NEWS
author wenzelm
Sat Nov 24 12:39:58 2012 +0100 (2012-11-24)
changeset 50182 30177ec0be36
parent 50141 15523888c11b
child 50183 2b3e24e1c9e7
permissions -rw-r--r--
added ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
    10 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
    11 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
    12 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
    13 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
    14 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
    15 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
    16 
    17 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
    18 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
    19 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
    20 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
    21 
    22 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
    23 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
    24 
    25 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
    26 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
    27 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
    28 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
    29 dependencies properly.
    30 
    31 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    32 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    33 
    34 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
    35 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
    36 
    37 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for
    38 specifications: nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
    39 and "class ... context ...".
    40 
    41 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
    42 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
    43 
    44 
    45 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    46 
    47 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
    48 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
    49 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
    50 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
    51 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
    52 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
    53 
    54 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
    55 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
    56 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
    57 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
    58 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
    59 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
    60 
    61 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
    62 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
    63 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
    64 that frequently occur in user interaction.
    65 
    66 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
    67 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
    68 
    69 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: output window informs about
    70 accumulated messages; prover transactions are limited to emit maximum
    71 amount of output, before being canceled (cf. system option
    72 "editor_tracing_limit").  This avoids swamping the front-end with
    73 potentially infinite message streams.
    74 
    75 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
    76 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
    77 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
    78 schemes.
    79 
    80 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
    81 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
    82 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
    83 
    84 
    85 *** Pure ***
    86 
    87 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
    88 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
    89 
    90 * Command "export_code": relative file names are interpreted
    91 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than
    92 the rather arbitrary current working directory.
    93 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    94 
    95 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
    96 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
    97 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
    98 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
    99 with some care where this is really required.
   100 
   101 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   102 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   103 given given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   104 
   105   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   106 
   107 
   108 *** HOL ***
   109 
   110 * Removed constant "chars".  Prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   111 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   112 
   113 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from Enum.thy
   114 to List.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   115 
   116 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   117 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   118 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   119 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   120 accordingly.
   121 
   122 * Theory "Library/Multiset":
   123 
   124   - Renamed constants
   125       fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold  -- for coherence with other fold combinators
   126 
   127   - Renamed facts
   128       fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm  -- for coherence with fold_comm
   129 
   130 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   131 
   132 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   133 
   134 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   135 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   136 
   137 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type
   138 to lattice type classes.
   139 
   140 * New combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   141 
   142 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist.
   143 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Related changes are:
   144 
   145   - Renamed constants:
   146 
   147       prefix ~> prefixeq
   148       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   149 
   150     Renamed lemmas accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   151 
   152   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument order
   153     (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped old infix
   154     syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.  Renamed lemmas
   155     accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   156 
   157   - New constant "emb" for homeomorphic embedding on lists. New
   158     abbreviation "sub" for special case "emb (op =)".
   159 
   160   - Library/Sublist does no longer provide "order" and "bot" type class
   161     instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   162     interpretations). The type class instances are to be found in
   163     Library/Prefix_Order. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   164 
   165   - The sublist relation from Library/Sublist_Order is now based on
   166     "Sublist.sub". Replaced lemmas:
   167 
   168       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append_le_same_iff
   169       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.emb_append_mono
   170       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.emb_Nil, Sublist.emb_Nil2
   171       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.emb_ConsD
   172       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sub_Cons2'
   173       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sub_Cons2_neq
   174       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sub_Cons'
   175       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sub_drop_many
   176       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sub_filter_left
   177       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sub_rev_drop_many
   178       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append
   179       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sub_same_length
   180       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append'
   181       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   182       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   183       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sub_length
   184 
   185     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   186 
   187 * HOL/Rings: renamed lemmas
   188 
   189 left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   190 right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   191 
   192 in class semiring.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   193 
   194 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural
   195 functors with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting
   196 non-free datatypes.
   197 
   198 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals
   199 (supersedes the AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   200 
   201 * HOL/Probability:
   202   - Add simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability
   203 
   204   - Add induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint)
   205     and for Borel-measurable functions (borel_measurable_induct).
   206 
   207   - The Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a projective family)
   208 
   209 * Library/Countable_Set.thy: Theory of countable sets.
   210 
   211 * Library/Debug.thy and Library/Parallel.thy: debugging and parallel
   212 execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   213 
   214 * Library/FuncSet.thy: Extended support for Pi and extensional and introduce the
   215 extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaces extensional_funcset by an
   216 abbreviation, rename a couple of lemmas from extensional_funcset to PiE:
   217 
   218       extensional_empty ~> PiE_empty
   219       extensional_funcset_empty_domain ~> PiE_empty_domain
   220       extensional_funcset_empty_range ~> PiE_empty_range
   221       extensional_funcset_arb ~> PiE_arb
   222       extensional_funcset_mem > PiE_mem
   223       extensional_funcset_extend_domainI ~> PiE_fun_upd
   224       extensional_funcset_restrict_domain ~> fun_upd_in_PiE
   225       extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq ~> PiE_insert_eq
   226       card_extensional_funcset ~> card_PiE
   227       finite_extensional_funcset ~> finite_PiE
   228 
   229   INCOMPATIBUILITY.
   230 
   231 * Library/FinFun.thy: theory of almost everywhere constant functions
   232 (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as Data").
   233 
   234 * Library/Phantom.thy: generic phantom type to make a type parameter
   235 appear in a constant's type. This alternative to adding TYPE('a) as
   236 another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated code.
   237 
   238 * Library/RBT_Impl.thy: efficient construction of red-black trees 
   239 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   240 return a structurally different tree than before. MINOR INCOMPATIBILITY.
   241 
   242 * Library/IArray.thy: immutable arrays with code generation.
   243 
   244 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   245 expressions.
   246 
   247 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   248 pointfree expressions.
   249 
   250 * Quickcheck:
   251 
   252   - added an optimisation for equality premises.
   253     It is switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting
   254     the configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   255 
   256 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   257 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   258 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   259 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".
   260 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   261 
   262 * Sledgehammer:
   263 
   264   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   265     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   266   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   267   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill"
   268   - Renamed options:
   269       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   270       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   271       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   272       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   273 
   274 
   275 *** Document preparation ***
   276 
   277 * Default for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package, instead of
   278 slightly exotic babel/greek.
   279 
   280 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   281 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   282 document/root.tex.
   283 
   284 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   285 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   286 
   287 
   288 *** ML ***
   289 
   290 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   291 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   292 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   293 
   294 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   295 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   296 necessarily printing visible text.
   297 
   298 
   299 *** System ***
   300 
   301 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   302 instead of 4.
   303 
   304 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   305 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   306 for home-made configurations.
   307 
   308 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   309 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   310 
   311 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   312 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   313 build" tool and its examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   314 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   315 
   316 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   317 
   318 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   319 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   320 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   321 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   322 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   323 
   324 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   325 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   326 
   327   isabelle build -s -b HOLCF
   328 
   329 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   330 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   331 
   332 * The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares session root directories for use
   333 with "isabelle build", similar to former "isabelle mkdir" for
   334 "isabelle usedir".
   335 
   336 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   337 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   338 version of Isabelle.
   339 
   340 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
   341 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   342 
   343 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   344 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   345 configuration.
   346 
   347 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   348 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   349 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   350 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   351 bundled as Isabelle component.
   352 
   353 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
   354 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
   355 
   356 
   357 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   358 ------------------------------
   359 
   360 *** General ***
   361 
   362 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   363 
   364   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   365     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   366   - markup for bound variables
   367   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   368   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   369   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   370     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   371 
   372 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   373 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   374 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   375 
   376 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   377 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   378 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   379 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   380 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   381 
   382   context
   383     fixes x y z :: 'a
   384     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   385   begin
   386 
   387   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   388 
   389   end
   390 
   391   thm my_trans
   392 
   393 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   394 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   395 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   396 
   397 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   398 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   399 
   400 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   401 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   402 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   403 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   404 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   405 
   406 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   407 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   408 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   409 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   410 indices of schematic variables.
   411 
   412 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   413 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   414 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   415 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   416 etc. was exploited.
   417 
   418 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   419 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   420 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   421 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   422 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   423 of the material of that old tutorial.
   424 
   425 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   426 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   427 manual.
   428 
   429 
   430 *** Pure ***
   431 
   432 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   433 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   434 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   435 
   436 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   437 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   438 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   439 undocumented feature.)
   440 
   441 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   442 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   443 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   444 
   445   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   446 
   447   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   448     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   449 
   450 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   451 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   452 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   453 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   454 
   455 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   456 
   457     num ~> num_token
   458     xnum ~> xnum_token
   459     xstr ~> str_token
   460 
   461 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   462 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   463 position information via constraints).
   464 
   465 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   466 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   467 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   468 
   469 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   470 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   471 
   472 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   473 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   474 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   475 
   476 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   477 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   478 
   479 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   480 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   481 
   482   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   483 
   484 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   485 
   486 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   487 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   488 
   489 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   490 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   491 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   492 
   493 
   494 *** HOL ***
   495 
   496 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   497 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   498 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   499 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   500 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   501 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   502 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   503 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   504 possible.
   505 
   506 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   507 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   508 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   509 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   510 
   511 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   512 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   513 
   514 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   515 
   516 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   517 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   518 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   519 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   520 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   521 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   522 
   523   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   524     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   525 
   526   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   527     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   528     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   529 
   530   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   531     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   532 
   533   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   534     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   535     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   536 
   537   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   538     Redefine using other integer operations.
   539 
   540 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   541 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   542 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   543 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   544 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   545 
   546   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   547     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   548     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   549     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   550     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   551 
   552     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   553     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   554 
   555   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   556     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   557     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   558     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   559     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   560     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   561     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   562     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   563 
   564   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   565     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   566     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   567     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   568 
   569   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   570     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   571     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   572     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   573 
   574   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   575     from type nat to type int.
