NEWS
author wenzelm
Thu Mar 20 22:00:13 2014 +0100 (2014-03-20)
changeset 56232 31e283f606e2
parent 56218 1c3f1f2431f9
child 56245 84fc7dfa3cd4
permissions -rw-r--r--
more static checking of proof methods;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
    25 supports input methods via ` (backquote), or << and >> (double angle
    26 brackets).
    27 
    28 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
    29 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
    30 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
    31 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
    32 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
    33 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
    34 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
    35 proof tools.
    36 
    37 
    38 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    39 
    40 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    41 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    42 
    43 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
    44 auxiliary ML files.
    45 
    46 * Improved completion based on context information about embedded
    47 languages: keywords are only completed for outer syntax, symbols or
    48 antiquotations for languages that support them.  E.g. no symbol
    49 completion for ML source, but within ML strings, comments,
    50 antiquotations.
    51 
    52 * Semantic completions may get extended by appending a suffix of
    53 underscores to an already recognized name, e.g. "foo_" to complete
    54 "foo" or "foobar" if these are known in the context.  The special
    55 identifier "__" serves as a wild-card in this respect: it completes to
    56 the full collection of names from the name space (truncated according
    57 to the system option "completion_limit").
    58 
    59 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
    60 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
    61 
    62 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
    63 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
    64 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
    65 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
    66 
    67 * New panel: Simplifier trace.  Provides an interactive view of the
    68 simplification process, enabled by the newly-introduced
    69 "simplifier_trace" declaration.
    70 
    71 
    72 *** Pure ***
    73 
    74 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
    75 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
    76 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
    77 'instance' with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem might be
    78 postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof finished
    79 trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous (without
    80 any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
    81 Axclass.axiomatize_class, Axclass.axiomatize_classrel,
    82 Axclass.axiomatize_arity.
    83 
    84 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
    85 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
    86 instantiated theorem.
    87 
    88 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
    89 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
    90 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
    91 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
    92 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
    93 
    94   attribute_setup standard =
    95     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
    96 
    97 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
    98 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
    99 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
   100 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
   101 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
   102 
   103 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
   104 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
   105 differently).
   106 
   107 
   108 *** HOL ***
   109 
   110 * Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
   111 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   112 
   113 * Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF
   114 and SUP instead uniformly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   115 
   116 * More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
   117 or SUP and Sup.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   118 
   119 * INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
   120 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   121 
   122 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
   123   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   124   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   125   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   126   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   127   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   128 
   129 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules
   130   can now deal with conjunctions.
   131   For help with converting proofs, the old behaviour of the simplifier
   132   can be restored like this:  declare/using [[simp_legacy_precond]]
   133   This configuration option will disappear again in the future.
   134 
   135 * Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   136 
   137 * HOL-Word:
   138   * Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a
   139   duplicate of "word_arith_wis".
   140   * Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
   141   "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
   142   "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
   143 
   144 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   145 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   146 
   147 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.
   148 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   149 
   150 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures" option.
   151 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   152 
   153 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   154 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   155 
   156 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
   157   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
   158   "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" commands are now part of "Main".
   159   Theory renamings:
   160     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   161     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   162     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   163     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   164     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   165     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   166     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   167     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   168     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   169     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   170     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   171     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   172     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   173     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   174     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   175     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   176     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   177     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   178     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   179     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   180     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   181     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   182   New theories:
   183     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   184     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   185     Library/BNF_Decl.thy
   186     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   187     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   188   Discontinued theories:
   189     BNF/BNF.thy
   190     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   191   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   192 
   193 * New (co)datatype package:
   194   * "primcorec" is fully implemented.
   195   * Renamed commands:
   196       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   197       primrec_new ~> primrec
   198       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   199     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   200   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   201     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   202     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   203   * The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer generated.
   204     Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually using "prim(co)rec".
   205     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   206 
   207 * Old datatype package:
   208   * The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been renamed
   209     "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" -> "sum.case").
   210     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   211   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   212     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   213     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   214 
   215 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions, their
   216   relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new BNF-based
   217   datatype package.
