src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Reflected_Multivariate_Polynomial.thy
author huffman
Sun Apr 01 16:09:58 2012 +0200 (2012-04-01)
changeset 47255 30a1692557b0
parent 46991 196f2d9406c4
child 49962 a8cc904a6820
permissions -rw-r--r--
removed Nat_Numeral.thy, moving all theorems elsewhere
     1 (*  Title:      HOL/Decision_Procs/Reflected_Multivariate_Polynomial.thy
     2     Author:     Amine Chaieb
     3 *)
     4 
     5 header {* Implementation and verification of multivariate polynomials *}
     6 
     7 theory Reflected_Multivariate_Polynomial
     8 imports Complex_Main "~~/src/HOL/Library/Abstract_Rat" Polynomial_List
     9 begin
    10 
    11   (* Implementation *)
    12 
    13 subsection{* Datatype of polynomial expressions *} 
    14 
    15 datatype poly = C Num| Bound nat| Add poly poly|Sub poly poly
    16   | Mul poly poly| Neg poly| Pw poly nat| CN poly nat poly
    17 
    18 abbreviation poly_0 :: "poly" ("0\<^sub>p") where "0\<^sub>p \<equiv> C (0\<^sub>N)"
    19 abbreviation poly_p :: "int \<Rightarrow> poly" ("_\<^sub>p") where "i\<^sub>p \<equiv> C (i\<^sub>N)"
    20 
    21 subsection{* Boundedness, substitution and all that *}
    22 primrec polysize:: "poly \<Rightarrow> nat" where
    23   "polysize (C c) = 1"
    24 | "polysize (Bound n) = 1"
    25 | "polysize (Neg p) = 1 + polysize p"
    26 | "polysize (Add p q) = 1 + polysize p + polysize q"
    27 | "polysize (Sub p q) = 1 + polysize p + polysize q"
    28 | "polysize (Mul p q) = 1 + polysize p + polysize q"
    29 | "polysize (Pw p n) = 1 + polysize p"
    30 | "polysize (CN c n p) = 4 + polysize c + polysize p"
    31 
    32 primrec polybound0:: "poly \<Rightarrow> bool" (* a poly is INDEPENDENT of Bound 0 *) where
    33   "polybound0 (C c) = True"
    34 | "polybound0 (Bound n) = (n>0)"
    35 | "polybound0 (Neg a) = polybound0 a"
    36 | "polybound0 (Add a b) = (polybound0 a \<and> polybound0 b)"
    37 | "polybound0 (Sub a b) = (polybound0 a \<and> polybound0 b)" 
    38 | "polybound0 (Mul a b) = (polybound0 a \<and> polybound0 b)"
    39 | "polybound0 (Pw p n) = (polybound0 p)"
    40 | "polybound0 (CN c n p) = (n \<noteq> 0 \<and> polybound0 c \<and> polybound0 p)"
    41 
    42 primrec polysubst0:: "poly \<Rightarrow> poly \<Rightarrow> poly" (* substitute a poly into a poly for Bound 0 *) where
    43   "polysubst0 t (C c) = (C c)"
    44 | "polysubst0 t (Bound n) = (if n=0 then t else Bound n)"
    45 | "polysubst0 t (Neg a) = Neg (polysubst0 t a)"
    46 | "polysubst0 t (Add a b) = Add (polysubst0 t a) (polysubst0 t b)"
    47 | "polysubst0 t (Sub a b) = Sub (polysubst0 t a) (polysubst0 t b)" 
    48 | "polysubst0 t (Mul a b) = Mul (polysubst0 t a) (polysubst0 t b)"
    49 | "polysubst0 t (Pw p n) = Pw (polysubst0 t p) n"
    50 | "polysubst0 t (CN c n p) = (if n=0 then Add (polysubst0 t c) (Mul t (polysubst0 t p))
    51                              else CN (polysubst0 t c) n (polysubst0 t p))"
    52 
    53 fun decrpoly:: "poly \<Rightarrow> poly" 
    54 where
    55   "decrpoly (Bound n) = Bound (n - 1)"
    56 | "decrpoly (Neg a) = Neg (decrpoly a)"
    57 | "decrpoly (Add a b) = Add (decrpoly a) (decrpoly b)"
    58 | "decrpoly (Sub a b) = Sub (decrpoly a) (decrpoly b)"
    59 | "decrpoly (Mul a b) = Mul (decrpoly a) (decrpoly b)"
    60 | "decrpoly (Pw p n) = Pw (decrpoly p) n"
    61 | "decrpoly (CN c n p) = CN (decrpoly c) (n - 1) (decrpoly p)"
    62 | "decrpoly a = a"
    63 
    64 subsection{* Degrees and heads and coefficients *}
    65 
    66 fun degree:: "poly \<Rightarrow> nat"
    67 where
    68   "degree (CN c 0 p) = 1 + degree p"
    69 | "degree p = 0"
    70 
    71 fun head:: "poly \<Rightarrow> poly"
    72 where
    73   "head (CN c 0 p) = head p"
    74 | "head p = p"
    75 
    76 (* More general notions of degree and head *)
    77 fun degreen:: "poly \<Rightarrow> nat \<Rightarrow> nat"
    78 where
    79   "degreen (CN c n p) = (\<lambda>m. if n=m then 1 + degreen p n else 0)"
    80  |"degreen p = (\<lambda>m. 0)"
    81 
    82 fun headn:: "poly \<Rightarrow> nat \<Rightarrow> poly"
    83 where
    84   "headn (CN c n p) = (\<lambda>m. if n \<le> m then headn p m else CN c n p)"
    85 | "headn p = (\<lambda>m. p)"
    86 
    87 fun coefficients:: "poly \<Rightarrow> poly list"
    88 where
    89   "coefficients (CN c 0 p) = c#(coefficients p)"
    90 | "coefficients p = [p]"
    91 
    92 fun isconstant:: "poly \<Rightarrow> bool"
    93 where
    94   "isconstant (CN c 0 p) = False"
    95 | "isconstant p = True"
    96 
    97 fun behead:: "poly \<Rightarrow> poly"
    98 where
    99   "behead (CN c 0 p) = (let p' = behead p in if p' = 0\<^sub>p then c else CN c 0 p')"
   100 | "behead p = 0\<^sub>p"
   101 
   102 fun headconst:: "poly \<Rightarrow> Num"
   103 where
   104   "headconst (CN c n p) = headconst p"
   105 | "headconst (C n) = n"
   106 
   107 subsection{* Operations for normalization *}
   108 
   109 
   110 declare if_cong[fundef_cong del]
   111 declare let_cong[fundef_cong del]
   112 
   113 fun polyadd :: "poly \<Rightarrow> poly \<Rightarrow> poly" (infixl "+\<^sub>p" 60)
   114 where
   115   "polyadd (C c) (C c') = C (c+\<^sub>Nc')"
   116 |  "polyadd (C c) (CN c' n' p') = CN (polyadd (C c) c') n' p'"
   117 | "polyadd (CN c n p) (C c') = CN (polyadd c (C c')) n p"
   118 | "polyadd (CN c n p) (CN c' n' p') =
   119     (if n < n' then CN (polyadd c (CN c' n' p')) n p
   120      else if n'<n then CN (polyadd (CN c n p) c') n' p'
   121      else (let cc' = polyadd c c' ; 
   122                pp' = polyadd p p'
   123            in (if pp' = 0\<^sub>p then cc' else CN cc' n pp')))"
   124 | "polyadd a b = Add a b"
   125 
   126 
   127 fun polyneg :: "poly \<Rightarrow> poly" ("~\<^sub>p")
   128 where
   129   "polyneg (C c) = C (~\<^sub>N c)"
   130 | "polyneg (CN c n p) = CN (polyneg c) n (polyneg p)"
   131 | "polyneg a = Neg a"
   132 
   133 definition polysub :: "poly \<Rightarrow> poly \<Rightarrow> poly" (infixl "-\<^sub>p" 60)
   134 where
   135   "p -\<^sub>p q = polyadd p (polyneg q)"
   136 
   137 fun polymul :: "poly \<Rightarrow> poly \<Rightarrow> poly" (infixl "*\<^sub>p" 60)
   138 where
   139   "polymul (C c) (C c') = C (c*\<^sub>Nc')"
   140 | "polymul (C c) (CN c' n' p') = 
   141       (if c = 0\<^sub>N then 0\<^sub>p else CN (polymul (C c) c') n' (polymul (C c) p'))"
   142 | "polymul (CN c n p) (C c') = 
   143       (if c' = 0\<^sub>N  then 0\<^sub>p else CN (polymul c (C c')) n (polymul p (C c')))"
   144 | "polymul (CN c n p) (CN c' n' p') = 
   145   (if n<n' then CN (polymul c (CN c' n' p')) n (polymul p (CN c' n' p'))
   146   else if n' < n 
   147   then CN (polymul (CN c n p) c') n' (polymul (CN c n p) p')
   148   else polyadd (polymul (CN c n p) c') (CN 0\<^sub>p n' (polymul (CN c n p) p')))"
   149 | "polymul a b = Mul a b"
   150 
   151 declare if_cong[fundef_cong]
   152 declare let_cong[fundef_cong]
   153 
   154 fun polypow :: "nat \<Rightarrow> poly \<Rightarrow> poly"
   155 where
   156   "polypow 0 = (\<lambda>p. 1\<^sub>p)"
   157 | "polypow n = (\<lambda>p. let q = polypow (n div 2) p ; d = polymul q q in 
   158                     if even n then d else polymul p d)"
   159 
   160 abbreviation poly_pow :: "poly \<Rightarrow> nat \<Rightarrow> poly" (infixl "^\<^sub>p" 60)
   161   where "a ^\<^sub>p k \<equiv> polypow k a"
   162 
   163 function polynate :: "poly \<Rightarrow> poly"
   164 where
   165   "polynate (Bound n) = CN 0\<^sub>p n 1\<^sub>p"
   166 | "polynate (Add p q) = (polynate p +\<^sub>p polynate q)"
   167 | "polynate (Sub p q) = (polynate p -\<^sub>p polynate q)"
   168 | "polynate (Mul p q) = (polynate p *\<^sub>p polynate q)"
   169 | "polynate (Neg p) = (~\<^sub>p (polynate p))"
   170 | "polynate (Pw p n) = ((polynate p) ^\<^sub>p n)"
   171 | "polynate (CN c n p) = polynate (Add c (Mul (Bound n) p))"
   172 | "polynate (C c) = C (normNum c)"
   173 by pat_completeness auto
   174 termination by (relation "measure polysize") auto
   175 
   176 fun poly_cmul :: "Num \<Rightarrow> poly \<Rightarrow> poly" where
   177   "poly_cmul y (C x) = C (y *\<^sub>N x)"
   178 | "poly_cmul y (CN c n p) = CN (poly_cmul y c) n (poly_cmul y p)"
   179 | "poly_cmul y p = C y *\<^sub>p p"
   180 
   181 definition monic :: "poly \<Rightarrow> (poly \<times> bool)" where
   182   "monic p \<equiv> (let h = headconst p in if h = 0\<^sub>N then (p,False) else ((C (Ninv h)) *\<^sub>p p, 0>\<^sub>N h))"
   183 
   184 subsection{* Pseudo-division *}
   185 
   186 definition shift1 :: "poly \<Rightarrow> poly" where
   187   "shift1 p \<equiv> CN 0\<^sub>p 0 p"
   188 
   189 abbreviation funpow :: "nat \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'a) \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'a)" where
   190   "funpow \<equiv> compow"
   191 
   192 partial_function (tailrec) polydivide_aux :: "poly \<Rightarrow> nat \<Rightarrow> poly \<Rightarrow> nat \<Rightarrow> poly \<Rightarrow> nat \<times> poly"
   193   where
   194   "polydivide_aux a n p k s = 
   195   (if s = 0\<^sub>p then (k,s)
   196   else (let b = head s; m = degree s in
   197   (if m < n then (k,s) else 
   198   (let p'= funpow (m - n) shift1 p in 
   199   (if a = b then polydivide_aux a n p k (s -\<^sub>p p') 
   200   else polydivide_aux a n p (Suc k) ((a *\<^sub>p s) -\<^sub>p (b *\<^sub>p p')))))))"
   201 
   202 definition polydivide :: "poly \<Rightarrow> poly \<Rightarrow> (nat \<times> poly)" where
   203   "polydivide s p \<equiv> polydivide_aux (head p) (degree p) p 0 s"
   204 
   205 fun poly_deriv_aux :: "nat \<Rightarrow> poly \<Rightarrow> poly" where
   206   "poly_deriv_aux n (CN c 0 p) = CN (poly_cmul ((int n)\<^sub>N) c) 0 (poly_deriv_aux (n + 1) p)"
   207 | "poly_deriv_aux n p = poly_cmul ((int n)\<^sub>N) p"
   208 
   209 fun poly_deriv :: "poly \<Rightarrow> poly" where
   210   "poly_deriv (CN c 0 p) = poly_deriv_aux 1 p"
   211 | "poly_deriv p = 0\<^sub>p"
   212 
   213 subsection{* Semantics of the polynomial representation *}
   214 
   215 primrec Ipoly :: "'a list \<Rightarrow> poly \<Rightarrow> 'a::{field_char_0, field_inverse_zero, power}" where
   216   "Ipoly bs (C c) = INum c"
   217 | "Ipoly bs (Bound n) = bs!n"
   218 | "Ipoly bs (Neg a) = - Ipoly bs a"
   219 | "Ipoly bs (Add a b) = Ipoly bs a + Ipoly bs b"
   220 | "Ipoly bs (Sub a b) = Ipoly bs a - Ipoly bs b"
   221 | "Ipoly bs (Mul a b) = Ipoly bs a * Ipoly bs b"
   222 | "Ipoly bs (Pw t n) = (Ipoly bs t) ^ n"
   223 | "Ipoly bs (CN c n p) = (Ipoly bs c) + (bs!n)*(Ipoly bs p)"
   224 
   225 abbreviation
   226   Ipoly_syntax :: "poly \<Rightarrow> 'a list \<Rightarrow>'a::{field_char_0, field_inverse_zero, power}" ("\<lparr>_\<rparr>\<^sub>p\<^bsup>_\<^esup>")
   227   where "\<lparr>p\<rparr>\<^sub>p\<^bsup>bs\<^esup> \<equiv> Ipoly bs p"
   228 
   229 lemma Ipoly_CInt: "Ipoly bs (C (i,1)) = of_int i" 
   230   by (simp add: INum_def)
   231 lemma Ipoly_CRat: "Ipoly bs (C (i, j)) = of_int i / of_int j" 
   232   by (simp  add: INum_def)
   233 
   234 lemmas RIpoly_eqs = Ipoly.simps(2-7) Ipoly_CInt Ipoly_CRat
   235 
   236 subsection {* Normal form and normalization *}
   237 
   238 fun isnpolyh:: "poly \<Rightarrow> nat \<Rightarrow> bool"
   239 where
   240   "isnpolyh (C c) = (\<lambda>k. isnormNum c)"
   241 | "isnpolyh (CN c n p) = (\<lambda>k. n \<ge> k \<and> (isnpolyh c (Suc n)) \<and> (isnpolyh p n) \<and> (p \<noteq> 0\<^sub>p))"
   242 | "isnpolyh p = (\<lambda>k. False)"
   243 
   244 lemma isnpolyh_mono: "\<lbrakk>n' \<le> n ; isnpolyh p n\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> isnpolyh p n'"
   245 by (induct p rule: isnpolyh.induct, auto)
   246 
   247 definition isnpoly :: "poly \<Rightarrow> bool" where
   248   "isnpoly p \<equiv> isnpolyh p 0"
   249 
   250 text{* polyadd preserves normal forms *}
   251 
   252 lemma polyadd_normh: "\<lbrakk>isnpolyh p n0 ; isnpolyh q n1\<rbrakk> 
   253       \<Longrightarrow> isnpolyh (polyadd p q) (min n0 n1)"
   254 proof(induct p q arbitrary: n0 n1 rule: polyadd.induct)
   255   case (2 ab c' n' p' n0 n1)
   256   from 2 have  th1: "isnpolyh (C ab) (Suc n')" by simp 
   257   from 2(3) have th2: "isnpolyh c' (Suc n')"  and nplen1: "n' \<ge> n1" by simp_all
   258   with isnpolyh_mono have cp: "isnpolyh c' (Suc n')" by simp
   259   with 2(1)[OF th1 th2] have th3:"isnpolyh (C ab +\<^sub>p c') (Suc n')" by simp
