NEWS
author blanchet
Mon Feb 03 17:18:38 2014 +0100 (2014-02-03)
changeset 55289 30d874dc7000
parent 55183 17ec4a29ef71
child 55297 1dfcd49f5dcb
permissions -rw-r--r--
added new option to documentation
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.
    25 
    26 
    27 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    28 
    29 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    30 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    31 
    32 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
    33 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
    34 
    35 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
    36 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
    37 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
    38 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
    39 
    40 
    41 *** Pure ***
    42 
    43 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
    44 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
    45 instantiated theorem.
    46 
    47 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
    48 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
    49 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
    50 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
    51 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
    52 
    53   attribute_setup standard =
    54     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
    55 
    56 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
    57 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
    58 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
    59 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
    60 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
    61 
    62 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
    63 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
    64 differently).
    65 
    66 
    67 *** HOL ***
    68 
    69 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
    70 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
    71 
    72 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
    73   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
    74   "primrec_new", "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" command are now part of
    75   "Main".
    76   INCOMPATIBILITY.
    77   Theory renamings:
    78     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
    79     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
    80     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
    81     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
    82     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
    83     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
    84     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
    85     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
    86     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
    87     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
    88     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
    89     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
    90     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
    91     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
    92     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
    93     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
    94     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
    95     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
    96     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
    97     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
    98     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
    99     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   100   New theories:
   101     List_Prefix.thy (split from Library/Sublist.thy)
   102     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   103     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   104     Library/BNF_Decl.thy
   105     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   106     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   107   Discontinued theory:
   108     BNF/BNF.thy
   109     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   110 
   111 * New theory:
   112     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   113 
   114 * Theory reorganizations:
   115   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   116 
   117 * Sledgehammer:
   118   - New option:
   119       smt
   120   - Renamed options:
   121       isar_compress ~> compress_isar
   122       isar_try0 ~> try0_isar
   123     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   124 
   125 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   126 
   127 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   128 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   129 
   130 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   131 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   132 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   133 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   134 
   135 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   136 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   137 
   138 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   139 with the given constants.
   140 
   141 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   142 
   143 Fact consolidations:
   144     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   145     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   146     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   147     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   148     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   149     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   150     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   151     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   152     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   153     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   154     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   155     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   156     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   157     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   158     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   159     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   160     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   161     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   162     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   163     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   164     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   165     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   166     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   167     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   168     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   169     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   170     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   171     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   172     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   173     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   174     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   175     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   176     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   177     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   178     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   179     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   180     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   181     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   182     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   183     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   184 
   185 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   186 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   187 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   188 
   189 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   190 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   191 
   192 For min_ac or max_ac, prefor more general collection ac_simps.
   193 
   194 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   195 
   196 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   197 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   198 
   199 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   200 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   201 
   202 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   203 operations on records.
   204 
   205 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   206 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   207 
   208 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   209     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   210 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   211 
   212 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   213     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   214     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   215 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   216 
   217 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   218   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   219   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   220   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   221     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   222   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   223     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   224   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   225 INCOMPATBILITY.
   226 
   227 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   228     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   229     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   230     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   231     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   232 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   233 
   234 * Fact name consolidation:
   235     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   236     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   237     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   238     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   239     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   240 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   241 
   242 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   243 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   244 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   245 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   246 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   247 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   248 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   249 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   250 
   251 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   252 
   253 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   254 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   255 
   256 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   257 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   258 
   259 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   260 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   261 or the brute way with
   262 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   263 
   264 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   265 
   266 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   267 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   268 
   269 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   270 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   271 
   272 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   273 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   274 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   275 INCOMPATIBILITY
   276 
   277 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   278 
   279 * Nitpick:
   280   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   281     infinite values.
   282 
   283 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   284   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   285   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   286     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   287     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   288     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   289     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   290     intervals.
   291 
   292 
   293 *** ML ***
   294 
   295 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   296 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   297 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   298 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   299 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   300 of schematic variables.
   301 
   302 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   303 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   304 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   305 formal context.
   306 
   307 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   308 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   309 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   310 actually belongs to it).
   311 
   312 
   313 *** System ***
   314 
   315 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   316 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   317 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   318 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   319 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   320 
   321 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   322 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   323 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   324 
   325 
   326 
   327 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   328 -------------------------------------
   329 
   330 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   331 
   332 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   333 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   334 
   335 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   336 after edits surrounding the command location.
   337 
   338 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   339 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   340 e.g. out-of-memory).
   341 
   342 
   343 *** System ***
   344 
   345 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   346 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   347 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   348 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   349 
   350 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   351 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   352 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   353 
   354 
   355 
   356 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   357 -------------------------------------
   358 
   359 *** General ***
   360 
   361 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   362 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   363 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   364 
   365 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   366 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   367 
   368 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   369 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   370 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   371 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   372 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   373 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   374 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   375 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   376 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   377 syntax.
   378 
   379 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   380 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   381 
   382 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   383 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   384 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   385 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   386 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   387 
   388 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   389 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   390 
   391 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   392 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   393 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   394 
   395 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   396 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   397 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   398 
   399 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   400 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   401 
   402 
   403 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   404 
   405 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   406 Documentation panel.
   407 
   408 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   409 documentation.
   410 
   411 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   412 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   413 
   414 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   415 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   416 normal editing and checking process.
   417 
   418 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   419 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   420 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   421 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   422 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   423 
   424 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   425 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   426 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   427 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   428 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   429 
   430 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   431 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   432 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   433 
   434 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   435 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   436 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   437 to resolve conflict.
   438 
   439 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   440 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   441 
   442 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   443 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   444 such command executions while editing.
   445 
   446 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   447 document content.
   448 
   449 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   450 toplevel theorem statements.
   451 
   452 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   453 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   454 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   455 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   456 
   457 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   458 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   459 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   460 
   461 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   462 / Global Options / Appearance".
   463 
   464 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   465 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   466 
   467 
   468 *** Pure ***
   469 
   470 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   471 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   472 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   473 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   474 details.
   475 
   476 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   477 
   478 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   479 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   480 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   481 
   482 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   483 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   484 
   485 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   486 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   487 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   488 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   489 
   490 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   491 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   492 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   493 
   494 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   495 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   496 
   497 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   498 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   499 situations.
   500 
   501 
   502 *** HOL ***
   503 
   504 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   505 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   506 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   507 
   508 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   509 
   510 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   511 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   512 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   513 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   514 
   515   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   516 
   517 * Code generator:
   518   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   519     'code_instance'.
   520   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   521     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   522 
   523 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   524 examples.
   525 
   526 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   527 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   528 to distinguish both when desired.
   529 
   530 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   531 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   532 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   533 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   534 
   535 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   536 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   537 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   538 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   539 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   540 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   541 
   542 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   543 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   544 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   545 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   546 
   547 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   548 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   549 
   550 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   551 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   552 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   553 
   554 * Lifting:
   555   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   556     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   557       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   558       transfer rules
   559     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   560       correspondence relation can be generated
   561     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   562       parametricity
   563     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   564   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   565   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   566     copies
   567   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   568     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   569     anonymous context)
   570   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   571     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   572   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   573     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   574   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   575     INCOMPATIBILITY
   576 
   577 * Transfer:
   578   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   579     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   580   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   581   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   582     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   583   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   584 
   585 * Reification and reflection:
   586   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   587     "Reification".
   588   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   589   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   590 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   591 
   592 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   593   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   594     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   595     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   596   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   597     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   598   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   599     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   600     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   601     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   602     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   603     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   604     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   605     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   606   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   607     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   608   - Fact renames:
   609       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   610       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   611 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   612 
   613 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   614 
   615 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   616 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   617 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   618 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   619 
   620 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   621 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   622 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   623 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   624 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   625 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   626 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   627 lemmas.
   628 
   629 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   630 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   631 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   632 
   633 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   634 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   635 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   636 
   637 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   638 top and bottom elements.
   639 
   640 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   641 
   642 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   643 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   644 
   645  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   646    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   647    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   648 
   649  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   650    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   651    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   652 
   653    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   654    arbitrary filter.
   655 
   656  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   657    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   658    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   659    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   660    on a compact set.
   661 
   662  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   663    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   664    linear_continuum_topology).
   665 
   666  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   667    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   668    on all sequences converging to x.
   669 
   670  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   671    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   672    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   673    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   674    left or right.
   675 
   676  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   677 
   678      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   679 
   680  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   681    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   682 
   683  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   684    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   685    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   686    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   687    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   688    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   689 
   690  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   691 
   692    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   693 
   694    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   695      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   696 
   697    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   698 
   699    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   700      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   701 
   702    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   703 
   704    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   705 
   706  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   707 
   708 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   709 
   710 * Nitpick:
   711   - Added option "spy"
   712   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   713 
   714 * Sledgehammer:
   715   - Renamed option:
   716       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   717     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   718   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   719   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   720   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   721 
   722 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   723 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   724 
   725 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   726   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   727   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   728     generated code.
   729   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   730   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   731   - Fact renames:
   732     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   733     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   734     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   735 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   736 
   737 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   738 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   739 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   740 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   741 
   742 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   743 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   744 
   745 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   746 
   747 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   748 
   749     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   750     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   751 
   752 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   753 
   754 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   755 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   756 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   757 
   758 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   759 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   760 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   761 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   762 
   763 * HOL-BNF:
   764   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   765     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   766     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   767     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   768   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   769     coinduct).