   576 
   577 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   578 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   579 
   580   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   581     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   582     type.  Example syntax:
   583 
   584     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   585       is List.insert
   586 
   587     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   588     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   589     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   590     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   591     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   592     by the package.
   593 
   594   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   595     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   596     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   597     code generation for each constant.
   598 
   599   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   600     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   601     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   602     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   603     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   604 
   605   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   606     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   607     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   608 
   609 * Quotient package:
   610 
   611   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   612     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   613 
   614   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   615     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   616 
   617   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   618     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   619     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   620 
   621   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   622     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   623 
   624 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   625 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   626 
   627 * Quickcheck:
   628 
   629   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   630     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   631     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   632     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   633     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   634 
   635     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   636     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   637     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   638 
   639     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   640     continues searching for genuine ones.
   641 
   642     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   643     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   644     show genuine counterexamples.
   645 
   646   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   647     value generators for a given type and operations.
   648 
   649     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   650     constructors of that type.
   651 
   652   - Support for multisets.
   653 
   654   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   655 
   656   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   657     conjectures in a locale context.
   658 
   659 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   660 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   661 
   662 * Sledgehammer:
   663   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   664     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   665   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   666   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   667     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   668   - Sped up the minimizer.
   669   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   670   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   671   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   672 
   673 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   674 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   675 
   676 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   677 
   678 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   679 
   680 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   681 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   682 
   683   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   684 
   685 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   686 a list and a nat.
   687 
   688 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   689 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   690 
   691 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   692 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   693 default.
   694 
   695 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   696 
   697   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   698 
   699 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   700 
   701 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   702 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   703 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   704 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   705 one_case.
   706 
   707 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   708 the result of the fact expression.
   709 
   710 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   711 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   712 of some relation theorems:
   713 
   714   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   715   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   716   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   717   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   718   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   719   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   720 
   721 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   722 
   723 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   724 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   725 
   726 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   727 
   728 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   729 to match the constant's name:
   730 
   731   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   732   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   733   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   734   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   735   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   736   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   737   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   738   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   739   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   740   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   741   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   742   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   743   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   744   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   745   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   746   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   747   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   748   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   749   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   750   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   751   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   752   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   753   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   754   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   755 
   756 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   757 
   758 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   759 and corresponding theorem names:
   760 
   761   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   762 
   763   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   764 
   765   - Renamed theorems:
   766 
   767     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   768     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   769     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   770     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   771     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   772     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   773     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   774     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   775     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   776     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   777     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   778     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   779     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   780     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   781     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   782     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   783     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   784     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   785     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   786     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   787     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   788     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   789     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   790 
   791     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   792 
   793     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   794 
   795 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   796 
   797 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   798 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   799 
   800   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   801   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   802   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   803   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   804   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   805   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   806   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   807   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   808   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   809   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   810   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   811   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   812   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   813   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   814   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   815   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   816   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   817   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   818   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   819   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   820   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   821 
   822 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   823 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   824 
   825 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   826 
   827 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   828 
   829   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   830   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   831   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   832   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   833   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   834   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   835   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   836   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   837   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   838   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   839   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   840   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   841   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   842   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   843   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   844   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   845   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   846   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   847 
   848 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   849 
   850 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   851 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   852 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   853 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   854 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   855 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   856 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   857 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   858 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   859 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   860 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   861 
   862 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   863 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   864 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   865 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   866 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   867 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   868 
   869 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   870 through option types.
   871 
   872 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   873 relations.
   874 
   875 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   876 
   877 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   878 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   879 
   880   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   881   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   882   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   883   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   884   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   885   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   886   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   887   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   888   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   889   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   890   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   891   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   892   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   893   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   894   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   895   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   896   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   897   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   898   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   899   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   900   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   901   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   902   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   903   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   904   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   905   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   906   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   907   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   908   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   909   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   910   zless_le ~> less_le
   911   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   912   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   913   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   914 
   915 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   916 
   917   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   918 
   919 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
   920 
   921 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
   922 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
   923 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
   924 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
   925 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   926 
   927 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   928 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   929 
   930 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
   931 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
   932 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
   933 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
   934 follows:
   935 
   936   Operations:
   937   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
   938   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
   939   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
   940   del -> rbt_del
   941   delete -> rbt_delete
   942   ins -> rbt_ins
   943   insert -> rbt_insert
   944   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
   945   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
   946   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
   947   lookup -> rbt_lookup
   948   sorted -> rbt_sorted
   949   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
   950   tree_less -> rbt_less
   951   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
   952   union -> rbt_union
   953   union_with -> rbt_union_with
   954   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
   955 
   956   Lemmas:
   957   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
   958   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
   959   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
   960   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
   961   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
   962   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
   963   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
   964   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
   965   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
   966   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
   967   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
   968   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
   969   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
   970   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
   971   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
   972   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
   973   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
   974   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
   975   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
   976   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
   977   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
   978   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
   979   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
   980   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
   981   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
   982   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
   983   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
   984   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
   985   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
   986   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
   987   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
   988   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
   989   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
   990   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
   991   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
   992   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
   993   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
   994   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
   995   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
   996   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
   997   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
   998   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
   999   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1000   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1001   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1002   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1003   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1004   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1005   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1006   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1007   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1008   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1009   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1010   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1011   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1012   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1013   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1014   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1015   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1016   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1017   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1018   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1019   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1020   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1021   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1022   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1023   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1024   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1025   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1026   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1027   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1028   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1029   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1030   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1031   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1032   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1033   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1034   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1035   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1036   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1037   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1038   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1039   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1040 
  1041 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1042 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1043 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1044 
  1045   Changed Operations:
  1046   float_abs -> abs
  1047   float_nprt -> nprt
  1048   float_pprt -> pprt
  1049   pow2 -> use powr
  1050   round_down -> float_round_down
  1051   round_up -> float_round_up
  1052   scale -> exponent
  1053 
  1054   Removed Operations:
  1055   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1056 
  1057   Renamed Lemmas:
  1058   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1059   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1060   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1061   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1062   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1063   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1064   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1065   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1066   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1067   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1068   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1069   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1070   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1071   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1072   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1073   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1074   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1075   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1076   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1077   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1078   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1079   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1080   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1081   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1082   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1083   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1084   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1085   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1086   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1087   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1088   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1089   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1090   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1091   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1092   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1093   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1094 
  1095   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1096   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1097   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1098   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1099   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1100   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1101   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1102   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1103   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1104   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1105 
  1106 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1107 association lists with distinct keys.
  1108 
  1109 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1110 annotated commands.
  1111 
  1112 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1113 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1114 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1115 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1116 
  1117 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1118 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1119 instead.
  1120 
  1121   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1122   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1123   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1124   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1125   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1126   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1127   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1128   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1129   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1130   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1131   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1132   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1133   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1134   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1135   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1136   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1137   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1138   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1139   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1140   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1141   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1142   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1143   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1144   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1145   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1146   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1147   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1148   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1149   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1150   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1151   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1152   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1153   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1154   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1155   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1156   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1157   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1158   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1159   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1160   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1161   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1162 
  1163 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1164 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1165 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1166 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1167 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1168 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1169 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1170 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1171 
  1172 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1173 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1174 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1175 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1176 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1177 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1178 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1179 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1180 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1181 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1182 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1183 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1184 
  1185   Renamed constants:
  1186   measure -> emeasure
  1187   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1188   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1189   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1190   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1191 
  1192   Removed locales:
  1193   completeable_measure_space
  1194   finite_measure_space
  1195   finite_prob_space
  1196   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1197   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1198   finite_sigma_algebra
  1199   measure_space
  1200   pair_finite_prob_space
  1201   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1202   pair_finite_space
  1203   pair_sigma_algebra
  1204   product_sigma_algebra
  1205 
  1206   Removed constants:
  1207   conditional_space
  1208   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1209   image_space
  1210   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1211   pair_measure_generator
  1212   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1213   subvimage
  1214 
  1215   Replacement theorems:
  1216   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1217   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1218   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1219   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1220   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1221   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1222   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1223   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1224   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1225   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1226   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1227   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1228   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1229   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1230   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1231   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1232   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1233   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1234   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1235   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1236   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1237   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1238   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1239   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1240   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1241   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1242   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1243   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1244   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1245   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1246   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1247   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1248   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1249   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1250   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1251   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1252   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1253   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1254   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1255   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1256   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1257   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1258   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1259   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1260   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1261   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1262   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1263   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1264   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1265   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1266   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1267   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1268   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1269   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1270   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1271   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1272   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1273   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1274   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1275   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1276   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1277   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1278   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1279   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1280   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1281   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1282   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1283   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1284   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1285   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1286   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1287   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1288   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1289   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1290   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1291   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1292   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1293   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1294   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1295   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1296   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1297   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1298   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1299   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1300   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1301   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1302   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1303   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1304   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1305   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1306   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1307   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1308   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1309   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1310   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1311   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1312   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1313   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1314   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1315   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1316   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1317   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1318   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1319   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1320   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1321   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1322   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1323   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1324   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1325   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1326   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1327   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1328   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1329   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1330   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1331   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1332   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1333   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1334   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1335   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1336   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1337   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1338   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1339   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1340   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1341   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1342   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1343   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1344 
  1345 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1346 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1347 
  1348 
  1349 *** FOL ***
  1350 
  1351 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1352 
  1353 
  1354 *** ZF ***
  1355 
  1356 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1357 analysis.
  1358 
  1359 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1360 
  1361 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1362 
  1363 
  1364 *** ML ***
  1365 
  1366 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1367 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1368 
  1369 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1370 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1371 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1372 
  1373 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1374 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1375 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1376 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1377 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1378 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1379 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1380 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1381 
  1382 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1383 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1384 
  1385 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1386 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1387 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1388 
  1389 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1390 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1391 
  1392 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1393 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1394 context as well.