   260   from nplen1 have n01len1: "min n0 n1 \<le> n'" by simp 
   261   thus ?case using 2 th3 by simp
   262 next
   263   case (3 c' n' p' ab n1 n0)
   264   from 3 have  th1: "isnpolyh (C ab) (Suc n')" by simp 
   265   from 3(2) have th2: "isnpolyh c' (Suc n')"  and nplen1: "n' \<ge> n1" by simp_all
   266   with isnpolyh_mono have cp: "isnpolyh c' (Suc n')" by simp
   267   with 3(1)[OF th2 th1] have th3:"isnpolyh (c' +\<^sub>p C ab) (Suc n')" by simp
   268   from nplen1 have n01len1: "min n0 n1 \<le> n'" by simp 
   269   thus ?case using 3 th3 by simp
   270 next
   271   case (4 c n p c' n' p' n0 n1)
   272   hence nc: "isnpolyh c (Suc n)" and np: "isnpolyh p n" by simp_all
   273   from 4 have nc': "isnpolyh c' (Suc n')" and np': "isnpolyh p' n'" by simp_all 
   274   from 4 have ngen0: "n \<ge> n0" by simp
   275   from 4 have n'gen1: "n' \<ge> n1" by simp 
   276   have "n < n' \<or> n' < n \<or> n = n'" by auto
   277   moreover {assume eq: "n = n'"
   278     with "4.hyps"(3)[OF nc nc'] 
   279     have ncc':"isnpolyh (c +\<^sub>p c') (Suc n)" by auto
   280     hence ncc'n01: "isnpolyh (c +\<^sub>p c') (min n0 n1)"
   281       using isnpolyh_mono[where n'="min n0 n1" and n="Suc n"] ngen0 n'gen1 by auto
   282     from eq "4.hyps"(4)[OF np np'] have npp': "isnpolyh (p +\<^sub>p p') n" by simp
   283     have minle: "min n0 n1 \<le> n'" using ngen0 n'gen1 eq by simp
   284     from minle npp' ncc'n01 4 eq ngen0 n'gen1 ncc' have ?case by (simp add: Let_def)}
   285   moreover {assume lt: "n < n'"
   286     have "min n0 n1 \<le> n0" by simp
   287     with 4 lt have th1:"min n0 n1 \<le> n" by auto 
   288     from 4 have th21: "isnpolyh c (Suc n)" by simp
   289     from 4 have th22: "isnpolyh (CN c' n' p') n'" by simp
   290     from lt have th23: "min (Suc n) n' = Suc n" by arith
   291     from "4.hyps"(1)[OF th21 th22]
   292     have "isnpolyh (polyadd c (CN c' n' p')) (Suc n)" using th23 by simp
   293     with 4 lt th1 have ?case by simp } 
   294   moreover {assume gt: "n' < n" hence gt': "n' < n \<and> \<not> n < n'" by simp
   295     have "min n0 n1 \<le> n1"  by simp
   296     with 4 gt have th1:"min n0 n1 \<le> n'" by auto
   297     from 4 have th21: "isnpolyh c' (Suc n')" by simp_all
   298     from 4 have th22: "isnpolyh (CN c n p) n" by simp
   299     from gt have th23: "min n (Suc n') = Suc n'" by arith
   300     from "4.hyps"(2)[OF th22 th21]
   301     have "isnpolyh (polyadd (CN c n p) c') (Suc n')" using th23 by simp
   302     with 4 gt th1 have ?case by simp}
   303       ultimately show ?case by blast
   304 qed auto
   305 
   306 lemma polyadd[simp]: "Ipoly bs (polyadd p q) = Ipoly bs p + Ipoly bs q"
   307 by (induct p q rule: polyadd.induct, auto simp add: Let_def field_simps right_distrib[symmetric] simp del: right_distrib)
   308 
   309 lemma polyadd_norm: "\<lbrakk> isnpoly p ; isnpoly q\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> isnpoly (polyadd p q)"
   310   using polyadd_normh[of "p" "0" "q" "0"] isnpoly_def by simp
   311 
   312 text{* The degree of addition and other general lemmas needed for the normal form of polymul *}
   313 
   314 lemma polyadd_different_degreen: 
   315   "\<lbrakk>isnpolyh p n0 ; isnpolyh q n1; degreen p m \<noteq> degreen q m ; m \<le> min n0 n1\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> 
   316   degreen (polyadd p q) m = max (degreen p m) (degreen q m)"
   317 proof (induct p q arbitrary: m n0 n1 rule: polyadd.induct)
   318   case (4 c n p c' n' p' m n0 n1)
   319   have "n' = n \<or> n < n' \<or> n' < n" by arith
   320   thus ?case
   321   proof (elim disjE)
   322     assume [simp]: "n' = n"
   323     from 4(4)[of n n m] 4(3)[of "Suc n" "Suc n" m] 4(5-7)
   324     show ?thesis by (auto simp: Let_def)
   325   next
   326     assume "n < n'"
   327     with 4 show ?thesis by auto
   328   next
   329     assume "n' < n"
   330     with 4 show ?thesis by auto
   331   qed
   332 qed auto
   333 
   334 lemma headnz[simp]: "\<lbrakk>isnpolyh p n ; p \<noteq> 0\<^sub>p\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> headn p m \<noteq> 0\<^sub>p"
   335   by (induct p arbitrary: n rule: headn.induct, auto)
   336 lemma degree_isnpolyh_Suc[simp]: "isnpolyh p (Suc n) \<Longrightarrow> degree p = 0"
   337   by (induct p arbitrary: n rule: degree.induct, auto)
   338 lemma degreen_0[simp]: "isnpolyh p n \<Longrightarrow> m < n \<Longrightarrow> degreen p m = 0"
   339   by (induct p arbitrary: n rule: degreen.induct, auto)
   340 
   341 lemma degree_isnpolyh_Suc': "n > 0 \<Longrightarrow> isnpolyh p n \<Longrightarrow> degree p = 0"
   342   by (induct p arbitrary: n rule: degree.induct, auto)
   343 
   344 lemma degree_npolyhCN[simp]: "isnpolyh (CN c n p) n0 \<Longrightarrow> degree c = 0"
   345   using degree_isnpolyh_Suc by auto
   346 lemma degreen_npolyhCN[simp]: "isnpolyh (CN c n p) n0 \<Longrightarrow> degreen c n = 0"
   347   using degreen_0 by auto
   348 
   349 
   350 lemma degreen_polyadd:
   351   assumes np: "isnpolyh p n0" and nq: "isnpolyh q n1" and m: "m \<le> max n0 n1"
   352   shows "degreen (p +\<^sub>p q) m \<le> max (degreen p m) (degreen q m)"
   353   using np nq m
   354 proof (induct p q arbitrary: n0 n1 m rule: polyadd.induct)
   355   case (2 c c' n' p' n0 n1) thus ?case  by (cases n', simp_all)
   356 next
   357   case (3 c n p c' n0 n1) thus ?case by (cases n, auto)
   358 next
   359   case (4 c n p c' n' p' n0 n1 m) 
   360   have "n' = n \<or> n < n' \<or> n' < n" by arith
   361   thus ?case
   362   proof (elim disjE)
   363     assume [simp]: "n' = n"
   364     from 4(4)[of n n m] 4(3)[of "Suc n" "Suc n" m] 4(5-7)
   365     show ?thesis by (auto simp: Let_def)
   366   qed simp_all
   367 qed auto
   368 
   369 lemma polyadd_eq_const_degreen: "\<lbrakk> isnpolyh p n0 ; isnpolyh q n1 ; polyadd p q = C c\<rbrakk> 
   370   \<Longrightarrow> degreen p m = degreen q m"
   371 proof (induct p q arbitrary: m n0 n1 c rule: polyadd.induct)
   372   case (4 c n p c' n' p' m n0 n1 x) 
   373   {assume nn': "n' < n" hence ?case using 4 by simp}
   374   moreover 
   375   {assume nn':"\<not> n' < n" hence "n < n' \<or> n = n'" by arith
   376     moreover {assume "n < n'" with 4 have ?case by simp }
   377     moreover {assume eq: "n = n'" hence ?case using 4 
   378         apply (cases "p +\<^sub>p p' = 0\<^sub>p")
   379         apply (auto simp add: Let_def)
   380         by blast
   381       }
   382     ultimately have ?case by blast}
   383   ultimately show ?case by blast
   384 qed simp_all
   385 
   386 lemma polymul_properties:
   387   assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::{field_char_0, field_inverse_zero})"
   388   and np: "isnpolyh p n0" and nq: "isnpolyh q n1" and m: "m \<le> min n0 n1"
   389   shows "isnpolyh (p *\<^sub>p q) (min n0 n1)" 
   390   and "(p *\<^sub>p q = 0\<^sub>p) = (p = 0\<^sub>p \<or> q = 0\<^sub>p)" 
   391   and "degreen (p *\<^sub>p q) m = (if (p = 0\<^sub>p \<or> q = 0\<^sub>p) then 0 
   392                              else degreen p m + degreen q m)"
   393   using np nq m
   394 proof(induct p q arbitrary: n0 n1 m rule: polymul.induct)
   395   case (2 c c' n' p') 
   396   { case (1 n0 n1) 
   397     with "2.hyps"(4-6)[of n' n' n']
   398       and "2.hyps"(1-3)[of "Suc n'" "Suc n'" n']
   399     show ?case by (auto simp add: min_def)
   400   next
   401     case (2 n0 n1) thus ?case by auto 
   402   next
   403     case (3 n0 n1) thus ?case  using "2.hyps" by auto } 
   404 next
   405   case (3 c n p c')
   406   { case (1 n0 n1) 
   407     with "3.hyps"(4-6)[of n n n]
   408       "3.hyps"(1-3)[of "Suc n" "Suc n" n]
   409     show ?case by (auto simp add: min_def)
   410   next
   411     case (2 n0 n1) thus ?case by auto
   412   next
   413     case (3 n0 n1) thus ?case  using "3.hyps" by auto } 
   414 next
   415   case (4 c n p c' n' p')
   416   let ?cnp = "CN c n p" let ?cnp' = "CN c' n' p'"
   417     {
   418       case (1 n0 n1)
   419       hence cnp: "isnpolyh ?cnp n" and cnp': "isnpolyh ?cnp' n'"
   420         and np: "isnpolyh p n" and nc: "isnpolyh c (Suc n)" 
   421         and np': "isnpolyh p' n'" and nc': "isnpolyh c' (Suc n')"
   422         and nn0: "n \<ge> n0" and nn1:"n' \<ge> n1"
   423         by simp_all
   424       { assume "n < n'"
   425         with "4.hyps"(4-5)[OF np cnp', of n]
   426           "4.hyps"(1)[OF nc cnp', of n] nn0 cnp
   427         have ?case by (simp add: min_def)
   428       } moreover {
   429         assume "n' < n"
   430         with "4.hyps"(16-17)[OF cnp np', of "n'"]
   431           "4.hyps"(13)[OF cnp nc', of "Suc n'"] nn1 cnp'
   432         have ?case
   433           by (cases "Suc n' = n", simp_all add: min_def)
   434       } moreover {
   435         assume "n' = n"
   436         with "4.hyps"(16-17)[OF cnp np', of n]
   437           "4.hyps"(13)[OF cnp nc', of n] cnp cnp' nn1 nn0
   438         have ?case
   439           apply (auto intro!: polyadd_normh)
   440           apply (simp_all add: min_def isnpolyh_mono[OF nn0])
   441           done
   442       }
   443       ultimately show ?case by arith
   444     next
   445       fix n0 n1 m
   446       assume np: "isnpolyh ?cnp n0" and np':"isnpolyh ?cnp' n1"
   447       and m: "m \<le> min n0 n1"
   448       let ?d = "degreen (?cnp *\<^sub>p ?cnp') m"
   449       let ?d1 = "degreen ?cnp m"
   450       let ?d2 = "degreen ?cnp' m"
   451       let ?eq = "?d = (if ?cnp = 0\<^sub>p \<or> ?cnp' = 0\<^sub>p then 0  else ?d1 + ?d2)"
   452       have "n'<n \<or> n < n' \<or> n' = n" by auto
   453       moreover 
   454       {assume "n' < n \<or> n < n'"
   455         with "4.hyps"(3,6,18) np np' m 
   456         have ?eq by auto }
   457       moreover
   458       {assume nn': "n' = n" hence nn:"\<not> n' < n \<and> \<not> n < n'" by arith
   459         from "4.hyps"(16,18)[of n n' n]
   460           "4.hyps"(13,14)[of n "Suc n'" n]
   461           np np' nn'
   462         have norm: "isnpolyh ?cnp n" "isnpolyh c' (Suc n)" "isnpolyh (?cnp *\<^sub>p c') n"
   463           "isnpolyh p' n" "isnpolyh (?cnp *\<^sub>p p') n" "isnpolyh (CN 0\<^sub>p n (CN c n p *\<^sub>p p')) n"
   464           "(?cnp *\<^sub>p c' = 0\<^sub>p) = (c' = 0\<^sub>p)" 
   465           "?cnp *\<^sub>p p' \<noteq> 0\<^sub>p" by (auto simp add: min_def)
   466         {assume mn: "m = n" 
   467           from "4.hyps"(17,18)[OF norm(1,4), of n]
   468             "4.hyps"(13,15)[OF norm(1,2), of n] norm nn' mn
   469           have degs:  "degreen (?cnp *\<^sub>p c') n = 
   470             (if c'=0\<^sub>p then 0 else ?d1 + degreen c' n)"
   471             "degreen (?cnp *\<^sub>p p') n = ?d1  + degreen p' n" by (simp_all add: min_def)
   472           from degs norm
   473           have th1: "degreen(?cnp *\<^sub>p c') n < degreen (CN 0\<^sub>p n (?cnp *\<^sub>p p')) n" by simp
   474           hence neq: "degreen (?cnp *\<^sub>p c') n \<noteq> degreen (CN 0\<^sub>p n (?cnp *\<^sub>p p')) n"
   475             by simp
   476           have nmin: "n \<le> min n n" by (simp add: min_def)
   477           from polyadd_different_degreen[OF norm(3,6) neq nmin] th1
   478           have deg: "degreen (CN c n p *\<^sub>p c' +\<^sub>p CN 0\<^sub>p n (CN c n p *\<^sub>p p')) n = degreen (CN 0\<^sub>p n (CN c n p *\<^sub>p p')) n" by simp 
   479           from "4.hyps"(16-18)[OF norm(1,4), of n]
   480             "4.hyps"(13-15)[OF norm(1,2), of n]
   481             mn norm m nn' deg
   482           have ?eq by simp}
   483         moreover
   484         {assume mn: "m \<noteq> n" hence mn': "m < n" using m np by auto
   485           from nn' m np have max1: "m \<le> max n n"  by simp 
   486           hence min1: "m \<le> min n n" by simp     
   487           hence min2: "m \<le> min n (Suc n)" by simp
   488           from "4.hyps"(16-18)[OF norm(1,4) min1]
   489             "4.hyps"(13-15)[OF norm(1,2) min2]
   490             degreen_polyadd[OF norm(3,6) max1]
   491 
   492           have "degreen (?cnp *\<^sub>p c' +\<^sub>p CN 0\<^sub>p n (?cnp *\<^sub>p p')) m 
   493             \<le> max (degreen (?cnp *\<^sub>p c') m) (degreen (CN 0\<^sub>p n (?cnp *\<^sub>p p')) m)"
   494             using mn nn' np np' by simp
   495           with "4.hyps"(16-18)[OF norm(1,4) min1]
   496             "4.hyps"(13-15)[OF norm(1,2) min2]
   497             degreen_0[OF norm(3) mn']
