NEWS
author wenzelm
Sun Sep 29 12:56:50 2013 +0200 (2013-09-29)
changeset 53983 2fa984b202ae
parent 53981 1f4d6870b7b2
child 54010 5ac1495fed4e
permissions -rw-r--r--
tuned;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
     5 -------------------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
    10 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
    11 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    12 
    13 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
    14 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    15 
    16 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
    17 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
    18 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
    19 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
    20 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
    21 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
    22 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
    23 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
    24 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
    25 syntax.
    26 
    27 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
    28 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    29 
    30 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
    31 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
    32 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
    33 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
    34 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
    35 
    36 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
    37 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    38 
    39 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
    40 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
    41 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
    42 
    43 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
    44 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
    45 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
    46 
    47 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
    48 eliminated old "ref" manual.
    49 
    50 
    51 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    52 
    53 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
    54 Documentation panel.
    55 
    56 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
    57 documentation.
    58 
    59 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
    60 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
    61 
    62 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
    63 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
    64 normal editing and checking process.
    65 
    66 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
    67 timing information.
    68 
    69 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
    70 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
    71 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
    72 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
    73 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
    74 
    75 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
    76 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
    77 such command executions while editing.
    78 
    79 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
    80 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
    81 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
    82 
    83 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
    84 document content.
    85 
    86 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
    87 toplevel theorem statements.
    88 
    89 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
    90 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size"
    91 (cf. keyboard shortcut C+0).
    92 
    93 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
    94 $ISABELLE_HOME on all platforms.  Discontinued obsolete
    95 $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
    96 
    97 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
    98 / Global Options / Appearance".
    99 
   100 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   101 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   102 
   103 
   104 *** Pure ***
   105 
   106 * Target-sensitive commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale'.
   107 Particularly, 'interpretation' now allows for non-persistent
   108 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks.  See
   109 "isar-ref" manual for details.
   110 
   111 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   112 
   113 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   114 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   115 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   116 
   117 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   118 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   119 
   120 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   121 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   122 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   123 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   124 
   125 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   126 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   127 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   128 
   129 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   130 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   131 
   132 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   133 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   134 situations.
   135 
   136 
   137 *** HOL ***
   138 
   139 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   140 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   141 
   142 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   143 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   144 to distinguish both when desired.
   145 
   146 * Code generator:
   147   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   148     'code_instance'.
   149   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   150     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   151 
   152 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   153 examples.
   154 
   155 * HOL/BNF:
   156   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including new
   157     commands "primrec_new", "primcorecursive", and "datatype_new_compat",
   158     as well as documentation. See "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   159   - Renamed keywords:
   160     data ~> datatype_new
   161     codata ~> codatatype
   162     bnf_def ~> bnf
   163   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   164     discs ~> disc
   165     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   166     map_id' ~> map_id
   167     sels ~> sel
   168     set_map' ~> set_map
   169     sets ~> set
   170 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   171 
   172 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   173 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   174 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   175 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   176 
   177 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   178 automatically generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x =
   179 t".
   180 
   181 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   182 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   183 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   184 
   185 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   186   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   187   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   188     generated code.
   189   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   190   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   191   - Fact renames:
   192     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   193     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   194     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   195 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   196 
   197 * Reification and reflection:
   198   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   199     "Reification".
   200   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   201   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   202 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   203 
   204 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   205 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   206 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   207 
   208 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   209 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   210 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   211 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   212 
   213   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   214 
   215 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   216 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   217 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   218 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   219 
   220 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   221 
   222 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   223   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   224     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   225     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   226   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   227     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   228   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   229     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   230     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   231     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   232     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   233     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   234     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   235     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   236   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   237     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   238   - Fact renames:
   239       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   240       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   241 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   242 
   243 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   244 
   245 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   246 
   247 * Numeric types mapped by default to target language numerals: natural
   248 (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former code_int).
   249 Conversions are available as integer_of_natural / natural_of_integer /
   250 integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   251 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   252 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   253 
   254 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   255 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   256 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   257 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   258 
   259 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   260 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   261 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   262 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   263 
   264 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   265 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   266 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   267 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   268 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   269 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   270 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   271 lemmas.
   272 
   273 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   274 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   275 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   276 
   277 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   278 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   279 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   280 
   281 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   282 top and bottom elements.
   283 
   284 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   285 
   286 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   287 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   288 
   289  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   290    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   291    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   292 
   293  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   294    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   295    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   296 
   297    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   298    arbitrary filter.
   299 
   300  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   301    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   302    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   303    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   304    on a compact set.
   305 
   306  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   307    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   308    linear_continuum_topology).
   309 
   310  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   311    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   312    on all sequences converging to x.
   313 
   314  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   315    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   316    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   317    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   318    left or right.
   319 
   320  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   321 
   322      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   323 
   324  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   325    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   326 
   327  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   328    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   329    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   330    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   331    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   332    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   333 
   334  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   335 
   336    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   337 
   338    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   339      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   340 
   341    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   342 
   343    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   344      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   345 
   346    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   347 
   348    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   349 
   350  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   351 
   352 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   353 
   354 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   355 
   356     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   357     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   358 
   359 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   360 
   361 * Nitpick:
   362   - Added option "spy"
   363   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   364 
   365 * Sledgehammer:
   366   - Renamed option:
   367       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   368     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   369   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   370   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   371   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   372 
   373 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   374 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   375 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   376 
   377 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   378 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   379 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   380 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   381 
   382 
   383 *** ML ***
   384 
   385 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   386 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   387 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   388 Examples.thy in particular.
   389 
   390 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   391 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   392 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   393 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   394 
   395 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   396 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   397 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   398 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   399 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   400 
   401 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   402 
   403     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   404     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   405 
   406 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   407 
   408 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   409 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   410 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   411 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   412 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   413 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   414 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   415 
   416 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   417 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   418 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   419 clasets separately from the context.
   420 
   421 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   422 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   423 
   424 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   425 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   426 
   427 
   428 *** System ***
   429 
   430 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   431 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   432 
   433 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   434 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   435 
   436 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   437 settings variable.
   438 
   439 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   440 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   441 always pdf.
   442 
   443 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   444 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   445 
   446 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   447 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   448 
   449 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   450 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   451 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   452 
   453 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   454 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   455 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   456 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   457 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   458 for HTML presentation of theories.
   459 
   460 
   461 
   462 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   463 -----------------------------------
   464 
   465 *** General ***
   466 
   467 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   468 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   469 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   470 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   471 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   472 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   473 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   474 
   475 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   476 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   477 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   478 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   479 
   480 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   481 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   482 
   483 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   484 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   485 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   486 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   487 dependencies properly.
   488 
   489 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   490 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   491 
   492 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   493 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   494 
   495 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   496 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   497 and "class ... context ...".
   498 
   499 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   500 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   501 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   502 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   503 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   504 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   505 
   506 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   507 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   508 
   509 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   510 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   511 
   512 
   513 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   514 
   515 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   516 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   517 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   518 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   519 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   520 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   521 
   522 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   523 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   524 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   525 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   526 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   527 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   528 
   529 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   530 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   531 browser on demand.
   532 
   533 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   534 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   535 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   536 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   537 
   538 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   539 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   540 
   541 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   542 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   543 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   544 potentially infinite message streams.
   545 
   546 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   547 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   548 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   549 schemes.
   550 
   551 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   552 symbols.
   553 
   554 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   555 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   556 
   557 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   558 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   559 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   560 
   561 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   562 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   563 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   564 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   565 
   566 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   567 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   568 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   569 
   570 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   571 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   572 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   573 Isabelle distribution.
   574 
   575 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   576 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   577 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   578 
   579 
   580 *** Pure ***
   581 
   582 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   583 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   584 
   585 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   586 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   587 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   588 
   589 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   590 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   591 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   592 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   593 with some care where this is really required.
   594 
   595 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   596 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   597 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   598 
   599   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   600 
   601 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   602 a Hasse diagram.
   603 
   604 
   605 *** HOL ***
   606 
   607 * Sledgehammer:
   608 
   609   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   610     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   611   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   612   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   613   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   614   - Renamed options:
   615       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   616       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   617       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   618       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   619 
   620 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   621 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   622 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   623 
   624 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   625 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   626 
   627 * Lifting:
   628   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   629   - quot_del attribute
   630   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   631 
   632 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   633 expressions.
   634 
   635 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   636 pointfree expressions.
   637 
   638 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   639 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   640 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   641 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   642 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   643 
   644 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   645 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   646 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   647 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   648 accordingly.
   649 
   650 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   651 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   652 
   653 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   654 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   655 
   656 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   657 
   658 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   659 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   660 
   661 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   662 
   663 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   664 
   665   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   666   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   667 
   668 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   669 
   670 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   671 
   672   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   673   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   674 
   675 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   676 
   677 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   678 
   679   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   680     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   681     output f x converges to G.
   682 
   683   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   684     infinity (at_bot).
   685 
   686   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   687     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   688 
   689   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   690     at_top".
   691 
   692 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   693 
   694 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   695 lattice type classes.
   696 
   697 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   698 
   699     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   700     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   701 
   702 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   703 
   704 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   705 changes as follows.
   706 
   707   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   708 
   709       prefix ~> prefixeq
   710       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   711 
   712   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   713     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   714     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   715     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   716 
   717   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   718     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   719     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   720 
   721   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   722     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   723     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   724     Library/Prefix_Order.