   218   Renamed constants:
   219     Option.set ~> set_option
   220     Option.map ~> map_option
   221     option_rel ~> rel_option
   222     option_rec ~> case_option
   223   Renamed theorems:
   224     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   225     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   226     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   227     option.recs ~> option.case
   228     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   229     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   230     map.simps ~> list.map
   231     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   232     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   233     the.simps ~> option.sel
   234   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   235 
   236 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   237     sum_map ~> map_sum
   238     map_pair ~> map_prod
   239     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   240     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   241     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   242     set_rel ~> rel_set
   243     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   244     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "Library/FSet.thy")
   245     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   246     vset ~> rel_vset (in "Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   247 
   248 * New theory:
   249     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   250 
   251 * Theory reorganizations:
   252   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   253 
   254 * SMT module:
   255   * A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2
   256     and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g., 4.3). The new proof method is
   257     called "smt2", and the new Z3 is called "z3_new" in Sledgehammer and
   258     elsewhere.
   259 
   260 * Sledgehammer:
   261   - New prover "z3_new" with support for Isar proofs
   262   - New option:
   263       smt_proofs
   264   - Renamed options:
   265       isar_compress ~> compress_isar
   266       isar_try0 ~> try0_isar
   267     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   268 
   269 * Metis:
   270   - Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis (full_types)' instead.
   271     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   272 
   273 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   274 
   275 * Command renaming: enriched_type ~> functor. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   276 
   277 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   278 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   279 
   280 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   281 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   282 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   283 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   284 
   285 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   286 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   287 
   288 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   289 with the given constants.
   290 
   291 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   292 
   293 Fact consolidations:
   294     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   295     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   296     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   297     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   298     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   299     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   300     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   301     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   302     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   303     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   304     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   305     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   306     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   307     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   308     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   309     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   310     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   311     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   312     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   313     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   314     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   315     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   316     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   317     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   318     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   319     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   320     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   321     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   322     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   323     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   324     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   325     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   326     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   327     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   328     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   329     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   330     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   331     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   332     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   333     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   334 
   335 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   336 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   337 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   338 
   339 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   340 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   341 
   342 For min_ac or max_ac, prefor more general collection ac_simps.
   343 
   344 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   345 
   346 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   347 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   348 
   349 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   350 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   351 
   352 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   353 operations on records.
   354 
   355 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   356 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   357 
   358 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   359     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   360 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   361 
   362 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   363     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   364     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   365 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   366 
   367 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   368   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   369   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   370   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   371     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   372   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   373     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   374   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   375 INCOMPATBILITY.
   376 
   377 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   378     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   379     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   380     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   381     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   382 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   383 
   384 * Fact name consolidation:
   385     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   386     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   387     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   388     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   389     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   390 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   391 
   392 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   393 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   394 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   395 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   396 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   397 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   398 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   399 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   400 
   401 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   402 
   403 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   404 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   405 
   406 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   407 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   408 
   409 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   410 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   411 or the brute way with
   412 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   413 
   414 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   415 
   416 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   417 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   418 
   419 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   420 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   421 
   422 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   423 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   424 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   425 INCOMPATIBILITY
   426 
   427 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
   428   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
   429   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
   430   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
   431   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
   432   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
   433   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
   434   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
   435   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
   436   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
   437   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
   438   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
   439 
   440   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
   441 
   442   removed auxiliary lemmas:
   443     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
   444     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr, real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded,
   445     summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2, sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom,
   446     sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero, summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
   447 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   448 
   449 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
   450   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
   451 
   452   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
   453 
   454   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
   455 
   456   - removed constant isDiff
   457 
   458   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as input
   459     syntax.
   460 
   461   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed
   462 
   463   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
   464 
   465   - Other renamings:
   466     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
   467     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
   468     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
   469     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
   470     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
   471     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
   472 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   473 
   474 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   475 
   476 * Nitpick:
   477   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   478     infinite values.
   479   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as "Abs_Integ" and
   480     "Rep_Integ".
   481   - Removed "std" option.
   482   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   483     "hide_types".
   484 
   485 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   486   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   487   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   488     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   489     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   490     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   491     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   492     intervals.
   493 
   494 
   495 *** Scala ***
   496 
   497 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
   498 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
   499 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
   500 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
   501 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   502 
   503 
   504 *** ML ***
   505 
   506 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   507 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   508 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   509 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   510 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   511 of schematic variables.