  1395 
  1396 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1397 
  1398   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1399   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1400   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1401   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1402   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1403   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1404   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1405   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1406   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1407   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1408   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1409   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1410 
  1411 
  1412 *** System ***
  1413 
  1414 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1415 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1416 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1417 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1418 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1419 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1420 the generic user home was intended.
  1421 
  1422 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1423 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1424 
  1425 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1426 (not just JRE).
  1427 
  1428 
  1429 
  1430 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1431 ------------------------------------
  1432 
  1433 *** General ***
  1434 
  1435 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1436 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1437 
  1438   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1439     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1440     files for checking).
  1441 
  1442   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1443     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1444     positions.
  1445 
  1446   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1447     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1448     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1449 
  1450   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1451     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1452     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1453 
  1454   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1455     cores.
  1456 
  1457   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1458     versions (garbage collection).
  1459 
  1460 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1461 including some remaining limitations.
  1462 
  1463 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1464 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1465 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1466 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1467 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1468 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1469 
  1470 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1471 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1472 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1473 
  1474 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1475 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1476 usedir option -Q.
  1477 
  1478 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1479 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1480 
  1481   long_names   ~> names_long
  1482   short_names  ~> names_short
  1483   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1484 
  1485 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1486 
  1487   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1488 
  1489 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1490 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1491 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1492 
  1493 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1494 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1495 
  1496 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1497   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1498   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1499   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1500     "Classical Reasoner".
  1501 
  1502 
  1503 *** HOL ***
  1504 
  1505 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1506 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1507 
  1508 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1509 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1510 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1511 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1512 class complete_linorder.
  1513 
  1514 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1515 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1516 
  1517 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1518 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1519 
  1520   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1521   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1522   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1523   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1524   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1525   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1526   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1527   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1528   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1529   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1530   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1531 
  1532 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1533 
  1534   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1535   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1536   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1537   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1538   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1539   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1540   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1541   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1542   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1543   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1544   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1545   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1546   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1547   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1548   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1549   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1550 
  1551 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1552 
  1553 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1554 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1555 
  1556 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1557 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1558 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1559 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1560 
  1561 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1562 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1563 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1564 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1565 
  1566 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1567 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1568 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1569 
  1570 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1571 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1572 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1573 
  1574 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1575 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1576 
  1577 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1578 
  1579     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1580     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1581 
  1582 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1583 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1584 
  1585 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1586 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1587 
  1588 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1589 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1590 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1591 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1592 
  1593   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1594   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1595   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1596   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1597   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1598   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1599   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1600 
  1601 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1602 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1603 
  1604   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1605   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1606   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1607   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1608   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1609   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1610   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1611   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1612   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1613   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1614   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1615   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1616   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1617   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1618   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1619   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1620   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1621   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1622   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1623   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1624   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1625   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1626   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1627   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1628   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1629   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1630   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1631   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1632   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1633   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1634   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1635   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1636   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1637   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1638   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1639   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1640   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1641   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1642   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1643   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1644   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1645   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1646   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1647   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1648   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1649   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1650   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1651   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1652   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1653   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1654   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1655   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1656   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1657   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1658   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1659   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1660   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1661   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1662   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1663   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1664   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1665   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1666   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1667   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1668   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1669   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1670   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1671   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1672   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1673   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1674   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1675   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1676   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1677   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1678   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1679   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1680   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1681   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1682   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1683   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1684   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1685   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1686 
  1687 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1688 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1689 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1690 
  1691 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1692 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1693 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1694 
  1695 * Code generation:
  1696 
  1697   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1698     characters in the target language.
  1699 
  1700   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1701     instead.
  1702 
  1703   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1704 
  1705   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1706     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1707 
  1708       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1709 
  1710 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1711 
  1712 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1713 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1714 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1715 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1716 syntax.
  1717 
  1718 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1719 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1720 
  1721 * Nitpick:
  1722   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1723   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1724   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1725     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1726 
  1727 * Sledgehammer:
  1728   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1729   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1730     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1731   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1732     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1733   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1734     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1735   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1736     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1737   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1738     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1739 
  1740 * Metis:
  1741   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1742   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1743     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1744 
  1745 * Command 'try':
  1746   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1747     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1748   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1749     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1750 
  1751 * Quickcheck:
  1752   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1753     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1754   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1755     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1756   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1757     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1758     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1759     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1760   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1761     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1762 
  1763 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1764 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1765 
  1766 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1767 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1768 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1769 
  1770 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1771 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1772 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1773 
  1774 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1775 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1776 
  1777 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1778 arithmetic.
  1779 
  1780 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1781 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1782 and lattice type classes.
  1783 
  1784 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1785 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1786 
  1787 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1788 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1789 
  1790 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1791 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1792 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1793 
  1794   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1795   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1796   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1797   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1798 
  1799 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1800 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1801 constants:
  1802 
  1803   type inat   ~> type enat
  1804   Fin         ~> enat
  1805   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1806   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1807   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1808 
  1809 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1810 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1811 
  1812 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1813 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1814 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1815 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1816 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1817 
  1818 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1819 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1820 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1821 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1822 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1823 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1824 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1825 
  1826   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1827   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1828   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1829   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1830 
  1831 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1832 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1833 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1834 
  1835   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1836   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1837   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1838   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1839   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1840   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1841   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1842   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1843   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1844   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1845   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1846   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1847   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1848   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1849   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1850   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1851   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1852   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1853   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1854   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1855   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1856   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1857   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1858   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1859   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1860   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1861   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1862   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1863   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1864   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1865   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1866   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1867   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1868   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1869   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1870   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1871   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1872   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1873   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1874   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1875   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1876   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1877   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1878   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1879   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1880   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1881   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1882   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1883   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1884   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1885   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1886 
  1887 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1888   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1889   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1890   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1891   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1892     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1893 
  1894 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1895 
  1896   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1897   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1898   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1899   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1900   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1901   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1902   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1903   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1904   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1905   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1906   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1907   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1908   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1909   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1910   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1911   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1912   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1913   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1914   UU_I ~> bottomI
  1915   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  1916   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1917   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1918   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  1919   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  1920   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  1921 
  1922 
  1923 *** Document preparation ***
  1924 
  1925 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1926 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1927 same.
  1928 
  1929 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  1930 result.
  1931 
  1932 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  1933 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  1934 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  1935 
  1936 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  1937 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  1938 
  1939 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  1940 like this:
  1941 
  1942   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  1943   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  1944 
  1945 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  1946 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  1947 layouts.
  1948 
  1949 
  1950 *** ML ***
  1951 
  1952 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  1953 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  1954 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  1955 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  1956 under external program control.
  1957 
  1958 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  1959 data, which requires explicit setup.
  1960 
  1961 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  1962 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  1963 (better known as Proof General).
  1964 
  1965 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1966 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  1967 
  1968 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  1969 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  1970 
  1971 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  1972 (including quotes etc.).
  1973 
  1974 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  1975 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  1976 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  1977 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  1978 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  1979 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  1980 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  1981 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  1982 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  1983 
  1984 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  1985 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  1986 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1987 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  1988 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  1989 
  1990 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  1991 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  1992 
  1993 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  1994 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  1995 
  1996 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  1997 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  1998 
  1999 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2000 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2001 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2002 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2003 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2004 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2005 proper Proof.context.
  2006 
  2007 
  2008 *** System ***
  2009 
  2010 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2011 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2012 
  2013 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2014 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2015 
  2016 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2017 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2018 
  2019   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2020   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2021   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2022   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2023   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2024 
  2025 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2026 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2027 
  2028 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2029 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2030 example:
  2031 
  2032   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2033 
  2034 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2035 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2036 
  2037 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2038 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2039 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2040 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2041 
  2042 
  2043 
  2044 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2045 ----------------------------------
  2046 
  2047 *** General ***
  2048 
  2049 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2050 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2051 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2052 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2053 like this:
  2054 
  2055   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2056 
  2057 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2058 
  2059 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2060 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2061 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2062 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2063 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2064 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2065 
  2066 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2067 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2068 the following package declarations:
  2069 
  2070   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2071   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2072 
  2073 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2074 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2075 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2076 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2077 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2078 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2079 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2080 
  2081 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2082 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2083 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2084 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2085 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2086 
  2087 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2088 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2089 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2090 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2091 
  2092 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2093 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2094 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2095 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2096 
  2097   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2098 
  2099   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2100   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2101   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2102   show_types                    show_types
  2103   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2104   show_consts                   show_consts
  2105   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2106 
  2107   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2108   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2109   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2110 
  2111   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2112   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2113 
  2114   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2115 
  2116   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2117   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2118   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2119   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2120   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2121 
  2122 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2123 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2124 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2125 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2126 
  2127 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2128 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2129 
  2130   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2131   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2132 
  2133 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2134 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2135 float_token.
  2136 
  2137 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2138 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2139 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2140 
  2141 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2142 DejaVu Sans.
  2143 
  2144 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2145 
  2146 
  2147 *** Pure ***
  2148 
  2149 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2150 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2151 time.
  2152 
  2153 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2154 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2155 
  2156 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2157 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2158 
  2159 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2160 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2161 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2162 command already provided this functionality.
  2163 
  2164 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2165 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2166 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2167 without interpretations.
  2168 
  2169 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2170 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2171 
  2172 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2173 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2174 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2175 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2176 
  2177 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2178 'definition' instead.
  2179 
  2180 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2181 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2182 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2183 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2184 
  2185 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2186 constructors.
  2187 
  2188 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2189 the local file system.
  2190 
  2191 
  2192 *** HOL ***
  2193 
  2194 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2195 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2196 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2197 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2198 
  2199   declare [[coercion f]]
  2200 
  2201 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2202 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2203 
  2204   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2205 
  2206 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2207 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2208 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2209 other theories like this:
  2210 
  2211   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2212 
  2213 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2214 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2215 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2216 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2217 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2218 for examples.