   725 
   726   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   727     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   728 
   729       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   730       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   731       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   732       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   733       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   734       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   735       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   736       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   737       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   738       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   739       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   740       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   741       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   742       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   743       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   744       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   745 
   746 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   747 
   748 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   749 
   750 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   751 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   752 
   753 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   754 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   755 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   756 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   757 
   758   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   759   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   760   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   761   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   762   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   763   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   764   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   765   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   766   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   767   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   768 
   769 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   770 
   771 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   772 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   773 Data").
   774 
   775 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   776 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   777 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   778 code.
   779 
   780 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   781 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   782 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   783 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   784 
   785 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
   786 
   787 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
   788 
   789 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
   790 
   791   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
   792   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
   793 
   794 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
   795 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
   796 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
   797 
   798   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
   799 
   800     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
   801     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
   802     cart_base i  removed
   803     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
   804 
   805   Theorems about these constants where removed.
   806 
   807   Renamed lemmas:
   808 
   809     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
   810     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
   811     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
   812     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
   813     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
   814     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
   815     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
   816     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
   817     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
   818     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
   819 
   820 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   821 
   822 * HOL/Probability:
   823 
   824   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
   825 
   826   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
   827     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
   828     (borel_measurable_induct).
   829 
   830   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
   831     projective family).
   832 
   833 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
   834 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   835 
   836 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
   837 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
   838 datatypes.
   839 
   840 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
   841 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
   842 
   843 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
   844 trees for the code generator.
   845 
   846 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
   847 Lifting/Transfer.
   848 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
   849 
   850 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
   851 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   852 
   853 
   854 *** Document preparation ***
   855 
   856 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
   857 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
   858 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
   859 
   860 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
   861 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
   862 
   863 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   864 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   865 document/root.tex.
   866 
   867 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   868 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   869 
   870 
   871 *** ML ***
   872 
   873 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   874 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
   875 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
   876 
   877 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   878 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   879 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   880 
   881 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   882 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   883 necessarily printing visible text.
   884 
   885 
   886 *** System ***
   887 
   888 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   889 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   890 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
   891 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
   892 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
   893 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   894 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   895 
   896 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   897 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   898 
   899   isabelle build -s -b HOL
   900 
   901 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   902 
   903 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   904 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   905 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   906 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   907 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   908 
   909 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   910 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   911 
   912 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   913 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   914 
   915 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
   916 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   917 
   918 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   919 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   920 version of Isabelle.
   921 
   922 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
   923 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
   924 
   925 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   926 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   927 for home-made settings.
   928 
   929 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
   930 
   931 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   932 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   933 configuration.
   934 
   935 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   936 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   937 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   938 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   939 bundled as Isabelle component.
   940 
   941 
   942 
   943 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   944 ------------------------------
   945 
   946 *** General ***
   947 
   948 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   949 
   950   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   951     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   952   - markup for bound variables
   953   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   954   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   955   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   956     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   957 
   958 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   959 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   960 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   961 
   962 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   963 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   964 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   965 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   966 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   967 
   968   context
   969     fixes x y z :: 'a
   970     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   971   begin
   972 
   973   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   974 
   975   end
   976 
   977   thm my_trans
   978 
   979 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   980 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   981 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   982 
   983 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   984 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   985 
   986 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   987 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   988 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   989 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   990 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   991 
   992 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   993 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   994 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   995 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   996 indices of schematic variables.
   997 
   998 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   999 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1000 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1001 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1002 etc. was exploited.
  1003 
  1004 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1005 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1006 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1007 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1008 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1009 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1010 
  1011 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1012 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1013 manual.
  1014 
  1015 
  1016 *** Pure ***
  1017 
  1018 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1019 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1020 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1021 
  1022 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1023 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1024 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1025 undocumented feature.)
  1026 
  1027 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1028 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1029 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1030 
  1031   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1032 
  1033   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1034     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1035 
  1036 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1037 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1038 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1039 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1040 
  1041 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1042 
  1043     num ~> num_token
  1044     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1045     xstr ~> str_token
  1046 
  1047 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1048 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1049 position information via constraints).
  1050 
  1051 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1052 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1053 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1054 
  1055 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1056 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1057 
  1058 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1059 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1060 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1061 
  1062 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1063 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1064 
  1065 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1066 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1067 
  1068   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1069 
  1070 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1071 
  1072 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1073 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1074 
  1075 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1076 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1077 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1078 
  1079 
  1080 *** HOL ***
  1081 
  1082 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1083 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1084 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1085 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1086 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1087 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1088 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1089 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1090 possible.
  1091 
  1092 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1093 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1094 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1095 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1096 
  1097 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1098 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1099 
  1100 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1101 
  1102 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1103 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1104 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1105 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1106 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1107 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1108 
  1109   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1110     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1111 
  1112   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1113     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1114     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1115 
  1116   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1117     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1118 
  1119   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1120     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1121     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1122 
  1123   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1124     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1125 
  1126 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1127 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1128 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1129 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1130 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1131 
  1132   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1133     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1134     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1135     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1136     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1137 
  1138     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1139     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1140 
  1141   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1142     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1143     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1144     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1145     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1146     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1147     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1148     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1149 
  1150   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1151     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1152     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1153     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1154 
  1155   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1156     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1157     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1158     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1159 
  1160   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1161     from type nat to type int.
  1162 
  1163 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1164 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1165 
  1166   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1167     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1168     type.  Example syntax:
  1169 
  1170     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1171       is List.insert
  1172 
  1173     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1174     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1175     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1176     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1177     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1178     by the package.
  1179 
  1180   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1181     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1182     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1183     code generation for each constant.
  1184 
  1185   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1186     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1187     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1188     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1189     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1190 
  1191   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1192     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1193     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1194 
  1195 * Quotient package:
  1196 
  1197   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1198     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1199 
  1200   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1201     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1202 
  1203   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1204     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1205     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1206 
  1207   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1208     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1209 
  1210 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1211 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1212 
  1213 * Quickcheck:
  1214 
  1215   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1216     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1217     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1218     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1219     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1220 
  1221     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1222     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1223     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1224 
  1225     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1226     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1227 
  1228     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1229     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1230     show genuine counterexamples.
  1231 
  1232   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1233     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1234 
  1235     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1236     constructors of that type.
  1237 
  1238   - Support for multisets.
  1239 
  1240   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1241 
  1242   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1243     conjectures in a locale context.
  1244 
  1245 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1246 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1247 
  1248 * Sledgehammer:
  1249   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1250     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1251   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1252   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1253     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1254   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1255   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1256   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1257   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1258 
  1259 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1260 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1261 
  1262 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1263 
  1264 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1265 
  1266 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1267 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1268 
  1269   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1270 
  1271 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1272 a list and a nat.
  1273 
  1274 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1275 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1276 
  1277 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1278 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1279 default.
  1280 
  1281 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1282 
  1283   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1284 
  1285 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1286 
  1287 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1288 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1289 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1290 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1291 one_case.
  1292 
  1293 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1294 the result of the fact expression.
  1295 
  1296 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1297 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1298 of some relation theorems:
  1299 
  1300   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1301   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1302   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1303   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1304   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1305   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1306 
  1307 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1308 
  1309 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1310 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1311 
  1312 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1313 
  1314 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1315 to match the constant's name:
  1316 
  1317   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1318   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1319   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1320   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1321   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1322   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1323   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1324   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1325   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1326   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1327   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1328   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1329   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1330   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1331   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1332   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1333   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1334   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1335   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1336   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1337   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1338   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1339   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1340   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1341 
  1342 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1343 
  1344 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1345 and corresponding theorem names:
  1346 
  1347   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1348 
  1349   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1350 
  1351   - Renamed theorems:
  1352 
  1353     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1354     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1355     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1356     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1357     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1358     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1359     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1360     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1361     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1362     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1363     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1364     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1365     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1366     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1367     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1368     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1369     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1370     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1371     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1372     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1373     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1374     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1375     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1376 
  1377     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1378 
  1379     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1380 
  1381 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1382 
  1383 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1384 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1385 
  1386   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1387   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1388   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1389   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1390   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1391   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1392   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1393   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1394   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1395   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1396   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1397   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1398   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1399   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1400   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1401   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1402   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1403   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1404   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1405   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1406   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1407 
  1408 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1409 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1410 
  1411 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1412 
  1413 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1414 
  1415   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1416   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1417   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1418   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1419   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1420   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1421   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1422   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1423   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1424   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1425   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1426   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1427   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1428   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1429   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1430   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1431   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1432   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1433 
  1434 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1435 
  1436 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1437 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1438 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1439 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1440 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1441 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1442 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1443 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1444 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1445 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1446 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1447 
  1448 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1449 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1450 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1451 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1452 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1453 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1454 
  1455 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1456 through option types.
  1457 
  1458 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1459 relations.