   770   - Renamed keywords:
   771     data ~> datatype_new
   772     codata ~> codatatype
   773     bnf_def ~> bnf
   774   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   775     discs ~> disc
   776     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   777     map_id' ~> map_id
   778     sels ~> sel
   779     set_map' ~> set_map
   780     sets ~> set
   781 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   782 
   783 
   784 *** ML ***
   785 
   786 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   787 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   788 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   789 Examples.thy in particular.
   790 
   791 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   792 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   793 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   794 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   795 
   796 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   797 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   798 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   799 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   800 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   801 
   802 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   803 
   804     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   805     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   806 
   807 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   808 
   809 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   810 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   811 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   812 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   813 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   814 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   815 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   816 
   817 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   818 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   819 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   820 clasets separately from the context.
   821 
   822 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   823 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   824 
   825 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   826 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   827 
   828 
   829 *** System ***
   830 
   831 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   832 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   833 
   834 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   835 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   836 
   837 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   838 settings variable.
   839 
   840 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   841 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   842 always pdf.
   843 
   844 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   845 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   846 
   847 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   848 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   849 
   850 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   851 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   852 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   853 
   854 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   855 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   856 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   857 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   858 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   859 for HTML presentation of theories.
   860 
   861 
   862 
   863 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   864 -----------------------------------
   865 
   866 *** General ***
   867 
   868 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   869 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   870 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   871 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   872 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   873 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   874 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   875 
   876 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   877 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   878 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   879 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   880 
   881 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   882 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   883 
   884 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   885 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   886 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   887 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   888 dependencies properly.
   889 
   890 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   891 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   892 
   893 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   894 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   895 
   896 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   897 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   898 and "class ... context ...".
   899 
   900 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   901 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   902 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   903 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   904 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   905 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   906 
   907 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   908 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   909 
   910 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   911 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   912 
   913 
   914 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   915 
   916 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   917 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   918 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   919 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   920 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   921 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   922 
   923 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   924 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   925 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   926 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   927 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   928 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   929 
   930 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   931 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   932 browser on demand.
   933 
   934 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   935 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   936 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   937 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   938 
   939 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   940 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   941 
   942 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   943 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   944 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   945 potentially infinite message streams.
   946 
   947 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   948 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   949 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   950 schemes.
   951 
   952 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   953 symbols.
   954 
   955 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   956 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   957 
   958 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   959 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   960 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   961 
   962 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   963 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   964 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   965 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   966 
   967 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   968 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   969 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   970 
   971 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   972 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   973 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   974 Isabelle distribution.
   975 
   976 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   977 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   978 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   979 
   980 
   981 *** Pure ***
   982 
   983 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   984 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   985 
   986 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   987 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   988 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   989 
   990 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   991 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   992 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   993 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   994 with some care where this is really required.
   995 
   996 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   997 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   998 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   999 
  1000   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1001 
  1002 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1003 a Hasse diagram.
  1004 
  1005 
  1006 *** HOL ***
  1007 
  1008 * Sledgehammer:
  1009 
  1010   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1011     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1012   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1013   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1014   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1015   - Renamed options:
  1016       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1017       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1018       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1019       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1020 
  1021 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1022 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1023 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1024 
  1025 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1026 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1027 
  1028 * Lifting:
  1029   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1030   - quot_del attribute
  1031   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1032 
  1033 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1034 expressions.
  1035 
  1036 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1037 pointfree expressions.
  1038 
  1039 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1040 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1041 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1042 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1043 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1044 
  1045 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1046 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1047 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1048 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1049 accordingly.
  1050 
  1051 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1052 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1053 
  1054 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1055 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1056 
  1057 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1058 
  1059 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1060 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1061 
  1062 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1063 
  1064 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1065 
  1066   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1067   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1068 
  1069 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1070 
  1071 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1072 
  1073   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1074   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1075 
  1076 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1077 
  1078 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1079 
  1080   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1081     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1082     output f x converges to G.
  1083 
  1084   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1085     infinity (at_bot).
  1086 
  1087   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1088     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1089 
  1090   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1091     at_top".
  1092 
  1093 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1094 
  1095 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1096 lattice type classes.
  1097 
  1098 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1099 
  1100     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1101     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1102 
  1103 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1104 
  1105 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1106 changes as follows.
  1107 
  1108   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1109 
  1110       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1111       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1112 
  1113   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1114     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1115     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1116     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1117 
  1118   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1119     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1120     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1121 
  1122   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1123     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1124     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1125     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1126 
  1127   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1128     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1129 
  1130       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1131       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1132       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1133       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1134       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1135       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1136       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1137       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1138       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1139       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1140       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1141       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1142       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1143       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1144       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1145       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1146 
  1147 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1148 
  1149 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1150 
  1151 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1152 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1153 
  1154 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1155 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1156 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1157 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1158 
  1159   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1160   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1161   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1162   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1163   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1164   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1165   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1166   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1167   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1168   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1169 
  1170 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1171 
  1172 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1173 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1174 Data").
  1175 
  1176 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1177 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1178 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1179 code.
  1180 
  1181 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1182 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1183 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1184 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1185 
  1186 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1187 
  1188 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1189 
  1190 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1191 
  1192   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1193   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1194 
  1195 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1196 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1197 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1198 
  1199   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1200 
  1201     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1202     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1203     cart_base i  removed
  1204     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1205 
  1206   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1207 
  1208   Renamed lemmas:
  1209 
  1210     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1211     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1212     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1213     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1214     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1215     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1216     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1217     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1218     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1219     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1220 
  1221 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1222 
  1223 * HOL/Probability:
  1224 
  1225   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1226 
  1227   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1228     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1229     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1230 
  1231   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1232     projective family).
  1233 
  1234 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1235 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1236 
  1237 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1238 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1239 datatypes.
  1240 
  1241 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1242 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1243 
  1244 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1245 trees for the code generator.
  1246 
  1247 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1248 Lifting/Transfer.
  1249 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1250 
  1251 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1252 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1253 
  1254 
  1255 *** Document preparation ***
  1256 
  1257 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1258 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1259 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1260 
  1261 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1262 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1263 
  1264 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1265 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1266 document/root.tex.
  1267 
  1268 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1269 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1270 
  1271 
  1272 *** ML ***
  1273 
  1274 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1275 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1276 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1277 
  1278 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1279 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1280 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1281 
  1282 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1283 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1284 necessarily printing visible text.
  1285 
  1286 
  1287 *** System ***
  1288 
  1289 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1290 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1291 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1292 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1293 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1294 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1295 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1296 
  1297 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1298 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1299 
  1300   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1301 
  1302 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1303 
  1304 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1305 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1306 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1307 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1308 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1309 
  1310 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1311 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1312 
  1313 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1314 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1315 
  1316 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1317 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1318 
  1319 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1320 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1321 version of Isabelle.
  1322 
  1323 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1324 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1325 
  1326 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1327 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1328 for home-made settings.
  1329 
  1330 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1331 
  1332 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1333 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1334 configuration.
  1335 
  1336 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1337 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1338 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1339 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1340 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1341 
  1342 
  1343 
  1344 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1345 ------------------------------
  1346 
  1347 *** General ***
  1348 
  1349 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1350 
  1351   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1352     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1353   - markup for bound variables
  1354   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1355   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1356   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1357     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1358 
  1359 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1360 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1361 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1362 
  1363 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1364 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1365 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1366 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1367 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1368 
  1369   context
  1370     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1371     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1372   begin
  1373 
  1374   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1375 
  1376   end
  1377 
  1378   thm my_trans
  1379 
  1380 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1381 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1382 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1383 
  1384 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1385 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1386 
  1387 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1388 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1389 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1390 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1391 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1392 
  1393 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1394 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1395 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1396 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1397 indices of schematic variables.
  1398 
  1399 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1400 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1401 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1402 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1403 etc. was exploited.
  1404 
  1405 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1406 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1407 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1408 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1409 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1410 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1411 
  1412 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1413 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1414 manual.
  1415 
  1416 
  1417 *** Pure ***
  1418 
  1419 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1420 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1421 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1422 
  1423 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1424 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1425 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1426 undocumented feature.)
  1427 
  1428 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1429 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1430 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1431 
  1432   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1433 
  1434   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1435     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1436 
  1437 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1438 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1439 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1440 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1441 
  1442 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1443 
  1444     num ~> num_token
  1445     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1446     xstr ~> str_token
  1447 
  1448 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1449 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1450 position information via constraints).
  1451 
  1452 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1453 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1454 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1455 
  1456 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1457 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1458 
  1459 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1460 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1461 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1462 
  1463 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1464 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1465 
  1466 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1467 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1468 
  1469   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1470 
  1471 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1472 
  1473 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1474 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1475 
  1476 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1477 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1478 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1479 
  1480 
  1481 *** HOL ***
  1482 
  1483 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1484 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1485 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1486 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1487 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1488 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1489 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1490 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1491 possible.
  1492 
  1493 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1494 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1495 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1496 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1497 
  1498 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1499 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1500 
  1501 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1502 
  1503 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1504 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1505 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1506 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1507 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1508 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1509 
  1510   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1511     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1512 
  1513   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1514     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1515     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1516 
  1517   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1518     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1519 
  1520   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1521     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1522     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1523 
  1524   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1525     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1526 
  1527 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1528 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1529 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1530 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1531 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1532 
  1533   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1534     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1535     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1536     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1537     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1538 
  1539     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1540     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1541 
  1542   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1543     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1544     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1545     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1546     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1547     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1548     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1549     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1550 
  1551   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1552     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1553     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1554     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1555 
  1556   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1557     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1558     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1559     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1560 
  1561   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1562     from type nat to type int.