  2219 
  2220 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2221 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2222 
  2223 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2224 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2225 
  2226 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2227 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2228 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2229 
  2230 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2231 functorial structure of types.
  2232 
  2233 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2234 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2235 
  2236 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2237 languages.
  2238 
  2239 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2240 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2241 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2242 
  2243 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2244 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2245 
  2246 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2247 combinators any longer.
  2248 
  2249 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2250 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2251 
  2252 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2253 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2254 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2255 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2256 
  2257   record 'a foo = ...
  2258   ...
  2259   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2260 
  2261 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2262 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2263 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2264 
  2265 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2266 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2267 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2268 
  2269 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2270 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2271 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2272 
  2273 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2274 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2275 
  2276 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2277 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2278 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2279 independently.
  2280 
  2281 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2282 counter example search.
  2283 
  2284 * Sledgehammer:
  2285   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2286     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2287     sledgehammer").
  2288   - Renamed commands:
  2289     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2290     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2291     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2292     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2293   - Renamed options:
  2294     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2295     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2296     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2297     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2298     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2299 
  2300 * Nitpick:
  2301   - Renamed options:
  2302     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2303     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2304     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2305   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2306   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2307   - Added "whack" option.
  2308   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2309   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2310   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2311   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2312     higher cardinalities.
  2313   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2314 
  2315 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2316 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2317 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2318 
  2319     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2320 
  2321 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2322 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2323 
  2324 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2325 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2326 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2327 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2328 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2329 "smt_solver".
  2330 
  2331 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2332 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2333 
  2334 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2335 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2336 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2337 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2338 
  2339 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2340   - Renamed:
  2341     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2342     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2343     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2344   - Added:
  2345     smt_verbose
  2346     smt_random_seed
  2347     smt_datatypes
  2348     smt_infer_triggers
  2349     smt_monomorph_limit
  2350     cvc3_options
  2351     remote_cvc3_options
  2352     remote_z3_options
  2353     yices_options
  2354 
  2355 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2356 header.
  2357 
  2358 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2359 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2360 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2361 
  2362   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2363 
  2364 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2365 
  2366 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2367 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2368 
  2369 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2370 
  2371 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2372 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2373 
  2374 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2375 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2376 
  2377 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2378 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2379 
  2380 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2381 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2382 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2383 
  2384 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2385 
  2386 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2387 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2388 
  2389 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2390 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2391 
  2392 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2393 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2394 for congruent(2)).
  2395 
  2396 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2397 
  2398   types
  2399     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2400     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2401 
  2402   constants
  2403     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2404     True ~> HOL.True
  2405     False ~> HOL.False
  2406     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2407     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2408     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2409     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2410     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2411     The ~> HOL.The
  2412     All ~> HOL.All
  2413     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2414     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2415     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2416     If ~> HOL.If
  2417     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2418     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2419     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2420     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2421     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2422     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2423     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2424     op : ~> Set.member
  2425     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2426 
  2427 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2428 
  2429 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2430 
  2431     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2432     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2433     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2434     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2435     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2436     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2437     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2438     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2439 
  2440 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2441 
  2442 * More stylized fact names:
  2443 
  2444   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2445   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2446   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2447   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2448 
  2449 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2450 
  2451 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2452 
  2453   constants
  2454     null ~> List.null
  2455 
  2456   facts
  2457     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2458     null_empty ~> null_def
  2459 
  2460 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2461 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2462 generation.
  2463 
  2464 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2465 Haskell code.
  2466 
  2467 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2468 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2469 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2470 
  2471 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2472 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2473 
  2474 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2475 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2476 
  2477 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2478 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2479 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2480 
  2481 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2482 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2483 
  2484 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2485 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2486 
  2487 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2488 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2489 referred to by its qualified name.
  2490 
  2491   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2492   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2493   product ~>  Enum.product
  2494 
  2495 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2496 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2497 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2498 
  2499 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2500 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2501 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2502 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2503 
  2504 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2505 sort_key.
  2506 
  2507 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2508 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2509 
  2510 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2511 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2512 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2513 
  2514   types
  2515     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2516               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2517               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2518         (depends on your needs)
  2519 
  2520   constants
  2521      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2522      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2523      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2524 
  2525 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2526 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2527 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2528 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2529 
  2530 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2531 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2532 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2533 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2534 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2535 
  2536 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2537 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2538 
  2539 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2540 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2541 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2542 
  2543 
  2544 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2545 
  2546 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2547 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2548 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2549 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2550 compatibility.
  2551 
  2552 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2553 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2554 
  2555 
  2556 *** HOLCF ***
  2557 
  2558 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2559 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2560 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2561 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2562 
  2563 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2564 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2565 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2566 
  2567   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2568   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2569   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2570 
  2571 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2572 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2573 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2574 
  2575 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2576 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2577 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2578 domain definition now works:
  2579 
  2580   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2581 
  2582 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2583 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2584 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2585 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2586 
  2587   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2588     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2589 
  2590   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2591 
  2592 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2593 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2594 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2595 
  2596 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2597 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2598 
  2599 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2600 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2601 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2602 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2603 
  2604 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2605 
  2606 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2607 
  2608 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2609 
  2610 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2611 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2612 
  2613 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2614 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2615 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2616 
  2617 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2618 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2619 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2620 
  2621 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2622 still supported as an input translation.
  2623 
  2624 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2625 
  2626   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2627   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2628   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2629   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2630   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2631   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2632   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2633 
  2634 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2635 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2636 
  2637   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2638   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2639   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2640   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2641   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2642   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2643 
  2644 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2645 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2646 
  2647 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2648 
  2649   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2650   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2651   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2652   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2653 
  2654 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2655 
  2656 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2657 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2658 
  2659 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2660 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2661 
  2662   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2663   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2664   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2665   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2666   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2667   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2668   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2669   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2670   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2671   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2672   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2673   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2674   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2675   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2676   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2677   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2678   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2679   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2680   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2681   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2682 
  2683 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2684 
  2685   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2686   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2687   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2688   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2689   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2690   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2691   box_less             ~> box_below
  2692   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2693   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2694   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2695   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2696   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2697   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2698   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2699   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2700   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2701   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2702   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2703   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2704   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2705   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2706   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2707   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2708   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2709   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2710   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2711   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2712   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2713   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2714   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2715   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2716   up_less              ~> up_below
  2717   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2718   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2719   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2720   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2721   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2722   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2723   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2724   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2725   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2726   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2727   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2728   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2729   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2730 
  2731 
  2732 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2733 
  2734 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2735 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2736 
  2737 
  2738 *** ML ***
  2739 
  2740 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2741 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2742 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2743 
  2744 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2745 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2746 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2747 
  2748 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2749 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2750 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2751 
  2752 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2753 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2754 
  2755 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2756 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2757 
  2758 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2759 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2760 
  2761 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2762 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2763 
  2764 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2765 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2766 almost all situations.
  2767 
  2768 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2769 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2770 Isabelle/ML.
  2771 
  2772 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2773 meaning.
  2774 
  2775 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2776 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2777 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2778 
  2779 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2780 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2781 
  2782 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2783 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2784 
  2785 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2786 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2787 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2788 
  2789 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2790 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2791 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2792 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2793 configuration options.
  2794 
  2795 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2796 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2797 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2798 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2799 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2800 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2801 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2802 
  2803 
  2804 
  2805 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2806 ---------------------------------
  2807 
  2808 *** General ***
  2809 
  2810 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2811 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2812 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2813 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2814 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2815 their full internal name.
  2816 
  2817 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2818 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2819 Some hints on upgrading:
  2820 
  2821   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2822     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2823     which are independent of this issue.
  2824 
  2825   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2826     provides the following special forms:
  2827 
  2828       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2829       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2830       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2831 
  2832     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2833     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2834     extra variables".
  2835 
  2836     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2837     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2838     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2839     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2840     "logic".
  2841 
  2842   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2843     antiquotations:
  2844 
  2845       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2846       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2847       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2848       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2849 
  2850   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2851     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2852     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2853     antiquotations.
  2854 
  2855 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2856 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2857 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2858 diagnose syntax problems.
  2859 
  2860 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2861 
  2862 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2863 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2864 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2865 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2866 
  2867 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2868 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2869 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2870 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2871 
  2872 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2873 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2874 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2875 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2876 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2877 
  2878 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2879 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2880 
  2881 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2882 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2883 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2884 
  2885   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2886 
  2887 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2888 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2889 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2890 
  2891 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2892 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2893 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2894 
  2895 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2896 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2897 
  2898 
  2899 *** Pure ***
  2900 
  2901 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2902 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2903 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2904 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2905 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2906 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2907 inspect proof terms.
  2908 
  2909 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2910 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2911 are added internally.  For example:
  2912 
  2913   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2914 
  2915 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  2916 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2917 
  2918 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2919 
  2920 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2921 'class' instead.
  2922 
  2923 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2924 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2925 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2926 
  2927 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2928 invariants.
  2929 
  2930 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  2931 user space functionality any longer.
  2932 
  2933 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  2934 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  2935 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2936 
  2937 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  2938 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  2939 
  2940 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  2941 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  2942 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  2943 
  2944 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  2945 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  2946 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  2947 
  2948 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  2949 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2950 
  2951 
  2952 *** HOL ***
  2953 
  2954 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  2955 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  2956 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  2957 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  2958 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  2959 
  2960 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  2961 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  2962 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  2963 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  2964 
  2965   fun
  2966     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  2967   where
  2968     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  2969 
  2970   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  2971     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  2972 
  2973   quotient_definition
  2974     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  2975 
  2976 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  2977 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  2978 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  2979 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  2980 
  2981 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  2982 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  2983 
  2984 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  2985 separate HOL-SMT session.