   512 
   513 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   514 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   515 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   516 formal context.
   517 
   518 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   519 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   520 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   521 actually belongs to it).
   522 
   523 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
   524 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
   525 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
   526 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
   527 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
   528 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
   529 
   530 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
   531 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   532 
   533 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
   534 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
   535 
   536 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
   537 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
   538 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
   539 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
   540 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
   541 
   542 
   543 *** System ***
   544 
   545 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   546 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   547 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   548 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   549 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   550 
   551 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   552 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   553 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   554 
   555 
   556 
   557 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   558 -------------------------------------
   559 
   560 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   561 
   562 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   563 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   564 
   565 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   566 after edits surrounding the command location.
   567 
   568 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   569 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   570 e.g. out-of-memory).
   571 
   572 
   573 *** System ***
   574 
   575 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   576 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   577 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   578 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   579 
   580 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   581 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   582 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   583 
   584 
   585 
   586 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   587 -------------------------------------
   588 
   589 *** General ***
   590 
   591 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   592 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   593 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   594 
   595 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   596 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   597 
   598 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   599 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   600 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   601 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   602 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   603 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   604 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   605 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   606 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   607 syntax.
   608 
   609 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   610 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   611 
   612 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   613 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   614 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   615 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   616 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   617 
   618 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   619 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   620 
   621 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   622 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   623 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   624 
   625 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   626 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   627 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   628 
   629 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   630 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   631 
   632 
   633 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   634 
   635 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   636 Documentation panel.
   637 
   638 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   639 documentation.
   640 
   641 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   642 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   643 
   644 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   645 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   646 normal editing and checking process.
   647 
   648 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   649 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   650 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   651 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   652 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   653 
   654 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   655 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   656 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   657 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   658 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   659 
   660 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   661 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   662 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   663 
   664 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   665 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   666 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   667 to resolve conflict.
   668 
   669 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   670 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   671 
   672 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   673 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   674 such command executions while editing.
   675 
   676 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   677 document content.
   678 
   679 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   680 toplevel theorem statements.
   681 
   682 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   683 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   684 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   685 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   686 
   687 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   688 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   689 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   690 
   691 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   692 / Global Options / Appearance".
   693 
   694 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   695 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   696 
   697 
   698 *** Pure ***
   699 
   700 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   701 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   702 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   703 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   704 details.
   705 
   706 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   707 
   708 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   709 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   710 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   711 
   712 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   713 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   714 
   715 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   716 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   717 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   718 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   719 
   720 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   721 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   722 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   723 
   724 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   725 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   726 
   727 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   728 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   729 situations.
   730 
   731 
   732 *** HOL ***
   733 
   734 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   735 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   736 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   737 
   738 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   739 
   740 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   741 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   742 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   743 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   744 
   745   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   746 
   747 * Code generator:
   748   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   749     'code_instance'.
   750   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   751     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   752 
   753 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   754 examples.
   755 
   756 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   757 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   758 to distinguish both when desired.
   759 
   760 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   761 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   762 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   763 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   764 
   765 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   766 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   767 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   768 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   769 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   770 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   771 
   772 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   773 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   774 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   775 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   776 
   777 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   778 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   779 
   780 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   781 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   782 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   783 
   784 * Lifting:
   785   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   786     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   787       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   788       transfer rules
   789     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   790       correspondence relation can be generated
   791     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   792       parametricity
   793     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   794   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   795   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   796     copies
   797   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   798     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   799     anonymous context)
   800   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   801     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   802   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   803     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   804   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   805     INCOMPATIBILITY
   806 
   807 * Transfer:
   808   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   809     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   810   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   811   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   812     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   813   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   814 
   815 * Reification and reflection:
   816   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   817     "Reification".
   818   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   819   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   820 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   821 
   822 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   823   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   824     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   825     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   826   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   827     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   828   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   829     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   830     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   831     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   832     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   833     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   834     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   835     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   836   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   837     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   838   - Fact renames:
   839       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   840       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   841 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   842 
   843 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   844 
   845 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   846 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   847 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   848 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   849 
   850 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   851 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   852 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   853 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   854 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   855 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   856 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   857 lemmas.