   498           have ?eq using nn' mn np np' by clarsimp}
   499         ultimately have ?eq by blast}
   500       ultimately show ?eq by blast}
   501     { case (2 n0 n1)
   502       hence np: "isnpolyh ?cnp n0" and np': "isnpolyh ?cnp' n1" 
   503         and m: "m \<le> min n0 n1" by simp_all
   504       hence mn: "m \<le> n" by simp
   505       let ?c0p = "CN 0\<^sub>p n (?cnp *\<^sub>p p')"
   506       {assume C: "?cnp *\<^sub>p c' +\<^sub>p ?c0p = 0\<^sub>p" "n' = n"
   507         hence nn: "\<not>n' < n \<and> \<not> n<n'" by simp
   508         from "4.hyps"(16-18) [of n n n]
   509           "4.hyps"(13-15)[of n "Suc n" n]
   510           np np' C(2) mn
   511         have norm: "isnpolyh ?cnp n" "isnpolyh c' (Suc n)" "isnpolyh (?cnp *\<^sub>p c') n"
   512           "isnpolyh p' n" "isnpolyh (?cnp *\<^sub>p p') n" "isnpolyh (CN 0\<^sub>p n (CN c n p *\<^sub>p p')) n"
   513           "(?cnp *\<^sub>p c' = 0\<^sub>p) = (c' = 0\<^sub>p)" 
   514           "?cnp *\<^sub>p p' \<noteq> 0\<^sub>p" 
   515           "degreen (?cnp *\<^sub>p c') n = (if c'=0\<^sub>p then 0 else degreen ?cnp n + degreen c' n)"
   516             "degreen (?cnp *\<^sub>p p') n = degreen ?cnp n + degreen p' n"
   517           by (simp_all add: min_def)
   518             
   519           from norm have cn: "isnpolyh (CN 0\<^sub>p n (CN c n p *\<^sub>p p')) n" by simp
   520           have degneq: "degreen (?cnp *\<^sub>p c') n < degreen (CN 0\<^sub>p n (?cnp *\<^sub>p p')) n" 
   521             using norm by simp
   522         from polyadd_eq_const_degreen[OF norm(3) cn C(1), where m="n"]  degneq
   523         have "False" by simp }
   524       thus ?case using "4.hyps" by clarsimp}
   525 qed auto
   526 
   527 lemma polymul[simp]: "Ipoly bs (p *\<^sub>p q) = (Ipoly bs p) * (Ipoly bs q)"
   528 by(induct p q rule: polymul.induct, auto simp add: field_simps)
   529 
   530 lemma polymul_normh: 
   531     assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::{field_char_0, field_inverse_zero})"
   532   shows "\<lbrakk>isnpolyh p n0 ; isnpolyh q n1\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> isnpolyh (p *\<^sub>p q) (min n0 n1)"
   533   using polymul_properties(1)  by blast
   534 lemma polymul_eq0_iff: 
   535   assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::{field_char_0, field_inverse_zero})"
   536   shows "\<lbrakk> isnpolyh p n0 ; isnpolyh q n1\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> (p *\<^sub>p q = 0\<^sub>p) = (p = 0\<^sub>p \<or> q = 0\<^sub>p) "
   537   using polymul_properties(2)  by blast
   538 lemma polymul_degreen:  
   539   assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::{field_char_0, field_inverse_zero})"
   540   shows "\<lbrakk> isnpolyh p n0 ; isnpolyh q n1 ; m \<le> min n0 n1\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> degreen (p *\<^sub>p q) m = (if (p = 0\<^sub>p \<or> q = 0\<^sub>p) then 0 else degreen p m + degreen q m)"
   541   using polymul_properties(3) by blast
   542 lemma polymul_norm:   
   543   assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::{field_char_0, field_inverse_zero})"
   544   shows "\<lbrakk> isnpoly p; isnpoly q\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> isnpoly (polymul p q)"
   545   using polymul_normh[of "p" "0" "q" "0"] isnpoly_def by simp
   546 
   547 lemma headconst_zero: "isnpolyh p n0 \<Longrightarrow> headconst p = 0\<^sub>N \<longleftrightarrow> p = 0\<^sub>p"
   548   by (induct p arbitrary: n0 rule: headconst.induct, auto)
   549 
   550 lemma headconst_isnormNum: "isnpolyh p n0 \<Longrightarrow> isnormNum (headconst p)"
   551   by (induct p arbitrary: n0, auto)
   552 
   553 lemma monic_eqI: assumes np: "isnpolyh p n0" 
   554   shows "INum (headconst p) * Ipoly bs (fst (monic p)) = (Ipoly bs p ::'a::{field_char_0, field_inverse_zero, power})"
   555   unfolding monic_def Let_def
   556 proof(cases "headconst p = 0\<^sub>N", simp_all add: headconst_zero[OF np])
   557   let ?h = "headconst p"
   558   assume pz: "p \<noteq> 0\<^sub>p"
   559   {assume hz: "INum ?h = (0::'a)"
   560     from headconst_isnormNum[OF np] have norm: "isnormNum ?h" "isnormNum 0\<^sub>N" by simp_all
   561     from isnormNum_unique[where ?'a = 'a, OF norm] hz have "?h = 0\<^sub>N" by simp
   562     with headconst_zero[OF np] have "p =0\<^sub>p" by blast with pz have "False" by blast}
   563   thus "INum (headconst p) = (0::'a) \<longrightarrow> \<lparr>p\<rparr>\<^sub>p\<^bsup>bs\<^esup> = 0" by blast
   564 qed
   565 
   566 
   567 text{* polyneg is a negation and preserves normal forms *}
   568 
   569 lemma polyneg[simp]: "Ipoly bs (polyneg p) = - Ipoly bs p"
   570 by (induct p rule: polyneg.induct, auto)
   571 
   572 lemma polyneg0: "isnpolyh p n \<Longrightarrow> ((~\<^sub>p p) = 0\<^sub>p) = (p = 0\<^sub>p)"
   573   by (induct p arbitrary: n rule: polyneg.induct, auto simp add: Nneg_def)
   574 lemma polyneg_polyneg: "isnpolyh p n0 \<Longrightarrow> ~\<^sub>p (~\<^sub>p p) = p"
   575   by (induct p arbitrary: n0 rule: polyneg.induct, auto)
   576 lemma polyneg_normh: "\<And>n. isnpolyh p n \<Longrightarrow> isnpolyh (polyneg p) n "
   577 by (induct p rule: polyneg.induct, auto simp add: polyneg0)
   578 
   579 lemma polyneg_norm: "isnpoly p \<Longrightarrow> isnpoly (polyneg p)"
   580   using isnpoly_def polyneg_normh by simp
   581 
   582 
   583 text{* polysub is a substraction and preserves normal forms *}
   584 
   585 lemma polysub[simp]: "Ipoly bs (polysub p q) = (Ipoly bs p) - (Ipoly bs q)"
   586 by (simp add: polysub_def polyneg polyadd)
   587 lemma polysub_normh: "\<And> n0 n1. \<lbrakk> isnpolyh p n0 ; isnpolyh q n1\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> isnpolyh (polysub p q) (min n0 n1)"
   588 by (simp add: polysub_def polyneg_normh polyadd_normh)
   589 
   590 lemma polysub_norm: "\<lbrakk> isnpoly p; isnpoly q\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> isnpoly (polysub p q)"
   591   using polyadd_norm polyneg_norm by (simp add: polysub_def) 
   592 lemma polysub_same_0[simp]:   assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::{field_char_0, field_inverse_zero})"
   593   shows "isnpolyh p n0 \<Longrightarrow> polysub p p = 0\<^sub>p"
   594 unfolding polysub_def split_def fst_conv snd_conv
   595 by (induct p arbitrary: n0,auto simp add: Let_def Nsub0[simplified Nsub_def])
   596 
   597 lemma polysub_0: 
   598   assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::{field_char_0, field_inverse_zero})"
   599   shows "\<lbrakk> isnpolyh p n0 ; isnpolyh q n1\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> (p -\<^sub>p q = 0\<^sub>p) = (p = q)"
   600   unfolding polysub_def split_def fst_conv snd_conv
   601   by (induct p q arbitrary: n0 n1 rule:polyadd.induct)
   602   (auto simp: Nsub0[simplified Nsub_def] Let_def)
   603 
   604 text{* polypow is a power function and preserves normal forms *}
   605 
   606 lemma polypow[simp]: "Ipoly bs (polypow n p) = ((Ipoly bs p :: 'a::{field_char_0, field_inverse_zero})) ^ n"
   607 proof(induct n rule: polypow.induct)
   608   case 1 thus ?case by simp
   609 next
   610   case (2 n)
   611   let ?q = "polypow ((Suc n) div 2) p"
   612   let ?d = "polymul ?q ?q"
   613   have "odd (Suc n) \<or> even (Suc n)" by simp
   614   moreover 
   615   {assume odd: "odd (Suc n)"
   616     have th: "(Suc (Suc (Suc (0\<Colon>nat)) * (Suc n div Suc (Suc (0\<Colon>nat))))) = Suc n div 2 + Suc n div 2 + 1" by arith
   617     from odd have "Ipoly bs (p ^\<^sub>p Suc n) = Ipoly bs (polymul p ?d)" by (simp add: Let_def)
   618     also have "\<dots> = (Ipoly bs p) * (Ipoly bs p)^(Suc n div 2)*(Ipoly bs p)^(Suc n div 2)"
   619       using "2.hyps" by simp
   620     also have "\<dots> = (Ipoly bs p) ^ (Suc n div 2 + Suc n div 2 + 1)"
   621       apply (simp only: power_add power_one_right) by simp
   622     also have "\<dots> = (Ipoly bs p) ^ (Suc (Suc (Suc (0\<Colon>nat)) * (Suc n div Suc (Suc (0\<Colon>nat)))))"
   623       by (simp only: th)
   624     finally have ?case 
   625     using odd_nat_div_two_times_two_plus_one[OF odd, symmetric] by simp  }
   626   moreover 
   627   {assume even: "even (Suc n)"
   628     have th: "(Suc (Suc (0\<Colon>nat))) * (Suc n div Suc (Suc (0\<Colon>nat))) = Suc n div 2 + Suc n div 2" by arith
   629     from even have "Ipoly bs (p ^\<^sub>p Suc n) = Ipoly bs ?d" by (simp add: Let_def)
   630     also have "\<dots> = (Ipoly bs p) ^ (Suc n div 2 + Suc n div 2)"
   631       using "2.hyps" apply (simp only: power_add) by simp
   632     finally have ?case using even_nat_div_two_times_two[OF even] by (simp only: th)}
   633   ultimately show ?case by blast
   634 qed
   635 
   636 lemma polypow_normh: 
   637     assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::{field_char_0, field_inverse_zero})"
   638   shows "isnpolyh p n \<Longrightarrow> isnpolyh (polypow k p) n"
   639 proof (induct k arbitrary: n rule: polypow.induct)
   640   case (2 k n)
   641   let ?q = "polypow (Suc k div 2) p"
   642   let ?d = "polymul ?q ?q"
   643   from 2 have th1:"isnpolyh ?q n" and th2: "isnpolyh p n" by blast+
   644   from polymul_normh[OF th1 th1] have dn: "isnpolyh ?d n" by simp
   645   from polymul_normh[OF th2 dn] have on: "isnpolyh (polymul p ?d) n" by simp
   646   from dn on show ?case by (simp add: Let_def)
   647 qed auto 
   648 
   649 lemma polypow_norm:   
   650   assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::{field_char_0, field_inverse_zero})"
   651   shows "isnpoly p \<Longrightarrow> isnpoly (polypow k p)"
   652   by (simp add: polypow_normh isnpoly_def)
   653 
   654 text{* Finally the whole normalization *}
   655 
   656 lemma polynate[simp]: "Ipoly bs (polynate p) = (Ipoly bs p :: 'a ::{field_char_0, field_inverse_zero})"
   657 by (induct p rule:polynate.induct, auto)
   658 
   659 lemma polynate_norm[simp]: 
   660   assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::{field_char_0, field_inverse_zero})"
   661   shows "isnpoly (polynate p)"
   662   by (induct p rule: polynate.induct, simp_all add: polyadd_norm polymul_norm polysub_norm polyneg_norm polypow_norm) (simp_all add: isnpoly_def)
   663 
   664 text{* shift1 *}
   665 
   666 
   667 lemma shift1: "Ipoly bs (shift1 p) = Ipoly bs (Mul (Bound 0) p)"
   668 by (simp add: shift1_def polymul)
   669 
   670 lemma shift1_isnpoly: 
   671   assumes pn: "isnpoly p" and pnz: "p \<noteq> 0\<^sub>p" shows "isnpoly (shift1 p) "
   672   using pn pnz by (simp add: shift1_def isnpoly_def )
   673 
   674 lemma shift1_nz[simp]:"shift1 p \<noteq> 0\<^sub>p"
   675   by (simp add: shift1_def)
   676 lemma funpow_shift1_isnpoly: 
   677   "\<lbrakk> isnpoly p ; p \<noteq> 0\<^sub>p\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> isnpoly (funpow n shift1 p)"
   678   by (induct n arbitrary: p) (auto simp add: shift1_isnpoly funpow_swap1)
   679 
   680 lemma funpow_isnpolyh: 
   681   assumes f: "\<And> p. isnpolyh p n \<Longrightarrow> isnpolyh (f p) n "and np: "isnpolyh p n"
   682   shows "isnpolyh (funpow k f p) n"
   683   using f np by (induct k arbitrary: p, auto)
   684 
   685 lemma funpow_shift1: "(Ipoly bs (funpow n shift1 p) :: 'a :: {field_char_0, field_inverse_zero}) = Ipoly bs (Mul (Pw (Bound 0) n) p)"
   686   by (induct n arbitrary: p, simp_all add: shift1_isnpoly shift1 power_Suc )
   687 
   688 lemma shift1_isnpolyh: "isnpolyh p n0 \<Longrightarrow> p\<noteq> 0\<^sub>p \<Longrightarrow> isnpolyh (shift1 p) 0"
   689   using isnpolyh_mono[where n="n0" and n'="0" and p="p"] by (simp add: shift1_def)
   690 
   691 lemma funpow_shift1_1: 
   692   "(Ipoly bs (funpow n shift1 p) :: 'a :: {field_char_0, field_inverse_zero}) = Ipoly bs (funpow n shift1 1\<^sub>p *\<^sub>p p)"
   693   by (simp add: funpow_shift1)
   694 
   695 lemma poly_cmul[simp]: "Ipoly bs (poly_cmul c p) = Ipoly bs (Mul (C c) p)"
   696   by (induct p rule: poly_cmul.induct) (auto simp add: field_simps)
   697 
   698 lemma behead:
   699   assumes np: "isnpolyh p n"
   700   shows "Ipoly bs (Add (Mul (head p) (Pw (Bound 0) (degree p))) (behead p)) = (Ipoly bs p :: 'a :: {field_char_0, field_inverse_zero})"
   701   using np
   702 proof (induct p arbitrary: n rule: behead.induct)
   703   case (1 c p n) hence pn: "isnpolyh p n" by simp
   704   from 1(1)[OF pn] 
   705   have th:"Ipoly bs (Add (Mul (head p) (Pw (Bound 0) (degree p))) (behead p)) = Ipoly bs p" . 