  2986 
  2987 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  2988 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2989 
  2990 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  2991 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  2992 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  2993 
  2994 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  2995 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2996 
  2997 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  2998 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2999 
  3000 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3001 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3002 
  3003 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3004 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3005 
  3006 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3007 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3008 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3009 
  3010   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3011   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3012   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3013   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3014   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3015   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3016   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3017   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3018   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3019   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3020   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3021   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3022   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3023   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3024   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3025   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3026   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3027   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3028   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3029   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3030   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3031   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3032   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3033   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3034   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3035   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3036   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3037   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3038   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3039   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3040 
  3041 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3042 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3043 
  3044 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3045 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3046 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3047 
  3048 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3049 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3050 
  3051 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3052 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3053 
  3054 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3055 
  3056 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3057 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3058 
  3059 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3060 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3061 
  3062 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3063 
  3064 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3065 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3066 
  3067 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3068 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3069 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3070 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3071 
  3072 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3073   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3074   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3075   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3076 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3077 
  3078 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3079 lattices):
  3080 
  3081     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3082     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3083 
  3084     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3085 
  3086     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3087     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3088     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3089     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3090     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3091     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3092     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3093     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3094     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3095     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3096     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3097     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3098     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3099 
  3100     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3101     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3102     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3103     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3104     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3105     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3106     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3107     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3108     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3109     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3110     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3111     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3112     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3113     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3114     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3115     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3116     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3117     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3118 
  3119   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3120   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3121 
  3122     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3123     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3124     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3125     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3126     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3127 
  3128 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3129 
  3130 * Refined field classes:
  3131   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3132     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3133     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3134   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3135 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3136 
  3137 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3138   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3139   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3140   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3141     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3142   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3143     equal_neg_zero.
  3144 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3145 
  3146 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3147 sets to lattices:
  3148 
  3149   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3150   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3151   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3152   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3153   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3154   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3155   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3156   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3157   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3158   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3159 
  3160 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3161 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3162 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3163 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3164 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3165 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3166 
  3167 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3168 multiset order:
  3169 
  3170   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3171     <= and <;
  3172   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3173     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3174     multiset_order;
  3175   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3176     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3177     generation;
  3178   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3179     if needed.
  3180 
  3181 Renamed:
  3182 
  3183   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3184   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3185   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3186 
  3187 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3188 
  3189 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3190 
  3191 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3192 
  3193 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3194 
  3195 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3196 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3197 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3198 
  3199   Constants:
  3200   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3201   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3202   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3203   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3204   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3205   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3206   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3207   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3208   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3209   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3210   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3211   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3212   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3213 
  3214   Lemmas:
  3215   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3216   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3217   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3218   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3219   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3220   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3221   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3222   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3223   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3224   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3225   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3226   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3227   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3228 
  3229 * Sledgehammer:
  3230   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3231     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3232     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3233     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3234     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3235     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3236     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3237   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3238   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3239     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3240   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3241     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3242     is still experimental.)
  3243   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3244     full-typed mode.
  3245   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3246 
  3247 * Nitpick:
  3248   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3249   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3250   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3251     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3252   - Added support for quotient types.
  3253   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3254     constructs.
  3255   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3256     "termination" proofs).
  3257   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3258   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3259   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3260   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3261     record getters.
  3262   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3263   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3264   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3265   - Added "atoms" option.
  3266   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3267     problems.
  3268   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3269     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3270     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3271   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3272     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3273   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3274 
  3275 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3276   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3277   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3278   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3279   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3280   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3281   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3282   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3283   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3284   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3285 
  3286 
  3287 *** HOLCF ***
  3288 
  3289 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3290 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3291 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3292 
  3293 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3294 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3295 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3296 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3297 
  3298 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3299 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3300 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3301 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3302 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3303 
  3304 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3305 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3306 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3307 
  3308 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3309 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3310 
  3311   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3312   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3313 
  3314 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3315 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3316 
  3317   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3318   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3319   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3320   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3321   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3322 
  3323 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3324 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3325 
  3326   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3327   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3328   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3329 
  3330 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3331 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3332 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3333 
  3334 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3335 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3336 
  3337 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3338 
  3339 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3340 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3341 
  3342 
  3343 *** ML ***
  3344 
  3345 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3346 
  3347     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3348     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3349 
  3350     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3351     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3352     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3353     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3354 
  3355     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3356     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3357     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3358 
  3359 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3360 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3361 
  3362 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3363 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3364 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3365 
  3366 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3367 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3368 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3369 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3370 
  3371 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3372 the context or even global references.
  3373 
  3374 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3375 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3376 
  3377 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3378 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3379 
  3380   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3381   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3382   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3383   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3384   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3385   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3386   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3387   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3388   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3389   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3390 
  3391 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3392 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3393 
  3394 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3395 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3396 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3397 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3398 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3399 
  3400 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3401 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3402 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3403 Theory_Data version.
  3404 
  3405 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3406 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3407 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3408 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3409 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3410 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3411 explicitly in rare situations.
  3412 
  3413 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3414 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3415 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3416 
  3417 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3418 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3419 
  3420 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3421 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3422 quite rare).
  3423 
  3424 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3425 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3426 
  3427 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3428 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3429 terms.
  3430 
  3431 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3432 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3433 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3434 
  3435 
  3436 *** System ***
  3437 
  3438 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3439 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3440 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3441 
  3442 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3443 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3444 respectively.
  3445 
  3446 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3447 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3448 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3449 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3450 
  3451   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3452 
  3453 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3454 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3455 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3456 component.
  3457 
  3458 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3459 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3460 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3461 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3462 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3463 the user for manual installation.
  3464 
  3465 
  3466 
  3467 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3468 -------------------------------------
  3469 
  3470 *** General ***
  3471 
  3472 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3473 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3474 
  3475 
  3476 *** Pure ***
  3477 
  3478 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3479 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3480 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3481 
  3482 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3483 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3484 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3485 
  3486 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3487 interpretation.
  3488 
  3489 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3490 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3491 
  3492 
  3493 *** Document preparation ***
  3494 
  3495 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3496 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3497 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3498 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3499 
  3500 
  3501 *** HOL ***
  3502 
  3503 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3504 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3505 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3506 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3507 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3508 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3509 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3510 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3511 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3512 
  3513 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3514 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3515 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3516 
  3517 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3518 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3519 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3520 
  3521 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3522 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3523 
  3524 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3525 
  3526 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3527 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3528 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3529 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3530 
  3531 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3532 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3533 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3534 "mirabelle" utility.
  3535 
  3536 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3537 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3538 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3539 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3540 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3541 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3542 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3543 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3544 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3545 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3546 
  3547 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3548 procedure only.
  3549 
  3550 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3551 
  3552 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3553 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3554 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3555 that fail later.
  3556 
  3557 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3558 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3559 
  3560 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3561 the same method as the approximation method.
  3562 
  3563 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3564 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3565 series expansion.
  3566 
  3567 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3568 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3569 
  3570 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3571 reals.
  3572 
  3573 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3574 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3575 
  3576 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3577 fixpoint theorem.
  3578 
  3579 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3580   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3581     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3582   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3583     accordingly
  3584   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3585     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3586   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3587     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3588 
  3589 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3590 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3591 lattice.
  3592 
  3593 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3594 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3595 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3596 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3597 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3598 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3599 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3600 
  3601 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3602   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3603     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3604   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3605     le_inf_iff
  3606   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3607     sup_aci)
  3608   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3609   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3610   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3611     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3612     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3613     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3614     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3615     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3616     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3617     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3618     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3619     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3620     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3621   - authentic syntax for
  3622     Set.Pow
  3623     Set.image
  3624   - mere abbreviations:
  3625     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3626     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3627     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3628     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3629     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3630     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3631     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3632     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3633   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3634 
  3635 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3636 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3637 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3638 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3639 
  3640 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3641 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3642 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3643 
  3644 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3645 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3646 
  3647 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3648 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3649 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3650 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3651 
  3652 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3653 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3654 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3655 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3656 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3657 
  3658 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3659 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3660 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3661 
  3662 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3663 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3664 
  3665 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3666 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3667 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3668 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3669 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3670 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3671 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3672 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3673 
  3674 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3675     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3676     code_post       replaces    code post
  3677     etc.
  3678   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3679 
  3680 * Renamed methods:
  3681     sizechange -> size_change
  3682     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3683   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3684 
  3685 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3686 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3687 
  3688 * Renamed theorems:
  3689     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3690     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3691     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3692     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3693     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3694   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3695 
  3696 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3697 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3698 
  3699 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3700 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3701 
  3702 
  3703 *** HOLCF ***
  3704 
  3705 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3706 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3707 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3708 
  3709 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3710 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3711 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3712 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3713 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3714 
  3715 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3716 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3717 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3718 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3719 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3720 
  3721 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3722 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3723 constructor are pre-configured.
  3724 
  3725 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3726 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3727 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3728 
  3729 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3730 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3731 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3732 as well.)
  3733 
  3734 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3735 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3736 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3737 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3738 examples.
  3739 
  3740 
  3741 *** ML ***
  3742 
  3743 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3744 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3745 
  3746 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3747 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3748 position, logical grouping etc.
  3749 
  3750 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3751 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3752 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3753 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3754 
  3755 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3756 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3757 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3758 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3759 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3760 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3761 
  3762 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3763 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3764 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3765 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3766 experiments with references.
  3767 
  3768 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3769 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3770 
  3771 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3772 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3773 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3774 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3775 
  3776 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3777 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3778 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3779 
  3780 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3781 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3782 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3783 
  3784 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3785 
  3786 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3787 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3788 
  3789 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3790 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3791 
  3792 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3793 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3794 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3795 
  3796 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3797 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3798 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3799 
  3800 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3801 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3802 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3803 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3804 
  3805 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3806 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3807 instead of global theory.
  3808 
  3809 
  3810 *** System ***
  3811 
  3812 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3813 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3814 usedir option -q.
  3815 
  3816 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3817 also the system manual.
  3818 
  3819 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3820 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3821 
  3822 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3823 this is always enabled.
  3824 
  3825 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3826 
  3827 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3828 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3829 currently supported on Linux only.