   858 
   859 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   860 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   861 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   862 
   863 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   864 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   865 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   866 
   867 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   868 top and bottom elements.
   869 
   870 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   871 
   872 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   873 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   874 
   875  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   876    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   877    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   878 
   879  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   880    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   881    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   882 
   883    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   884    arbitrary filter.
   885 
   886  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   887    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   888    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   889    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   890    on a compact set.
   891 
   892  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   893    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   894    linear_continuum_topology).
   895 
   896  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   897    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   898    on all sequences converging to x.
   899 
   900  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   901    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   902    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   903    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   904    left or right.
   905 
   906  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   907 
   908      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   909 
   910  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   911    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   912 
   913  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   914    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   915    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   916    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   917    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   918    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   919 
   920  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   921 
   922    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   923 
   924    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   925      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   926 
   927    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   928 
   929    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   930      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   931 
   932    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   933 
   934    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   935 
   936  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   937 
   938 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   939 
   940 * Nitpick:
   941   - Added option "spy".
   942   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
   943 
   944 * Sledgehammer:
   945   - Renamed option:
   946       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   947     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   948   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
   949   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
   950   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
   951 
   952 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   953 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   954 
   955 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   956   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   957   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   958     generated code.
   959   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   960   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   961   - Fact renames:
   962     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   963     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   964     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   965 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   966 
   967 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   968 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   969 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   970 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   971 
   972 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   973 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   974 
   975 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   976 
   977 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   978 
   979     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   980     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   981 
   982 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   983 
   984 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   985 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   986 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   987 
   988 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   989 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   990 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   991 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   992 
   993 * HOL-BNF:
   994   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   995     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   996     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   997     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   998   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   999     coinduct).
  1000   - Renamed keywords:
  1001     data ~> datatype_new
  1002     codata ~> codatatype
  1003     bnf_def ~> bnf
  1004   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  1005     discs ~> disc
  1006     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  1007     map_id' ~> map_id
  1008     sels ~> sel
  1009     set_map' ~> set_map
  1010     sets ~> set
  1011 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1012 
  1013 
  1014 *** ML ***
  1015 
  1016 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  1017 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  1018 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  1019 Examples.thy in particular.
  1020 
  1021 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  1022 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  1023 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  1024 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  1025 
  1026 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  1027 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  1028 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  1029 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  1030 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1031 
  1032 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  1033 
  1034     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  1035     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  1036 
  1037 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1038 
  1039 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  1040 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  1041 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  1042 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  1043 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  1044 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  1045 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  1046 
  1047 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  1048 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  1049 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  1050 clasets separately from the context.
  1051 
  1052 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  1053 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  1054 
  1055 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  1056 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  1057 
  1058 
  1059 *** System ***
  1060 
  1061 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  1062 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1063 
  1064 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  1065 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1066 
  1067 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  1068 settings variable.
  1069 
  1070 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  1071 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  1072 always pdf.
  1073 
  1074 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  1075 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  1076 
  1077 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  1078 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  1079 
  1080 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  1081 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  1082 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  1083 
  1084 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  1085 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  1086 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  1087 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  1088 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1089 for HTML presentation of theories.
  1090 
  1091 
  1092 
  1093 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  1094 -----------------------------------
  1095 
  1096 *** General ***
  1097 
  1098 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  1099 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  1100 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  1101 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  1102 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  1103 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  1104 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  1105 
  1106 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  1107 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  1108 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  1109 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  1110 
  1111 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  1112 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  1113 
  1114 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  1115 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  1116 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  1117 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  1118 dependencies properly.
  1119 
  1120 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  1121 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  1122 
  1123 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  1124 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  1125 
  1126 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  1127 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  1128 and "class ... context ...".
  1129 
  1130 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  1131 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  1132 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  1133 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  1134 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  1135 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  1136 
  1137 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  1138 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  1139 
  1140 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  1141 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  1142 
  1143 
  1144 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1145 
  1146 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  1147 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  1148 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  1149 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  1150 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  1151 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  1152 
  1153 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  1154 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  1155 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  1156 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  1157 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  1158 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  1159 
  1160 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  1161 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  1162 browser on demand.