  1563 
  1564 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1565 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1566 
  1567   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1568     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1569     type.  Example syntax:
  1570 
  1571     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1572       is List.insert
  1573 
  1574     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1575     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1576     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1577     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1578     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1579     by the package.
  1580 
  1581   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1582     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1583     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1584     code generation for each constant.
  1585 
  1586   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1587     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1588     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1589     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1590     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1591 
  1592   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1593     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1594     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1595 
  1596 * Quotient package:
  1597 
  1598   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1599     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1600 
  1601   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1602     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1603 
  1604   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1605     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1606     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1607 
  1608   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1609     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1610 
  1611 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1612 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1613 
  1614 * Quickcheck:
  1615 
  1616   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1617     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1618     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1619     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1620     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1621 
  1622     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1623     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1624     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1625 
  1626     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1627     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1628 
  1629     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1630     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1631     show genuine counterexamples.
  1632 
  1633   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1634     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1635 
  1636     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1637     constructors of that type.
  1638 
  1639   - Support for multisets.
  1640 
  1641   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1642 
  1643   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1644     conjectures in a locale context.
  1645 
  1646 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1647 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1648 
  1649 * Sledgehammer:
  1650   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1651     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1652   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1653   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1654     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1655   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1656   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1657   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1658   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1659 
  1660 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1661 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1662 
  1663 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1664 
  1665 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1666 
  1667 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1668 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1669 
  1670   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1671 
  1672 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1673 a list and a nat.
  1674 
  1675 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1676 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1677 
  1678 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1679 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1680 default.
  1681 
  1682 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1683 
  1684   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1685 
  1686 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1687 
  1688 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1689 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1690 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1691 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1692 one_case.
  1693 
  1694 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1695 the result of the fact expression.
  1696 
  1697 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1698 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1699 of some relation theorems:
  1700 
  1701   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1702   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1703   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1704   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1705   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1706   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1707 
  1708 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1709 
  1710 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1711 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1712 
  1713 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1714 
  1715 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1716 to match the constant's name:
  1717 
  1718   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1719   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1720   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1721   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1722   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1723   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1724   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1725   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1726   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1727   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1728   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1729   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1730   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1731   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1732   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1733   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1734   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1735   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1736   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1737   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1738   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1739   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1740   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1741   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1742 
  1743 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1744 
  1745 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1746 and corresponding theorem names:
  1747 
  1748   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1749 
  1750   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1751 
  1752   - Renamed theorems:
  1753 
  1754     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1755     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1756     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1757     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1758     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1759     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1760     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1761     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1762     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1763     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1764     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1765     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1766     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1767     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1768     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1769     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1770     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1771     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1772     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1773     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1774     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1775     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1776     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1777 
  1778     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1779 
  1780     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1781 
  1782 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1783 
  1784 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1785 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1786 
  1787   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1788   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1789   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1790   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1791   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1792   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1793   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1794   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1795   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1796   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1797   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1798   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1799   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1800   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1801   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1802   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1803   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1804   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1805   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1806   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1807   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1808 
  1809 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1810 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1811 
  1812 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1813 
  1814 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1815 
  1816   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1817   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1818   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1819   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1820   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1821   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1822   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1823   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1824   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1825   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1826   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1827   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1828   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1829   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1830   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1831   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1832   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1833   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1834 
  1835 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1836 
  1837 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1838 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1839 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1840 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1841 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1842 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1843 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1844 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1845 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1846 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1847 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1848 
  1849 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1850 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1851 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1852 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1853 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1854 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1855 
  1856 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1857 through option types.
  1858 
  1859 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1860 relations.
  1861 
  1862 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1863 
  1864 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1865 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1866 
  1867   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1868   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1869   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1870   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1871   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1872   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1873   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1874   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1875   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1876   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1877   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1878   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1879   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1880   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1881   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1882   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1883   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1884   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1885   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1886   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1887   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1888   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1889   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1890   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1891   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1892   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1893   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1894   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1895   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1896   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1897   zless_le ~> less_le
  1898   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1899   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1900   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1901 
  1902 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1903 
  1904   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1905 
  1906 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1907 
  1908 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1909 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1910 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1911 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1912 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1913 
  1914 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1915 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1916 
  1917 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1918 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1919 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1920 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1921 follows:
  1922 
  1923   Operations:
  1924   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1925   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1926   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1927   del -> rbt_del
  1928   delete -> rbt_delete
  1929   ins -> rbt_ins
  1930   insert -> rbt_insert
  1931   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1932   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1933   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1934   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1935   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1936   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1937   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1938   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1939   union -> rbt_union
  1940   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1941   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1942 
  1943   Lemmas:
  1944   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1945   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1946   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1947   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1948   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1949   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1950   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1951   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1952   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1953   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1954   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1955   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1956   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1957   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1958   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1959   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1960   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1961   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1962   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1963   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1964   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1965   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1966   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1967   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1968   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1969   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1970   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1971   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1972   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1973   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1974   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1975   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1976   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1977   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1978   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1979   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1980   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1981   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1982   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1983   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1984   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1985   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1986   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1987   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1988   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1989   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1990   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1991   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1992   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1993   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1994   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1995   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1996   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1997   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1998   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1999   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2000   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2001   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2002   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2003   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2004   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2005   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2006   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2007   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2008   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2009   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2010   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2011   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2012   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2013   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2014   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2015   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2016   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2017   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2018   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2019   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2020   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2021   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2022   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2023   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2024   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2025   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2026   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2027 
  2028 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2029 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2030 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2031 
  2032   Changed Operations:
  2033   float_abs -> abs
  2034   float_nprt -> nprt
  2035   float_pprt -> pprt
  2036   pow2 -> use powr
  2037   round_down -> float_round_down
  2038   round_up -> float_round_up
  2039   scale -> exponent
  2040 
  2041   Removed Operations:
  2042   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2043 
  2044   Renamed Lemmas:
  2045   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2046   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2047   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2048   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2049   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2050   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2051   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2052   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2053   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2054   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2055   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2056   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2057   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2058   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2059   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2060   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2061   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2062   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2063   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2064   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2065   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2066   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2067   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2068   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2069   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2070   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2071   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2072   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2073   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2074   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2075   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2076   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2077   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2078   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2079   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2080   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2081 
  2082   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2083   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2084   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2085   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2086   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2087   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2088   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2089   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2090   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2091   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2092 
  2093 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2094 association lists with distinct keys.
  2095 
  2096 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2097 annotated commands.
  2098 
  2099 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2100 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2101 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2102 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2103 
  2104 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2105 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2106 instead.
  2107 
  2108   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2109   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2110   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2111   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2112   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2113   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2114   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2115   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2116   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2117   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2118   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2119   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2120   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2121   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2122   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2123   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2124   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2125   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2126   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2127   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2128   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2129   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2130   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2131   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2132   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2133   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2134   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2135   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2136   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2137   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2138   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2139   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2140   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2141   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2142   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2143   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2144   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2145   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2146   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2147   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2148   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2149 
  2150 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2151 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2152 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2153 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2154 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2155 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2156 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2157 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2158 
  2159 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2160 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2161 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2162 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2163 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2164 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2165 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2166 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2167 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2168 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2169 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2170 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2171 
  2172   Renamed constants:
  2173   measure -> emeasure
  2174   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2175   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2176   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2177   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2178 
  2179   Removed locales:
  2180   completeable_measure_space
  2181   finite_measure_space
  2182   finite_prob_space
  2183   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2184   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2185   finite_sigma_algebra
  2186   measure_space
  2187   pair_finite_prob_space
  2188   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2189   pair_finite_space
  2190   pair_sigma_algebra
  2191   product_sigma_algebra
  2192 
  2193   Removed constants:
  2194   conditional_space
  2195   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2196   image_space
  2197   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2198   pair_measure_generator
  2199   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2200   subvimage
  2201 
  2202   Replacement theorems:
  2203   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2204   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2205   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2206   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2207   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2208   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2209   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2210   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2211   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2212   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2213   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2214   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2215   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2216   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2217   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2218   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2219   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2220   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2221   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2222   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2223   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2224   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2225   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2226   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2227   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2228   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2229   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2230   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2231   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2232   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2233   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2234   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2235   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2236   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2237   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2238   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2239   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2240   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2241   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2242   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2243   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2244   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2245   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2246   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2247   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2248   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2249   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2250   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2251   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2252   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2253   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2254   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2255   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2256   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2257   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2258   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2259   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2260   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2261   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2262   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2263   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2264   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2265   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2266   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2267   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2268   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2269   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2270   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2271   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2272   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2273   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2274   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2275   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2276   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2277   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2278   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2279   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2280   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2281   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2282   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2283   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2284   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2285   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2286   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2287   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2288   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2289   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2290   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2291   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2292   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2293   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2294   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2295   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2296   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2297   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2298   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2299   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2300   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2301   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2302   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2303   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2304   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2305   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2306   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2307   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2308   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2309   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2310   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2311   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2312   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2313   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2314   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2315   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2316   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2317   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2318   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2319   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2320   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2321   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2322   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2323   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2324   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2325   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2326   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2327   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2328   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2329   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2330   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2331 
  2332 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2333 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2334 
  2335 
  2336 *** FOL ***
  2337 
  2338 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2339 
  2340 
  2341 *** ZF ***
  2342 
  2343 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2344 analysis.