  3830 
  3831 
  3832 
  3833 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3834 --------------------------------
  3835 
  3836 *** General ***
  3837 
  3838 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3839 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3840 
  3841   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3842     "isatool."
  3843 
  3844   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3845     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3846 
  3847   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3848     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3849 
  3850 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3851 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3852 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3853 
  3854 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3855 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3856 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3857 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3858 via "isabelle emacs".
  3859 
  3860 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3861 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3862 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3863 
  3864 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3865 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3866 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3867 
  3868 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3869 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3870 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3871 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3872 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3873 
  3874 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3875 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3876 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3877 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3878 
  3879 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3880 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3881 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3882 
  3883 
  3884 *** Pure ***
  3885 
  3886 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3887 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3888 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3889 
  3890 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3891 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3892 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3893 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3894 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3895 
  3896 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3897 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3898 useful in locale declarations.
  3899 
  3900 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3901 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3902 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3903 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3904 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3905 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3906 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3907 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3908 no longer generated.
  3909 
  3910 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3911 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3912 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3913 
  3914 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  3915 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  3916 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  3917 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3918 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3919 
  3920 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3921 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3922 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3923 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3924 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3925 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3926 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3927 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3928 
  3929 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  3930 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  3931 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  3932 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  3933 
  3934 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3935 
  3936 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  3937 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  3938 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  3939 
  3940 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  3941 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3942 
  3943 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  3944 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  3945 in HOL, write
  3946 
  3947     class foo = ...
  3948 
  3949 instead of
  3950 
  3951     class foo = type + ...
  3952 
  3953 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  3954 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3955 
  3956 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  3957 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  3958 
  3959 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  3960 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  3961 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  3962 
  3963 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  3964 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  3965 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  3966 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  3967 directly in regular applications.
  3968 
  3969 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  3970 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  3971 
  3972 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  3973 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  3974 
  3975 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  3976 theory context.
  3977 
  3978 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  3979 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3980 
  3981 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  3982 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  3983 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  3984 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  3985 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  3986 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  3987 
  3988   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  3989 
  3990 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  3991 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  3992 normalization.
  3993 
  3994 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  3995 addressing etc.
  3996 
  3997 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  3998 
  3999   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4000   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4001 
  4002 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4003 
  4004   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4005      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4006      parts of the code generator framework).
  4007 
  4008   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4009      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4010      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4011 
  4012 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4013 
  4014 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4015 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4016 
  4017 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4018 patterns, e.g.
  4019 
  4020     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4021 
  4022 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4023 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4024 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4025 hyphen:
  4026 
  4027     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4028 
  4029 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4030 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4031 
  4032 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4033 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4034 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4035 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4036 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4037 higher-order unification.
  4038 
  4039 
  4040 *** Document preparation ***
  4041 
  4042 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4043 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4044 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4045 
  4046 
  4047 *** HOL ***
  4048 
  4049 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4050 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4051 
  4052 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4053 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4054 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4055 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4056 Main, as before.
  4057 
  4058 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4059 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4060 
  4061 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4062 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4063 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4064 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4065 
  4066 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4067 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4068 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4069 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4070 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4071 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4072 
  4073 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4074 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4075 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4076 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4077 
  4078 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4079 menu.
  4080 
  4081 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4082 (contains the empty clause).
  4083 
  4084 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4085 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4086 
  4087 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4088 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4089 
  4090 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4091 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4092 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4093 
  4094 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4095 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4096 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4097 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4098 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4099 
  4100 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4101 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4102 
  4103 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4104 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4105 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4106 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4107 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4108 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4109 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4110 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4111 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4112 
  4113 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4114 
  4115 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4116 
  4117 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4118 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4119 
  4120 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4121 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4122 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4123 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4124 
  4125 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4126 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4127 
  4128     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4129     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4130     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4131     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4132     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4133     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4134     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4135     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4136 
  4137 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4138 theory Set.
  4139 
  4140 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4141 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4142 
  4143 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4144 
  4145 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4146 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4147 
  4148 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4149 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4150 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4151 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4152 allowed. For examples see
  4153 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4154 
  4155 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4156 
  4157 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4158 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4159 
  4160 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4161 structure:
  4162 
  4163     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4164     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4165     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4166     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4167     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4168     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4169     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4170     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4171     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4172     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4173     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4174     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4175     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4176     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4177     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4178     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4179     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4180     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4181     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4182     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4183     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4184     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4185     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4186     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4187     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4188     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4189     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4190     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4191     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4192     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4193     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4194     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4195     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4196 
  4197     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4198     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4199     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4200     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4201     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4202     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4203     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4204     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4205     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4206     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4207 
  4208     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4209     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4210     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4211     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4212     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4213     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4214 
  4215 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4216 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4217 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4218 
  4219 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4220 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4221 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4222 
  4223 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4224 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4225 
  4226 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4227 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4228 
  4229 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4230 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4231 proofs, e.g.
  4232 
  4233   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4234 
  4235 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4236 
  4237 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4238 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4239 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4240 
  4241 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4242 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4243 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4244 
  4245 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4246 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4247 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4248 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4249 
  4250 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4251 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4252 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4253 preorder_class.*.
  4254 
  4255 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4256 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4257 
  4258 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4259 
  4260   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4261 
  4262 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4263 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4264 fold_image.
  4265 
  4266 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4267 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4268 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4269 the former will disappear at some point.
  4270 
  4271 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4272 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4273 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4274 
  4275 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4276 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4277 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4278 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4279 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4280 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4281 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4282 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4283 
  4284 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4285 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4286 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4287 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4288 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4289 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4290 
  4291     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4292     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4293     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4294     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4295     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4296     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4297     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4298 
  4299 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4300 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4301 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4302 
  4303 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4304 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4305 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4306 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4307 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4308 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4309 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4310 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4311 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4312 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4313 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4314 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4315 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4316 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4317 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4318 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4319 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4320 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4321 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4322 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4323 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4324 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4325 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4326 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4327 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4328 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4329 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4330 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4331 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4332 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4333 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4334 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4335 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4336 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4337 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4338 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4339 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4340 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4341 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4342 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4343 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4344 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4345 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4346 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4347 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4348 
  4349 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4350 
  4351 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4352 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4353 
  4354 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4355 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4356 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4357 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4358 
  4359 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4360 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4361 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4362 theory RealVector.
  4363 
  4364 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4365 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4366 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4367 and inner products are included.
  4368 
  4369 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4370 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4371 supported.
  4372 
  4373 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4374 first diagonalization argument.
  4375 
  4376 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4377 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4378 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4379 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4380 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4381 
  4382     hide (open) const gcd
  4383     abbreviation gcd where
  4384       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4385     notation (output)
  4386       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4387 
  4388 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4389 
  4390 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4391 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4392 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4393 
  4394 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4395 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4396 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4397 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4398 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4399 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4400 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4401 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4402 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4403 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4404 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4405 cases.
  4406 
  4407 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4408 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4409 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4410 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4411 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4412 
  4413     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4414     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4415     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4416     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4417     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4418 
  4419 
  4420 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4421 
  4422 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4423 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4424 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4425 
  4426 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4427 
  4428 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4429 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4430 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4431 
  4432 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4433 
  4434 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4435 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4436 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4437 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4438 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4439 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4440 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4441 
  4442 
  4443 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4444 
  4445 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4446 
  4447 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4448 theory targets.
  4449 
  4450 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4451 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4452 'inductive' etc.
  4453 
  4454 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4455 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4456 
  4457 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4458 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4459 
  4460 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4461 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4462 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4463 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4464 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4465 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4466 the algorithm W:
  4467 
  4468  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4469  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4470          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4471 
  4472 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4473 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4474 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4475 
  4476 
  4477 *** HOLCF ***
  4478 
  4479 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4480 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4481 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4482 
  4483 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4484 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4485 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4486 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4487 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4488 
  4489 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4490 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4491 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4492 
  4493 
  4494 *** ZF ***
  4495 
  4496 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4497 
  4498 
  4499 *** ML ***
  4500 
  4501 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4502 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4503 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4504 5.2.1!
  4505 
  4506 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4507 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4508 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4509 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4510 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4511 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4512 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4513 
  4514 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4515 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4516 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4517 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4518 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4519 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4520 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4521 
  4522 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4523 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4524 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4525 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4526 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4527 
  4528 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4529 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4530 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4531 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4532 Method.add_method.
  4533 
  4534 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4535 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4536 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4537 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4538 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4539 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4540 
  4541 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4542 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4543 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4544 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4545 examples.
  4546 
  4547 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4548 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4549 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4550 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4551 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4552 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4553 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4554 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4555 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4556 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4557 
  4558 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4559 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4560 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4561 
  4562 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4563 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4564 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4565 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4566 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4567 resort for legacy applications.
  4568 
  4569 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4570 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4571 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4572 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4573 explicit runtime argument.
  4574 
  4575 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4576 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4577 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4578 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4579 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4580 
  4581 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4582 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4583 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4584 theory state.
  4585 
  4586 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4587 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4588 
  4589   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4590   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4591   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4592   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4593   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4594   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4595   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4596   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4597   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4598   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4599 
  4600 
  4601 *** System ***
  4602 
  4603 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4604 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4605 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4606 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4607 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4608 
  4609 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4610 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4611 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4612 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4613 
  4614 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4615 
  4616 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4617 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4618 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4619 prover operations.
  4620 
  4621 
  4622 
  4623 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4624 -------------------------------
  4625 
  4626 *** General ***
  4627 
  4628 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4629 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4630 
  4631 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4632 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4633 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4634 provides a proper context already.
  4635 
  4636 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4637 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4638 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4639 
  4640 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4641 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4642 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4643 swap theory imports.
  4644 
  4645 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4646 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4647 
  4648 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4649 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4650 white space without escapes.
  4651 
  4652 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4653 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4654 "foo_bar".