  1163 
  1164 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  1165 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  1166 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  1167 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  1168 
  1169 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  1170 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  1171 
  1172 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  1173 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  1174 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  1175 potentially infinite message streams.
  1176 
  1177 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  1178 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  1179 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  1180 schemes.
  1181 
  1182 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1183 symbols.
  1184 
  1185 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1186 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1187 
  1188 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1189 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1190 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1191 
  1192 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1193 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1194 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1195 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1196 
  1197 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1198 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1199 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1200 
  1201 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1202 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1203 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1204 Isabelle distribution.
  1205 
  1206 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1207 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1208 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1209 
  1210 
  1211 *** Pure ***
  1212 
  1213 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1214 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1215 
  1216 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1217 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1218 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1219 
  1220 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1221 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1222 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1223 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1224 with some care where this is really required.
  1225 
  1226 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1227 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1228 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1229 
  1230   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1231 
  1232 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1233 a Hasse diagram.
  1234 
  1235 
  1236 *** HOL ***
  1237 
  1238 * Sledgehammer:
  1239 
  1240   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1241     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1242   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1243   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1244   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1245   - Renamed options:
  1246       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1247       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1248       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1249       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1250 
  1251 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1252 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1253 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1254 
  1255 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1256 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1257 
  1258 * Lifting:
  1259   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1260   - quot_del attribute
  1261   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1262 
  1263 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1264 expressions.
  1265 
  1266 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1267 pointfree expressions.
  1268 
  1269 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1270 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1271 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1272 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1273 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1274 
  1275 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1276 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1277 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1278 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1279 accordingly.
  1280 
  1281 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1282 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1283 
  1284 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1285 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1286 
  1287 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1288 
  1289 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1290 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1291 
  1292 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1293 
  1294 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1295 
  1296   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1297   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1298 
  1299 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1300 
  1301 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1302 
  1303   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1304   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1305 
  1306 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1307 
  1308 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1309 
  1310   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1311     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1312     output f x converges to G.
  1313 
  1314   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1315     infinity (at_bot).
  1316 
  1317   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1318     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1319 
  1320   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1321     at_top".
  1322 
  1323 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1324 
  1325 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1326 lattice type classes.
  1327 
  1328 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1329 
  1330     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1331     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1332 
  1333 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1334 
  1335 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1336 changes as follows.
  1337 
  1338   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1339 
  1340       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1341       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1342 
  1343   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1344     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1345     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1346     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1347 
  1348   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1349     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1350     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1351 
  1352   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1353     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1354     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1355     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1356 
  1357   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1358     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1359 
  1360       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1361       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1362       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1363       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1364       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1365       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1366       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1367       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1368       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1369       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1370       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1371       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1372       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1373       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1374       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1375       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1376 
  1377 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1378 
  1379 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1380 
  1381 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1382 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1383 
  1384 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1385 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1386 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1387 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1388 
  1389   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1390   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1391   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1392   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1393   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1394   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1395   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1396   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1397   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1398   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1399 
  1400 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1401 
  1402 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1403 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1404 Data").
  1405 
  1406 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1407 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1408 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1409 code.
  1410 
  1411 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1412 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1413 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1414 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1415 
  1416 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1417 
  1418 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1419 
  1420 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1421 
  1422   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1423   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1424 
  1425 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1426 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1427 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1428 
  1429   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1430 
  1431     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1432     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1433     cart_base i  removed
  1434     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1435 
  1436   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1437 
  1438   Renamed lemmas:
  1439 
  1440     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1441     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1442     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1443     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1444     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1445     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1446     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1447     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1448     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1449     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1450 
  1451 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1452 
  1453 * HOL/Probability:
  1454 
  1455   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1456 
  1457   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1458     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1459     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1460 
  1461   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1462     projective family).
  1463 
  1464 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1465 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1466 
  1467 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1468 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1469 datatypes.
  1470 
  1471 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1472 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1473 
  1474 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1475 trees for the code generator.
  1476 
  1477 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1478 Lifting/Transfer.
  1479 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1480 
  1481 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1482 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1483 
  1484 
  1485 *** Document preparation ***
  1486 
  1487 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1488 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1489 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1490 
  1491 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1492 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1493 
  1494 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1495 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1496 document/root.tex.