   706   then show ?case using "1.hyps" apply (simp add: Let_def,cases "behead p = 0\<^sub>p")
   707     by (simp_all add: th[symmetric] field_simps power_Suc)
   708 qed (auto simp add: Let_def)
   709 
   710 lemma behead_isnpolyh:
   711   assumes np: "isnpolyh p n" shows "isnpolyh (behead p) n"
   712   using np by (induct p rule: behead.induct, auto simp add: Let_def isnpolyh_mono)
   713 
   714 subsection{* Miscellaneous lemmas about indexes, decrementation, substitution  etc ... *}
   715 lemma isnpolyh_polybound0: "isnpolyh p (Suc n) \<Longrightarrow> polybound0 p"
   716 proof(induct p arbitrary: n rule: poly.induct, auto)
   717   case (goal1 c n p n')
   718   hence "n = Suc (n - 1)" by simp
   719   hence "isnpolyh p (Suc (n - 1))"  using `isnpolyh p n` by simp
   720   with goal1(2) show ?case by simp
   721 qed
   722 
   723 lemma isconstant_polybound0: "isnpolyh p n0 \<Longrightarrow> isconstant p \<longleftrightarrow> polybound0 p"
   724 by (induct p arbitrary: n0 rule: isconstant.induct, auto simp add: isnpolyh_polybound0)
   725 
   726 lemma decrpoly_zero[simp]: "decrpoly p = 0\<^sub>p \<longleftrightarrow> p = 0\<^sub>p" by (induct p, auto)
   727 
   728 lemma decrpoly_normh: "isnpolyh p n0 \<Longrightarrow> polybound0 p \<Longrightarrow> isnpolyh (decrpoly p) (n0 - 1)"
   729   apply (induct p arbitrary: n0, auto)
   730   apply (atomize)
   731   apply (erule_tac x = "Suc nat" in allE)
   732   apply auto
   733   done
   734 
   735 lemma head_polybound0: "isnpolyh p n0 \<Longrightarrow> polybound0 (head p)"
   736  by (induct p  arbitrary: n0 rule: head.induct, auto intro: isnpolyh_polybound0)
   737 
   738 lemma polybound0_I:
   739   assumes nb: "polybound0 a"
   740   shows "Ipoly (b#bs) a = Ipoly (b'#bs) a"
   741 using nb
   742 by (induct a rule: poly.induct) auto 
   743 lemma polysubst0_I:
   744   shows "Ipoly (b#bs) (polysubst0 a t) = Ipoly ((Ipoly (b#bs) a)#bs) t"
   745   by (induct t) simp_all
   746 
   747 lemma polysubst0_I':
   748   assumes nb: "polybound0 a"
   749   shows "Ipoly (b#bs) (polysubst0 a t) = Ipoly ((Ipoly (b'#bs) a)#bs) t"
   750   by (induct t) (simp_all add: polybound0_I[OF nb, where b="b" and b'="b'"])
   751 
   752 lemma decrpoly: assumes nb: "polybound0 t"
   753   shows "Ipoly (x#bs) t = Ipoly bs (decrpoly t)"
   754   using nb by (induct t rule: decrpoly.induct, simp_all)
   755 
   756 lemma polysubst0_polybound0: assumes nb: "polybound0 t"
   757   shows "polybound0 (polysubst0 t a)"
   758 using nb by (induct a rule: poly.induct, auto)
   759 
   760 lemma degree0_polybound0: "isnpolyh p n \<Longrightarrow> degree p = 0 \<Longrightarrow> polybound0 p"
   761   by (induct p arbitrary: n rule: degree.induct, auto simp add: isnpolyh_polybound0)
   762 
   763 primrec maxindex :: "poly \<Rightarrow> nat" where
   764   "maxindex (Bound n) = n + 1"
   765 | "maxindex (CN c n p) = max  (n + 1) (max (maxindex c) (maxindex p))"
   766 | "maxindex (Add p q) = max (maxindex p) (maxindex q)"
   767 | "maxindex (Sub p q) = max (maxindex p) (maxindex q)"
   768 | "maxindex (Mul p q) = max (maxindex p) (maxindex q)"
   769 | "maxindex (Neg p) = maxindex p"
   770 | "maxindex (Pw p n) = maxindex p"
   771 | "maxindex (C x) = 0"
   772 
   773 definition wf_bs :: "'a list \<Rightarrow> poly \<Rightarrow> bool" where
   774   "wf_bs bs p = (length bs \<ge> maxindex p)"
   775 
   776 lemma wf_bs_coefficients: "wf_bs bs p \<Longrightarrow> \<forall> c \<in> set (coefficients p). wf_bs bs c"
   777 proof(induct p rule: coefficients.induct)
   778   case (1 c p) 
   779   show ?case 
   780   proof
   781     fix x assume xc: "x \<in> set (coefficients (CN c 0 p))"
   782     hence "x = c \<or> x \<in> set (coefficients p)" by simp
   783     moreover 
   784     {assume "x = c" hence "wf_bs bs x" using "1.prems"  unfolding wf_bs_def by simp}
   785     moreover 
   786     {assume H: "x \<in> set (coefficients p)" 
   787       from "1.prems" have "wf_bs bs p" unfolding wf_bs_def by simp
   788       with "1.hyps" H have "wf_bs bs x" by blast }
   789     ultimately  show "wf_bs bs x" by blast
   790   qed
   791 qed simp_all
   792 
   793 lemma maxindex_coefficients: " \<forall>c\<in> set (coefficients p). maxindex c \<le> maxindex p"
   794 by (induct p rule: coefficients.induct, auto)
   795 
   796 lemma wf_bs_I: "wf_bs bs p ==> Ipoly (bs@bs') p = Ipoly bs p"
   797   unfolding wf_bs_def by (induct p, auto simp add: nth_append)
   798 
   799 lemma take_maxindex_wf: assumes wf: "wf_bs bs p" 
   800   shows "Ipoly (take (maxindex p) bs) p = Ipoly bs p"
   801 proof-
   802   let ?ip = "maxindex p"
   803   let ?tbs = "take ?ip bs"
   804   from wf have "length ?tbs = ?ip" unfolding wf_bs_def by simp
   805   hence wf': "wf_bs ?tbs p" unfolding wf_bs_def by  simp
   806   have eq: "bs = ?tbs @ (drop ?ip bs)" by simp
   807   from wf_bs_I[OF wf', of "drop ?ip bs"] show ?thesis using eq by simp
   808 qed
   809 
   810 lemma decr_maxindex: "polybound0 p \<Longrightarrow> maxindex (decrpoly p) = maxindex p - 1"
   811   by (induct p, auto)
   812 
   813 lemma wf_bs_insensitive: "length bs = length bs' \<Longrightarrow> wf_bs bs p = wf_bs bs' p"
   814   unfolding wf_bs_def by simp
   815 
   816 lemma wf_bs_insensitive': "wf_bs (x#bs) p = wf_bs (y#bs) p"
   817   unfolding wf_bs_def by simp
   818 
   819 
   820 
   821 lemma wf_bs_coefficients': "\<forall>c \<in> set (coefficients p). wf_bs bs c \<Longrightarrow> wf_bs (x#bs) p"
   822 by(induct p rule: coefficients.induct, auto simp add: wf_bs_def)
   823 lemma coefficients_Nil[simp]: "coefficients p \<noteq> []"
   824   by (induct p rule: coefficients.induct, simp_all)
   825 
   826 
   827 lemma coefficients_head: "last (coefficients p) = head p"
   828   by (induct p rule: coefficients.induct, auto)
   829 
   830 lemma wf_bs_decrpoly: "wf_bs bs (decrpoly p) \<Longrightarrow> wf_bs (x#bs) p"
   831   unfolding wf_bs_def by (induct p rule: decrpoly.induct, auto)
   832 
   833 lemma length_le_list_ex: "length xs \<le> n \<Longrightarrow> \<exists> ys. length (xs @ ys) = n"
   834   apply (rule exI[where x="replicate (n - length xs) z"])
   835   by simp
   836 lemma isnpolyh_Suc_const:"isnpolyh p (Suc n) \<Longrightarrow> isconstant p"
   837 by (cases p, auto) (case_tac "nat", simp_all)
   838 
   839 lemma wf_bs_polyadd: "wf_bs bs p \<and> wf_bs bs q \<longrightarrow> wf_bs bs (p +\<^sub>p q)"
   840   unfolding wf_bs_def 
   841   apply (induct p q rule: polyadd.induct)
   842   apply (auto simp add: Let_def)
   843   done
   844 
   845 lemma wf_bs_polyul: "wf_bs bs p \<Longrightarrow> wf_bs bs q \<Longrightarrow> wf_bs bs (p *\<^sub>p q)"
   846   unfolding wf_bs_def 
   847   apply (induct p q arbitrary: bs rule: polymul.induct) 
   848   apply (simp_all add: wf_bs_polyadd)
   849   apply clarsimp
   850   apply (rule wf_bs_polyadd[unfolded wf_bs_def, rule_format])
   851   apply auto
   852   done
   853 
   854 lemma wf_bs_polyneg: "wf_bs bs p \<Longrightarrow> wf_bs bs (~\<^sub>p p)"
   855   unfolding wf_bs_def by (induct p rule: polyneg.induct, auto)
   856 
   857 lemma wf_bs_polysub: "wf_bs bs p \<Longrightarrow> wf_bs bs q \<Longrightarrow> wf_bs bs (p -\<^sub>p q)"
   858   unfolding polysub_def split_def fst_conv snd_conv using wf_bs_polyadd wf_bs_polyneg by blast
   859 
   860 subsection{* Canonicity of polynomial representation, see lemma isnpolyh_unique*}
   861 
   862 definition "polypoly bs p = map (Ipoly bs) (coefficients p)"
   863 definition "polypoly' bs p = map ((Ipoly bs o decrpoly)) (coefficients p)"
   864 definition "poly_nate bs p = map ((Ipoly bs o decrpoly)) (coefficients (polynate p))"
   865 
   866 lemma coefficients_normh: "isnpolyh p n0 \<Longrightarrow> \<forall> q \<in> set (coefficients p). isnpolyh q n0"
   867 proof (induct p arbitrary: n0 rule: coefficients.induct)
   868   case (1 c p n0)
   869   have cp: "isnpolyh (CN c 0 p) n0" by fact
   870   hence norm: "isnpolyh c 0" "isnpolyh p 0" "p \<noteq> 0\<^sub>p" "n0 = 0"
   871     by (auto simp add: isnpolyh_mono[where n'=0])
   872   from "1.hyps"[OF norm(2)] norm(1) norm(4)  show ?case by simp 
   873 qed auto
   874 
   875 lemma coefficients_isconst:
   876   "isnpolyh p n \<Longrightarrow> \<forall>q\<in>set (coefficients p). isconstant q"
   877   by (induct p arbitrary: n rule: coefficients.induct, 
   878     auto simp add: isnpolyh_Suc_const)
   879 
   880 lemma polypoly_polypoly':
   881   assumes np: "isnpolyh p n0"
   882   shows "polypoly (x#bs) p = polypoly' bs p"
   883 proof-
   884   let ?cf = "set (coefficients p)"
   885   from coefficients_normh[OF np] have cn_norm: "\<forall> q\<in> ?cf. isnpolyh q n0" .