  4655 
  4656 
  4657 *** Pure ***
  4658 
  4659 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4660 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4661 
  4662 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4663 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4664 
  4665 (1) unused_thms
  4666      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4667 
  4668 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4669      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4670      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4671 
  4672 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4673      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4674      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4675      their ancestors.
  4676 
  4677 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4678 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4679 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4680 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4681 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4682 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4683 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4684 
  4685 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4686 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4687 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4688 
  4689 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4690 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4691 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4692 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4693 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4694 
  4695 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4696 
  4697 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4698 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4699 update of theories within ML code.
  4700 
  4701 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4702 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4703 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4704 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4705 
  4706 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4707 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4708 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4709 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4710 
  4711 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4712 
  4713 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4714 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4715 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4716 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4717 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4718 
  4719 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4720 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4721 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4722 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4723 situations.
  4724 
  4725 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4726 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4727 proof text.
  4728 
  4729 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4730 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4731 
  4732 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4733 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4734 predicates.
  4735 
  4736 
  4737 *** Document preparation ***
  4738 
  4739 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4740 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4741 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4742 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4743 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4744 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4745 
  4746 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4747 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4748 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4749 
  4750 
  4751 *** HOL ***
  4752 
  4753 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4754 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4755 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4756 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4757 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4758 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4759 
  4760 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4761 with multithreading.
  4762 
  4763 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4764 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4765 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4766 
  4767 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4768 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4769 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4770 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4771 
  4772 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4773 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4774 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4775 and makes them available separately.  See
  4776 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4777 
  4778 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4779 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4780 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4781 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4782 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4783 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4784 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4785 the declared rules.
  4786 
  4787 This setup also deals with rules like
  4788 
  4789   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4790 
  4791 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4792 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4793 
  4794 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4795 
  4796   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4797 
  4798   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4799     definitions on => and bool.
  4800 
  4801   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4802     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4803     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4804 
  4805       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4806       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4807       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4808       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4809       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4810       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4811       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4812       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4813 
  4814   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4815     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4816     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4817 
  4818   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4819     The proof pattern
  4820 
  4821       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4822       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4823 
  4824     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4825     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4826 
  4827       have "EX S. P S"
  4828       proof
  4829         show "P S" <...>
  4830       qed
  4831 
  4832   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4833     The proof pattern
  4834 
  4835       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4836       also have "S = T" <...>
  4837       finally have "P T" .
  4838 
  4839     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4840     must be replaced by something like
  4841 
  4842       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4843       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4844       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4845 
  4846   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4847     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4848 
  4849       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4850 
  4851     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4852     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4853     type of the form
  4854 
  4855       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4856 
  4857     rather than
  4858 
  4859       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4860 
  4861 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4862 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4863 
  4864 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4865 
  4866 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4867 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4868 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4869 
  4870 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4871 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4872 
  4873 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4874 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4875 
  4876 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4877 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4878 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4879 
  4880 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4881 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4882 
  4883   less_trans
  4884   less_linear
  4885   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4886   le_less_trans
  4887   less_le_trans
  4888   less_not_sym
  4889   less_asym
  4890 
  4891 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4892 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4893 and different variable names.
  4894 
  4895 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4896 
  4897 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4898 finite maps.
  4899 
  4900 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4901 
  4902 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4903 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4904 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4905 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4906 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4907 accordingly.
  4908 
  4909 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4910 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4911 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4912 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4913 
  4914 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  4915 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  4916 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  4917 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4918 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4919 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4920 
  4921 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4922 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4923 
  4924 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4925 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4926 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4927 
  4928 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4929 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4930 
  4931 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  4932 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  4933 
  4934 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  4935 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4936 
  4937 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  4938 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4939 
  4940 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  4941 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  4942 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4943 
  4944 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  4945 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4946 
  4947 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  4948 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  4949 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  4950 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  4951 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  4952 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4953 
  4954 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  4955 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  4956 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  4957 
  4958 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  4959 
  4960 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  4961 
  4962 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  4963 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  4964 well-orders on sets and on types.
  4965 
  4966 
  4967 *** ZF ***
  4968 
  4969 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  4970 same session:
  4971 
  4972   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  4973   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  4974   Int       -> Int_ZF
  4975   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  4976   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  4977   List      -> List_ZF
  4978   Main      -> Main_ZF
  4979 
  4980 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  4981 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  4982 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  4983 
  4984 
  4985 *** ML ***
  4986 
  4987 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  4988 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  4989 
  4990 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  4991 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  4992 
  4993 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  4994 
  4995 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  4996 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  4997 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  4998 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  4999 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5000 
  5001 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5002 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5003 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5004 
  5005 
  5006 *** System ***
  5007 
  5008 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5009 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5010 
  5011 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5012 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5013 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5014 
  5015 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5016 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5017 
  5018 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5019 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5020 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5021 
  5022 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5023 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5024 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5025 
  5026 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5027 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5028 
  5029 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5030 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5031 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5032 script.
  5033 
  5034 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5035 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5036 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5037 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5038 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5039 
  5040 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5041 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5042 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5043 
  5044 
  5045 
  5046 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5047 -----------------------------------
  5048 
  5049 *** General ***
  5050 
  5051 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5052 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5053 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5054 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5055 
  5056 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5057 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5058 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5059 
  5060 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5061 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5062 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5063 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5064 
  5065 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5066 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5067 quotes.
  5068 
  5069 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5070 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5071 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5072 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5073 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5074 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5075 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5076 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5077 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5078 
  5079 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5080 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5081 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5082 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5083 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5084 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5085 
  5086 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5087 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5088 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5089 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5090 
  5091 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5092 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5093 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5094 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5095 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5096 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5097 
  5098 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5099 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5100 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5101 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5102 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5103 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5104 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5105 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5106 
  5107 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5108 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5109 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5110 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5111 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5112 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5113 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5114 
  5115 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5116 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5117 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5118 
  5119 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5120 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5121 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5122 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5123 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5124 limit is imposed.
  5125 
  5126 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5127 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5128 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5129 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5130 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5131 and scalability.
  5132 
  5133 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5134 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5135 
  5136 
  5137 *** Document preparation ***
  5138 
  5139 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5140 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5141 current context.
  5142 
  5143 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5144 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5145 
  5146 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5147 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5148 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5149 
  5150 
  5151 *** Pure ***
  5152 
  5153 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5154 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5155 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5156 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5157 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5158 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5159 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5160 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5161 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5162 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5163 
  5164 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5165 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5166 sketch:
  5167 
  5168     internal compilation:
  5169         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5170     writing SML code to a file:
  5171         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5172     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5173         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5174     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5175         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5176 
  5177     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5178         method ``eval''
  5179 
  5180 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5181 
  5182 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5183 
  5184     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5185     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5186     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5187     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5188 
  5189 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5190 
  5191     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5192       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5193 
  5194     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5195       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5196 
  5197     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5198       {(target)}+
  5199         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5200 
  5201     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5202       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5203         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5204 
  5205 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5206 
  5207 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5208 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5209 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5210 codegen".
  5211 
  5212 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5213 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5214 annotations).
  5215 
  5216 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5217 syntax.
  5218 
  5219 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5220 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5221 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5222 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5223 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5224 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5225 
  5226 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5227 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5228 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5229 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5230 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5231 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5232 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5233 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5234 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5235 equations, see section "definitions".
  5236 
  5237 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5238 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5239 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5240 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5241 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5242 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5243 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5244 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5245 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5246 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5247 
  5248 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5249 configuration options:
  5250 
  5251   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5252   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5253   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5254   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5255   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5256   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5257   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5258   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5259   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5260 
  5261 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5262 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5263 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5264 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5265 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5266 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5267 order.
  5268 
  5269 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5270 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5271 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5272 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5273 context encountered later on.
  5274 
  5275 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5276 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5277 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5278 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5279 
  5280 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5281 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5282 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5283 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5284 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5285 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5286 
  5287 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5288 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5289 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5290 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5291 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5292 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5293 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5294 more permissive.
  5295 
  5296 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5297 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5298 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5299 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5300 maintainability of proof texts.
  5301 
  5302 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5303 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5304 
  5305   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5306   then guess x and y by clarify
  5307 
  5308 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5309 proof tools being involved here.
  5310 
  5311 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5312 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5313 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5314 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5315 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5316 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5317 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5318 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5319 
  5320 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5321 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5322 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5323 
  5324   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5325   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5326   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5327   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5328 
  5329 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5330 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5331 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5332 
  5333 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5334 both named and unnamed ones.
  5335 
  5336 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5337 
  5338   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5339 
  5340 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5341 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5342 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5343 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5344 
  5345 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5346 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5347 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5348 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5349 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5350 
  5351 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5352 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5353 
  5354 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5355 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5356 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5357 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5358 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5359 originally first one.
  5360 
  5361 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5362 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5363 expected.
  5364 
  5365 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5366 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5367 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5368 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5369 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5370 
  5371   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5372     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5373     obtains x where "P x"
  5374 
  5375   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5376     assumes "A & B"
  5377     obtains A and B
  5378 
  5379   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5380     assumes "A | B"
  5381     obtains
  5382       A
  5383     | B
  5384 
  5385 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5386 explicitly:
  5387 
  5388   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5389     obtains "~ thesis"
  5390 
  5391   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5392     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5393 
  5394 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5395 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5396 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5397 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5398 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5399 case_names).
  5400 
  5401 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5402 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5403 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5404 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5405 
  5406 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5407 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5408 top-level lemma.
  5409 
  5410 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5411 introduction rule (default "that").
  5412 
  5413 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5414 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5415 to occur.
  5416 
  5417 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5418 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5419 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5420 representations independently of name spaces.
  5421 
  5422 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5423 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5424 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5425 
  5426 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5427 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5428 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5429 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5430 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5431 current context.