  1497 
  1498 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1499 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1500 
  1501 
  1502 *** ML ***
  1503 
  1504 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1505 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1506 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1507 
  1508 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1509 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1510 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1511 
  1512 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1513 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1514 necessarily printing visible text.
  1515 
  1516 
  1517 *** System ***
  1518 
  1519 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1520 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1521 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1522 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1523 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1524 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1525 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1526 
  1527 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1528 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1529 
  1530   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1531 
  1532 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1533 
  1534 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1535 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1536 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1537 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1538 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1539 
  1540 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1541 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1542 
  1543 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1544 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1545 
  1546 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1547 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1548 
  1549 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1550 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1551 version of Isabelle.
  1552 
  1553 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1554 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1555 
  1556 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1557 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1558 for home-made settings.
  1559 
  1560 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1561 
  1562 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1563 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1564 configuration.
  1565 
  1566 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1567 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1568 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1569 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1570 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1571 
  1572 
  1573 
  1574 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1575 ------------------------------
  1576 
  1577 *** General ***
  1578 
  1579 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1580 
  1581   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1582     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1583   - markup for bound variables
  1584   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1585   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1586   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1587     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1588 
  1589 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1590 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1591 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1592 
  1593 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1594 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1595 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1596 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1597 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1598 
  1599   context
  1600     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1601     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1602   begin
  1603 
  1604   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1605 
  1606   end
  1607 
  1608   thm my_trans
  1609 
  1610 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1611 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1612 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1613 
  1614 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1615 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1616 
  1617 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1618 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1619 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1620 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1621 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1622 
  1623 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1624 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1625 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1626 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1627 indices of schematic variables.
  1628 
  1629 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1630 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1631 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1632 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1633 etc. was exploited.
  1634 
  1635 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1636 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1637 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1638 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1639 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1640 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1641 
  1642 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1643 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1644 manual.
  1645 
  1646 
  1647 *** Pure ***
  1648 
  1649 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1650 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1651 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1652 
  1653 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1654 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1655 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1656 undocumented feature.)
  1657 
  1658 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1659 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1660 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1661 
  1662   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1663 
  1664   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1665     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1666 
  1667 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1668 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1669 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1670 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1671 
  1672 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1673 
  1674     num ~> num_token
  1675     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1676     xstr ~> str_token
  1677 
  1678 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1679 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1680 position information via constraints).
  1681 
  1682 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1683 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1684 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1685 
  1686 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1687 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1688 
  1689 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1690 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1691 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1692 
  1693 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1694 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1695 
  1696 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1697 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1698 
  1699   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1700 
  1701 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1702 
  1703 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1704 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1705 
  1706 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1707 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1708 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1709 
  1710 
  1711 *** HOL ***
  1712 
  1713 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1714 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1715 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1716 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1717 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1718 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1719 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1720 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1721 possible.
  1722 
  1723 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1724 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1725 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1726 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1727 
  1728 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1729 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1730 
  1731 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1732 
  1733 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1734 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1735 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1736 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1737 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1738 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1739 
  1740   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1741     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1742 
  1743   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1744     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1745     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1746 
  1747   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1748     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1749 
  1750   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1751     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1752     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1753 
  1754   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1755     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1756 
  1757 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1758 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1759 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1760 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1761 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1762 
  1763   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1764     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1765     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1766     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1767     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1768 
  1769     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1770     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1771 
  1772   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1773     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1774     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1775     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1776     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1777     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1778     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1779     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1780 
  1781   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1782     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1783     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1784     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1785 
  1786   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1787     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1788     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1789     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1790 
  1791   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1792     from type nat to type int.
  1793 
  1794 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1795 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1796 
  1797   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1798     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1799     type.  Example syntax:
  1800 
  1801     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1802       is List.insert
  1803 
  1804     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1805     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1806     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1807     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1808     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1809     by the package.
  1810 
  1811   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1812     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1813     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1814     code generation for each constant.
  1815 
  1816   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1817     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1818     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1819     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1820     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1821 
  1822   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1823     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1824     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1825 
  1826 * Quotient package:
  1827 
  1828   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1829     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1830 
  1831   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1832     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1833 
  1834   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1835     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1836     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1837 
  1838   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1839     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1840 
  1841 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1842 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1843 
  1844 * Quickcheck:
  1845 
  1846   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1847     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1848     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1849     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1850     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1851 
  1852     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1853     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1854     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1855 
  1856     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1857     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1858 
  1859     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1860     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1861     show genuine counterexamples.
