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5803     notation (output)
  5804       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5805 
  5806 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5807 
  5808 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5809 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5810 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5811 
  5812 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5813 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5814 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5815 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5816 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5817 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5818 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5819 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5820 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5821 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5822 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5823 cases.
  5824 
  5825 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5826 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5827 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5828 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5829 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5830 
  5831     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5832     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5833     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5834     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5835     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5836 
  5837 
  5838 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5839 
  5840 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5841 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5842 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5843 
  5844 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5845 
  5846 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5847 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5848 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5849 
  5850 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5851 
  5852 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5853 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5854 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5855 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5856 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5857 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5858 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5859 
  5860 
  5861 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5862 
  5863 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5864 
  5865 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5866 theory targets.
  5867 
  5868 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5869 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5870 'inductive' etc.
  5871 
  5872 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5873 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5874 
  5875 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5876 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5877 
  5878 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5879 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5880 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5881 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5882 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5883 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5884 the algorithm W:
  5885 
  5886  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5887  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5888          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5889 
  5890 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5891 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5892 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5893 
  5894 
  5895 *** HOLCF ***
  5896 
  5897 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5898 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5899 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5900 
  5901 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5902 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5903 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5904 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5905 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5906 
  5907 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5908 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5909 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5910 
  5911 
  5912 *** ZF ***
  5913 
  5914 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5915 
  5916 
  5917 *** ML ***
  5918 
  5919 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5920 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5921 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5922 5.2.1!
  5923 
  5924 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5925 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5926 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5927 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5928 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5929 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5930 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5931 
  5932 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5933 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5934 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5935 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5936 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5937 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5938 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5939 
  5940 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5941 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5942 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5943 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5944 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5945 
  5946 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5947 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5948 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5949 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5950 Method.add_method.
  5951 
  5952 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5953 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5954 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5955 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5956 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5957 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5958 
  5959 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5960 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5961 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5962 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5963 examples.
  5964 
  5965 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5966 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5967 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5968 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5969 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5970 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5971 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5972 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5973 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5974 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5975 
  5976 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5977 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5978 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5979 
  5980 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5981 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5982 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5983 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5984 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5985 resort for legacy applications.
  5986 
  5987 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5988 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5989 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5990 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5991 explicit runtime argument.
  5992 
  5993 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5994 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5995 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5996 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5997 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5998 
  5999 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  6000 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  6001 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  6002 theory state.
  6003 
  6004 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  6005 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  6006 
  6007   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  6008   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  6009   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  6010   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  6011   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  6012   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  6013   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  6014   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  6015   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  6016   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  6017 
  6018 
  6019 *** System ***
  6020 
  6021 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  6022 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  6023 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  6024 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  6025 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  6026 
  6027 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  6028 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  6029 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  6030 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  6031 
  6032 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  6033 
  6034 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  6035 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  6036 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  6037 prover operations.
  6038 
  6039 
  6040 
  6041 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  6042 -------------------------------
  6043 
  6044 *** General ***
  6045 
  6046 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  6047 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  6048 
  6049 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  6050 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  6051 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  6052 provides a proper context already.
  6053 
  6054 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  6055 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  6056 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  6057 
  6058 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  6059 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  6060 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  6061 swap theory imports.
  6062 
  6063 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  6064 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  6065 
  6066 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  6067 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6068 white space without escapes.
  6069 
  6070 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  6071 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  6072 "foo_bar".
  6073 
  6074 
  6075 *** Pure ***
  6076 
  6077 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  6078 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  6079 
  6080 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  6081 There are three ways of invoking it:
  6082 
  6083 (1) unused_thms
  6084      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  6085 
  6086 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  6087      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  6088      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  6089 
  6090 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  6091      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  6092      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  6093      their ancestors.
  6094 
  6095 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  6096 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  6097 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  6098 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  6099 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  6100 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  6101 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  6102 
  6103 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  6104 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  6105 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  6106 
  6107 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  6108 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  6109 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  6110 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  6111 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  6112 
  6113 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  6114 
  6115 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  6116 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  6117 update of theories within ML code.
  6118 
  6119 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  6120 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  6121 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  6122 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  6123 
  6124 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  6125 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  6126 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  6127 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6128 
  6129 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  6130 
  6131 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  6132 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  6133 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  6134 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  6135 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  6136 
  6137 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  6138 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  6139 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  6140 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  6141 situations.
  6142 
  6143 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  6144 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  6145 proof text.
  6146 
  6147 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  6148 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  6149 
  6150 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  6151 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  6152 predicates.
  6153 
  6154 
  6155 *** Document preparation ***
  6156 
  6157 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  6158 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  6159 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  6160 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  6161 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  6162 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  6163 
  6164 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  6165 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  6166 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  6167 
  6168 
  6169 *** HOL ***
  6170 
  6171 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  6172 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  6173 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  6174 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  6175 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  6176 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  6177 
  6178 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  6179 with multithreading.
  6180 
  6181 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  6182 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  6183 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  6184 
  6185 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  6186 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  6187 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  6188 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6189 
  6190 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  6191 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  6192 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  6193 and makes them available separately.  See
  6194 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  6195 
  6196 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  6197 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  6198 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  6199 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  6200 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  6201 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  6202 type and generates all solutions by Prolog-style backward proof using
  6203 the declared rules.
  6204 
  6205 This setup also deals with rules like 
  6206 
  6207   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  6208 
  6209 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  6210 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  6211 
  6212 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  6213 
  6214   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  6215 
  6216   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  6217     definitions on => and bool.
  6218 
  6219   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  6220     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  6221     the following theorems have been renamed:
  6222 
  6223       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  6224       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  6225       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  6226       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  6227       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  6228       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  6229       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  6230       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  6231 
  6232   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  6233     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  6234     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  6235 
  6236   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  6237     The proof pattern
  6238 
  6239       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6240       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  6241 
  6242     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  6243     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  6244 
  6245       have "EX S. P S"
  6246       proof
  6247         show "P S" <...>
  6248       qed
  6249 
  6250   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  6251     The proof pattern
  6252 
  6253       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6254       also have "S = T" <...>
  6255       finally have "P T" .
  6256 
  6257     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  6258     must be replaced by something like
  6259 
  6260       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6261       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  6262       ultimately have "P T" by simp