  1460 
  1461 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1462 
  1463 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1464 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1465 
  1466   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1467   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1468   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1469   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1470   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1471   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1472   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1473   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1474   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1475   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1476   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1477   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1478   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1479   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1480   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1481   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1482   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1483   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1484   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1485   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1486   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1487   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1488   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1489   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1490   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1491   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1492   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1493   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1494   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1495   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1496   zless_le ~> less_le
  1497   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1498   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1499   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1500 
  1501 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1502 
  1503   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1504 
  1505 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1506 
  1507 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1508 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1509 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1510 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1511 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1512 
  1513 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1514 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1515 
  1516 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1517 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1518 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1519 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1520 follows:
  1521 
  1522   Operations:
  1523   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1524   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1525   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1526   del -> rbt_del
  1527   delete -> rbt_delete
  1528   ins -> rbt_ins
  1529   insert -> rbt_insert
  1530   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1531   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1532   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1533   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1534   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1535   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1536   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1537   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1538   union -> rbt_union
  1539   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1540   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1541 
  1542   Lemmas:
  1543   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1544   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1545   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1546   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1547   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1548   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1549   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1550   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1551   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1552   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1553   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1554   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1555   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1556   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1557   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1558   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1559   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1560   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1561   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1562   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1563   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1564   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1565   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1566   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1567   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1568   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1569   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1570   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1571   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1572   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1573   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1574   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1575   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1576   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1577   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1578   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1579   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1580   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1581   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1582   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1583   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1584   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1585   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1586   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1587   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1588   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1589   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1590   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1591   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1592   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1593   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1594   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1595   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1596   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1597   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1598   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1599   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1600   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1601   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1602   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1603   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1604   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1605   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1606   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1607   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1608   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1609   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1610   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1611   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1612   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1613   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1614   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1615   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1616   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1617   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1618   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1619   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1620   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1621   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1622   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1623   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1624   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1625   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1626 
  1627 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1628 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1629 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1630 
  1631   Changed Operations:
  1632   float_abs -> abs
  1633   float_nprt -> nprt
  1634   float_pprt -> pprt
  1635   pow2 -> use powr
  1636   round_down -> float_round_down
  1637   round_up -> float_round_up
  1638   scale -> exponent
  1639 
  1640   Removed Operations:
  1641   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1642 
  1643   Renamed Lemmas:
  1644   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1645   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1646   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1647   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1648   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1649   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1650   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1651   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1652   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1653   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1654   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1655   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1656   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1657   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1658   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1659   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1660   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1661   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1662   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1663   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1664   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1665   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1666   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1667   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1668   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1669   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1670   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1671   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1672   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1673   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1674   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1675   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1676   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1677   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1678   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1679   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1680 
  1681   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1682   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1683   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1684   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1685   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1686   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1687   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1688   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1689   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1690   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1691 
  1692 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1693 association lists with distinct keys.
  1694 
  1695 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1696 annotated commands.
  1697 
  1698 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1699 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1700 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1701 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1702 
  1703 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1704 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1705 instead.
  1706 
  1707   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1708   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1709   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1710   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1711   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1712   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1713   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1714   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1715   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1716   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1717   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1718   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1719   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1720   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1721   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1722   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1723   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1724   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1725   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1726   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1727   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1728   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1729   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1730   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1731   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1732   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1733   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1734   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1735   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1736   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1737   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1738   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1739   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1740   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1741   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1742   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1743   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1744   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1745   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1746   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1747   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1748 
  1749 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1750 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1751 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1752 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1753 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1754 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1755 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1756 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1757 
  1758 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1759 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1760 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1761 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1762 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1763 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1764 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1765 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1766 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1767 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1768 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1769 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1770 
  1771   Renamed constants:
  1772   measure -> emeasure
  1773   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1774   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1775   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1776   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1777 
  1778   Removed locales:
  1779   completeable_measure_space
  1780   finite_measure_space
  1781   finite_prob_space
  1782   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1783   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1784   finite_sigma_algebra
  1785   measure_space
  1786   pair_finite_prob_space
  1787   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1788   pair_finite_space
  1789   pair_sigma_algebra
  1790   product_sigma_algebra
  1791 
  1792   Removed constants:
  1793   conditional_space
  1794   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1795   image_space
  1796   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1797   pair_measure_generator
  1798   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1799   subvimage
  1800 
  1801   Replacement theorems:
  1802   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1803   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1804   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1805   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1806   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1807   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1808   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1809   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1810   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1811   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1812   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1813   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1814   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1815   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1816   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1817   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1818   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1819   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1820   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1821   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1822   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1823   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1824   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1825   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1826   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1827   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1828   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1829   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1830   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1831   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1832   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1833   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1834   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1835   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1836   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1837   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1838   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1839   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1840   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1841   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1842   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1843   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1844   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1845   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1846   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1847   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1848   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1849   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1850   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1851   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1852   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1853   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1854   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1855   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1856   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1857   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1858   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1859   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1860   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1861   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1862   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1863   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1864   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1865   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1866   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1867   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1868   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1869   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1870   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1871   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1872   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1873   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1874   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1875   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1876   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1877   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1878   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1879   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1880   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1881   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1882   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1883   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1884   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1885   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1886   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1887   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1888   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1889   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1890   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1891   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1892   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1893   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1894   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1895   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1896   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1897   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1898   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1899   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1900   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1901   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1902   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1903   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1904   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1905   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1906   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1907   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1908   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1909   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1910   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1911   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1912   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1913   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1914   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1915   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1916   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1917   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1918   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1919   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1920   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1921   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1922   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1923   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1924   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1925   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1926   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1927   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1928   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1929   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1930 
  1931 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1932 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1933 
  1934 
  1935 *** FOL ***
  1936 
  1937 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1938 
  1939 
  1940 *** ZF ***
  1941 
  1942 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1943 analysis.
  1944 
  1945 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1946 
  1947 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1948 
  1949 
  1950 *** ML ***
  1951 
  1952 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1953 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1954 
  1955 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1956 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1957 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1958 
  1959 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1960 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1961 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1962 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1963 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1964 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1965 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1966 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1967 
  1968 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1969 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1970 
  1971 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1972 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1973 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1974 
  1975 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1976 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1977 
  1978 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1979 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1980 context as well.
  1981 
  1982 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1983 
  1984   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1985   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1986   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1987   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1988   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1989   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1990   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1991   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1992   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1993   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1994   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1995   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1996 
  1997 
  1998 *** System ***
  1999 
  2000 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2001 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2002 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2003 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2004 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2005 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2006 the generic user home was intended.
  2007 
  2008 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2009 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2010 
  2011 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2012 (not just JRE).
  2013 
  2014 
  2015 
  2016 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2017 ------------------------------------
  2018 
  2019 *** General ***
  2020 
  2021 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2022 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2023 
  2024   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2025     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2026     files for checking).
  2027 
  2028   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2029     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2030     positions.
  2031 
  2032   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2033     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2034     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2035 
  2036   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2037     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2038     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2039 
  2040   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2041     cores.
  2042 
  2043   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2044     versions (garbage collection).
  2045 
  2046 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2047 including some remaining limitations.
  2048 
  2049 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2050 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2051 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2052 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2053 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2054 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2055 
  2056 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2057 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2058 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2059 
  2060 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2061 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2062 usedir option -Q.
  2063 
  2064 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2065 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2066 
  2067   long_names   ~> names_long
  2068   short_names  ~> names_short
  2069   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2070 
  2071 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2072 
  2073   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2074 
  2075 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2076 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2077 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2078 
  2079 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2080 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2081 
  2082 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2083   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2084   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2085   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2086     "Classical Reasoner".
  2087 
  2088 
  2089 *** HOL ***
  2090 
  2091 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2092 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2093 
  2094 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2095 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2096 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2097 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2098 class complete_linorder.
  2099 
  2100 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2101 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2102 
  2103 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2104 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2105 
  2106   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2107   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2108   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2109   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2110   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2111   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2112   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2113   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2114   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2115   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2116   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2117 
  2118 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2119 
  2120   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2121   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2122   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2123   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2124   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2125   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2126   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2127   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2128   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2129   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2130   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2131   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2132   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2133   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2134   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2135   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2136 
  2137 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2138 
  2139 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2140 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2141 
  2142 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2143 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2144 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2145 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2146 
  2147 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2148 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2149 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2150 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2151 
  2152 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2153 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2154 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2155 
  2156 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2157 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2158 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2159 
  2160 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2161 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2162 
  2163 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2164 
  2165     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2166     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2167 
  2168 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2169 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2170 
  2171 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2172 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2173 
  2174 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2175 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2176 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2177 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2178 
  2179   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2180   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2181   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2182   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2183   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2184   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2185   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2186 
  2187 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2188 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2189 
  2190   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2191   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2192   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2193   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2194   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2195   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2196   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2197   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2198   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2199   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2200   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2201   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2202   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2203   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2204   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2205   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2206   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2207   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2208   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2209   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2210   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2211   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2212   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2213   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2214   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2215   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2216   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2217   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2218   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2219   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2220   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2221   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2222   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2223   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2224   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2225   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2226   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2227   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2228   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2229   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2230   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2231   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2232   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2233   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2234   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2235   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2236   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2237   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2238   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2239   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2240   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2241   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2242   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2243   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2244   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2245   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2246   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2247   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2248   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2249   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2250   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2251   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2252   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2253   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2254   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2255   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2256   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2257   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2258   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2259   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2260   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2261   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2262   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2263   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2264   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2265   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2266   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2267   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2268   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2269   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2270   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2271   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2272 
  2273 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2274 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2275 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2276 
  2277 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2278 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2279 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2280 
  2281 * Code generation:
  2282 
  2283   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2284     characters in the target language.
  2285 
  2286   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2287     instead.
  2288 
  2289   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2290 
  2291   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2292     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2293 
  2294       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2295 
  2296 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2297 
  2298 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2299 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2300 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2301 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2302 syntax.
  2303 
  2304 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2305 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2306 
  2307 * Nitpick:
  2308   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2309   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2310   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2311     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2312 
  2313 * Sledgehammer:
  2314   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2315   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2316     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2317   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2318     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2319   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2320     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2321   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2322     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2323   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2324     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2325 
  2326 * Metis:
  2327   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2328   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2329     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2330 
  2331 * Command 'try':
  2332   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2333     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2334   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2335     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2336 
  2337 * Quickcheck:
  2338   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2339     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2340   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2341     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2342   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2343     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2344     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2345     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2346   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2347     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2348 
  2349 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2350 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2351 
  2352 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2353 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2354 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2355 
  2356 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2357 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2358 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2359 
  2360 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2361 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2362 
  2363 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2364 arithmetic.