   886   {fix q assume q: "q \<in> ?cf"
   887     from q cn_norm have th: "isnpolyh q n0" by blast
   888     from coefficients_isconst[OF np] q have "isconstant q" by blast
   889     with isconstant_polybound0[OF th] have "polybound0 q" by blast}
   890   hence "\<forall>q \<in> ?cf. polybound0 q" ..
   891   hence "\<forall>q \<in> ?cf. Ipoly (x#bs) q = Ipoly bs (decrpoly q)"
   892     using polybound0_I[where b=x and bs=bs and b'=y] decrpoly[where x=x and bs=bs]
   893     by auto
   894   
   895   thus ?thesis unfolding polypoly_def polypoly'_def by simp 
   896 qed
   897 
   898 lemma polypoly_poly:
   899   assumes np: "isnpolyh p n0" shows "Ipoly (x#bs) p = poly (polypoly (x#bs) p) x"
   900   using np 
   901 by (induct p arbitrary: n0 bs rule: coefficients.induct, auto simp add: polypoly_def)
   902 
   903 lemma polypoly'_poly: 
   904   assumes np: "isnpolyh p n0" shows "\<lparr>p\<rparr>\<^sub>p\<^bsup>x # bs\<^esup> = poly (polypoly' bs p) x"
   905   using polypoly_poly[OF np, simplified polypoly_polypoly'[OF np]] .
   906 
   907 
   908 lemma polypoly_poly_polybound0:
   909   assumes np: "isnpolyh p n0" and nb: "polybound0 p"
   910   shows "polypoly bs p = [Ipoly bs p]"
   911   using np nb unfolding polypoly_def 
   912   by (cases p, auto, case_tac nat, auto)
   913 
   914 lemma head_isnpolyh: "isnpolyh p n0 \<Longrightarrow> isnpolyh (head p) n0" 
   915   by (induct p rule: head.induct, auto)
   916 
   917 lemma headn_nz[simp]: "isnpolyh p n0 \<Longrightarrow> (headn p m = 0\<^sub>p) = (p = 0\<^sub>p)"
   918   by (cases p,auto)
   919 
   920 lemma head_eq_headn0: "head p = headn p 0"
   921   by (induct p rule: head.induct, simp_all)
   922 
   923 lemma head_nz[simp]: "isnpolyh p n0 \<Longrightarrow> (head p = 0\<^sub>p) = (p = 0\<^sub>p)"
   924   by (simp add: head_eq_headn0)
   925 
   926 lemma isnpolyh_zero_iff: 
   927   assumes nq: "isnpolyh p n0" and eq :"\<forall>bs. wf_bs bs p \<longrightarrow> \<lparr>p\<rparr>\<^sub>p\<^bsup>bs\<^esup> = (0::'a::{field_char_0, field_inverse_zero, power})"
   928   shows "p = 0\<^sub>p"
   929 using nq eq
   930 proof (induct "maxindex p" arbitrary: p n0 rule: less_induct)
   931   case less
   932   note np = `isnpolyh p n0` and zp = `\<forall>bs. wf_bs bs p \<longrightarrow> \<lparr>p\<rparr>\<^sub>p\<^bsup>bs\<^esup> = (0::'a)`
   933   {assume nz: "maxindex p = 0"
   934     then obtain c where "p = C c" using np by (cases p, auto)
   935     with zp np have "p = 0\<^sub>p" unfolding wf_bs_def by simp}
   936   moreover
   937   {assume nz: "maxindex p \<noteq> 0"
   938     let ?h = "head p"
   939     let ?hd = "decrpoly ?h"
   940     let ?ihd = "maxindex ?hd"
   941     from head_isnpolyh[OF np] head_polybound0[OF np] have h:"isnpolyh ?h n0" "polybound0 ?h" 
   942       by simp_all
   943     hence nhd: "isnpolyh ?hd (n0 - 1)" using decrpoly_normh by blast
   944     
   945     from maxindex_coefficients[of p] coefficients_head[of p, symmetric]
   946     have mihn: "maxindex ?h \<le> maxindex p" by auto
   947     with decr_maxindex[OF h(2)] nz  have ihd_lt_n: "?ihd < maxindex p" by auto
   948     {fix bs:: "'a list"  assume bs: "wf_bs bs ?hd"
   949       let ?ts = "take ?ihd bs"
   950       let ?rs = "drop ?ihd bs"
   951       have ts: "wf_bs ?ts ?hd" using bs unfolding wf_bs_def by simp
   952       have bs_ts_eq: "?ts@ ?rs = bs" by simp
   953       from wf_bs_decrpoly[OF ts] have tsh: " \<forall>x. wf_bs (x#?ts) ?h" by simp
   954       from ihd_lt_n have "ALL x. length (x#?ts) \<le> maxindex p" by simp
   955       with length_le_list_ex obtain xs where xs:"length ((x#?ts) @ xs) = maxindex p" by blast
   956       hence "\<forall> x. wf_bs ((x#?ts) @ xs) p" unfolding wf_bs_def by simp
   957       with zp have "\<forall> x. Ipoly ((x#?ts) @ xs) p = 0" by blast
   958       hence "\<forall> x. Ipoly (x#(?ts @ xs)) p = 0" by simp
   959       with polypoly_poly[OF np, where ?'a = 'a] polypoly_polypoly'[OF np, where ?'a = 'a]
   960       have "\<forall>x. poly (polypoly' (?ts @ xs) p) x = poly [] x"  by simp
   961       hence "poly (polypoly' (?ts @ xs) p) = poly []" by (auto intro: ext) 
   962       hence "\<forall> c \<in> set (coefficients p). Ipoly (?ts @ xs) (decrpoly c) = 0"
   963         using poly_zero[where ?'a='a] by (simp add: polypoly'_def list_all_iff)
   964       with coefficients_head[of p, symmetric]
   965       have th0: "Ipoly (?ts @ xs) ?hd = 0" by simp
   966       from bs have wf'': "wf_bs ?ts ?hd" unfolding wf_bs_def by simp
   967       with th0 wf_bs_I[of ?ts ?hd xs] have "Ipoly ?ts ?hd = 0" by simp
   968       with wf'' wf_bs_I[of ?ts ?hd ?rs] bs_ts_eq have "\<lparr>?hd\<rparr>\<^sub>p\<^bsup>bs\<^esup> = 0" by simp }
   969     then have hdz: "\<forall>bs. wf_bs bs ?hd \<longrightarrow> \<lparr>?hd\<rparr>\<^sub>p\<^bsup>bs\<^esup> = (0::'a)" by blast
   970     
   971     from less(1)[OF ihd_lt_n nhd] hdz have "?hd = 0\<^sub>p" by blast
   972     hence "?h = 0\<^sub>p" by simp
   973     with head_nz[OF np] have "p = 0\<^sub>p" by simp}
   974   ultimately show "p = 0\<^sub>p" by blast
   975 qed
   976 
   977 lemma isnpolyh_unique:  
   978   assumes np:"isnpolyh p n0" and nq: "isnpolyh q n1"
   979   shows "(\<forall>bs. \<lparr>p\<rparr>\<^sub>p\<^bsup>bs\<^esup> = (\<lparr>q\<rparr>\<^sub>p\<^bsup>bs\<^esup> :: 'a::{field_char_0, field_inverse_zero, power})) \<longleftrightarrow>  p = q"
   980 proof(auto)
   981   assume H: "\<forall>bs. (\<lparr>p\<rparr>\<^sub>p\<^bsup>bs\<^esup> ::'a)= \<lparr>q\<rparr>\<^sub>p\<^bsup>bs\<^esup>"
   982   hence "\<forall>bs.\<lparr>p -\<^sub>p q\<rparr>\<^sub>p\<^bsup>bs\<^esup>= (0::'a)" by simp
   983   hence "\<forall>bs. wf_bs bs (p -\<^sub>p q) \<longrightarrow> \<lparr>p -\<^sub>p q\<rparr>\<^sub>p\<^bsup>bs\<^esup> = (0::'a)" 
   984     using wf_bs_polysub[where p=p and q=q] by auto
   985   with isnpolyh_zero_iff[OF polysub_normh[OF np nq]] polysub_0[OF np nq]
   986   show "p = q" by blast
   987 qed
   988 
   989 
   990 text{* consequences of unicity on the algorithms for polynomial normalization *}
   991 
   992 lemma polyadd_commute:   assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::{field_char_0, field_inverse_zero})"
   993   and np: "isnpolyh p n0" and nq: "isnpolyh q n1" shows "p +\<^sub>p q = q +\<^sub>p p"
   994   using isnpolyh_unique[OF polyadd_normh[OF np nq] polyadd_normh[OF nq np]] by simp
   995 
   996 lemma zero_normh: "isnpolyh 0\<^sub>p n" by simp
   997 lemma one_normh: "isnpolyh 1\<^sub>p n" by simp
   998 lemma polyadd_0[simp]: 
   999   assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::{field_char_0, field_inverse_zero})"
  1000   and np: "isnpolyh p n0" shows "p +\<^sub>p 0\<^sub>p = p" and "0\<^sub>p +\<^sub>p p = p"
  1001   using isnpolyh_unique[OF polyadd_normh[OF np zero_normh] np] 
  1002     isnpolyh_unique[OF polyadd_normh[OF zero_normh np] np] by simp_all
  1003 
  1004 lemma polymul_1[simp]: 
  1005     assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::{field_char_0, field_inverse_zero})"
  1006   and np: "isnpolyh p n0" shows "p *\<^sub>p 1\<^sub>p = p" and "1\<^sub>p *\<^sub>p p = p"
  1007   using isnpolyh_unique[OF polymul_normh[OF np one_normh] np] 
  1008     isnpolyh_unique[OF polymul_normh[OF one_normh np] np] by simp_all
  1009 lemma polymul_0[simp]: 
  1010   assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::{field_char_0, field_inverse_zero})"
  1011   and np: "isnpolyh p n0" shows "p *\<^sub>p 0\<^sub>p = 0\<^sub>p" and "0\<^sub>p *\<^sub>p p = 0\<^sub>p"
  1012   using isnpolyh_unique[OF polymul_normh[OF np zero_normh] zero_normh] 
  1013     isnpolyh_unique[OF polymul_normh[OF zero_normh np] zero_normh] by simp_all
  1014 
  1015 lemma polymul_commute: 
  1016     assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::{field_char_0, field_inverse_zero})"
  1017   and np:"isnpolyh p n0" and nq: "isnpolyh q n1"
  1018   shows "p *\<^sub>p q = q *\<^sub>p p"
  1019 using isnpolyh_unique[OF polymul_normh[OF np nq] polymul_normh[OF nq np], where ?'a = "'a\<Colon>{field_char_0, field_inverse_zero, power}"] by simp
  1020 
  1021 declare polyneg_polyneg[simp]
  1022   
  1023 lemma isnpolyh_polynate_id[simp]: 
  1024   assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::{field_char_0, field_inverse_zero})"
  1025   and np:"isnpolyh p n0" shows "polynate p = p"
  1026   using isnpolyh_unique[where ?'a= "'a::{field_char_0, field_inverse_zero}", OF polynate_norm[of p, unfolded isnpoly_def] np] polynate[where ?'a = "'a::{field_char_0, field_inverse_zero}"] by simp
  1027 
  1028 lemma polynate_idempotent[simp]: 
  1029     assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::{field_char_0, field_inverse_zero})"
  1030   shows "polynate (polynate p) = polynate p"
  1031   using isnpolyh_polynate_id[OF polynate_norm[of p, unfolded isnpoly_def]] .
  1032 
  1033 lemma poly_nate_polypoly': "poly_nate bs p = polypoly' bs (polynate p)"
  1034   unfolding poly_nate_def polypoly'_def ..