  5432 
  5433 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5434 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5435 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5436 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5437 
  5438   axiomatization
  5439     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5440     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5441 
  5442   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5443   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5444 
  5445   abbreviation
  5446     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5447     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5448 
  5449 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5450 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5451 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5452 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5453 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5454 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5455 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5456 
  5457 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5458 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5459 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5460 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5461 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5462 
  5463 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5464 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5465 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5466 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5467 
  5468 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5469 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5470 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5471 
  5472   definition "K x _ = x"
  5473 
  5474   inductive conj for A B
  5475   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5476 
  5477 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5478 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5479 abbreviations on output.
  5480 
  5481 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5482 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5483 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5484 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5485 
  5486 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5487 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5488 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5489 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5490 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5491 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5492 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5493 
  5494 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5495 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5496 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5497 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5498 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5499 
  5500 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5501 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5502 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5503 
  5504 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5505 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5506 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5507 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5508 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5509 
  5510   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5511     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5512 
  5513 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5514 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5515 partial_order.
  5516 
  5517 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5518 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5519 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5520 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5521 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5522 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5523 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5524 examples.
  5525 
  5526 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5527 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5528 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5529 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5530 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5531 
  5532 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5533 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5534 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5535 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5536 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5537 
  5538   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5539   (induct set: foo bar)
  5540   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5541   (induct type: foo bar)
  5542 
  5543 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5544 new format.
  5545 
  5546 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5547 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5548 
  5549 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5550 considered a legacy feature.
  5551 
  5552 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5553 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5554 
  5555 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5556 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5557 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5558 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5559 
  5560 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5561 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5562 manipulating the claset.
  5563 
  5564 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5565 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5566 least one premise.
  5567 
  5568 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5569 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5570 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5571 rule steps.
  5572 
  5573 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5574 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5575 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5576 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5577 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5578 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5579 
  5580 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5581 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5582 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5583 
  5584 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5585 the graph browser tool.
  5586 
  5587 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5588 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5589 
  5590 
  5591 *** HOL ***
  5592 
  5593 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5594 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5595 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5596 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5597 multi-threading.
  5598 
  5599 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5600 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5601 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5602 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5603 work with multi-threading.
  5604 
  5605 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5606 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5607 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5608 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5609 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5610 
  5611 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5612 
  5613 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5614 equality.
  5615 
  5616 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5617 the new 'class' package:
  5618 
  5619     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5620     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5621     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5622     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5623     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5624     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5625     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5626     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5627     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5628     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5629     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5630     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5631     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5632     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5633     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5634     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5635     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5636     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5637     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5638     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5639 
  5640 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5641 
  5642 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5643 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5644 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5645 names.
  5646 
  5647 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5648 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5649 
  5650 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5651 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5652 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5653 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5654 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5655 
  5656 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5657 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5658 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5659 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5660 
  5661 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5662 
  5663 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5664 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5665 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5666 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5667 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5668 
  5669 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5670 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5671 
  5672 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5673 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5674 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5675 
  5676 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5677 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5678 
  5679 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5680 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5681 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5682 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5683 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5684 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5685 in the current context.
  5686 
  5687 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5688 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5689 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5690 
  5691 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5692 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5693 
  5694 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5695 
  5696     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5697     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5698 
  5699     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5700       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5701     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5702     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5703 
  5704     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5705     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5706 
  5707   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5708 
  5709     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5710     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5711     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5712     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5713     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5714     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5715     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5716     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5717     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5718     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5719     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5720     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5721     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5722     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5723     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5724     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5725     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5726     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5727     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5728     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5729     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5730     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5731     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5732     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5733     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5734     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5735     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5736     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5737     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5738     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5739     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5740     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5741     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5742     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5743     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5744 
  5745     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5746     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5747     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5748     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5749     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5750     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5751     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5752     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5753     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5754     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5755     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5756     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5757     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5758     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5759     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5760     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5761     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5762 
  5763     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5764     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5765     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5766     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5767     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5768     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5769     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5770     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5771     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5772     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5773     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5774     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5775     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5776     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5777     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5778     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5779     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5780     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5781     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5782     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5783     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5784     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5785     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5786     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5787     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5788     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5789     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5790     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5791 
  5792     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5793     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5794     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5795     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5796     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5797     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5798 
  5799     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5800     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5801     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5802     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5803 
  5804     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5805     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5806 
  5807     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5808     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5809 
  5810 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5811 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5812 
  5813 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5814 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5815 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5816 "*.size".
  5817 
  5818 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5819 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5820 
  5821 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5822 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5823 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5824 
  5825 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5826 
  5827 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5828 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5829 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5830 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5831 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5832 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5833 numerals on all operations.
  5834 
  5835 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5836 
  5837 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5838 
  5839 * Code generator library theories:
  5840   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5841     languages.
  5842   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5843     languages.
  5844   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5845     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5846   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5847   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5848     denominator).
  5849   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5850     representable by rational numbers.
  5851   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5852     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5853     includes Code_Integer.
  5854   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5855     target-language built-in integers.
  5856   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5857     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5858 
  5859 * New package for inductive predicates
  5860 
  5861   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5862 
  5863     inductive
  5864       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5865       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5866     where
  5867       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5868     | ...
  5869 
  5870   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5871 
  5872     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5873 
  5874     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5875     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5876 
  5877     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5878     intros
  5879       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5880       ...
  5881 
  5882   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5883   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5884 
  5885     inductive_set
  5886       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5887       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5888     where
  5889       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5890     | ...
  5891 
  5892   or
  5893 
  5894     inductive_set
  5895       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5896       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5897       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5898     where
  5899       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5900     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5901     | ...
  5902 
  5903   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5904 
  5905   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5906   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5907 
  5908   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5909 
  5910   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5911     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5912     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5913     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5914     than before the actual inductive definition.
  5915 
  5916   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  5917     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5918     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5919     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5920     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5921     statements of the form
  5922 
  5923       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5924 
  5925     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5926     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5927 
  5928       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5929 
  5930   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  5931 
  5932       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  5933         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5934         ==> ... ==> P
  5935 
  5936     for predicates and
  5937 
  5938       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5939         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5940         ==> ... ==> P
  5941 
  5942     for sets rather than
  5943 
  5944       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5945         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  5946         ==> ... ==> P
  5947 
  5948     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  5949     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  5950     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  5951 
  5952   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  5953     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  5954     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  5955 
  5956 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  5957 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  5958 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  5959 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  5960 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  5961 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  5962 
  5963 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  5964 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures.
  5965 
  5966 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  5967 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  5968 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  5969 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  5970 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  5971 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  5972 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  5973 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  5974 variable.
  5975 
  5976 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  5977 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  5978 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  5979 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5980   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  5981   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  5982 
  5983 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  5984 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  5985 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  5986 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  5987 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  5988 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  5989 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  5990 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  5991 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  5992 
  5993 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  5994 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  5995 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  5996 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  5997 rat, etc.
  5998 
  5999 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  6000 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  6001 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  6002 
  6003 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  6004 
  6005 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  6006 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  6007 
  6008 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  6009 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  6010 
  6011 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  6012 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  6013 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6014 
  6015 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  6016 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  6017 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6018 
  6019 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  6020 
  6021 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  6022 
  6023 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  6024 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  6025 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  6026 positive/negative (in inequations).
  6027 
  6028 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  6029 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  6030 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  6031 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6032 
  6033 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  6034 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  6035 algebraic operations.
  6036 
  6037 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  6038 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6039 
  6040 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  6041 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6042 
  6043 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  6044 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  6045 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  6046 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  6047 adapted.
  6048 
  6049 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  6050 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  6051 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  6052 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  6053 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  6054 
  6055 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  6056 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  6057 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  6058 
  6059 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  6060 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  6061 better use 'abbreviation'.
  6062 
  6063 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6064 
  6065 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  6066 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  6067 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  6068   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  6069       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  6070   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  6071   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  6072   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  6073 
  6074 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  6075 
  6076 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  6077 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  6078 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  6079 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  6080 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  6081 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  6082 
  6083 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  6084 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  6085 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  6086 
  6087 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  6088 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  6089 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  6090 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6091 
  6092 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  6093 
  6094 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  6095 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6096 
  6097 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  6098 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  6099 
  6100 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  6101 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  6102 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  6103 
  6104 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  6105 True/False.
  6106 
  6107 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  6108 
  6109 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  6110 
  6111 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  6112 ``rule'' method.
  6113 
  6114 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  6115 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  6116 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  6117 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  6118 
  6119 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  6120 zChaff is still supported as well.
  6121 
  6122 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  6123 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  6124 
  6125 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  6126 Library.
  6127 
  6128 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  6129 
  6130 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  6131 as greatest fixed-point.
  6132 
  6133 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  6134 association lists.
  6135 
  6136 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  6137 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  6138 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  6139 
  6140 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  6141 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  6142 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6143 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  6144 behavior.
  6145 
  6146 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  6147 
  6148 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  6149 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  6150 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  6151 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  6152 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  6153 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  6154 
  6155 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  6156 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  6157 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  6158 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  6159 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  6160 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  6161 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  6162 
  6163 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  6164 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  6165 
  6166 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  6167 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  6168 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  6169 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  6170 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  6171 
  6172 
  6173 *** HOL-Complex ***
  6174 
  6175 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  6176 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  6177 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  6178 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  6179 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6180 
  6181 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  6182 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  6183 and norm :: 'a => real.
  6184 
  6185 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  6186 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  6187 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6188 
  6189 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  6190 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  6191 
  6192 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  6193 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  6194 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  6195 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6196 
  6197   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6198   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6199   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6200   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  6201   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  6202   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  6203   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  6204   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6205   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6206   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6207   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  6208   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  6209   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  6210   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  6211   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  6212 
  6213 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  6214 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  6215 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  6216 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6217 
  6218   approx        <-- capprox
  6219   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  6220   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  6221   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  6222   monad         <-- cmonad
  6223   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  6224   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  6225   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  6226   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  6227 
  6228 
  6229 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  6230 
  6231 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  6232 
  6233 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  6234 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6235 
  6236 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  6237 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  62