README_REPOSITORY
author wenzelm
Thu Mar 04 21:02:21 2010 +0100 (2010-03-04)
changeset 35567 309e75c58af2
parent 32361 141e5151b918
child 36858 8eac822dec6c
permissions -rw-r--r--
point to http://hginit.com/
     1 Important notes on Mercurial repository access for Isabelle
     2 ===========================================================
     3 
     4 Preamble
     5 --------
     6 
     7 Mercurial http://www.selenic.com/mercurial belongs to a new generation
     8 of source code management systems, following the paradigm of
     9 "distributed version control".  Compared to the old centralized model
    10 of CVS or SVN, this gives considerable more power and freedom in
    11 organizing the flow of changes, both between individual developers and
    12 designated pull/push areas that are shared with others.
    13 
    14 More power for the user also means more responsibility!  Due to its
    15 decentralized nature, changesets that have been published once,
    16 e.g. via "push" to a shared repository that is visible on the net,
    17 cannot be easily retracted from the public again.  Regular Mercurial
    18 operations are strictly monotonic, where changset transactions are
    19 only added, but never deleted.  There are special tools to manipulate
    20 individual repositories via non-monotonic actions, but this does not
    21 yet retrieve any changesets that have escaped into the public by
    22 accident.
    23 
    24 Only global operations like "pull" and "push" fall into this critical
    25 category.  Note that "incoming" / "outgoing" allow to inspect
    26 changesets before exchanging them globally.  Anything else in
    27 Mercurial is local to the user's repository clone (including "commit",
    28 "update", "merge" etc.) and is in fact much simpler and safer to use
    29 than the corresponding operations of CVS or SVN.
    30 
    31 
    32 Initial configuration
    33 ---------------------
    34 
    35 Always use Mercurial versions from the 1.0 or 1.1 branch, or later.
    36 The old 0.9.x versions do not work in a multi-user environment with
    37 shared file spaces!
    38 
    39 
    40 The official Isabelle repository can be cloned like this:
    41 
    42   hg clone http://isabelle.in.tum.de/repos/isabelle
    43 
    44 This will create a local directory "isabelle", unless an alternative
    45 name is specified.  The full repository meta-data and history of
    46 changes is in isabelle/.hg; local configuration for this clone can be
    47 added to isabelle/.hg/hgrc, but note that hgrc files are never copied
    48 by another clone operation!
    49 
    50 
    51 There is also $HOME/.hgrc for per-user Mercurial configuration.  The
    52 initial configuration should include at least an entry to identify
    53 yourself.  For example, something like this in /home/wenzelm/.hgrc:
    54 
    55   [ui]
    56   username = wenzelm
    57 
    58 Of course, the user identity can be also configured in
    59 isabelle/.hg/hgrc on per-repository basis.  Failing to specify the
    60 username correctly makes the system invent funny machine names that
    61 may persist indefinitely in the public flow of changesets.
    62 
    63 In principle, user names can be chosen freely, but for longterm
    64 committers of the Isabelle repository the obvious choice is to keep
    65 with the old CVS naming scheme.  Others should use their regular "full
    66 name"; including an email address is optional.
    67 
    68 
    69 There are other useful configuration to go into $HOME/.hgrc,
    70 e.g. defaults for common commands:
    71 
    72   [defaults]
    73   log = -l 10
    74 
    75 The next example shows how to install some Mercurial extension:
    76 
    77   [extensions]
    78   hgext.graphlog =
    79 
    80 Now the additional glog command will be available.
    81 
    82 
    83 See also the fine documentation for further details, especially the
    84 book http://hgbook.red-bean.com/
    85 
    86 There is also a nice tutorial at http://hginit.com/
    87 
    88 
    89 Shared pull/push access
    90 -----------------------
    91 
    92 The entry point http://isabelle.in.tum.de/repos/isabelle is world
    93 readable, both via plain web browsing and the hg client as described
    94 above.  Anybody can produce a clone, change it arbitrarily, and then
    95 use regular mechanisms of Mercurial to report changes upstream, say
    96 via e-mail to someone with write access to that file space.  It is
    97 also quite easy to publish changed clones again on the web, using the
    98 adhoc command "hg serve -v", or the hgweb.cgi or hgwebdir.cgi scripts
    99 that are included in the Mercurial distribution.
   100 
   101 The downstream/upstream mode of operation is quite common in the
   102 distributed version control community, and works well for occasional
   103 changes produced by anybody out there.  Of course, upstream
   104 maintainers need to review and moderate changes being proposed, before
   105 pushing anything onto the official Isabelle repository at TUM.