  2345 
  2346 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2347 
  2348 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2349 
  2350 
  2351 *** ML ***
  2352 
  2353 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2354 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2355 
  2356 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2357 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2358 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2359 
  2360 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2361 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2362 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2363 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2364 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2365 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2366 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2367 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2368 
  2369 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2370 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2371 
  2372 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2373 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2374 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2375 
  2376 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2377 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2378 
  2379 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2380 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2381 context as well.
  2382 
  2383 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2384 
  2385   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2386   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2387   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2388   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2389   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2390   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2391   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2392   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2393   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2394   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2395   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2396   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2397 
  2398 
  2399 *** System ***
  2400 
  2401 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2402 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2403 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2404 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2405 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2406 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2407 the generic user home was intended.
  2408 
  2409 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2410 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2411 
  2412 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2413 (not just JRE).
  2414 
  2415 
  2416 
  2417 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2418 ------------------------------------
  2419 
  2420 *** General ***
  2421 
  2422 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2423 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2424 
  2425   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2426     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2427     files for checking).
  2428 
  2429   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2430     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2431     positions.
  2432 
  2433   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2434     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2435     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2436 
  2437   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2438     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2439     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2440 
  2441   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2442     cores.
  2443 
  2444   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2445     versions (garbage collection).
  2446 
  2447 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2448 including some remaining limitations.
  2449 
  2450 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2451 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2452 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2453 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2454 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2455 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2456 
  2457 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2458 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2459 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2460 
  2461 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2462 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2463 usedir option -Q.
  2464 
  2465 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2466 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2467 
  2468   long_names   ~> names_long
  2469   short_names  ~> names_short
  2470   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2471 
  2472 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2473 
  2474   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2475 
  2476 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2477 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2478 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2479 
  2480 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2481 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2482 
  2483 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2484   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2485   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2486   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2487     "Classical Reasoner".
  2488 
  2489 
  2490 *** HOL ***
  2491 
  2492 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2493 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2494 
  2495 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2496 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2497 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2498 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2499 class complete_linorder.
  2500 
  2501 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2502 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2503 
  2504 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2505 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2506 
  2507   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2508   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2509   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2510   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2511   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2512   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2513   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2514   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2515   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2516   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2517   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2518 
  2519 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2520 
  2521   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2522   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2523   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2524   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2525   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2526   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2527   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2528   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2529   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2530   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2531   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2532   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2533   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2534   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2535   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2536   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2537 
  2538 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2539 
  2540 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2541 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2542 
  2543 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2544 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2545 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2546 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2547 
  2548 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2549 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2550 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2551 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2552 
  2553 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2554 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2555 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2556 
  2557 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2558 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2559 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2560 
  2561 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2562 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2563 
  2564 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2565 
  2566     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2567     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2568 
  2569 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2570 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2571 
  2572 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2573 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2574 
  2575 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2576 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2577 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2578 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2579 
  2580   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2581   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2582   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2583   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2584   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2585   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2586   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2587 
  2588 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2589 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2590 
  2591   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2592   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2593   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2594   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2595   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2596   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2597   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2598   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2599   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2600   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2601   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2602   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2603   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2604   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2605   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2606   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2607   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2608   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2609   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2610   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2611   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2612   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2613   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2614   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2615   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2616   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2617   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2618   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2619   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2620   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2621   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2622   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2623   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2624   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2625   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2626   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2627   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2628   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2629   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2630   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2631   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2632   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2633   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2634   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2635   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2636   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2637   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2638   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2639   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2640   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2641   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2642   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2643   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2644   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2645   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2646   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2647   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2648   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2649   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2650   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2651   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2652   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2653   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2654   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2655   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2656   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2657   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2658   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2659   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2660   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2661   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2662   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2663   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2664   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2665   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2666   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2667   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2668   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2669   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2670   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2671   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2672   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2673 
  2674 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2675 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2676 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2677 
  2678 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2679 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2680 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2681 
  2682 * Code generation:
  2683 
  2684   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2685     characters in the target language.
  2686 
  2687   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2688     instead.
  2689 
  2690   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2691 
  2692   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2693     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2694 
  2695       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2696 
  2697 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2698 
  2699 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2700 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2701 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2702 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2703 syntax.
  2704 
  2705 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2706 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2707 
  2708 * Nitpick:
  2709   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2710   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2711   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2712     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2713 
  2714 * Sledgehammer:
  2715   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2716   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2717     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2718   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2719     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2720   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2721     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2722   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2723     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2724   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2725     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2726 
  2727 * Metis:
  2728   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2729   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2730     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2731 
  2732 * Command 'try':
  2733   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2734     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2735   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2736     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2737 
  2738 * Quickcheck:
  2739   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2740     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2741   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2742     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2743   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2744     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2745     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2746     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2747   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2748     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2749 
  2750 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2751 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2752 
  2753 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2754 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2755 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2756 
  2757 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2758 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2759 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2760 
  2761 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2762 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2763 
  2764 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2765 arithmetic.
  2766 
  2767 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2768 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2769 and lattice type classes.
  2770 
  2771 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2772 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2773 
  2774 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2775 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2776 
  2777 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2778 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2779 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2780 
  2781   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2782   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2783   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2784   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2785 
  2786 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2787 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2788 constants:
  2789 
  2790   type inat   ~> type enat
  2791   Fin         ~> enat
  2792   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2793   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2794   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2795 
  2796 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2797 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2798 
  2799 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2800 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2801 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2802 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2803 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2804 
  2805 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2806 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2807 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2808 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2809 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2810 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2811 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2812 
  2813   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2814   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2815   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2816   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2817 
  2818 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2819 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2820 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2821 
  2822   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2823   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2824   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2825   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2826   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2827   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2828   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2829   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2830   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2831   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2832   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2833   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2834   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2835   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2836   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2837   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2838   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2839   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2840   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2841   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2842   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2843   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2844   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2845   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2846   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2847   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2848   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2849   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2850   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2851   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2852   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2853   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2854   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2855   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2856   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2857   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2858   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2859   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2860   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2861   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2862   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2863   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2864   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2865   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2866   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2867   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2868   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2869   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2870   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2871   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2872   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2873 
  2874 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2875   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2876   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2877   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2878   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2879     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2880 
  2881 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2882 
  2883   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2884   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2885   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2886   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2887   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2888   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2889   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2890   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2891   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2892   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2893   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2894   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2895   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2896   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2897   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2898   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2899   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2900   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2901   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2902   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2903   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2904   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2905   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2906   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2907   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2908 
  2909 
  2910 *** Document preparation ***
  2911 
  2912 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2913 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2914 same.
  2915 
  2916 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2917 result.
  2918 
  2919 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2920 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2921 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2922 
  2923 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2924 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2925 
  2926 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2927 like this:
  2928 
  2929   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2930   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2931 
  2932 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2933 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2934 layouts.
  2935 
  2936 
  2937 *** ML ***
  2938 
  2939 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2940 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2941 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2942 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2943 under external program control.
  2944 
  2945 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2946 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2947 
  2948 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2949 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2950 (better known as Proof General).
  2951 
  2952 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2953 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2954 
  2955 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2956 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2957 
  2958 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2959 (including quotes etc.).
  2960 
  2961 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2962 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2963 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2964 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2965 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2966 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2967 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2968 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2969 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2970 
  2971 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2972 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2973 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2974 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2975 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2976 
  2977 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2978 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2979 
  2980 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2981 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2982 
  2983 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2984 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2985 
  2986 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2987 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2988 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2989 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2990 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2991 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2992 proper Proof.context.
  2993 
  2994 
  2995 *** System ***
  2996 
  2997 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2998 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2999 
  3000 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3001 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3002 
  3003 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3004 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3005 
  3006   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3007   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3008   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3009   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3010   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3011 
  3012 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3013 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3014 
  3015 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3016 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3017 example:
  3018 
  3019   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3020 
  3021 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3022 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3023 
  3024 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3025 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3026 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3027 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3028 
  3029 
  3030 
  3031 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3032 ----------------------------------
  3033 
  3034 *** General ***
  3035 
  3036 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3037 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3038 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3039 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3040 like this:
  3041 
  3042   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3043 
  3044 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3045 
  3046 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3047 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3048 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3049 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3050 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3051 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3052 
  3053 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3054 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3055 the following package declarations:
  3056 
  3057   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3058   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3059 
  3060 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3061 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3062 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3063 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3064 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3065 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3066 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3067 
  3068 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3069 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3070 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3071 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3072 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3073 
  3074 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3075 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3076 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3077 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3078 
  3079 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3080 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3081 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3082 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3083 
  3084   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3085 
  3086   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3087   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3088   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3089   show_types                    show_types
  3090   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3091   show_consts                   show_consts
  3092   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3093 
  3094   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3095   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3096   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3097 
  3098   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3099   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3100 
  3101   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3102 
  3103   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3104   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3105   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3106   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3107   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3108 
  3109 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3110 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3111 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3112 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3113 
  3114 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3115 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3116 
  3117   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3118   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3119 
  3120 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3121 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3122 float_token.
  3123 
  3124 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3125 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3126 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3127 
  3128 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3129 DejaVu Sans.
  3130 
  3131 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3132 
  3133 
  3134 *** Pure ***
  3135 
  3136 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3137 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3138 time.
  3139 
  3140 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3141 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3142 
  3143 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3144 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3145 
  3146 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3147 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3148 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3149 command already provided this functionality.
  3150 
  3151 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3152 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3153 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3154 without interpretations.
  3155 
  3156 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3157 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3158 
  3159 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3160 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3161 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3162 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3163 
  3164 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3165 'definition' instead.
  3166 
  3167 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3168 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3169 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3170 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3171 
  3172 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3173 constructors.