  2365 
  2366 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2367 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2368 and lattice type classes.
  2369 
  2370 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2371 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2372 
  2373 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2374 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2375 
  2376 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2377 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2378 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2379 
  2380   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2381   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2382   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2383   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2384 
  2385 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2386 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2387 constants:
  2388 
  2389   type inat   ~> type enat
  2390   Fin         ~> enat
  2391   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2392   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2393   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2394 
  2395 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2396 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2397 
  2398 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2399 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2400 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2401 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2402 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2403 
  2404 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2405 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2406 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2407 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2408 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2409 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2410 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2411 
  2412   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2413   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2414   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2415   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2416 
  2417 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2418 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2419 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2420 
  2421   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2422   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2423   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2424   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2425   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2426   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2427   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2428   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2429   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2430   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2431   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2432   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2433   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2434   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2435   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2436   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2437   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2438   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2439   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2440   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2441   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2442   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2443   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2444   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2445   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2446   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2447   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2448   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2449   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2450   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2451   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2452   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2453   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2454   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2455   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2456   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2457   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2458   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2459   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2460   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2461   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2462   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2463   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2464   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2465   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2466   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2467   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2468   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2469   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2470   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2471   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2472 
  2473 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2474   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2475   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2476   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2477   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2478     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2479 
  2480 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2481 
  2482   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2483   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2484   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2485   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2486   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2487   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2488   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2489   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2490   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2491   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2492   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2493   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2494   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2495   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2496   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2497   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2498   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2499   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2500   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2501   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2502   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2503   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2504   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2505   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2506   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2507 
  2508 
  2509 *** Document preparation ***
  2510 
  2511 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2512 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2513 same.
  2514 
  2515 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2516 result.
  2517 
  2518 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2519 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2520 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2521 
  2522 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2523 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2524 
  2525 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2526 like this:
  2527 
  2528   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2529   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2530 
  2531 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2532 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2533 layouts.
  2534 
  2535 
  2536 *** ML ***
  2537 
  2538 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2539 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2540 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2541 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2542 under external program control.
  2543 
  2544 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2545 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2546 
  2547 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2548 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2549 (better known as Proof General).
  2550 
  2551 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2552 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2553 
  2554 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2555 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2556 
  2557 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2558 (including quotes etc.).
  2559 
  2560 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2561 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2562 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2563 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2564 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2565 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2566 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2567 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2568 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2569 
  2570 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2571 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2572 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2573 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2574 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2575 
  2576 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2577 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2578 
  2579 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2580 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2581 
  2582 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2583 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2584 
  2585 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2586 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2587 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2588 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2589 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2590 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2591 proper Proof.context.
  2592 
  2593 
  2594 *** System ***
  2595 
  2596 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2597 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2598 
  2599 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2600 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2601 
  2602 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2603 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2604 
  2605   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2606   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2607   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2608   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2609   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2610 
  2611 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2612 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2613 
  2614 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2615 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2616 example:
  2617 
  2618   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2619 
  2620 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2621 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2622 
  2623 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2624 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2625 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2626 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2627 
  2628 
  2629 
  2630 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2631 ----------------------------------
  2632 
  2633 *** General ***
  2634 
  2635 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2636 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2637 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2638 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2639 like this:
  2640 
  2641   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2642 
  2643 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2644 
  2645 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2646 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2647 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2648 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2649 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2650 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2651 
  2652 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2653 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2654 the following package declarations:
  2655 
  2656   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2657   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2658 
  2659 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2660 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2661 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2662 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2663 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2664 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2665 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2666 
  2667 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2668 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2669 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2670 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2671 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2672 
  2673 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2674 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2675 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2676 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2677 
  2678 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2679 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2680 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2681 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2682 
  2683   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2684 
  2685   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2686   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2687   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2688   show_types                    show_types
  2689   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2690   show_consts                   show_consts
  2691   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2692 
  2693   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2694   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2695   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2696 
  2697   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2698   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2699 
  2700   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2701 
  2702   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2703   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2704   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2705   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2706   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2707 
  2708 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2709 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2710 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2711 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2712 
  2713 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2714 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2715 
  2716   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2717   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2718 
  2719 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2720 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2721 float_token.
  2722 
  2723 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2724 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2725 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2726 
  2727 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2728 DejaVu Sans.
  2729 
  2730 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2731 
  2732 
  2733 *** Pure ***
  2734 
  2735 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2736 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2737 time.
  2738 
  2739 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2740 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2741 
  2742 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2743 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2744 
  2745 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2746 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2747 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2748 command already provided this functionality.
  2749 
  2750 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2751 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2752 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2753 without interpretations.
  2754 
  2755 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2756 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2757 
  2758 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2759 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2760 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2761 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2762 
  2763 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2764 'definition' instead.
  2765 
  2766 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2767 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2768 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2769 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2770 
  2771 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2772 constructors.
  2773 
  2774 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2775 the local file system.
  2776 
  2777 
  2778 *** HOL ***
  2779 
  2780 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2781 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2782 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2783 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2784 
  2785   declare [[coercion f]]
  2786 
  2787 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2788 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2789 
  2790   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2791 
  2792 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2793 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2794 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2795 other theories like this:
  2796 
  2797   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2798 
  2799 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2800 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2801 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2802 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2803 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2804 for examples.
  2805 
  2806 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2807 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2808 
  2809 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2810 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2811 
  2812 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2813 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2814 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2815 
  2816 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2817 functorial structure of types.
  2818 
  2819 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2820 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2821 
  2822 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2823 languages.
  2824 
  2825 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2826 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2827 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2828 
  2829 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2830 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2831 
  2832 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2833 combinators any longer.
  2834 
  2835 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2836 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2837 
  2838 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2839 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2840 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2841 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2842 
  2843   record 'a foo = ...
  2844   ...
  2845   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2846 
  2847 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2848 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2849 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2850 
  2851 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2852 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2853 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2854 
  2855 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2856 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2857 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2858 
  2859 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2860 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2861 
  2862 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2863 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2864 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2865 independently.
  2866 
  2867 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2868 counter example search.
  2869 
  2870 * Sledgehammer:
  2871   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2872     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2873     sledgehammer").
  2874   - Renamed commands:
  2875     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2876     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2877     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2878     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2879   - Renamed options:
  2880     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2881     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2882     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2883     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2884     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2885 
  2886 * Nitpick:
  2887   - Renamed options:
  2888     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2889     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2890     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2891   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2892   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2893   - Added "whack" option.
  2894   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2895   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2896   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2897   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2898     higher cardinalities.
  2899   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2900 
  2901 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2902 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2903 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2904 
  2905     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2906 
  2907 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2908 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2909 
  2910 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2911 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2912 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2913 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2914 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2915 "smt_solver".
  2916 
  2917 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2918 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2919 
  2920 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2921 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2922 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2923 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2924 
  2925 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2926   - Renamed:
  2927     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2928     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2929     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2930   - Added:
  2931     smt_verbose
  2932     smt_random_seed
  2933     smt_datatypes
  2934     smt_infer_triggers
  2935     smt_monomorph_limit
  2936     cvc3_options
  2937     remote_cvc3_options
  2938     remote_z3_options
  2939     yices_options
  2940 
  2941 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2942 header.
  2943 
  2944 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2945 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2946 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2947 
  2948   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2949 
  2950 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2951 
  2952 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2953 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2954 
  2955 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2956 
  2957 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2958 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2959 
  2960 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2961 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2962 
  2963 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2964 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2965 
  2966 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2967 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2968 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2969 
  2970 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2971 
  2972 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2973 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2974 
  2975 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2976 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2977 
  2978 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2979 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2980 for congruent(2)).
  2981 
  2982 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2983 
  2984   types
  2985     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2986     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2987 
  2988   constants
  2989     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2990     True ~> HOL.True
  2991     False ~> HOL.False
  2992     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2993     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2994     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2995     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2996     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2997     The ~> HOL.The
  2998     All ~> HOL.All
  2999     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3000     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3001     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3002     If ~> HOL.If
  3003     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3004     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3005     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3006     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3007     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3008     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3009     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3010     op : ~> Set.member
  3011     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3012 
  3013 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3014 
  3015 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3016 
  3017     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3018     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3019     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3020     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3021     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3022     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3023     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3024     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3025 
  3026 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3027 
  3028 * More stylized fact names:
  3029 
  3030   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3031   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3032   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3033   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3034 
  3035 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3036 
  3037 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3038 
  3039   constants
  3040     null ~> List.null
  3041 
  3042   facts
  3043     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3044     null_empty ~> null_def
  3045 
  3046 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3047 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3048 generation.
  3049 
  3050 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3051 Haskell code.
  3052 
  3053 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3054 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3055 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3056 
  3057 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3058 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3059 
  3060 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3061 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3062 
  3063 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3064 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3065 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3066 
  3067 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3068 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3069 
  3070 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3071 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3072 
  3073 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3074 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3075 referred to by its qualified name.
  3076 
  3077   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3078   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3079   product ~>  Enum.product
  3080 
  3081 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3082 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3083 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3084 
  3085 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3086 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3087 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3088 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3089 
  3090 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3091 sort_key.
  3092 
  3093 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3094 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3095 
  3096 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3097 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3098 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3099 
  3100   types
  3101     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3102               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3103               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3104         (depends on your needs)
  3105 
  3106   constants
  3107      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3108      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3109      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3110 
  3111 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3112 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3113 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3114 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3115 
  3116 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3117 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3118 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3119 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3120 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3121 
  3122 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3123 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3124 
  3125 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3126 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3127 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3128 
  3129 
  3130 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3131 
  3132 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3133 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3134 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3135 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3136 compatibility.