  1035 lemma poly_nate_poly: shows "poly (poly_nate bs p) = (\<lambda>x:: 'a ::{field_char_0, field_inverse_zero}. \<lparr>p\<rparr>\<^sub>p\<^bsup>x # bs\<^esup>)"
  1036   using polypoly'_poly[OF polynate_norm[unfolded isnpoly_def], symmetric, of bs p]
  1037   unfolding poly_nate_polypoly' by (auto intro: ext)
  1038 
  1039 subsection{* heads, degrees and all that *}
  1040 lemma degree_eq_degreen0: "degree p = degreen p 0"
  1041   by (induct p rule: degree.induct, simp_all)
  1042 
  1043 lemma degree_polyneg: assumes n: "isnpolyh p n"
  1044   shows "degree (polyneg p) = degree p"
  1045   using n
  1046   by (induct p arbitrary: n rule: polyneg.induct, simp_all) (case_tac na, auto)
  1047 
  1048 lemma degree_polyadd:
  1049   assumes np: "isnpolyh p n0" and nq: "isnpolyh q n1"
  1050   shows "degree (p +\<^sub>p q) \<le> max (degree p) (degree q)"
  1051 using degreen_polyadd[OF np nq, where m= "0"] degree_eq_degreen0 by simp
  1052 
  1053 
  1054 lemma degree_polysub: assumes np: "isnpolyh p n0" and nq: "isnpolyh q n1"
  1055   shows "degree (p -\<^sub>p q) \<le> max (degree p) (degree q)"
  1056 proof-
  1057   from nq have nq': "isnpolyh (~\<^sub>p q) n1" using polyneg_normh by simp
  1058   from degree_polyadd[OF np nq'] show ?thesis by (simp add: polysub_def degree_polyneg[OF nq])
  1059 qed
  1060 
  1061 lemma degree_polysub_samehead: 
  1062   assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::{field_char_0, field_inverse_zero})"
  1063   and np: "isnpolyh p n0" and nq: "isnpolyh q n1" and h: "head p = head q" 
  1064   and d: "degree p = degree q"
  1065   shows "degree (p -\<^sub>p q) < degree p \<or> (p -\<^sub>p q = 0\<^sub>p)"
  1066 unfolding polysub_def split_def fst_conv snd_conv
  1067 using np nq h d
  1068 proof(induct p q rule:polyadd.induct)
  1069   case (1 c c') thus ?case by (simp add: Nsub_def Nsub0[simplified Nsub_def]) 
  1070 next
  1071   case (2 c c' n' p') 
  1072   from 2 have "degree (C c) = degree (CN c' n' p')" by simp
  1073   hence nz:"n' > 0" by (cases n', auto)
  1074   hence "head (CN c' n' p') = CN c' n' p'" by (cases n', auto)
  1075   with 2 show ?case by simp
  1076 next
  1077   case (3 c n p c') 
  1078   hence "degree (C c') = degree (CN c n p)" by simp
  1079   hence nz:"n > 0" by (cases n, auto)
  1080   hence "head (CN c n p) = CN c n p" by (cases n, auto)
  1081   with 3 show ?case by simp
  1082 next
  1083   case (4 c n p c' n' p')
  1084   hence H: "isnpolyh (CN c n p) n0" "isnpolyh (CN c' n' p') n1" 
  1085     "head (CN c n p) = head (CN c' n' p')" "degree (CN c n p) = degree (CN c' n' p')" by simp+
  1086   hence degc: "degree c = 0" and degc': "degree c' = 0" by simp_all  
  1087   hence degnc: "degree (~\<^sub>p c) = 0" and degnc': "degree (~\<^sub>p c') = 0" 
  1088     using H(1-2) degree_polyneg by auto
  1089   from H have cnh: "isnpolyh c (Suc n)" and c'nh: "isnpolyh c' (Suc n')"  by simp+
  1090   from degree_polysub[OF cnh c'nh, simplified polysub_def] degc degc' have degcmc': "degree (c +\<^sub>p  ~\<^sub>pc') = 0"  by simp
  1091   from H have pnh: "isnpolyh p n" and p'nh: "isnpolyh p' n'" by auto
  1092   have "n = n' \<or> n < n' \<or> n > n'" by arith
  1093   moreover
  1094   {assume nn': "n = n'"
  1095     have "n = 0 \<or> n >0" by arith
  1096     moreover {assume nz: "n = 0" hence ?case using 4 nn' by (auto simp add: Let_def degcmc')}
  1097     moreover {assume nz: "n > 0"
  1098       with nn' H(3) have  cc':"c = c'" and pp': "p = p'" by (cases n, auto)+
  1099       hence ?case using polysub_same_0[OF p'nh, simplified polysub_def split_def fst_conv snd_conv] polysub_same_0[OF c'nh, simplified polysub_def] using nn' 4 by (simp add: Let_def)}
  1100     ultimately have ?case by blast}
  1101   moreover
  1102   {assume nn': "n < n'" hence n'p: "n' > 0" by simp 
  1103     hence headcnp':"head (CN c' n' p') = CN c' n' p'"  by (cases n', simp_all)
  1104     have degcnp': "degree (CN c' n' p') = 0" and degcnpeq: "degree (CN c n p) = degree (CN c' n' p')" using 4 nn' by (cases n', simp_all)
  1105     hence "n > 0" by (cases n, simp_all)
  1106     hence headcnp: "head (CN c n p) = CN c n p" by (cases n, auto)
  1107     from H(3) headcnp headcnp' nn' have ?case by auto}
  1108   moreover
  1109   {assume nn': "n > n'"  hence np: "n > 0" by simp 
  1110     hence headcnp:"head (CN c n p) = CN c n p"  by (cases n, simp_all)
  1111     from 4 have degcnpeq: "degree (CN c' n' p') = degree (CN c n p)" by simp
  1112     from np have degcnp: "degree (CN c n p) = 0" by (cases n, simp_all)
  1113     with degcnpeq have "n' > 0" by (cases n', simp_all)
  1114     hence headcnp': "head (CN c' n' p') = CN c' n' p'" by (cases n', auto)
  1115     from H(3) headcnp headcnp' nn' have ?case by auto}
  1116   ultimately show ?case  by blast
  1117 qed auto
  1118  
  1119 lemma shift1_head : "isnpolyh p n0 \<Longrightarrow> head (shift1 p) = head p"
  1120 by (induct p arbitrary: n0 rule: head.induct, simp_all add: shift1_def)
  1121 
  1122 lemma funpow_shift1_head: "isnpolyh p n0 \<Longrightarrow> p\<noteq> 0\<^sub>p \<Longrightarrow> head (funpow k shift1 p) = head p"
  1123 proof(induct k arbitrary: n0 p)
  1124   case (Suc k n0 p) hence "isnpolyh (shift1 p) 0" by (simp add: shift1_isnpolyh)
  1125   with Suc have "head (funpow k shift1 (shift1 p)) = head (shift1 p)"
  1126     and "head (shift1 p) = head p" by (simp_all add: shift1_head) 
  1127   thus ?case by (simp add: funpow_swap1)
  1128 qed auto  
  1129 
  1130 lemma shift1_degree: "degree (shift1 p) = 1 + degree p"
  1131   by (simp add: shift1_def)
  1132 lemma funpow_shift1_degree: "degree (funpow k shift1 p) = k + degree p "
  1133   by (induct k arbitrary: p) (auto simp add: shift1_degree)
  1134 
  1135 lemma funpow_shift1_nz: "p \<noteq> 0\<^sub>p \<Longrightarrow> funpow n shift1 p \<noteq> 0\<^sub>p"
  1136   by (induct n arbitrary: p) (simp_all add: funpow.simps)
  1137 
  1138 lemma head_isnpolyh_Suc[simp]: "isnpolyh p (Suc n) \<Longrightarrow> head p = p"
  1139   by (induct p arbitrary: n rule: degree.induct, auto)
  1140 lemma headn_0[simp]: "isnpolyh p n \<Longrightarrow> m < n \<Longrightarrow> headn p m = p"
  1141   by (induct p arbitrary: n rule: degreen.induct, auto)
  1142 lemma head_isnpolyh_Suc': "n > 0 \<Longrightarrow> isnpolyh p n \<Longrightarrow> head p = p"
  1143   by (induct p arbitrary: n rule: degree.induct, auto)
  1144 lemma head_head[simp]: "isnpolyh p n0 \<Longrightarrow> head (head p) = head p"
  1145   by (induct p rule: head.induct, auto)
  1146 
  1147 lemma polyadd_eq_const_degree: 
  1148   "\<lbrakk> isnpolyh p n0 ; isnpolyh q n1 ; polyadd p q = C c\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> degree p = degree q" 
  1149   using polyadd_eq_const_degreen degree_eq_degreen0 by simp
  1150 
  1151 lemma polyadd_head: assumes np: "isnpolyh p n0" and nq: "isnpolyh q n1"
  1152   and deg: "degree p \<noteq> degree q"
  1153   shows "head (p +\<^sub>p q) = (if degree p < degree q then head q else head p)"
  1154 using np nq deg
  1155 apply(induct p q arbitrary: n0 n1 rule: polyadd.induct,simp_all)
  1156 apply (case_tac n', simp, simp)
  1157 apply (case_tac n, simp, simp)
  1158 apply (case_tac n, case_tac n', simp add: Let_def)
  1159 apply (case_tac "pa +\<^sub>p p' = 0\<^sub>p")
  1160 apply (auto simp add: polyadd_eq_const_degree)
  1161 apply (metis head_nz)
  1162 apply (metis head_nz)
  1163 apply (metis degree.simps(9) gr0_conv_Suc head.simps(1) less_Suc0 not_less_eq)
  1164 by (metis degree.simps(9) gr0_conv_Suc nat_less_le order_le_less_trans)
  1165 
  1166 lemma polymul_head_polyeq: 
  1167    assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::{field_char_0, field_inverse_zero})"
  1168   shows "\<lbrakk>isnpolyh p n0; isnpolyh q n1 ; p \<noteq> 0\<^sub>p ; q \<noteq> 0\<^sub>p \<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> head (p *\<^sub>p q) = head p *\<^sub>p head q"
  1169 proof (induct p q arbitrary: n0 n1 rule: polymul.induct)
  1170   case (2 c c' n' p' n0 n1)
  1171   hence "isnpolyh (head (CN c' n' p')) n1" "isnormNum c"  by (simp_all add: head_isnpolyh)
  1172   thus ?case using 2 by (cases n', auto) 
  1173 next 
  1174   case (3 c n p c' n0 n1) 
  1175   hence "isnpolyh (head (CN c n p)) n0" "isnormNum c'"  by (simp_all add: head_isnpolyh)
  1176   thus ?case using 3 by (cases n, auto)
  1177 next
  1178   case (4 c n p c' n' p' n0 n1)
  1179   hence norm: "isnpolyh p n" "isnpolyh c (Suc n)" "isnpolyh p' n'" "isnpolyh c' (Suc n')"
  1180     "isnpolyh (CN c n p) n" "isnpolyh (CN c' n' p') n'"
  1181     by simp_all
  1182   have "n < n' \<or> n' < n \<or> n = n'" by arith
  1183   moreover 
  1184   {assume nn': "n < n'" hence ?case 
  1185       using norm 
  1186     "4.hyps"(2)[OF norm(1,6)]
  1187     "4.hyps"(1)[OF norm(2,6)] by (simp, cases n, simp,cases n', simp_all)}
  1188   moreover {assume nn': "n'< n"
  1189     hence ?case using norm "4.hyps"(6) [OF norm(5,3)]
  1190       "4.hyps"(5)[OF norm(5,4)] 
  1191       by (simp,cases n',simp,cases n,auto)}
  1192   moreover {assume nn': "n' = n"
  1193     from nn' polymul_normh[OF norm(5,4)] 
  1194     have ncnpc':"isnpolyh (CN c n p *\<^sub>p c') n" by (simp add: min_def)
  1195     from nn' polymul_normh[OF norm(5,3)] norm 
  1196     have ncnpp':"isnpolyh (CN c n p *\<^sub>p p') n" by simp
  1197     from nn' ncnpp' polymul_eq0_iff[OF norm(5,3)] norm(6)
  1198     have ncnpp0':"isnpolyh (CN 0\<^sub>p n (CN c n p *\<^sub>p p')) n" by simp 
  1199     from polyadd_normh[OF ncnpc' ncnpp0'] 
  1200     have nth: "isnpolyh ((CN c n p *\<^sub>p c') +\<^sub>p (CN 0\<^sub>p n (CN c n p *\<^sub>p p'))) n" 
  1201       by (simp add: min_def)
  1202     {assume np: "n > 0"
  1203       with nn' head_isnpolyh_Suc'[OF np nth]
  1204         head_isnpolyh_Suc'[OF np norm(5)] head_isnpolyh_Suc'[OF np norm(6)[simplified nn']]
  1205       have ?case by simp}
  1206     moreover
  1207     {moreover assume nz: "n = 0"
  1208       from polymul_degreen[OF norm(5,4), where m="0"]
  1209         polymul_degreen[OF norm(5,3), where m="0"] nn' nz degree_eq_degreen0
  1210       norm(5,6) degree_npolyhCN[OF norm(6)]
  1211     have dth:"degree (CN c 0 p *\<^sub>p c') < degree (CN 0\<^sub>p 0 (CN c 0 p *\<^sub>p p'))" by simp
  1212     hence dth':"degree (CN c 0 p *\<^sub>p c') \<noteq> degree (CN 0\<^sub>p 0 (CN c 0 p *\<^sub>p p'))" by simp
  1213     from polyadd_head[OF ncnpc'[simplified nz] ncnpp0'[simplified nz] dth'] dth
  1214     have ?case   using norm "4.hyps"(6)[OF norm(5,3)]
  1215         "4.hyps"(5)[OF norm(5,4)] nn' nz by simp }
  1216     ultimately have ?case by (cases n) auto} 
  1217   ultimately show ?case by blast
  1218 qed simp_all
  1219 
  1220 lemma degree_coefficients: "degree p = length (coefficients p) - 1"
  1221   by(induct p rule: degree.induct, auto)
  1222 
  1223 lemma degree_head[simp]: "degree (head p) = 0"
  1224   by (induct p rule: head.induct, auto)
  1225 
  1226 lemma degree_CN: "isnpolyh p n \<Longrightarrow> degree (CN c n p) \<le> 1 + degree p"
  1227   by (cases n, simp_all)
  1228 lemma degree_CN': "isnpolyh p n \<Longrightarrow> degree (CN c n p) \<ge>  degree p"
  1229   by (cases n, simp_all)
  1230 
  1231 lemma polyadd_different_degree: "\<lbrakk>isnpolyh p n0 ; isnpolyh q n1; degree p \<noteq> degree q\<rbrakk> \<Longrightarrow> degree (polyadd p q) = max (degree p) (degree q)"
  1232   using polyadd_different_degreen degree_eq_degreen0 by simp
  1233 
  1234 lemma degreen_polyneg: "isnpolyh p n0 \<Longrightarrow> degreen (~\<^sub>p p) m = degreen p m"
  1235   by (induct p arbitrary: n0 rule: polyneg.induct, auto)
  1236 
  1237 lemma degree_polymul:
  1238   assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::{field_char_0, field_inverse_zero})"
  1239   and np: "isnpolyh p n0" and nq: "isnpolyh q n1"
  1240   shows "degree (p *\<^sub>p q) \<le> degree p + degree q"
  1241   using polymul_degreen[OF np nq, where m="0"]  degree_eq_degreen0 by simp
  1242 
  1243 lemma polyneg_degree: "isnpolyh p n \<Longrightarrow> degree (polyneg p) = degree p"
  1244   by (induct p arbitrary: n rule: degree.induct, auto)
  1245 
  1246 lemma polyneg_head: "isnpolyh p n \<Longrightarrow> head(polyneg p) = polyneg (head p)"
  1247   by (induct p arbitrary: n rule: degree.induct, auto)
  1248 
  1249 subsection {* Correctness of polynomial pseudo division *}
  1250 
  1251 lemma polydivide_aux_properties:
  1252   assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::{field_char_0, field_inverse_zero})"
  1253   and np: "isnpolyh p n0" and ns: "isnpolyh s n1"
  1254   and ap: "head p = a" and ndp: "degree p = n" and pnz: "p \<noteq> 0\<^sub>p"
  1255   shows "(polydivide_aux a n p k s = (k',r) \<longrightarrow> (k' \<ge> k) \<and> (degree r = 0 \<or> degree r < degree p) 
  1256           \<and> (\<exists>nr. isnpolyh r nr) \<and> (\<exists>q n1. isnpolyh q n1 \<and> ((polypow (k' - k) a) *\<^sub>p s = p *\<^sub>p q +\<^sub>p r)))"
  1257   using ns
  1258 proof(induct "degree s" arbitrary: s k k' r n1 rule: less_induct)
  1259   case less
  1260   let ?qths = "\<exists>q n1. isnpolyh q n1 \<and> (a ^\<^sub>p (k' - k) *\<^sub>p s = p *\<^sub>p q +\<^sub>p r)"