  3174 
  3175 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3176 the local file system.
  3177 
  3178 
  3179 *** HOL ***
  3180 
  3181 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3182 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3183 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3184 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3185 
  3186   declare [[coercion f]]
  3187 
  3188 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3189 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3190 
  3191   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3192 
  3193 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3194 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3195 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3196 other theories like this:
  3197 
  3198   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3199 
  3200 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3201 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3202 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3203 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3204 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3205 for examples.
  3206 
  3207 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3208 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3209 
  3210 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3211 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3212 
  3213 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3214 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3215 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3216 
  3217 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3218 functorial structure of types.
  3219 
  3220 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3221 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3222 
  3223 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3224 languages.
  3225 
  3226 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3227 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3228 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3229 
  3230 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3231 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3232 
  3233 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3234 combinators any longer.
  3235 
  3236 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3237 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3238 
  3239 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3240 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3241 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3242 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3243 
  3244   record 'a foo = ...
  3245   ...
  3246   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3247 
  3248 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3249 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3250 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3251 
  3252 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3253 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3254 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3255 
  3256 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3257 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3258 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3259 
  3260 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3261 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3262 
  3263 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3264 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3265 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3266 independently.
  3267 
  3268 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3269 counter example search.
  3270 
  3271 * Sledgehammer:
  3272   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3273     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3274     sledgehammer").
  3275   - Renamed commands:
  3276     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3277     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3278     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3279     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3280   - Renamed options:
  3281     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3282     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3283     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3284     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3285     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3286 
  3287 * Nitpick:
  3288   - Renamed options:
  3289     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3290     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3291     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3292   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3293   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3294   - Added "whack" option.
  3295   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3296   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3297   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3298   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3299     higher cardinalities.
  3300   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3301 
  3302 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3303 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3304 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3305 
  3306     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3307 
  3308 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3309 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3310 
  3311 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3312 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3313 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3314 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3315 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3316 "smt_solver".
  3317 
  3318 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3319 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3320 
  3321 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3322 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3323 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3324 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3325 
  3326 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3327   - Renamed:
  3328     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3329     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3330     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3331   - Added:
  3332     smt_verbose
  3333     smt_random_seed
  3334     smt_datatypes
  3335     smt_infer_triggers
  3336     smt_monomorph_limit
  3337     cvc3_options
  3338     remote_cvc3_options
  3339     remote_z3_options
  3340     yices_options
  3341 
  3342 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3343 header.
  3344 
  3345 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3346 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3347 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3348 
  3349   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3350 
  3351 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3352 
  3353 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3354 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3355 
  3356 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3357 
  3358 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3359 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3360 
  3361 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3362 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3363 
  3364 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3365 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3366 
  3367 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3368 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3369 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3370 
  3371 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3372 
  3373 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3374 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3375 
  3376 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3377 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3378 
  3379 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3380 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3381 for congruent(2)).
  3382 
  3383 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3384 
  3385   types
  3386     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3387     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3388 
  3389   constants
  3390     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3391     True ~> HOL.True
  3392     False ~> HOL.False
  3393     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3394     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3395     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3396     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3397     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3398     The ~> HOL.The
  3399     All ~> HOL.All
  3400     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3401     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3402     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3403     If ~> HOL.If
  3404     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3405     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3406     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3407     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3408     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3409     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3410     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3411     op : ~> Set.member
  3412     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3413 
  3414 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3415 
  3416 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3417 
  3418     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3419     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3420     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3421     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3422     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3423     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3424     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3425     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3426 
  3427 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3428 
  3429 * More stylized fact names:
  3430 
  3431   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3432   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3433   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3434   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3435 
  3436 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3437 
  3438 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3439 
  3440   constants
  3441     null ~> List.null
  3442 
  3443   facts
  3444     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3445     null_empty ~> null_def
  3446 
  3447 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3448 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3449 generation.
  3450 
  3451 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3452 Haskell code.
  3453 
  3454 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3455 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3456 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3457 
  3458 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3459 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3460 
  3461 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3462 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3463 
  3464 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3465 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3466 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3467 
  3468 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3469 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3470 
  3471 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3472 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3473 
  3474 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3475 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3476 referred to by its qualified name.
  3477 
  3478   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3479   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3480   product ~>  Enum.product
  3481 
  3482 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3483 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3484 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3485 
  3486 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3487 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3488 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3489 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3490 
  3491 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3492 sort_key.
  3493 
  3494 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3495 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3496 
  3497 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3498 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3499 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3500 
  3501   types
  3502     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3503               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3504               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3505         (depends on your needs)
  3506 
  3507   constants
  3508      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3509      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3510      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3511 
  3512 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3513 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3514 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3515 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3516 
  3517 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3518 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3519 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3520 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3521 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3522 
  3523 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3524 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3525 
  3526 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3527 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3528 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3529 
  3530 
  3531 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3532 
  3533 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3534 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3535 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3536 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3537 compatibility.
  3538 
  3539 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3540 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3541 
  3542 
  3543 *** HOLCF ***
  3544 
  3545 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3546 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3547 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3548 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3549 
  3550 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3551 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3552 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3553 
  3554   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3555   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3556   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3557 
  3558 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3559 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3560 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3561 
  3562 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3563 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3564 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3565 domain definition now works:
  3566 
  3567   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3568 
  3569 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3570 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3571 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3572 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3573 
  3574   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3575     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3576 
  3577   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3578 
  3579 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3580 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3581 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3582 
  3583 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3584 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3585 
  3586 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3587 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3588 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3589 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3590 
  3591 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3592 
  3593 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3594 
  3595 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3596 
  3597 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3598 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3599 
  3600 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3601 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3602 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3603 
  3604 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3605 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3606 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3607 
  3608 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3609 still supported as an input translation.
  3610 
  3611 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3612 
  3613   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3614   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3615   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3616   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3617   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3618   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3619   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3620 
  3621 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3622 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3623 
  3624   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3625   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3626   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3627   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3628   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3629   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3630 
  3631 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3632 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3633 
  3634 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3635 
  3636   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3637   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3638   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3639   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3640 
  3641 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3642 
  3643 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3644 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3645 
  3646 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3647 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3648 
  3649   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3650   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3651   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3652   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3653   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3654   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3655   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3656   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3657   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3658   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3659   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3660   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3661   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3662   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3663   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3664   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3665   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3666   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3667   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3668   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3669 
  3670 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3671 
  3672   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3673   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3674   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3675   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3676   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3677   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3678   box_less             ~> box_below
  3679   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3680   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3681   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3682   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3683   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3684   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3685   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3686   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3687   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3688   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3689   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3690   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3691   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3692   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3693   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3694   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3695   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3696   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3697   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3698   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3699   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3700   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3701   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3702   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3703   up_less              ~> up_below
  3704   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3705   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3706   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3707   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3708   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3709   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3710   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3711   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3712   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3713   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3714   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3715   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3716   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3717 
  3718 
  3719 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3720 
  3721 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3722 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3723 
  3724 
  3725 *** ML ***
  3726 
  3727 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3728 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3729 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3730 
  3731 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3732 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3733 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3734 
  3735 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3736 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3737 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3738 
  3739 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3740 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3741 
  3742 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3743 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3744 
  3745 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3746 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3747 
  3748 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3749 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3750 
  3751 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3752 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3753 almost all situations.
  3754 
  3755 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3756 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3757 Isabelle/ML.
  3758 
  3759 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3760 meaning.
  3761 
  3762 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3763 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3764 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3765 
  3766 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3767 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3768 
  3769 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3770 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3771 
  3772 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3773 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3774 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3775 
  3776 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3777 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3778 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3779 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3780 configuration options.
  3781 
  3782 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3783 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3784 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3785 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3786 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3787 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3788 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3789 
  3790 
  3791 
  3792 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3793 ---------------------------------
  3794 
  3795 *** General ***
  3796 
  3797 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3798 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3799 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3800 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3801 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3802 their full internal name.
  3803 
  3804 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3805 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3806 Some hints on upgrading:
  3807 
  3808   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3809     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3810     which are independent of this issue.
  3811 
  3812   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3813     provides the following special forms:
  3814 
  3815       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3816       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3817       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3818 
  3819     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3820     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3821     extra variables".
  3822 
  3823     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3824     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3825     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3826     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3827     "logic".
  3828 
  3829   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3830     antiquotations:
  3831 
  3832       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3833       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3834       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3835       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3836 
  3837   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3838     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3839     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3840     antiquotations.
  3841 
  3842 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3843 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3844 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3845 diagnose syntax problems.
  3846 
  3847 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3848 
  3849 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3850 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3851 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3852 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3853 
  3854 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3855 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3856 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3857 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3858 
  3859 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3860 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3861 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3862 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3863 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3864 
  3865 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3866 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3867 
  3868 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3869 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3870 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3871 
  3872   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3873 
  3874 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3875 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3876 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3877 
  3878 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3879 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3880 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3881 
  3882 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3883 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3884 
  3885 
  3886 *** Pure ***
  3887 
  3888 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3889 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3890 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3891 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3892 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3893 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3894 inspect proof terms.
  3895 
  3896 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3897 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3898 are added internally.  For example:
  3899 
  3900   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3901 
  3902 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3903 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3904 
  3905 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3906 
  3907 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3908 'class' instead.
  3909 
  3910 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3911 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3912 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3913 
  3914 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3915 invariants.
  3916 
  3917 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3918 user space functionality any longer.