  1862 
  1863   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1864     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1865 
  1866     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1867     constructors of that type.
  1868 
  1869   - Support for multisets.
  1870 
  1871   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1872 
  1873   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1874     conjectures in a locale context.
  1875 
  1876 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1877 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1878 
  1879 * Sledgehammer:
  1880   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1881     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1882   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1883   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1884     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1885   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1886   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1887   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1888   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1889 
  1890 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1891 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1892 
  1893 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1894 
  1895 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1896 
  1897 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1898 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1899 
  1900   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1901 
  1902 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1903 a list and a nat.
  1904 
  1905 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1906 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1907 
  1908 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1909 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1910 default.
  1911 
  1912 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1913 
  1914   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1915 
  1916 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1917 
  1918 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1919 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1920 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1921 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1922 one_case.
  1923 
  1924 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1925 the result of the fact expression.
  1926 
  1927 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1928 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1929 of some relation theorems:
  1930 
  1931   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1932   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1933   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1934   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1935   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1936   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1937 
  1938 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1939 
  1940 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1941 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1942 
  1943 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1944 
  1945 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1946 to match the constant's name:
  1947 
  1948   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1949   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1950   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1951   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1952   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1953   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1954   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1955   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1956   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1957   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1958   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1959   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1960   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1961   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1962   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1963   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1964   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1965   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1966   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1967   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1968   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1969   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1970   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1971   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1972 
  1973 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1974 
  1975 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1976 and corresponding theorem names:
  1977 
  1978   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1979 
  1980   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1981 
  1982   - Renamed theorems:
  1983 
  1984     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1985     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1986     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1987     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1988     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1989     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1990     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1991     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1992     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1993     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1994     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1995     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1996     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1997     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1998     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1999     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  2000     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  2001     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  2002     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  2003     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  2004     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  2005     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  2006     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  2007 
  2008     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  2009 
  2010     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  2011 
  2012 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2013 
  2014 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  2015 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2016 
  2017   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  2018   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  2019   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  2020   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  2021   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  2022   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  2023   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  2024   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  2025   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  2026   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  2027   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  2028   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  2029   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  2030   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  2031   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  2032   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  2033   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  2034   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  2035   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  2036   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  2037   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  2038 
  2039 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  2040 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2041 
  2042 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2043 
  2044 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  2045 
  2046   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  2047   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  2048   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  2049   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  2050   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  2051   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  2052   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  2053   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  2054   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  2055   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  2056   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  2057   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  2058   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  2059   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  2060   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  2061   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  2062   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  2063   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  2064 
  2065 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2066 
  2067 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  2068 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  2069 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  2070 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  2071 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  2072 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  2073 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  2074 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  2075 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  2076 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  2077 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  2078 
  2079 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  2080 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  2081 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  2082 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  2083 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  2084 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  2085 
  2086 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  2087 through option types.
  2088 
  2089 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  2090 relations.