  3137 
  3138 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3139 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3140 
  3141 
  3142 *** HOLCF ***
  3143 
  3144 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3145 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3146 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3147 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3148 
  3149 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3150 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3151 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3152 
  3153   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3154   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3155   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3156 
  3157 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3158 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3159 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3160 
  3161 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3162 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3163 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3164 domain definition now works:
  3165 
  3166   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3167 
  3168 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3169 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3170 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3171 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3172 
  3173   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3174     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3175 
  3176   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3177 
  3178 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3179 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3180 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3181 
  3182 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3183 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3184 
  3185 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3186 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3187 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3188 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3189 
  3190 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3191 
  3192 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3193 
  3194 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3195 
  3196 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3197 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3198 
  3199 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3200 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3201 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3202 
  3203 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3204 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3205 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3206 
  3207 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3208 still supported as an input translation.
  3209 
  3210 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3211 
  3212   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3213   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3214   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3215   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3216   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3217   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3218   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3219 
  3220 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3221 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3222 
  3223   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3224   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3225   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3226   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3227   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3228   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3229 
  3230 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3231 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3232 
  3233 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3234 
  3235   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3236   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3237   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3238   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3239 
  3240 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3241 
  3242 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3243 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3244 
  3245 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3246 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3247 
  3248   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3249   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3250   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3251   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3252   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3253   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3254   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3255   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3256   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3257   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3258   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3259   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3260   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3261   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3262   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3263   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3264   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3265   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3266   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3267   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3268 
  3269 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3270 
  3271   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3272   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3273   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3274   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3275   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3276   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3277   box_less             ~> box_below
  3278   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3279   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3280   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3281   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3282   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3283   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3284   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3285   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3286   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3287   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3288   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3289   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3290   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3291   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3292   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3293   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3294   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3295   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3296   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3297   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3298   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3299   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3300   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3301   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3302   up_less              ~> up_below
  3303   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3304   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3305   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3306   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3307   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3308   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3309   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3310   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3311   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3312   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3313   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3314   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3315   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3316 
  3317 
  3318 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3319 
  3320 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3321 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3322 
  3323 
  3324 *** ML ***
  3325 
  3326 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3327 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3328 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3329 
  3330 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3331 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3332 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3333 
  3334 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3335 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3336 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3337 
  3338 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3339 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3340 
  3341 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3342 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3343 
  3344 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3345 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3346 
  3347 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3348 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3349 
  3350 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3351 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3352 almost all situations.
  3353 
  3354 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3355 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3356 Isabelle/ML.
  3357 
  3358 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3359 meaning.
  3360 
  3361 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3362 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3363 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3364 
  3365 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3366 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3367 
  3368 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3369 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3370 
  3371 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3372 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3373 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3374 
  3375 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3376 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3377 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3378 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3379 configuration options.
  3380 
  3381 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3382 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3383 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3384 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3385 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3386 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3387 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3388 
  3389 
  3390 
  3391 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3392 ---------------------------------
  3393 
  3394 *** General ***
  3395 
  3396 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3397 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3398 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3399 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3400 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3401 their full internal name.
  3402 
  3403 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3404 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3405 Some hints on upgrading:
  3406 
  3407   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3408     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3409     which are independent of this issue.
  3410 
  3411   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3412     provides the following special forms:
  3413 
  3414       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3415       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3416       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3417 
  3418     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3419     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3420     extra variables".
  3421 
  3422     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3423     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3424     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3425     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3426     "logic".
  3427 
  3428   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3429     antiquotations:
  3430 
  3431       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3432       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3433       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3434       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3435 
  3436   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3437     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3438     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3439     antiquotations.
  3440 
  3441 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3442 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3443 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3444 diagnose syntax problems.
  3445 
  3446 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3447 
  3448 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3449 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3450 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3451 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3452 
  3453 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3454 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3455 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3456 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3457 
  3458 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3459 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3460 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3461 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3462 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3463 
  3464 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3465 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3466 
  3467 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3468 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3469 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3470 
  3471   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3472 
  3473 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3474 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3475 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3476 
  3477 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3478 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3479 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3480 
  3481 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3482 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3483 
  3484 
  3485 *** Pure ***
  3486 
  3487 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3488 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3489 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3490 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3491 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3492 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3493 inspect proof terms.
  3494 
  3495 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3496 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3497 are added internally.  For example:
  3498 
  3499   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3500 
  3501 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3502 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3503 
  3504 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3505 
  3506 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3507 'class' instead.
  3508 
  3509 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3510 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3511 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3512 
  3513 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3514 invariants.
  3515 
  3516 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3517 user space functionality any longer.
  3518 
  3519 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3520 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3521 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3522 
  3523 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3524 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3525 
  3526 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3527 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3528 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3529 
  3530 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3531 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3532 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3533 
  3534 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3535 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3536 
  3537 
  3538 *** HOL ***
  3539 
  3540 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3541 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3542 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3543 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3544 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3545 
  3546 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3547 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3548 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3549 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3550 
  3551   fun
  3552     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3553   where
  3554     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3555 
  3556   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3557     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3558 
  3559   quotient_definition
  3560     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3561 
  3562 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3563 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3564 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3565 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3566 
  3567 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3568 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3569 
  3570 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3571 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3572 
  3573 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3574 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3575 
  3576 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3577 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3578 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3579 
  3580 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3581 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3582 
  3583 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3584 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3585 
  3586 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3587 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3588 
  3589 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3590 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3591 
  3592 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3593 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3594 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3595 
  3596   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3597   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3598   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3599   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3600   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3601   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3602   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3603   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3604   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3605   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3606   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3607   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3608   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3609   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3610   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3611   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3612   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3613   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3614   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3615   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3616   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3617   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3618   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3619   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3620   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3621   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3622   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3623   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3624   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3625   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3626 
  3627 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3628 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3629 
  3630 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3631 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3632 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3633 
  3634 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3635 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3636 
  3637 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3638 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3639 
  3640 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3641 
  3642 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3643 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3644 
  3645 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3646 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3647 
  3648 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3649 
  3650 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3651 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3652 
  3653 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3654 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3655 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3656 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3657 
  3658 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3659   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3660   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3661   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3662 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3663 
  3664 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3665 lattices):
  3666 
  3667     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3668     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3669 
  3670     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3671 
  3672     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3673     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3674     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3675     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3676     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3677     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3678     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3679     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3680     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3681     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3682     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3683     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3684     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3685 
  3686     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3687     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3688     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3689     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3690     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3691     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3692     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3693     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3694     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3695     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3696     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3697     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3698     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3699     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3700     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3701     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3702     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3703     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3704 
  3705   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3706   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3707 
  3708     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3709     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3710     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3711     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3712     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3713 
  3714 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3715 
  3716 * Refined field classes:
  3717   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3718     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3719     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3720   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3721 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3722 
  3723 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3724   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3725   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3726   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3727     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3728   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3729     equal_neg_zero.
  3730 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3731 
  3732 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3733 sets to lattices:
  3734 
  3735   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3736   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3737   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3738   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3739   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3740   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3741   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3742   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3743   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3744   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3745 
  3746 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3747 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3748 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3749 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3750 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3751 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3752 
  3753 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3754 multiset order:
  3755 
  3756   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3757     <= and <;
  3758   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3759     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3760     multiset_order;
  3761   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3762     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3763     generation;
  3764   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3765     if needed.
  3766 
  3767 Renamed:
  3768 
  3769   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3770   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3771   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3772 
  3773 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3774 
  3775 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3776 
  3777 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3778 
  3779 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3780 
  3781 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3782 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3783 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3784 
  3785   Constants:
  3786   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3787   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3788   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3789   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3790   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3791   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3792   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3793   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3794   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3795   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3796   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3797   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3798   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3799 
  3800   Lemmas:
  3801   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3802   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3803   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3804   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3805   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3806   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3807   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3808   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3809   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3810   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3811   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3812   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3813   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3814 
  3815 * Sledgehammer:
  3816   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3817     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3818     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3819     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3820     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3821     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3822     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3823   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3824   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3825     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3826   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3827     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3828     is still experimental.)
  3829   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3830     full-typed mode.
  3831   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3832 
  3833 * Nitpick:
  3834   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3835   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3836   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3837     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3838   - Added support for quotient types.
  3839   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3840     constructs.
  3841   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3842     "termination" proofs).
  3843   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3844   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3845   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3846   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3847     record getters.
  3848   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3849   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3850   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3851   - Added "atoms" option.
  3852   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3853     problems.
  3854   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3855     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3856     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3857   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3858     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3859   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3860 
  3861 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3862   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3863   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3864   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3865   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3866   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3867   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3868   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3869   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3870   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3871 
  3872 
  3873 *** HOLCF ***
  3874 
  3875 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3876 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3877 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3878 
  3879 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3880 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3881 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3882 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3883 
  3884 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3885 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3886 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3887 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3888 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3889 
  3890 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3891 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3892 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3893 
  3894 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3895 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3896 
  3897   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3898   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3899 
  3900 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3901 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3902 
  3903   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3904   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3905   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3906   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3907   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3908 
  3909 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3910 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3911 
  3912   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3913   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3914   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3915 
  3916 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3917 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3918 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3919 
  3920 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3921 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3922 
  3923 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3924 
  3925 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3926 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3927 
  3928 
  3929 *** ML ***
  3930 
  3931 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3932 
  3933     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3934     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3935 
  3936     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3937     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3938     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3939     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3940 
  3941     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3942     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3943     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3944 
  3945 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3946 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3947 
  3948 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3949 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3950 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3951 
  3952 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3953 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3954 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3955 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3956 
  3957 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3958 the context or even global references.