  3919 
  3920 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3921 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3922 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3923 
  3924 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3925 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3926 
  3927 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3928 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3929 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3930 
  3931 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3932 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3933 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3934 
  3935 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3936 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3937 
  3938 
  3939 *** HOL ***
  3940 
  3941 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3942 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3943 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3944 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3945 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3946 
  3947 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3948 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3949 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3950 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3951 
  3952   fun
  3953     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3954   where
  3955     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3956 
  3957   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3958     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3959 
  3960   quotient_definition
  3961     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3962 
  3963 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3964 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3965 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3966 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3967 
  3968 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3969 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3970 
  3971 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3972 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3973 
  3974 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3975 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3976 
  3977 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3978 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3979 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3980 
  3981 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3982 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3983 
  3984 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3985 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3986 
  3987 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3988 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3989 
  3990 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3991 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3992 
  3993 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3994 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3995 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3996 
  3997   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3998   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3999   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4000   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4001   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4002   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4003   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4004   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4005   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4006   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4007   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4008   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4009   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4010   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4011   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4012   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4013   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4014   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4015   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4016   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4017   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4018   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4019   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4020   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4021   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4022   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4023   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4024   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4025   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4026   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4027 
  4028 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4029 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4030 
  4031 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4032 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4033 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4034 
  4035 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4036 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4037 
  4038 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4039 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4040 
  4041 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4042 
  4043 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4044 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4045 
  4046 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4047 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4048 
  4049 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4050 
  4051 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4052 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4053 
  4054 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4055 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4056 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4057 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4058 
  4059 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4060   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4061   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4062   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4063 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4064 
  4065 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4066 lattices):
  4067 
  4068     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4069     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4070 
  4071     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4072 
  4073     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4074     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4075     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4076     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4077     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4078     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4079     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4080     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4081     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4082     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4083     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4084     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4085     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4086 
  4087     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4088     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4089     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4090     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4091     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4092     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4093     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4094     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4095     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4096     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4097     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4098     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4099     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4100     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4101     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4102     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4103     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4104     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4105 
  4106   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4107   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4108 
  4109     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4110     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4111     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4112     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4113     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4114 
  4115 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4116 
  4117 * Refined field classes:
  4118   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4119     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4120     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4121   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4122 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4123 
  4124 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4125   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4126   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4127   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4128     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4129   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4130     equal_neg_zero.
  4131 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4132 
  4133 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4134 sets to lattices:
  4135 
  4136   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4137   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4138   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4139   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4140   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4141   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4142   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4143   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4144   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4145   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4146 
  4147 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4148 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4149 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4150 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4151 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4152 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4153 
  4154 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4155 multiset order:
  4156 
  4157   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4158     <= and <;
  4159   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4160     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4161     multiset_order;
  4162   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4163     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4164     generation;
  4165   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4166     if needed.
  4167 
  4168 Renamed:
  4169 
  4170   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4171   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4172   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4173 
  4174 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4175 
  4176 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4177 
  4178 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4179 
  4180 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4181 
  4182 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4183 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4184 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4185 
  4186   Constants:
  4187   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4188   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4189   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4190   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4191   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4192   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4193   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4194   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4195   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4196   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4197   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4198   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4199   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4200 
  4201   Lemmas:
  4202   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4203   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4204   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4205   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4206   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4207   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4208   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4209   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4210   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4211   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4212   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4213   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4214   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4215 
  4216 * Sledgehammer:
  4217   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4218     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4219     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4220     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4221     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4222     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4223     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4224   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4225   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4226     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4227   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4228     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4229     is still experimental.)
  4230   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4231     full-typed mode.
  4232   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4233 
  4234 * Nitpick:
  4235   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4236   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4237   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4238     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4239   - Added support for quotient types.
  4240   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4241     constructs.
  4242   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4243     "termination" proofs).
  4244   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4245   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4246   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4247   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4248     record getters.
  4249   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4250   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4251   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4252   - Added "atoms" option.
  4253   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4254     problems.
  4255   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4256     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4257     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4258   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4259     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4260   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4261 
  4262 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4263   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4264   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4265   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4266   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4267   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4268   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4269   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4270   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4271   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4272 
  4273 
  4274 *** HOLCF ***
  4275 
  4276 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4277 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4278 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4279 
  4280 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4281 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4282 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4283 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4284 
  4285 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4286 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4287 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4288 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4289 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4290 
  4291 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4292 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4293 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4294 
  4295 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4296 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4297 
  4298   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4299   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4300 
  4301 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4302 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4303 
  4304   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4305   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4306   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4307   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4308   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4309 
  4310 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4311 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4312 
  4313   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4314   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4315   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4316 
  4317 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4318 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4319 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4320 
  4321 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4322 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4323 
  4324 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4325 
  4326 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4327 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4328 
  4329 
  4330 *** ML ***
  4331 
  4332 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4333 
  4334     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4335     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4336 
  4337     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4338     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4339     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4340     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4341 
  4342     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4343     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4344     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4345 
  4346 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4347 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4348 
  4349 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4350 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4351 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4352 
  4353 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4354 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4355 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4356 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4357 
  4358 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4359 the context or even global references.
  4360 
  4361 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4362 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4363 
  4364 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4365 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4366 
  4367   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4368   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4369   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4370   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4371   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4372   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4373   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4374   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4375   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4376   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4377 
  4378 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4379 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4380 
  4381 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4382 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4383 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4384 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4385 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4386 
  4387 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4388 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4389 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4390 Theory_Data version.
  4391 
  4392 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4393 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4394 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4395 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4396 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4397 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4398 explicitly in rare situations.
  4399 
  4400 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4401 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4402 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4403 
  4404 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4405 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4406 
  4407 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4408 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4409 quite rare).
  4410 
  4411 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4412 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4413 
  4414 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4415 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4416 terms.
  4417 
  4418 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4419 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4420 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4421 
  4422 
  4423 *** System ***
  4424 
  4425 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4426 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4427 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4428 
  4429 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4430 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4431 respectively.
  4432 
  4433 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4434 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4435 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4436 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4437 
  4438   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4439 
  4440 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4441 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4442 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4443 component.
  4444 
  4445 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4446 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4447 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4448 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4449 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4450 the user for manual installation.
  4451 
  4452 
  4453 
  4454 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4455 -------------------------------------
  4456 
  4457 *** General ***
  4458 
  4459 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4460 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4461 
  4462 
  4463 *** Pure ***
  4464 
  4465 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4466 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4467 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4468 
  4469 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4470 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4471 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4472 
  4473 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4474 interpretation.
  4475 
  4476 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4477 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4478 
  4479 
  4480 *** Document preparation ***
  4481 
  4482 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4483 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4484 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4485 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4486 
  4487 
  4488 *** HOL ***
  4489 
  4490 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4491 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4492 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4493 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4494 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4495 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4496 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4497 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4498 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4499 
  4500 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4501 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4502 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4503 
  4504 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4505 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4506 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4507 
  4508 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4509 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4510 
  4511 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4512 
  4513 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4514 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4515 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4516 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4517 
  4518 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4519 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4520 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4521 "mirabelle" utility.
  4522 
  4523 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4524 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4525 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4526 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4527 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4528 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4529 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4530 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4531 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4532 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4533 
  4534 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4535 procedure only.
  4536 
  4537 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4538 
  4539 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4540 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4541 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4542 that fail later.
  4543 
  4544 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4545 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4546 
  4547 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4548 the same method as the approximation method.
  4549 
  4550 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4551 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4552 series expansion.
  4553 
  4554 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4555 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4556 
  4557 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4558 reals.
  4559 
  4560 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4561 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4562 
  4563 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4564 fixpoint theorem.
  4565 
  4566 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4567   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4568     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4569   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4570     accordingly
  4571   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4572     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4573   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4574     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4575 
  4576 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4577 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4578 lattice.
  4579 
  4580 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4581 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4582 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4583 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4584 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4585 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4586 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4587 
  4588 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4589   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4590     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4591   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4592     le_inf_iff
  4593   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4594     sup_aci)
  4595   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4596   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4597   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4598     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4599     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4600     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4601     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4602     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4603     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4604     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4605     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4606     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4607     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4608   - authentic syntax for
  4609     Set.Pow
  4610     Set.image
  4611   - mere abbreviations:
  4612     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4613     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4614     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4615     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4616     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4617     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4618     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4619     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4620   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4621 
  4622 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4623 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4624 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4625 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4626 
  4627 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4628 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4629 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4630 
  4631 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4632 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4633 
  4634 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4635 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4636 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4637 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4638 
  4639 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4640 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4641 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4642 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4643 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4644 
  4645 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4646 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4647 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4648 
  4649 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4650 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4651 
  4652 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4653 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4654 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4655 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4656 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4657 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4658 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4659 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4660 
  4661 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4662     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4663     code_post       replaces    code post
  4664     etc.
  4665   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4666 
  4667 * Renamed methods:
  4668     sizechange -> size_change
  4669     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4670   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4671 
  4672 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4673 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4674 
  4675 * Renamed theorems:
  4676     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4677     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4678     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4679     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4680     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4681   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4682 
  4683 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4684 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4685 
  4686 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4687 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4688 
  4689 
  4690 *** HOLCF ***
  4691 
  4692 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4693 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4694 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4695 
  4696 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4697 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4698 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4699 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4700 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4701 
  4702 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4703 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4704 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4705 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4706 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4707 
  4708 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4709 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4710 constructor are pre-configured.
  4711 
  4712 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4713 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4714 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4715 
  4716 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4717 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4718 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4719 as well.)
  4720 
  4721 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4722 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4723 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4724 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4725 examples.