  1261   let ?ths = "polydivide_aux a n p k s = (k', r) \<longrightarrow>  k \<le> k' \<and> (degree r = 0 \<or> degree r < degree p) 
  1262     \<and> (\<exists>nr. isnpolyh r nr) \<and> ?qths"
  1263   let ?b = "head s"
  1264   let ?p' = "funpow (degree s - n) shift1 p"
  1265   let ?xdn = "funpow (degree s - n) shift1 1\<^sub>p"
  1266   let ?akk' = "a ^\<^sub>p (k' - k)"
  1267   note ns = `isnpolyh s n1`
  1268   from np have np0: "isnpolyh p 0" 
  1269     using isnpolyh_mono[where n="n0" and n'="0" and p="p"]  by simp
  1270   have np': "isnpolyh ?p' 0" using funpow_shift1_isnpoly[OF np0[simplified isnpoly_def[symmetric]] pnz, where n="degree s - n"] isnpoly_def by simp
  1271   have headp': "head ?p' = head p" using funpow_shift1_head[OF np pnz] by simp
  1272   from funpow_shift1_isnpoly[where p="1\<^sub>p"] have nxdn: "isnpolyh ?xdn 0" by (simp add: isnpoly_def)
  1273   from polypow_normh [OF head_isnpolyh[OF np0], where k="k' - k"] ap 
  1274   have nakk':"isnpolyh ?akk' 0" by blast
  1275   {assume sz: "s = 0\<^sub>p"
  1276    hence ?ths using np polydivide_aux.simps apply clarsimp by (rule exI[where x="0\<^sub>p"], simp) }
  1277   moreover
  1278   {assume sz: "s \<noteq> 0\<^sub>p"
  1279     {assume dn: "degree s < n"
  1280       hence "?ths" using ns ndp np polydivide_aux.simps by auto (rule exI[where x="0\<^sub>p"],simp) }
  1281     moreover 
  1282     {assume dn': "\<not> degree s < n" hence dn: "degree s \<ge> n" by arith
  1283       have degsp': "degree s = degree ?p'" 
  1284         using dn ndp funpow_shift1_degree[where k = "degree s - n" and p="p"] by simp
  1285       {assume ba: "?b = a"
  1286         hence headsp': "head s = head ?p'" using ap headp' by simp
  1287         have nr: "isnpolyh (s -\<^sub>p ?p') 0" using polysub_normh[OF ns np'] by simp
  1288         from degree_polysub_samehead[OF ns np' headsp' degsp']
  1289         have "degree (s -\<^sub>p ?p') < degree s \<or> s -\<^sub>p ?p' = 0\<^sub>p" by simp
  1290         moreover 
  1291         {assume deglt:"degree (s -\<^sub>p ?p') < degree s"
  1292           from polydivide_aux.simps sz dn' ba
  1293           have eq: "polydivide_aux a n p k s = polydivide_aux a n p k (s -\<^sub>p ?p')"
  1294             by (simp add: Let_def)
  1295           {assume h1: "polydivide_aux a n p k s = (k', r)"
  1296             from less(1)[OF deglt nr, of k k' r]
  1297               trans[OF eq[symmetric] h1]
  1298             have kk': "k \<le> k'" and nr:"\<exists>nr. isnpolyh r nr" and dr: "degree r = 0 \<or> degree r < degree p"
  1299               and q1:"\<exists>q nq. isnpolyh q nq \<and> (a ^\<^sub>p k' - k *\<^sub>p (s -\<^sub>p ?p') = p *\<^sub>p q +\<^sub>p r)" by auto
  1300             from q1 obtain q n1 where nq: "isnpolyh q n1" 
  1301               and asp:"a^\<^sub>p (k' - k) *\<^sub>p (s -\<^sub>p ?p') = p *\<^sub>p q +\<^sub>p r"  by blast
  1302             from nr obtain nr where nr': "isnpolyh r nr" by blast
  1303             from polymul_normh[OF nakk' ns] have nakks': "isnpolyh (a ^\<^sub>p (k' - k) *\<^sub>p s) 0" by simp
  1304             from polyadd_normh[OF polymul_normh[OF nakk' nxdn] nq]
  1305             have nq': "isnpolyh (?akk' *\<^sub>p ?xdn +\<^sub>p q) 0" by simp
  1306             from polyadd_normh[OF polymul_normh[OF np 
  1307               polyadd_normh[OF polymul_normh[OF nakk' nxdn] nq]] nr']
  1308             have nqr': "isnpolyh (p *\<^sub>p (?akk' *\<^sub>p ?xdn +\<^sub>p q) +\<^sub>p r) 0" by simp 
  1309             from asp have "\<forall> (bs:: 'a::{field_char_0, field_inverse_zero} list). Ipoly bs (a^\<^sub>p (k' - k) *\<^sub>p (s -\<^sub>p ?p')) = 
  1310               Ipoly bs (p *\<^sub>p q +\<^sub>p r)" by simp
  1311             hence " \<forall>(bs:: 'a::{field_char_0, field_inverse_zero} list). Ipoly bs (a^\<^sub>p (k' - k)*\<^sub>p s) = 
  1312               Ipoly bs (a^\<^sub>p (k' - k)) * Ipoly bs ?p' + Ipoly bs p * Ipoly bs q + Ipoly bs r" 
  1313               by (simp add: field_simps)
  1314             hence " \<forall>(bs:: 'a::{field_char_0, field_inverse_zero} list). Ipoly bs (a ^\<^sub>p (k' - k) *\<^sub>p s) = 
  1315               Ipoly bs (a^\<^sub>p (k' - k)) * Ipoly bs (funpow (degree s - n) shift1 1\<^sub>p *\<^sub>p p) 
  1316               + Ipoly bs p * Ipoly bs q + Ipoly bs r"
  1317               by (auto simp only: funpow_shift1_1) 
  1318             hence "\<forall>(bs:: 'a::{field_char_0, field_inverse_zero} list). Ipoly bs (a ^\<^sub>p (k' - k) *\<^sub>p s) = 
  1319               Ipoly bs p * (Ipoly bs (a^\<^sub>p (k' - k)) * Ipoly bs (funpow (degree s - n) shift1 1\<^sub>p) 
  1320               + Ipoly bs q) + Ipoly bs r" by (simp add: field_simps)
  1321             hence "\<forall>(bs:: 'a::{field_char_0, field_inverse_zero} list). Ipoly bs (a ^\<^sub>p (k' - k) *\<^sub>p s) = 
  1322               Ipoly bs (p *\<^sub>p ((a^\<^sub>p (k' - k)) *\<^sub>p (funpow (degree s - n) shift1 1\<^sub>p) +\<^sub>p q) +\<^sub>p r)" by simp
  1323             with isnpolyh_unique[OF nakks' nqr']
  1324             have "a ^\<^sub>p (k' - k) *\<^sub>p s = 
  1325               p *\<^sub>p ((a^\<^sub>p (k' - k)) *\<^sub>p (funpow (degree s - n) shift1 1\<^sub>p) +\<^sub>p q) +\<^sub>p r" by blast
  1326             hence ?qths using nq'
  1327               apply (rule_tac x="(a^\<^sub>p (k' - k)) *\<^sub>p (funpow (degree s - n) shift1 1\<^sub>p) +\<^sub>p q" in exI)
  1328               apply (rule_tac x="0" in exI) by simp
  1329             with kk' nr dr have "k \<le> k' \<and> (degree r = 0 \<or> degree r < degree p) \<and> (\<exists>nr. isnpolyh r nr) \<and> ?qths"
  1330               by blast } hence ?ths by blast }
  1331         moreover 
  1332         {assume spz:"s -\<^sub>p ?p' = 0\<^sub>p"
  1333           from spz isnpolyh_unique[OF polysub_normh[OF ns np'], where q="0\<^sub>p", symmetric, where ?'a = "'a::{field_char_0, field_inverse_zero}"]
  1334           have " \<forall>(bs:: 'a::{field_char_0, field_inverse_zero} list). Ipoly bs s = Ipoly bs ?p'" by simp
  1335           hence "\<forall>(bs:: 'a::{field_char_0, field_inverse_zero} list). Ipoly bs s = Ipoly bs (?xdn *\<^sub>p p)" using np nxdn apply simp
  1336             by (simp only: funpow_shift1_1) simp
  1337           hence sp': "s = ?xdn *\<^sub>p p" using isnpolyh_unique[OF ns polymul_normh[OF nxdn np]] by blast
  1338           {assume h1: "polydivide_aux a n p k s = (k',r)"
  1339             from polydivide_aux.simps sz dn' ba
  1340             have eq: "polydivide_aux a n p k s = polydivide_aux a n p k (s -\<^sub>p ?p')"
  1341               by (simp add: Let_def)
  1342             also have "\<dots> = (k,0\<^sub>p)" using polydivide_aux.simps spz by simp
  1343             finally have "(k',r) = (k,0\<^sub>p)" using h1 by simp
  1344             with sp'[symmetric] ns np nxdn polyadd_0(1)[OF polymul_normh[OF np nxdn]]
  1345               polyadd_0(2)[OF polymul_normh[OF np nxdn]] have ?ths
  1346               apply auto
  1347               apply (rule exI[where x="?xdn"])        
  1348               apply (auto simp add: polymul_commute[of p])
  1349               done} }
  1350         ultimately have ?ths by blast }
  1351       moreover
  1352       {assume ba: "?b \<noteq> a"
  1353         from polysub_normh[OF polymul_normh[OF head_isnpolyh[OF np0, simplified ap] ns] 
  1354           polymul_normh[OF head_isnpolyh[OF ns] np']]
  1355         have nth: "isnpolyh ((a *\<^sub>p s) -\<^sub>p (?b *\<^sub>p ?p')) 0" by(simp add: min_def)
  1356         have nzths: "a *\<^sub>p s \<noteq> 0\<^sub>p" "?b *\<^sub>p ?p' \<noteq> 0\<^sub>p"
  1357           using polymul_eq0_iff[OF head_isnpolyh[OF np0, simplified ap] ns] 
  1358             polymul_eq0_iff[OF head_isnpolyh[OF ns] np']head_nz[OF np0] ap pnz sz head_nz[OF ns]
  1359             funpow_shift1_nz[OF pnz] by simp_all
  1360         from polymul_head_polyeq[OF head_isnpolyh[OF np] ns] head_nz[OF np] sz ap head_head[OF np] pnz
  1361           polymul_head_polyeq[OF head_isnpolyh[OF ns] np'] head_nz [OF ns] sz funpow_shift1_nz[OF pnz, where n="degree s - n"]
  1362         have hdth: "head (a *\<^sub>p s) = head (?b *\<^sub>p ?p')" 
  1363           using head_head[OF ns] funpow_shift1_head[OF np pnz]
  1364             polymul_commute[OF head_isnpolyh[OF np] head_isnpolyh[OF ns]]
  1365           by (simp add: ap)
  1366         from polymul_degreen[OF head_isnpolyh[OF np] ns, where m="0"]
  1367           head_nz[OF np] pnz sz ap[symmetric]
  1368           funpow_shift1_nz[OF pnz, where n="degree s - n"]
  1369           polymul_degreen[OF head_isnpolyh[OF ns] np', where m="0"]  head_nz[OF ns]
  1370           ndp dn
  1371         have degth: "degree (a *\<^sub>p s) = degree (?b *\<^sub>p ?p') "
  1372           by (simp add: degree_eq_degreen0[symmetric] funpow_shift1_degree)
  1373         {assume dth: "degree ((a *\<^sub>p s) -\<^sub>p (?b *\<^sub>p ?p')) < degree s"
  1374           from polysub_normh[OF polymul_normh[OF head_isnpolyh[OF np] ns] polymul_normh[OF head_isnpolyh[OF ns]np']]
  1375           ap have nasbp': "isnpolyh ((a *\<^sub>p s) -\<^sub>p (?b *\<^sub>p ?p')) 0" by simp
  1376           {assume h1:"polydivide_aux a n p k s = (k', r)"
  1377             from h1 polydivide_aux.simps sz dn' ba
  1378             have eq:"polydivide_aux a n p (Suc k) ((a *\<^sub>p s) -\<^sub>p (?b *\<^sub>p ?p')) = (k',r)"
  1379               by (simp add: Let_def)
  1380             with less(1)[OF dth nasbp', of "Suc k" k' r]
  1381             obtain q nq nr where kk': "Suc k \<le> k'" and nr: "isnpolyh r nr" and nq: "isnpolyh q nq" 
  1382               and dr: "degree r = 0 \<or> degree r < degree p"
  1383               and qr: "a ^\<^sub>p (k' - Suc k) *\<^sub>p ((a *\<^sub>p s) -\<^sub>p (?b *\<^sub>p ?p')) = p *\<^sub>p q +\<^sub>p r" by auto
  1384             from kk' have kk'':"Suc (k' - Suc k) = k' - k" by arith
  1385             {fix bs:: "'a::{field_char_0, field_inverse_zero} list"
  1386               
  1387             from qr isnpolyh_unique[OF polypow_normh[OF head_isnpolyh[OF np], where k="k' - Suc k", simplified ap] nasbp', symmetric]
  1388             have "Ipoly bs (a ^\<^sub>p (k' - Suc k) *\<^sub>p ((a *\<^sub>p s) -\<^sub>p (?b *\<^sub>p ?p'))) = Ipoly bs (p *\<^sub>p q +\<^sub>p r)" by simp
  1389             hence "Ipoly bs a ^ (Suc (k' - Suc k)) * Ipoly bs s = Ipoly bs p * Ipoly bs q + Ipoly bs a ^ (k' - Suc k) * Ipoly bs ?b * Ipoly bs ?p' + Ipoly bs r"
  1390               by (simp add: field_simps power_Suc)
  1391             hence "Ipoly bs a ^ (k' - k)  * Ipoly bs s = Ipoly bs p * Ipoly bs q + Ipoly bs a ^ (k' - Suc k) * Ipoly bs ?b * Ipoly bs ?xdn * Ipoly bs p + Ipoly bs r"
  1392               by (simp add:kk'' funpow_shift1_1[where n="degree s - n" and p="p"])
  1393             hence "Ipoly bs (a ^\<^sub>p (k' - k) *\<^sub>p s) = Ipoly bs p * (Ipoly bs q + Ipoly bs a ^ (k' - Suc k) * Ipoly bs ?b * Ipoly bs ?xdn) + Ipoly bs r"
  1394               by (simp add: field_simps)}
  1395             hence ieq:"\<forall>(bs :: 'a::{field_char_0, field_inverse_zero} list). Ipoly bs (a ^\<^sub>p (k' - k) *\<^sub>p s) = 
  1396               Ipoly bs (p *\<^sub>p (q +\<^sub>p (a ^\<^sub>p (k' - Suc k) *\<^sub>p ?b *\<^sub>p ?xdn)) +\<^sub>p r)" by auto 
  1397             let ?q = "q +\<^sub>p (a ^\<^sub>p (k' - Suc k) *\<^sub>p ?b *\<^sub>p ?xdn)"
  1398             from polyadd_normh[OF nq polymul_normh[OF polymul_normh[OF polypow_normh[OF head_isnpolyh[OF np], where k="k' - Suc k"] head_isnpolyh[OF ns], simplified ap ] nxdn]]
  1399             have nqw: "isnpolyh ?q 0" by simp
  1400             from ieq isnpolyh_unique[OF polymul_normh[OF polypow_normh[OF head_isnpolyh[OF np], where k="k' - k"] ns, simplified ap] polyadd_normh[OF polymul_normh[OF np nqw] nr]]
  1401             have asth: "(a ^\<^sub>p (k' - k) *\<^sub>p s) = p *\<^sub>p (q +\<^sub>p (a ^\<^sub>p (k' - Suc k) *\<^sub>p ?b *\<^sub>p ?xdn)) +\<^sub>p r" by blast
  1402             from dr kk' nr h1 asth nqw have ?ths apply simp
  1403               apply (rule conjI)
  1404               apply (rule exI[where x="nr"], simp)
  1405               apply (rule exI[where x="(q +\<^sub>p (a ^\<^sub>p (k' - Suc k) *\<^sub>p ?b *\<^sub>p ?xdn))"], simp)
  1406               apply (rule exI[where x="0"], simp)
  1407               done}
  1408           hence ?ths by blast }
  1409         moreover 
  1410         {assume spz: "a *\<^sub>p s -\<^sub>p (?b *\<^sub>p ?p') = 0\<^sub>p"
  1411           {fix bs :: "'a::{field_char_0, field_inverse_zero} list"
  1412             from isnpolyh_unique[OF nth, where ?'a="'a" and q="0\<^sub>p",simplified,symmetric] spz
  1413           have "Ipoly bs (a*\<^sub>p s) = Ipoly bs ?b * Ipoly bs ?p'" by simp
  1414           hence "Ipoly bs (a*\<^sub>p s) = Ipoly bs (?b *\<^sub>p ?xdn) * Ipoly bs p" 
  1415             by (simp add: funpow_shift1_1[where n="degree s - n" and p="p"])
  1416           hence "Ipoly bs (a*\<^sub>p s) = Ipoly bs (p *\<^sub>p (?b *\<^sub>p ?xdn))" by simp
  1417         }
  1418         hence hth: "\<forall> (bs:: 'a::{field_char_0, field_inverse_zero} list). Ipoly bs (a*\<^sub>p s) = Ipoly bs (p *\<^sub>p (?b *\<^sub>p ?xdn))" ..