  3959 
  3960 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3961 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3962 
  3963 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3964 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3965 
  3966   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3967   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3968   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3969   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3970   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3971   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3972   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3973   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3974   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3975   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3976 
  3977 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3978 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3979 
  3980 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3981 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3982 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3983 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3984 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3985 
  3986 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3987 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3988 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3989 Theory_Data version.
  3990 
  3991 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3992 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3993 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3994 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3995 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3996 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3997 explicitly in rare situations.
  3998 
  3999 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4000 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4001 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4002 
  4003 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4004 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4005 
  4006 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4007 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4008 quite rare).
  4009 
  4010 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4011 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4012 
  4013 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4014 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4015 terms.
  4016 
  4017 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4018 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4019 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4020 
  4021 
  4022 *** System ***
  4023 
  4024 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4025 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4026 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4027 
  4028 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4029 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4030 respectively.
  4031 
  4032 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4033 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4034 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4035 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4036 
  4037   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4038 
  4039 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4040 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4041 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4042 component.
  4043 
  4044 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4045 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4046 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4047 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4048 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4049 the user for manual installation.
  4050 
  4051 
  4052 
  4053 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4054 -------------------------------------
  4055 
  4056 *** General ***
  4057 
  4058 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4059 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4060 
  4061 
  4062 *** Pure ***
  4063 
  4064 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4065 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4066 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4067 
  4068 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4069 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4070 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4071 
  4072 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4073 interpretation.
  4074 
  4075 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4076 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4077 
  4078 
  4079 *** Document preparation ***
  4080 
  4081 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4082 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4083 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4084 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4085 
  4086 
  4087 *** HOL ***
  4088 
  4089 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4090 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4091 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4092 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4093 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4094 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4095 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4096 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4097 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4098 
  4099 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4100 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4101 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4102 
  4103 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4104 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4105 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4106 
  4107 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4108 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4109 
  4110 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4111 
  4112 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4113 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4114 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4115 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4116 
  4117 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4118 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4119 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4120 "mirabelle" utility.
  4121 
  4122 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4123 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4124 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4125 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4126 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4127 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4128 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4129 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4130 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4131 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4132 
  4133 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4134 procedure only.
  4135 
  4136 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4137 
  4138 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4139 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4140 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4141 that fail later.
  4142 
  4143 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4144 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4145 
  4146 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4147 the same method as the approximation method.
  4148 
  4149 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4150 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4151 series expansion.
  4152 
  4153 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4154 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4155 
  4156 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4157 reals.
  4158 
  4159 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4160 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4161 
  4162 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4163 fixpoint theorem.
  4164 
  4165 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4166   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4167     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4168   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4169     accordingly
  4170   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4171     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4172   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4173     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4174 
  4175 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4176 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4177 lattice.
  4178 
  4179 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4180 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4181 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4182 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4183 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4184 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4185 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4186 
  4187 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4188   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4189     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4190   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4191     le_inf_iff
  4192   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4193     sup_aci)
  4194   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4195   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4196   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4197     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4198     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4199     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4200     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4201     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4202     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4203     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4204     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4205     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4206     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4207   - authentic syntax for
  4208     Set.Pow
  4209     Set.image
  4210   - mere abbreviations:
  4211     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4212     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4213     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4214     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4215     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4216     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4217     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4218     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4219   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4220 
  4221 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4222 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4223 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4224 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4225 
  4226 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4227 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4228 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4229 
  4230 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4231 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4232 
  4233 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4234 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4235 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4236 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4237 
  4238 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4239 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4240 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4241 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4242 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4243 
  4244 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4245 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4246 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4247 
  4248 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4249 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4250 
  4251 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4252 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4253 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4254 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4255 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4256 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4257 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4258 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4259 
  4260 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4261     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4262     code_post       replaces    code post
  4263     etc.
  4264   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4265 
  4266 * Renamed methods:
  4267     sizechange -> size_change
  4268     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4269   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4270 
  4271 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4272 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4273 
  4274 * Renamed theorems:
  4275     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4276     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4277     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4278     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4279     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4280   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4281 
  4282 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4283 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4284 
  4285 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4286 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4287 
  4288 
  4289 *** HOLCF ***
  4290 
  4291 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4292 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4293 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4294 
  4295 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4296 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4297 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4298 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4299 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4300 
  4301 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4302 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4303 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4304 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4305 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4306 
  4307 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4308 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4309 constructor are pre-configured.
  4310 
  4311 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4312 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4313 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4314 
  4315 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4316 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4317 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4318 as well.)
  4319 
  4320 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4321 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4322 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4323 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4324 examples.
  4325 
  4326 
  4327 *** ML ***
  4328 
  4329 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4330 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4331 
  4332 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4333 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4334 position, logical grouping etc.
  4335 
  4336 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4337 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4338 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4339 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4340 
  4341 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4342 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4343 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4344 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4345 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4346 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4347 
  4348 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4349 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4350 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4351 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4352 experiments with references.
  4353 
  4354 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4355 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4356 
  4357 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4358 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4359 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4360 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4361 
  4362 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4363 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4364 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4365 
  4366 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4367 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4368 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4369 
  4370 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4371 
  4372 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4373 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4374 
  4375 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4376 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4377 
  4378 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4379 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4380 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4381 
  4382 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4383 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4384 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4385 
  4386 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4387 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4388 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4389 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4390 
  4391 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4392 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4393 instead of global theory.
  4394 
  4395 
  4396 *** System ***
  4397 
  4398 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4399 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4400 usedir option -q.
  4401 
  4402 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4403 also the system manual.
  4404 
  4405 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4406 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4407 
  4408 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4409 this is always enabled.
  4410 
  4411 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4412 
  4413 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4414 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4415 currently supported on Linux only.
  4416 
  4417 
  4418 
  4419 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4420 --------------------------------
  4421 
  4422 *** General ***
  4423 
  4424 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4425 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4426 
  4427   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4428     "isatool."
  4429 
  4430   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4431     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4432 
  4433   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4434     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4435 
  4436 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4437 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4438 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4439 
  4440 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4441 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4442 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4443 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4444 via "isabelle emacs".
  4445 
  4446 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4447 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4448 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4449 
  4450 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4451 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4452 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4453 
  4454 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4455 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4456 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4457 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4458 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4459 
  4460 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4461 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4462 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4463 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4464 
  4465 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4466 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4467 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4468 
  4469 
  4470 *** Pure ***
  4471 
  4472 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4473 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4474 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4475 
  4476 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4477 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4478 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4479 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4480 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4481 
  4482 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4483 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4484 useful in locale declarations.
  4485 
  4486 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4487 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4488 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4489 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4490 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4491 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4492 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4493 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4494 no longer generated.
  4495 
  4496 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4497 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4498 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4499 
  4500 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4501 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4502 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4503 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4504 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4505 
  4506 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4507 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4508 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4509 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4510 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4511 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4512 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4513 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4514 
  4515 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4516 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4517 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4518 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4519 
  4520 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4521 
  4522 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4523 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4524 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4525 
  4526 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4527 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4528 
  4529 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4530 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4531 in HOL, write
  4532 
  4533     class foo = ...
  4534 
  4535 instead of
  4536 
  4537     class foo = type + ...
  4538 
  4539 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4540 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4541 
  4542 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4543 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4544 
  4545 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4546 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4547 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4548 
  4549 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4550 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4551 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4552 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4553 directly in regular applications.
  4554 
  4555 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4556 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4557 
  4558 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4559 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4560 
  4561 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4562 theory context.
  4563 
  4564 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4565 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4566 
  4567 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4568 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4569 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4570 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4571 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4572 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4573 
  4574   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4575 
  4576 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4577 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4578 normalization.
  4579 
  4580 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4581 addressing etc.
  4582 
  4583 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4584 
  4585   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4586   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4587 
  4588 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4589 
  4590   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4591      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4592      parts of the code generator framework).
  4593 
  4594   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4595      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4596      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4597 
  4598 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4599 
  4600 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4601 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4602 
  4603 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4604 patterns, e.g.
  4605 
  4606     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4607 
  4608 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4609 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4610 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4611 hyphen:
  4612 
  4613     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4614 
  4615 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4616 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4617 
  4618 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4619 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4620 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4621 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4622 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4623 higher-order unification.
  4624 
  4625 
  4626 *** Document preparation ***
  4627 
  4628 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4629 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4630 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4631 
  4632 
  4633 *** HOL ***
  4634 
  4635 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4636 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4637 
  4638 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4639 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4640 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4641 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4642 Main, as before.
  4643 
  4644 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4645 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4646 
  4647 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4648 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4649 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4650 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4651 
  4652 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4653 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4654 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4655 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4656 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4657 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4658 
  4659 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4660 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4661 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4662 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4663 
  4664 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4665 menu.
  4666 
  4667 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4668 (contains the empty clause).
  4669 
  4670 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4671 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4672 
  4673 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4674 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4675 
  4676 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4677 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4678 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4679 
  4680 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4681 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4682 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4683 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4684 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4685 
  4686 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4687 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4688 
  4689 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4690 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4691 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4692 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4693 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4694 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4695 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4696 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4697 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4698 
  4699 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4700 
  4701 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4702 
  4703 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4704 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4705 
  4706 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4707 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4708 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4709 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4710 
  4711 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4712 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4713 
  4714     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4715     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4716     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4717     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4718     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4719     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4720     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4721     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4722 
  4723 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4724 theory Set.