  4726 
  4727 
  4728 *** ML ***
  4729 
  4730 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4731 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4732 
  4733 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4734 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4735 position, logical grouping etc.
  4736 
  4737 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4738 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4739 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4740 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4741 
  4742 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4743 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4744 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4745 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4746 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4747 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4748 
  4749 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4750 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4751 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4752 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4753 experiments with references.
  4754 
  4755 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4756 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4757 
  4758 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4759 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4760 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4761 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4762 
  4763 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4764 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4765 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4766 
  4767 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4768 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4769 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4770 
  4771 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4772 
  4773 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4774 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4775 
  4776 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4777 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4778 
  4779 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4780 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4781 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4782 
  4783 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4784 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4785 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4786 
  4787 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4788 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4789 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4790 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4791 
  4792 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4793 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4794 instead of global theory.
  4795 
  4796 
  4797 *** System ***
  4798 
  4799 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4800 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4801 usedir option -q.
  4802 
  4803 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4804 also the system manual.
  4805 
  4806 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4807 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4808 
  4809 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4810 this is always enabled.
  4811 
  4812 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4813 
  4814 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4815 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4816 currently supported on Linux only.
  4817 
  4818 
  4819 
  4820 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4821 --------------------------------
  4822 
  4823 *** General ***
  4824 
  4825 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4826 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4827 
  4828   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4829     "isatool."
  4830 
  4831   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4832     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4833 
  4834   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4835     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4836 
  4837 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4838 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4839 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4840 
  4841 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4842 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4843 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4844 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4845 via "isabelle emacs".
  4846 
  4847 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4848 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4849 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4850 
  4851 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4852 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4853 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4854 
  4855 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4856 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4857 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4858 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4859 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4860 
  4861 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4862 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4863 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4864 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4865 
  4866 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4867 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4868 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4869 
  4870 
  4871 *** Pure ***
  4872 
  4873 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4874 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4875 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4876 
  4877 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4878 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4879 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4880 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4881 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4882 
  4883 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4884 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4885 useful in locale declarations.
  4886 
  4887 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4888 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4889 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4890 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4891 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4892 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4893 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4894 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4895 no longer generated.
  4896 
  4897 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4898 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4899 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4900 
  4901 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4902 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4903 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4904 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4905 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4906 
  4907 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4908 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4909 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4910 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4911 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4912 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4913 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4914 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4915 
  4916 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4917 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4918 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4919 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4920 
  4921 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4922 
  4923 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4924 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4925 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4926 
  4927 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4928 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4929 
  4930 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4931 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4932 in HOL, write
  4933 
  4934     class foo = ...
  4935 
  4936 instead of
  4937 
  4938     class foo = type + ...
  4939 
  4940 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4941 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4942 
  4943 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4944 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4945 
  4946 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4947 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4948 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4949 
  4950 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4951 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4952 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4953 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4954 directly in regular applications.
  4955 
  4956 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4957 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4958 
  4959 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4960 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4961 
  4962 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4963 theory context.
  4964 
  4965 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4966 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4967 
  4968 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4969 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4970 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4971 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4972 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4973 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4974 
  4975   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4976 
  4977 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4978 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4979 normalization.
  4980 
  4981 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4982 addressing etc.
  4983 
  4984 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4985 
  4986   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4987   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4988 
  4989 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4990 
  4991   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4992      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4993      parts of the code generator framework).
  4994 
  4995   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4996      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4997      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4998 
  4999 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5000 
  5001 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5002 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5003 
  5004 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5005 patterns, e.g.
  5006 
  5007     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5008 
  5009 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5010 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5011 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5012 hyphen:
  5013 
  5014     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5015 
  5016 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5017 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5018 
  5019 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5020 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5021 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5022 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5023 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5024 higher-order unification.
  5025 
  5026 
  5027 *** Document preparation ***
  5028 
  5029 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5030 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5031 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5032 
  5033 
  5034 *** HOL ***
  5035 
  5036 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5037 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5038 
  5039 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5040 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5041 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5042 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5043 Main, as before.
  5044 
  5045 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5046 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5047 
  5048 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5049 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5050 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5051 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5052 
  5053 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5054 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5055 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5056 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5057 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5058 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5059 
  5060 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5061 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5062 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5063 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5064 
  5065 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5066 menu.
  5067 
  5068 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5069 (contains the empty clause).
  5070 
  5071 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5072 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5073 
  5074 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5075 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5076 
  5077 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5078 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5079 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5080 
  5081 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5082 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5083 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5084 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5085 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5086 
  5087 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5088 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5089 
  5090 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5091 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5092 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5093 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5094 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5095 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5096 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5097 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5098 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5099 
  5100 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5101 
  5102 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5103 
  5104 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5105 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5106 
  5107 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5108 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5109 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5110 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5111 
  5112 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5113 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5114 
  5115     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5116     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5117     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5118     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5119     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5120     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5121     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5122     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5123 
  5124 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5125 theory Set.
  5126 
  5127 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5128 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5129 
  5130 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5131 
  5132 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5133 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5134 
  5135 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5136 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5137 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5138 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5139 allowed. For examples see
  5140 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5141 
  5142 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5143 
  5144 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5145 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5146 
  5147 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5148 structure:
  5149 
  5150     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5151     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5152     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5153     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5154     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5155     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5156     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5157     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5158     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5159     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5160     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5161     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5162     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5163     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5164     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5165     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5166     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5167     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5168     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5169     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5170     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5171     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5172     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5173     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5174     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5175     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5176     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5177     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5178     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5179     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5180     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5181     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5182     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5183 
  5184     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5185     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5186     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5187     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5188     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5189     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5190     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5191     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5192     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5193     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5194 
  5195     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5196     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5197     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5198     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5199     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5200     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5201 
  5202 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5203 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5204 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5205 
  5206 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5207 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5208 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5209 
  5210 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5211 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5212 
  5213 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5214 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5215 
  5216 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5217 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5218 proofs, e.g.
  5219 
  5220   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5221 
  5222 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5223 
  5224 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5225 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5226 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5227 
  5228 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5229 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5230 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5231 
  5232 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5233 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5234 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5235 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5236 
  5237 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5238 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5239 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5240 preorder_class.*.
  5241 
  5242 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5243 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5244 
  5245 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5246 
  5247   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5248 
  5249 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5250 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5251 fold_image.
  5252 
  5253 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5254 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5255 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5256 the former will disappear at some point.
  5257 
  5258 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5259 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5260 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5261 
  5262 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5263 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5264 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5265 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5266 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5267 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5268 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5269 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5270 
  5271 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5272 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5273 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5274 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5275 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5276 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5277 
  5278     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5279     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5280     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5281     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5282     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5283     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5284     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5285 
  5286 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5287 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5288 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5289 
  5290 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5291 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5292 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5293 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5294 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5295 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5296 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5297 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5298 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5299 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5300 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5301 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5302 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5303 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5304 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5305 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5306 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5307 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5308 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5309 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5310 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5311 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5312 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5313 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5314 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5315 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5316 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5317 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5318 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5319 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5320 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5321 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5322 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5323 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5324 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5325 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5326 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5327 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5328 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5329 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5330 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5331 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5332 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5333 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5334 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5335 
  5336 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5337 
  5338 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5339 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5340 
  5341 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5342 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5343 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5344 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5345 
  5346 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5347 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5348 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5349 theory RealVector.
  5350 
  5351 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5352 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5353 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5354 and inner products are included.
  5355 
  5356 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5357 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5358 supported.
  5359 
  5360 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5361 first diagonalization argument.
  5362 
  5363 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5364 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5365 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5366 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5367 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5368 
  5369     hide (open) const gcd
  5370     abbreviation gcd where
  5371       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5372     notation (output)
  5373       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5374 
  5375 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5376 
  5377 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5378 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5379 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5380 
  5381 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5382 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5383 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5384 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5385 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5386 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5387 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5388 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5389 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5390 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5391 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5392 cases.
  5393 
  5394 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5395 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5396 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5397 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5398 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5399 
  5400     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5401     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5402     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5403     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5404     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5405 
  5406 
  5407 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5408 
  5409 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5410 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5411 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5412 
  5413 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5414 
  5415 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5416 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5417 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5418 
  5419 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5420 
  5421 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5422 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5423 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5424 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5425 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5426 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5427 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5428 
  5429 
  5430 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5431 
  5432 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5433 
  5434 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5435 theory targets.
  5436 
  5437 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5438 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5439 'inductive' etc.
  5440 
  5441 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5442 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5443 
  5444 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5445 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5446 
  5447 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5448 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5449 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5450 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5451 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5452 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5453 the algorithm W:
  5454 
  5455  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5456  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5457          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5458 
  5459 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5460 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5461 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5462 
  5463 
  5464 *** HOLCF ***
  5465 
  5466 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5467 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5468 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5469 
  5470 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5471 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5472 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5473 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5474 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5475 
  5476 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5477 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5478 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5479 
  5480 
  5481 *** ZF ***
  5482 
  5483 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5484 
  5485 
  5486 *** ML ***
  5487 
  5488 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5489 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5490 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5491 5.2.1!
  5492 
  5493 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5494 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5495 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5496 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5497 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5498 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5499 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5500 
  5501 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5502 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5503 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5504 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5505 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5506 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5507 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5508 
  5509 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5510 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5511 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5512 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5513 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5514 
  5515 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5516 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5517 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5518 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5519 Method.add_method.
  5520 
  5521 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5522 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5523 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5524 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5525 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5526 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5527 
  5528 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5529 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5530 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5531 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5532 examples.