   106 
   107 
   108 Write access to the Isabelle repository requires an account at TUM,
   109 with properly configured ssh access to the local machines
   110 (e.g. macbroy20, atbroy100).  You also need to be a member of the
   111 "isabelle" Unix group.
   112 
   113 Sharing a locally modified clone then works as follows, using your
   114 user name instead of "wenzelm":
   115 
   116   hg out ssh://wenzelm@atbroy100//home/isabelle-repository/repos/isabelle
   117 
   118 In fact, the "out" or "outgoing" command performs only a dry run: it
   119 displays the changesets that would get published.  An actual "push",
   120 with a lasting effect on the Isabelle repository, works like this:
   121 
   122   hg push ssh://wenzelm@atbroy100//home/isabelle-repository/repos/isabelle
   123 
   124 
   125 Default paths for push and pull can be configure in isabelle/.hg/hgrc,
   126 for example:
   127 
   128   [paths]
   129   default = ssh://wenzelm@atbroy100//home/isabelle-repository/repos/isabelle
   130 
   131 Now "hg pull" or "hg push" will use that shared file space, unless a
   132 different URL is specified explicitly.
   133 
   134 When cloning a repository, the default path is set to the initial
   135 source URL.  So we could have cloned via that ssh URL in the first
   136 place, to get exactly to the same point:
   137 
   138   hg clone ssh://wenzelm@atbroy100//home/isabelle-repository/repos/isabelle
   139 
   140 
   141 Simplified merges
   142 -----------------
   143 
   144 The main idea of Mercurial is to let individual users produce
   145 independent branches of development first, but merge with others
   146 frequently.  The basic hg merge operation is more general than
   147 required for the mode of operation with a shared pull/push area.  The
   148 hg fetch extension accommodates this case nicely, automating trivial
   149 merges and requiring manual intervention for actual conflicts only.
   150 
   151 The fetch extension can be configured via the user's ~/.hgrc like
   152 this:
   153 
   154   [extensions]
   155   hgext.fetch =
   156 
   157   [defaults]
   158   fetch = -m "merged"
   159 
   160 Note that the potential for merge conflicts can be greatly reduced by
   161 doing "hg fetch" before any starting local changes!
   162 
   163 
   164 Content discipline
   165 ------------------
   166 
   167 Old-style centralized version control is occasionally compared to "a
   168 library where everybody scribbles into the books".  Or seen the other
   169 way round, the centralized model discourages individual
   170 experimentation (with local branches etc.), because everything is
   171 forced to happen on a shared file space.  With Mercurial, arbitrary
   172 variations on local clones are no problem, but care is required again
   173 when publishing changes eventually.
   174 
   175 The following principles should be kept in mind when producing
   176 changesets that might become public at some point.
   177 
   178   * The author of changes should be properly identified, using
   179     ui/username configuration as described above.
   180 
   181     While Mercurial also provides means for signed changesets, we want
   182     to keep things simple and trust that users specify their identity
   183     correctly.
   184 
   185   * The history of sources is an integral part of the sources
   186     themselves.  This means that private experiments and branches
   187     should not be published, unless they are really meant to become
   188     universally available.
   189 
   190     Note that exchanging local experiments with some other users can
   191     be done directly on peer-to-peer basis, without affecting the
   192     central pull/push area.
   193 
   194   * Log messages are an integral part of the history of sources.
   195     Other users will have to look there eventually, to understand why
   196     things have been done in a certain way at some point.
   197 
   198     Mercurial provides nice web presentation of incoming changes with
   199     a digest of log entries; this also includes RSS/Atom news feeds.
   200     Users should be aware that others will actually read what is
   201     written into log messages.  There are also add-on browsers,
   202     notably hgtk that is part of the TortoiseHg distribution and works
   203     for generic Python/GTk platforms.
   204 
   205     The usual changelog presentation style for the Isabelle repository
   206     admits log entries that consist of several lines, but without the
   207     special headline that is used in Mercurial projects elsewhere.
   208     Since some display styles strip newlines from text, it is
   209     advisable to separate lines via punctuation, and not rely on
   210     two-dimensional presentation too much.
   211 
   212 
   213 Building a repository version of Isabelle
   214 -----------------------------------------
   215 
   216 Compared to a proper distribution or development snapshot, a
   217 repository version of Isabelle lacks textual version identifiers in
   218 some sources and scripts, and various components produced by
   219 Admin/build are missing.  After applying that script with suitable
   220 arguments, the regular user instructions for building and running
   221 Isabelle from sources apply.
   222 
   223 Needless to say, the results from the build process must not be added
   224 to the repository!