  4725 
  4726 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4727 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4728 
  4729 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4730 
  4731 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4732 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4733 
  4734 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4735 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4736 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4737 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4738 allowed. For examples see
  4739 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4740 
  4741 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4742 
  4743 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4744 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4745 
  4746 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4747 structure:
  4748 
  4749     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4750     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4751     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4752     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4753     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4754     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4755     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4756     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4757     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4758     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4759     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4760     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4761     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4762     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4763     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4764     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4765     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4766     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4767     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4768     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4769     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4770     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4771     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4772     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4773     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4774     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4775     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4776     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4777     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4778     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4779     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4780     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4781     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4782 
  4783     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4784     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4785     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4786     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4787     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4788     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4789     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4790     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4791     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4792     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4793 
  4794     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4795     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4796     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4797     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4798     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4799     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4800 
  4801 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4802 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4803 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4804 
  4805 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4806 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4807 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4808 
  4809 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4810 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4811 
  4812 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4813 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4814 
  4815 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4816 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4817 proofs, e.g.
  4818 
  4819   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4820 
  4821 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4822 
  4823 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4824 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4825 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4826 
  4827 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4828 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4829 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4830 
  4831 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4832 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4833 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4834 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4835 
  4836 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4837 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4838 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4839 preorder_class.*.
  4840 
  4841 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4842 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4843 
  4844 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4845 
  4846   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4847 
  4848 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4849 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4850 fold_image.
  4851 
  4852 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4853 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4854 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4855 the former will disappear at some point.
  4856 
  4857 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4858 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4859 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4860 
  4861 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4862 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4863 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4864 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4865 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4866 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4867 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4868 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4869 
  4870 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4871 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4872 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4873 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4874 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4875 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4876 
  4877     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4878     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4879     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4880     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4881     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4882     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4883     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4884 
  4885 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4886 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4887 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4888 
  4889 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4890 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4891 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4892 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4893 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4894 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4895 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4896 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4897 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4898 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4899 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4900 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4901 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4902 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4903 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4904 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4905 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4906 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4907 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4908 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4909 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4910 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4911 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4912 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4913 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4914 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4915 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4916 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4917 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4918 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4919 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4920 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4921 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4922 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4923 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4924 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4925 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4926 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4927 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4928 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4929 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4930 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4931 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4932 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4933 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4934 
  4935 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4936 
  4937 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4938 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4939 
  4940 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4941 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4942 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4943 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4944 
  4945 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4946 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4947 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4948 theory RealVector.
  4949 
  4950 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4951 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4952 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4953 and inner products are included.
  4954 
  4955 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4956 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4957 supported.
  4958 
  4959 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4960 first diagonalization argument.
  4961 
  4962 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4963 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4964 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4965 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4966 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4967 
  4968     hide (open) const gcd
  4969     abbreviation gcd where
  4970       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4971     notation (output)
  4972       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4973 
  4974 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4975 
  4976 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4977 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4978 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4979 
  4980 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4981 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4982 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4983 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4984 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4985 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4986 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4987 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4988 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4989 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4990 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4991 cases.
  4992 
  4993 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4994 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4995 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4996 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4997 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4998 
  4999     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5000     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5001     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5002     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5003     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5004 
  5005 
  5006 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5007 
  5008 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5009 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5010 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5011 
  5012 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5013 
  5014 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5015 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5016 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5017 
  5018 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5019 
  5020 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5021 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5022 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5023 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5024 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5025 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5026 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5027 
  5028 
  5029 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5030 
  5031 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5032 
  5033 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5034 theory targets.
  5035 
  5036 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5037 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5038 'inductive' etc.
  5039 
  5040 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5041 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5042 
  5043 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5044 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5045 
  5046 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5047 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5048 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5049 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5050 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5051 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5052 the algorithm W:
  5053 
  5054  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5055  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5056          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5057 
  5058 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5059 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5060 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5061 
  5062 
  5063 *** HOLCF ***
  5064 
  5065 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5066 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5067 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5068 
  5069 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5070 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5071 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5072 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5073 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5074 
  5075 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5076 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5077 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5078 
  5079 
  5080 *** ZF ***
  5081 
  5082 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5083 
  5084 
  5085 *** ML ***
  5086 
  5087 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5088 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5089 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5090 5.2.1!
  5091 
  5092 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5093 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5094 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5095 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5096 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5097 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5098 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5099 
  5100 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5101 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5102 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5103 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5104 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5105 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5106 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5107 
  5108 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5109 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5110 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5111 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5112 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5113 
  5114 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5115 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5116 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5117 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5118 Method.add_method.
  5119 
  5120 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5121 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5122 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5123 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5124 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5125 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5126 
  5127 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5128 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5129 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5130 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5131 examples.
  5132 
  5133 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5134 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5135 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5136 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5137 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5138 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5139 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5140 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5141 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5142 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5143 
  5144 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5145 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5146 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5147 
  5148 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5149 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5150 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5151 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5152 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5153 resort for legacy applications.
  5154 
  5155 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5156 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5157 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5158 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5159 explicit runtime argument.
  5160 
  5161 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5162 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5163 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5164 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5165 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5166 
  5167 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5168 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5169 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5170 theory state.
  5171 
  5172 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5173 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5174 
  5175   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5176   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5177   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5178   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5179   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5180   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5181   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5182   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5183   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5184   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5185 
  5186 
  5187 *** System ***
  5188 
  5189 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5190 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5191 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5192 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5193 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5194 
  5195 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5196 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5197 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5198 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5199 
  5200 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5201 
  5202 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5203 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5204 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5205 prover operations.
  5206 
  5207 
  5208 
  5209 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5210 -------------------------------
  5211 
  5212 *** General ***
  5213 
  5214 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5215 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5216 
  5217 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5218 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5219 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5220 provides a proper context already.
  5221 
  5222 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5223 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5224 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5225 
  5226 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5227 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5228 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5229 swap theory imports.
  5230 
  5231 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5232 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5233 
  5234 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5235 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5236 white space without escapes.
  5237 
  5238 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5239 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5240 "foo_bar".
  5241 
  5242 
  5243 *** Pure ***
  5244 
  5245 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5246 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5247 
  5248 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5249 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5250 
  5251 (1) unused_thms
  5252      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5253 
  5254 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5255      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5256      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5257 
  5258 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5259      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5260      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5261      their ancestors.
  5262 
  5263 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5264 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5265 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5266 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5267 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5268 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5269 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5270 
  5271 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5272 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5273 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5274 
  5275 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5276 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5277 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5278 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5279 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5280 
  5281 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5282 
  5283 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5284 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5285 update of theories within ML code.
  5286 
  5287 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5288 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5289 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5290 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5291 
  5292 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5293 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5294 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5295 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5296 
  5297 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5298 
  5299 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5300 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5301 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5302 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5303 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5304 
  5305 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5306 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5307 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5308 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5309 situations.
  5310 
  5311 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5312 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5313 proof text.
  5314 
  5315 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5316 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5317 
  5318 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5319 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5320 predicates.
  5321 
  5322 
  5323 *** Document preparation ***
  5324 
  5325 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5326 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5327 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5328 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5329 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5330 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5331 
  5332 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5333 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5334 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5335 
  5336 
  5337 *** HOL ***
  5338 
  5339 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5340 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5341 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5342 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5343 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5344 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5345 
  5346 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5347 with multithreading.
  5348 
  5349 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5350 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5351 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5352 
  5353 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5354 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5355 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5356 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5357 
  5358 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5359 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5360 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5361 and makes them available separately.  See
  5362 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5363 
  5364 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5365 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5366 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5367 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5368 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5369 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5370 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5371 the declared rules.
  5372 
  5373 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5374 
  5375   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5376 
  5377 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5378 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5379 
  5380 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5381 
  5382   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5383 
  5384   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5385     definitions on => and bool.
  5386 
  5387   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5388     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5389     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5390 
  5391       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5392       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5393       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5394       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5395       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5396       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5397       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5398       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5399 
  5400   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5401     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5402     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5403 
  5404   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5405     The proof pattern
  5406 
  5407       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5408       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5409 
  5410     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5411     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5412 
  5413       have "EX S. P S"
  5414       proof
  5415         show "P S" <...>
  5416       qed
  5417 
  5418   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5419     The proof pattern
  5420 
  5421       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5422       also have "S = T" <...>
  5423       finally have "P T" .
  5424 
  5425     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5426     must be replaced by something like
  5427 
  5428       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5429       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5430       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5431 
  5432   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5433     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5434 
  5435       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5436 
  5437     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5438     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5439     type of the form
  5440 
  5441       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5442 
  5443     rather than
  5444 
  5445       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5446 
  5447 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5448 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5449 
  5450 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5451 
  5452 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5453 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5454 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5455 
  5456 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5457 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5458 
  5459 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5460 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5461 
  5462 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5463 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5464 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5465 
  5466 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5467 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5468 
  5469   less_trans
  5470   less_linear
  5471   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5472   le_less_trans
  5473   less_le_trans
  5474   less_not_sym
  5475   less_asym
  5476 
  5477 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5478 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5479 and different variable names.
  5480 
  5481 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5482 
  5483 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5484 finite maps.
  5485 
  5486 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5487 
  5488 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5489 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5490 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5491 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5492 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5493 accordingly.