  5533 
  5534 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5535 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5536 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5537 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5538 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5539 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5540 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5541 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5542 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5543 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5544 
  5545 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5546 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5547 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5548 
  5549 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5550 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5551 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5552 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5553 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5554 resort for legacy applications.
  5555 
  5556 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5557 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5558 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5559 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5560 explicit runtime argument.
  5561 
  5562 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5563 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5564 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5565 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5566 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5567 
  5568 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5569 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5570 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5571 theory state.
  5572 
  5573 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5574 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5575 
  5576   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5577   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5578   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5579   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5580   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5581   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5582   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5583   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5584   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5585   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5586 
  5587 
  5588 *** System ***
  5589 
  5590 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5591 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5592 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5593 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5594 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5595 
  5596 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5597 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5598 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5599 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5600 
  5601 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5602 
  5603 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5604 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5605 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5606 prover operations.
  5607 
  5608 
  5609 
  5610 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5611 -------------------------------
  5612 
  5613 *** General ***
  5614 
  5615 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5616 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5617 
  5618 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5619 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5620 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5621 provides a proper context already.
  5622 
  5623 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5624 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5625 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5626 
  5627 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5628 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5629 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5630 swap theory imports.
  5631 
  5632 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5633 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5634 
  5635 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5636 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5637 white space without escapes.
  5638 
  5639 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5640 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5641 "foo_bar".
  5642 
  5643 
  5644 *** Pure ***
  5645 
  5646 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5647 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5648 
  5649 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5650 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5651 
  5652 (1) unused_thms
  5653      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5654 
  5655 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5656      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5657      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5658 
  5659 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5660      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5661      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5662      their ancestors.
  5663 
  5664 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5665 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5666 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5667 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5668 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5669 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5670 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5671 
  5672 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5673 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5674 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5675 
  5676 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5677 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5678 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5679 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5680 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5681 
  5682 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5683 
  5684 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5685 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5686 update of theories within ML code.
  5687 
  5688 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5689 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5690 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5691 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5692 
  5693 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5694 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5695 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5696 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5697 
  5698 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5699 
  5700 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5701 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5702 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5703 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5704 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5705 
  5706 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5707 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5708 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5709 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5710 situations.
  5711 
  5712 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5713 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5714 proof text.
  5715 
  5716 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5717 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5718 
  5719 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5720 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5721 predicates.
  5722 
  5723 
  5724 *** Document preparation ***
  5725 
  5726 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5727 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5728 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5729 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5730 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5731 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5732 
  5733 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5734 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5735 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5736 
  5737 
  5738 *** HOL ***
  5739 
  5740 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5741 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5742 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5743 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5744 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5745 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5746 
  5747 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5748 with multithreading.
  5749 
  5750 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5751 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5752 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5753 
  5754 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5755 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5756 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5757 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5758 
  5759 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5760 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5761 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5762 and makes them available separately.  See
  5763 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5764 
  5765 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5766 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5767 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5768 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5769 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5770 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5771 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5772 the declared rules.
  5773 
  5774 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5775 
  5776   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5777 
  5778 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5779 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5780 
  5781 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5782 
  5783   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5784 
  5785   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5786     definitions on => and bool.
  5787 
  5788   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5789     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5790     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5791 
  5792       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5793       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5794       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5795       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5796       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5797       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5798       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5799       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5800 
  5801   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5802     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5803     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5804 
  5805   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5806     The proof pattern
  5807 
  5808       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5809       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5810 
  5811     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5812     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5813 
  5814       have "EX S. P S"
  5815       proof
  5816         show "P S" <...>
  5817       qed
  5818 
  5819   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5820     The proof pattern
  5821 
  5822       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5823       also have "S = T" <...>
  5824       finally have "P T" .
  5825 
  5826     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5827     must be replaced by something like
  5828 
  5829       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5830       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5831       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5832 
  5833   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5834     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5835 
  5836       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5837 
  5838     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5839     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5840     type of the form
  5841 
  5842       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5843 
  5844     rather than
  5845 
  5846       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5847 
  5848 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5849 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5850 
  5851 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5852 
  5853 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5854 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5855 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5856 
  5857 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5858 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5859 
  5860 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5861 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5862 
  5863 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5864 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5865 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5866 
  5867 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5868 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5869 
  5870   less_trans
  5871   less_linear
  5872   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5873   le_less_trans
  5874   less_le_trans
  5875   less_not_sym
  5876   less_asym
  5877 
  5878 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5879 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5880 and different variable names.
  5881 
  5882 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5883 
  5884 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5885 finite maps.
  5886 
  5887 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5888 
  5889 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5890 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5891 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5892 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5893 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5894 accordingly.
  5895 
  5896 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5897 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5898 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5899 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5900 
  5901 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5902 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5903 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5904 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5905 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5906 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5907 
  5908 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5909 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5910 
  5911 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5912 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5913 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5914 
  5915 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5916 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5917 
  5918 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5919 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5920 
  5921 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5922 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5923 
  5924 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5925 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5926 
  5927 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5928 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5929 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5930 
  5931 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5932 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5933 
  5934 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5935 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5936 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5937 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5938 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5939 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5940 
  5941 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5942 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5943 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5944 
  5945 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5946 
  5947 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5948 
  5949 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5950 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5951 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5952 
  5953 
  5954 *** ZF ***
  5955 
  5956 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5957 same session:
  5958 
  5959   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5960   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5961   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5962   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5963   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5964   List      -> List_ZF
  5965   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5966 
  5967 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5968 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5969 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5970 
  5971 
  5972 *** ML ***
  5973 
  5974 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5975 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5976 
  5977 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5978 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5979 
  5980 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5981 
  5982 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5983 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5984 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5985 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5986 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5987 
  5988 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5989 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5990 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5991 
  5992 
  5993 *** System ***
  5994 
  5995 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5996 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5997 
  5998 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5999 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  6000 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  6001 
  6002 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  6003 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  6004 
  6005 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  6006 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  6007 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  6008 
  6009 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  6010 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  6011 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  6012 
  6013 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  6014 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  6015 
  6016 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  6017 way of changing the user's settings is via
  6018 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  6019 script.
  6020 
  6021 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  6022 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  6023 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  6024 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  6025 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  6026 
  6027 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  6028 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  6029 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  6030 
  6031 
  6032 
  6033 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  6034 -----------------------------------
  6035 
  6036 *** General ***
  6037 
  6038 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  6039 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  6040 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6041 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  6042 
  6043 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  6044 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  6045 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6046 
  6047 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  6048 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  6049 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  6050 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6051 
  6052 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  6053 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  6054 quotes.
  6055 
  6056 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  6057 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  6058 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  6059 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  6060 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  6061 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  6062 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  6063 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  6064 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  6065 
  6066 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  6067 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  6068 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  6069 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  6070 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  6071 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  6072 
  6073 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  6074 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  6075 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  6076 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  6077 
  6078 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  6079 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  6080 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  6081 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  6082 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  6083 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  6084 
  6085 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  6086 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  6087 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  6088 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  6089 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  6090 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  6091 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  6092 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  6093 
  6094 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  6095 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  6096 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  6097 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  6098 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  6099 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  6100 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  6101 
  6102 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  6103 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  6104 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  6105 
  6106 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  6107 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  6108 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  6109 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  6110 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  6111 limit is imposed.
  6112 
  6113 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  6114 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  6115 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  6116 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  6117 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  6118 and scalability.
  6119 
  6120 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  6121 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  6122 
  6123 
  6124 *** Document preparation ***
  6125 
  6126 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  6127 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  6128 current context.
  6129 
  6130 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  6131 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  6132 
  6133 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  6134 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  6135 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  6136 
  6137 
  6138 *** Pure ***
  6139 
  6140 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  6141 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  6142 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  6143 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  6144 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  6145 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  6146 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  6147 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  6148 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  6149 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  6150 
  6151 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  6152 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  6153 sketch:
  6154 
  6155     internal compilation:
  6156         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  6157     writing SML code to a file:
  6158         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  6159     writing OCaml code to a file:
  6160         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  6161     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  6162         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  6163 
  6164     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  6165         method ``eval''
  6166 
  6167 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  6168 
  6169 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  6170 
  6171     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  6172     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  6173     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  6174     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  6175 
  6176 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  6177 
  6178     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  6179       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  6180 
  6181     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  6182       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  6183 
  6184     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  6185       {(target)}+
  6186         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  6187 
  6188     code_class <and_list of classes>
  6189       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  6190         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  6191 
  6192 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  6193 
  6194 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  6195 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  6196 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  6197 codegen".
  6198 
  6199 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  6200 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  6201 annotations).
  6202 
  6203 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  6204 syntax.
  6205 
  6206 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  6207 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  6208 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  6209 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  6210 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  6211 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  6212 
  6213 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  6214 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  6215 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  6216 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  6217 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  6218 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  6219 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  6220 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  6221 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  6222 equations, see section "definitions".
  6223 
  6224 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  6225 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  6226 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  6227 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  6228 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  6229 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  6230 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  6231 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  6232 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  6233 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  6234 
  6235 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  6236 configuration options:
  6237 
  6238   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  6239   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  6240   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  6241   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  6242   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  6243   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  6244   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  6245   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  6246   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  6247 
  6248 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  6249 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  6250 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  6251 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  6252 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  6253 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  6254 order.
  6255 
  6256 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  6257 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  6258 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  6259 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  6260 context encountered later on.
  6261 
  6262 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  6263 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  6264 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  6265 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  6266