  1419           from hth
  1420           have asq: "a *\<^sub>p s = p *\<^sub>p (?b *\<^sub>p ?xdn)" 
  1421             using isnpolyh_unique[where ?'a = "'a::{field_char_0, field_inverse_zero}", OF polymul_normh[OF head_isnpolyh[OF np] ns] 
  1422                     polymul_normh[OF np polymul_normh[OF head_isnpolyh[OF ns] nxdn]],
  1423               simplified ap] by simp
  1424           {assume h1: "polydivide_aux a n p k s = (k', r)"
  1425           from h1 sz ba dn' spz polydivide_aux.simps polydivide_aux.simps
  1426           have "(k',r) = (Suc k, 0\<^sub>p)" by (simp add: Let_def)
  1427           with h1 np head_isnpolyh[OF np, simplified ap] ns polymul_normh[OF head_isnpolyh[OF ns] nxdn]
  1428             polymul_normh[OF np polymul_normh[OF head_isnpolyh[OF ns] nxdn]] asq
  1429           have ?ths apply (clarsimp simp add: Let_def)
  1430             apply (rule exI[where x="?b *\<^sub>p ?xdn"]) apply simp
  1431             apply (rule exI[where x="0"], simp)
  1432             done}
  1433         hence ?ths by blast}
  1434         ultimately have ?ths using  degree_polysub_samehead[OF polymul_normh[OF head_isnpolyh[OF np0, simplified ap] ns] polymul_normh[OF head_isnpolyh[OF ns] np'] hdth degth] polymul_degreen[OF head_isnpolyh[OF np] ns, where m="0"]
  1435           head_nz[OF np] pnz sz ap[symmetric]
  1436           by (simp add: degree_eq_degreen0[symmetric]) blast }
  1437       ultimately have ?ths by blast
  1438     }
  1439     ultimately have ?ths by blast}
  1440   ultimately show ?ths by blast
  1441 qed
  1442 
  1443 lemma polydivide_properties: 
  1444   assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::{field_char_0, field_inverse_zero})"
  1445   and np: "isnpolyh p n0" and ns: "isnpolyh s n1" and pnz: "p \<noteq> 0\<^sub>p"
  1446   shows "(\<exists> k r. polydivide s p = (k,r) \<and> (\<exists>nr. isnpolyh r nr) \<and> (degree r = 0 \<or> degree r < degree p) 
  1447   \<and> (\<exists>q n1. isnpolyh q n1 \<and> ((polypow k (head p)) *\<^sub>p s = p *\<^sub>p q +\<^sub>p r)))"
  1448 proof-
  1449   have trv: "head p = head p" "degree p = degree p" by simp_all
  1450   from polydivide_def[where s="s" and p="p"] 
  1451   have ex: "\<exists> k r. polydivide s p = (k,r)" by auto
  1452   then obtain k r where kr: "polydivide s p = (k,r)" by blast
  1453   from trans[OF meta_eq_to_obj_eq[OF polydivide_def[where s="s"and p="p"], symmetric] kr]
  1454     polydivide_aux_properties[OF np ns trv pnz, where k="0" and k'="k" and r="r"]
  1455   have "(degree r = 0 \<or> degree r < degree p) \<and>
  1456    (\<exists>nr. isnpolyh r nr) \<and> (\<exists>q n1. isnpolyh q n1 \<and> head p ^\<^sub>p k - 0 *\<^sub>p s = p *\<^sub>p q +\<^sub>p r)" by blast
  1457   with kr show ?thesis 
  1458     apply -
  1459     apply (rule exI[where x="k"])
  1460     apply (rule exI[where x="r"])
  1461     apply simp
  1462     done
  1463 qed
  1464 
  1465 subsection{* More about polypoly and pnormal etc *}
  1466 
  1467 definition "isnonconstant p = (\<not> isconstant p)"
  1468 
  1469 lemma isnonconstant_pnormal_iff: assumes nc: "isnonconstant p" 
  1470   shows "pnormal (polypoly bs p) \<longleftrightarrow> Ipoly bs (head p) \<noteq> 0" 
  1471 proof
  1472   let ?p = "polypoly bs p"  
  1473   assume H: "pnormal ?p"
  1474   have csz: "coefficients p \<noteq> []" using nc by (cases p, auto)
  1475   
  1476   from coefficients_head[of p] last_map[OF csz, of "Ipoly bs"]  
  1477     pnormal_last_nonzero[OF H]
  1478   show "Ipoly bs (head p) \<noteq> 0" by (simp add: polypoly_def)
  1479 next
  1480   assume h: "\<lparr>head p\<rparr>\<^sub>p\<^bsup>bs\<^esup> \<noteq> 0"
  1481   let ?p = "polypoly bs p"
  1482   have csz: "coefficients p \<noteq> []" using nc by (cases p, auto)
  1483   hence pz: "?p \<noteq> []" by (simp add: polypoly_def) 
  1484   hence lg: "length ?p > 0" by simp
  1485   from h coefficients_head[of p] last_map[OF csz, of "Ipoly bs"] 
  1486   have lz: "last ?p \<noteq> 0" by (simp add: polypoly_def)
  1487   from pnormal_last_length[OF lg lz] show "pnormal ?p" .
  1488 qed
  1489 
  1490 lemma isnonconstant_coefficients_length: "isnonconstant p \<Longrightarrow> length (coefficients p) > 1"
  1491   unfolding isnonconstant_def
  1492   apply (cases p, simp_all)
  1493   apply (case_tac nat, auto)
  1494   done
  1495 lemma isnonconstant_nonconstant: assumes inc: "isnonconstant p"
  1496   shows "nonconstant (polypoly bs p) \<longleftrightarrow> Ipoly bs (head p) \<noteq> 0"
  1497 proof
  1498   let ?p = "polypoly bs p"
  1499   assume nc: "nonconstant ?p"
  1500   from isnonconstant_pnormal_iff[OF inc, of bs] nc
  1501   show "\<lparr>head p\<rparr>\<^sub>p\<^bsup>bs\<^esup> \<noteq> 0" unfolding nonconstant_def by blast
  1502 next
  1503   let ?p = "polypoly bs p"
  1504   assume h: "\<lparr>head p\<rparr>\<^sub>p\<^bsup>bs\<^esup> \<noteq> 0"
  1505   from isnonconstant_pnormal_iff[OF inc, of bs] h
  1506   have pn: "pnormal ?p" by blast
  1507   {fix x assume H: "?p = [x]" 
  1508     from H have "length (coefficients p) = 1" unfolding polypoly_def by auto
  1509     with isnonconstant_coefficients_length[OF inc] have False by arith}
  1510   thus "nonconstant ?p" using pn unfolding nonconstant_def by blast  
  1511 qed
  1512 
  1513 lemma pnormal_length: "p\<noteq>[] \<Longrightarrow> pnormal p \<longleftrightarrow> length (pnormalize p) = length p"
  1514   unfolding pnormal_def
  1515  apply (induct p)
  1516  apply (simp_all, case_tac "p=[]", simp_all)
  1517  done
  1518 
  1519 lemma degree_degree: assumes inc: "isnonconstant p"
  1520   shows "degree p = Polynomial_List.degree (polypoly bs p) \<longleftrightarrow> \<lparr>head p\<rparr>\<^sub>p\<^bsup>bs\<^esup> \<noteq> 0"
  1521 proof
  1522   let  ?p = "polypoly bs p"
  1523   assume H: "degree p = Polynomial_List.degree ?p"
  1524   from isnonconstant_coefficients_length[OF inc] have pz: "?p \<noteq> []"
  1525     unfolding polypoly_def by auto
  1526   from H degree_coefficients[of p] isnonconstant_coefficients_length[OF inc]
  1527   have lg:"length (pnormalize ?p) = length ?p"
  1528     unfolding Polynomial_List.degree_def polypoly_def by simp
  1529   hence "pnormal ?p" using pnormal_length[OF pz] by blast 
  1530   with isnonconstant_pnormal_iff[OF inc]  
  1531   show "\<lparr>head p\<rparr>\<^sub>p\<^bsup>bs\<^esup> \<noteq> 0" by blast
  1532 next
  1533   let  ?p = "polypoly bs p"  
  1534   assume H: "\<lparr>head p\<rparr>\<^sub>p\<^bsup>bs\<^esup> \<noteq> 0"
  1535   with isnonconstant_pnormal_iff[OF inc] have "pnormal ?p" by blast
  1536   with degree_coefficients[of p] isnonconstant_coefficients_length[OF inc]
  1537   show "degree p = Polynomial_List.degree ?p" 
  1538     unfolding polypoly_def pnormal_def Polynomial_List.degree_def by auto
  1539 qed
  1540 
  1541 section{* Swaps ; Division by a certain variable *}
  1542 primrec swap:: "nat \<Rightarrow> nat \<Rightarrow> poly \<Rightarrow> poly" where
  1543   "swap n m (C x) = C x"
  1544 | "swap n m (Bound k) = Bound (if k = n then m else if k=m then n else k)"
  1545 | "swap n m (Neg t) = Neg (swap n m t)"
  1546 | "swap n m (Add s t) = Add (swap n m s) (swap n m t)"
  1547 | "swap n m (Sub s t) = Sub (swap n m s) (swap n m t)"
  1548 | "swap n m (Mul s t) = Mul (swap n m s) (swap n m t)"
  1549 | "swap n m (Pw t k) = Pw (swap n m t) k"
  1550 | "swap n m (CN c k p) = CN (swap n m c) (if k = n then m else if k=m then n else k)
  1551   (swap n m p)"
  1552 
  1553 lemma swap: assumes nbs: "n < length bs" and mbs: "m < length bs"
  1554   shows "Ipoly bs (swap n m t) = Ipoly ((bs[n:= bs!m])[m:= bs!n]) t"
  1555 proof (induct t)
  1556   case (Bound k) thus ?case using nbs mbs by simp 
  1557 next
  1558   case (CN c k p) thus ?case using nbs mbs by simp 
  1559 qed simp_all
  1560 lemma swap_swap_id[simp]: "swap n m (swap m n t) = t"
  1561   by (induct t,simp_all)
  1562 
  1563 lemma swap_commute: "swap n m p = swap m n p" by (induct p, simp_all)
  1564 
  1565 lemma swap_same_id[simp]: "swap n n t = t"
  1566   by (induct t, simp_all)
  1567 
  1568 definition "swapnorm n m t = polynate (swap n m t)"
  1569 
  1570 lemma swapnorm: assumes nbs: "n < length bs" and mbs: "m < length bs"
  1571   shows "((Ipoly bs (swapnorm n m t) :: 'a\<Colon>{field_char_0, field_inverse_zero})) = Ipoly ((bs[n:= bs!m])[m:= bs!n]) t"
  1572   using swap[OF assms] swapnorm_def by simp
  1573 
  1574 lemma swapnorm_isnpoly[simp]: 
  1575     assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::{field_char_0, field_inverse_zero})"
  1576   shows "isnpoly (swapnorm n m p)"
  1577   unfolding swapnorm_def by simp
  1578 
  1579 definition "polydivideby n s p = 
  1580     (let ss = swapnorm 0 n s ; sp = swapnorm 0 n p ; h = head sp; (k,r) = polydivide ss sp
  1581      in (k,swapnorm 0 n h,swapnorm 0 n r))"
  1582 
  1583 lemma swap_nz [simp]: " (swap n m p = 0\<^sub>p) = (p = 0\<^sub>p)" by (induct p, simp_all)
  1584 
  1585 fun isweaknpoly :: "poly \<Rightarrow> bool"
  1586 where
  1587   "isweaknpoly (C c) = True"
  1588 | "isweaknpoly (CN c n p) \<longleftrightarrow> isweaknpoly c \<and> isweaknpoly p"
  1589 | "isweaknpoly p = False"
  1590 
  1591 lemma isnpolyh_isweaknpoly: "isnpolyh p n0 \<Longrightarrow> isweaknpoly p" 
  1592   by (induct p arbitrary: n0, auto)
  1593 
  1594 lemma swap_isweanpoly: "isweaknpoly p \<Longrightarrow> isweaknpoly (swap n m p)" 
  1595   by (induct p, auto)
  1596 
  1597 end