  5494 
  5495 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5496 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5497 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5498 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5499 
  5500 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5501 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5502 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5503 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5504 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5505 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5506 
  5507 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5508 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5509 
  5510 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5511 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5512 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5513 
  5514 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5515 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5516 
  5517 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5518 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5519 
  5520 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5521 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5522 
  5523 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5524 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5525 
  5526 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5527 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5528 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5529 
  5530 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5531 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5532 
  5533 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5534 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5535 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5536 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5537 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5538 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5539 
  5540 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5541 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5542 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5543 
  5544 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5545 
  5546 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5547 
  5548 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5549 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5550 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5551 
  5552 
  5553 *** ZF ***
  5554 
  5555 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5556 same session:
  5557 
  5558   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5559   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5560   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5561   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5562   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5563   List      -> List_ZF
  5564   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5565 
  5566 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5567 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5568 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5569 
  5570 
  5571 *** ML ***
  5572 
  5573 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5574 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5575 
  5576 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5577 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5578 
  5579 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5580 
  5581 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5582 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5583 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5584 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5585 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5586 
  5587 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5588 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5589 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5590 
  5591 
  5592 *** System ***
  5593 
  5594 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5595 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5596 
  5597 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5598 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5599 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5600 
  5601 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5602 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5603 
  5604 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5605 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5606 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5607 
  5608 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5609 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5610 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5611 
  5612 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5613 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5614 
  5615 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5616 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5617 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5618 script.
  5619 
  5620 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5621 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5622 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5623 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5624 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5625 
  5626 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5627 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5628 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5629 
  5630 
  5631 
  5632 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5633 -----------------------------------
  5634 
  5635 *** General ***
  5636 
  5637 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5638 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5639 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5640 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5641 
  5642 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5643 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5644 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5645 
  5646 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5647 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5648 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5649 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5650 
  5651 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5652 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5653 quotes.
  5654 
  5655 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5656 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5657 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5658 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5659 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5660 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5661 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5662 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5663 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5664 
  5665 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5666 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5667 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5668 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5669 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5670 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5671 
  5672 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5673 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5674 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5675 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5676 
  5677 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5678 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5679 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5680 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5681 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5682 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5683 
  5684 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5685 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5686 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5687 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5688 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5689 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5690 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5691 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5692 
  5693 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5694 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5695 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5696 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5697 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5698 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5699 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5700 
  5701 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5702 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5703 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5704 
  5705 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5706 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5707 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5708 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5709 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5710 limit is imposed.
  5711 
  5712 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5713 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5714 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5715 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5716 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5717 and scalability.
  5718 
  5719 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5720 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5721 
  5722 
  5723 *** Document preparation ***
  5724 
  5725 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5726 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5727 current context.
  5728 
  5729 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5730 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5731 
  5732 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5733 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5734 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5735 
  5736 
  5737 *** Pure ***
  5738 
  5739 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5740 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5741 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5742 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5743 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5744 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5745 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5746 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5747 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5748 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5749 
  5750 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5751 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5752 sketch:
  5753 
  5754     internal compilation:
  5755         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5756     writing SML code to a file:
  5757         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5758     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5759         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5760     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5761         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5762 
  5763     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5764         method ``eval''
  5765 
  5766 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5767 
  5768 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5769 
  5770     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5771     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5772     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5773     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5774 
  5775 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5776 
  5777     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5778       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5779 
  5780     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5781       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5782 
  5783     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5784       {(target)}+
  5785         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5786 
  5787     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5788       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5789         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5790 
  5791 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5792 
  5793 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5794 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5795 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5796 codegen".
  5797 
  5798 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5799 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5800 annotations).
  5801 
  5802 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5803 syntax.
  5804 
  5805 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5806 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5807 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5808 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5809 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5810 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5811 
  5812 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5813 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5814 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5815 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5816 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5817 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5818 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5819 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5820 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5821 equations, see section "definitions".
  5822 
  5823 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5824 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5825 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5826 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5827 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5828 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5829 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5830 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5831 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5832 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5833 
  5834 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5835 configuration options:
  5836 
  5837   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5838   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5839   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5840   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5841   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5842   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5843   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5844   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5845   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5846 
  5847 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5848 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5849 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5850 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5851 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5852 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5853 order.
  5854 
  5855 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5856 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5857 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5858 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5859 context encountered later on.
  5860 
  5861 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5862 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5863 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5864 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5865 
  5866 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5867 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5868 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5869 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5870 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5871 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5872 
  5873 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5874 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5875 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5876 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5877 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5878 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5879 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5880 more permissive.
  5881 
  5882 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5883 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5884 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5885 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5886 maintainability of proof texts.
  5887 
  5888 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5889 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5890 
  5891   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5892   then guess x and y by clarify
  5893 
  5894 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5895 proof tools being involved here.
  5896 
  5897 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5898 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5899 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5900 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5901 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5902 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5903 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5904 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5905 
  5906 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5907 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5908 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5909 
  5910   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5911   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5912   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5913   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5914 
  5915 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5916 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5917 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5918 
  5919 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5920 both named and unnamed ones.
  5921 
  5922 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5923 
  5924   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5925 
  5926 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5927 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5928 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5929 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5930 
  5931 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5932 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5933 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5934 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5935 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5936 
  5937 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5938 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5939 
  5940 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5941 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5942 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5943 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5944 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5945 originally first one.
  5946 
  5947 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5948 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5949 expected.
  5950 
  5951 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5952 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5953 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5954 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5955 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5956 
  5957   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5958     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5959     obtains x where "P x"
  5960 
  5961   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5962     assumes "A & B"
  5963     obtains A and B
  5964 
  5965   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5966     assumes "A | B"
  5967     obtains
  5968       A
  5969     | B
  5970 
  5971 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5972 explicitly:
  5973 
  5974   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5975     obtains "~ thesis"
  5976 
  5977   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5978     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5979 
  5980 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5981 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5982 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5983 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5984 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5985 case_names).
  5986 
  5987 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5988 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5989 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5990 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5991 
  5992 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5993 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5994 top-level lemma.
  5995 
  5996 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5997 introduction rule (default "that").
  5998 
  5999 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6000 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  6001 to occur.
  6002 
  6003 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  6004 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  6005 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  6006 representations independently of name spaces.
  6007 
  6008 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  6009 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  6010 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6011 
  6012 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  6013 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  6014 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  6015 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  6016 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  6017 current context.
  6018 
  6019 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  6020 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  6021 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  6022 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  6023 
  6024   axiomatization
  6025     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  6026     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  6027 
  6028   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  6029   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  6030 
  6031   abbreviation
  6032     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  6033     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  6034 
  6035 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  6036 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  6037 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  6038 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  6039 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  6040 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  6041 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  6042 
  6043 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  6044 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  6045 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  6046 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  6047 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  6048 
  6049 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  6050 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  6051 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  6052 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  6053 
  6054 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  6055 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  6056 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  6057 
  6058   definition "K x _ = x"
  6059 
  6060   inductive conj for A B
  6061   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  6062 
  6063 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  6064 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  6065 abbreviations on output.
  6066 
  6067 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  6068 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  6069 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  6070 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  6071 
  6072 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  6073 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  6074 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  6075 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  6076 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  6077 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  6078 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  6079 
  6080 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  6081 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  6082 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  6083 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  6084 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  6085 
  6086 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  6087 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  6088 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  6089 
  6090 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  6091 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  6092 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  6093 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  6094 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  6095 
  6096   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  6097     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  6098 
  6099 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  6100 definition specification element in the context of locale
  6101 partial_order.
  6102 
  6103 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  6104 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  6105 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  6106 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  6107 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  6108 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  6109 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  6110 examples.
  6111 
  6112 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  6113 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  6114 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  6115 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  6116 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  6117 
  6118 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  6119 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  6120 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  6121 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  6122 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  6123 
  6124   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  6125   (induct set: foo bar)
  6126   (induct pred: foo bar)
  6127   (induct type: foo bar)
  6128 
  6129 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  6130 new format.
  6131 
  6132 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  6133 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  6134 
  6135 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  6136 considered a legacy feature.
  6137 
  6138 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  6139 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6140 
  6141 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  6142 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  6143 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  6144 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  6145   
  6146 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  6147 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  6148 manipulating the claset.
  6149 
  6150 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  6151 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  6152 least one premise.
  6153 
  6154 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  6155 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  6156 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  6157 rule steps.
  6158 
  6159 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  6160 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  6161 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  6162 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  6163 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  6164 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  6165 
  6166 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  6167 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  6168 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  6169 
  6170 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  6171 the graph browser tool.
  6172 
  6173 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  6174 default; use '!' option for full details.
  6175 
  6176 
  6177 *** HOL ***
  6178 
  6179 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  6180 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  6181 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  6182 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  6183 multi-threading.
  6184   
  6185 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  6186 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  6187 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  6188 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  6189 work with multi-threading.
  6190 
  6191 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  6192 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  6193 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  6194 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  6195 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  6196 
  6197 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  6198 
  6199 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  6200 equality.
  6201 
  6202 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  6203 the new 'class' package:
  6204 
  6205     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  6206     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  6207     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  6208     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  6209     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  6210     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  6211     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  6212     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  6213     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  6214     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  6215     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  6216     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  6217     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  6218     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  6219     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  6220     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  6221     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  6222     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  6223     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  6224     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  6225 
  6226 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  6227 
  6228 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  6229 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  6230 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  6231 names.
  6232 
  6233 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  6234 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  6235 
  6236 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  6237 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  6238 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  6239 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  6240 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  6241 
  6242 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  6243 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  6244 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  6245 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  6246 
  6247 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  6248 
  6249 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  6250 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  6251 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  6252 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  6253 INCOMPATIBILITY.