  2091 
  2092 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2093 
  2094 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  2095 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2096 
  2097   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  2098   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  2099   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  2100   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  2101   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2102   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2103   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  2104   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2105   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  2106   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2107   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  2108   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  2109   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2110   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2111   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2112   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  2113   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  2114   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  2115   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2116   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2117   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  2118   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  2119   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2120   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2121   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  2122   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2123   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  2124   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  2125   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  2126   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  2127   zless_le ~> less_le
  2128   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  2129   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  2130   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  2131 
  2132 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  2133 
  2134   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  2135 
  2136 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  2137 
  2138 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  2139 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  2140 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  2141 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  2142 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2143 
  2144 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2145 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  2146 
  2147 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  2148 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  2149 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  2150 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  2151 follows:
  2152 
  2153   Operations:
  2154   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  2155   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  2156   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  2157   del -> rbt_del
  2158   delete -> rbt_delete
  2159   ins -> rbt_ins
  2160   insert -> rbt_insert
  2161   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  2162   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  2163   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  2164   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  2165   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  2166   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  2167   tree_less -> rbt_less
  2168   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  2169   union -> rbt_union
  2170   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  2171   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  2172 
  2173   Lemmas:
  2174   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  2175   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  2176   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  2177   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  2178   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  2179   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  2180   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2181   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2182   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2183   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2184   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2185   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2186   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2187   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2188   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2189   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2190   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2191   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2192   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2193   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2194   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2195   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2196   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2197   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2198   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2199   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2200   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2201   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2202   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2203   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2204   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2205   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2206   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2207   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2208   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2209   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2210   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2211   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2212   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2213   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2214   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2215   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2216   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2217   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2218   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2219   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2220   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2221   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2222   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2223   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2224   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2225   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2226   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2227   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2228   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2229   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2230   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2231   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2232   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2233   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2234   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2235   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2236   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2237   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2238   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2239   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2240   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2241   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2242   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2243   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2244   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2245   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2246   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2247   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2248   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2249   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2250   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2251   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2252   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2253   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2254   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2255   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2256   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2257 
  2258 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2259 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2260 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2261 
  2262   Changed Operations:
  2263   float_abs -> abs
  2264   float_nprt -> nprt
  2265   float_pprt -> pprt
  2266   pow2 -> use powr
  2267   round_down -> float_round_down
  2268   round_up -> float_round_up
  2269   scale -> exponent
  2270 
  2271   Removed Operations:
  2272   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2273 
  2274   Renamed Lemmas:
  2275   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2276   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2277   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2278   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2279   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2280   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2281   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2282   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2283   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2284   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2285   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2286   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2287   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2288   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2289   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2290   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2291   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2292   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2293   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2294   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2295   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2296   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2297   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2298   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2299   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2300   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2301   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2302   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2303   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2304   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2305   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2306   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2307   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2308   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2309   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2310   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2311 
  2312   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2313   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2314   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2315   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2316   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2317   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2318   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2319   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2320   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2321   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2322 
  2323 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2324 association lists with distinct keys.
  2325 
  2326 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2327 annotated commands.
  2328 
  2329 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2330 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2331 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2332 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2333 
  2334 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2335 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2336 instead.
  2337 
  2338   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2339   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2340   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2341   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2342   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2343   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2344   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2345   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2346   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2347   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2348   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2349   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2350   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2351   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2352   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2353   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2354   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2355   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2356   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2357   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2358   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2359   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2360   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2361   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2362   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2363   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2364   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2365   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2366   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2367   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2368   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2369   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2370   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2371   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2372   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2373   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2374   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2375   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2376   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2377   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2378   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2379 
  2380 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2381 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2382 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2383 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2384 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2385 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2386 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2387 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2388 
  2389 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2390 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2391 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2392 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2393 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2394 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2395 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2396 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2397 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2398 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2399 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2400 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2401 
  2402   Renamed constants:
  2403   measure -> emeasure
  2404   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2405   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2406   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2407   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2408 
  2409   Removed locales:
  2410   completeable_measure_space
  2411   finite_measure_space
  2412   finite_prob_space
  2413   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2414   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2415   finite_sigma_algebra
  2416   measure_space
  2417   pair_finite_prob_space
  2418   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2419   pair_finite_space
  2420   pair_sigma_algebra
  2421   product_sigma_algebra
  2422 
  2423   Removed constants:
  2424   conditional_space
  2425   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2426   image_space
  2427   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2428   pair_measure_generator
  2429   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2430   subvimage
  2431 
  2432   Replacement theorems:
  2433   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2434   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2435   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2436   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2437   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2438   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2439   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2440   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2441   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2442   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2443   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2444   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2445   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2446   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2447   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2448   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2449   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2450   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2451   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2452   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2453   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2454   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2455   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2456   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2457   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2458   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2459   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2460   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2461   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2462   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2463   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2464   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2465   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2466   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2467   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2468   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2469   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2470   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2471   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2472   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2473   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2474   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2475   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2476   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2477   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2478   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2479   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2480   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2481   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2482   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2483   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2484   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2485   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2486   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2487   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2488   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2489   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2490   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2491   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2492   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2493   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2494   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2495   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2496   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2497   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2498   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2499   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2500   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2501   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2502   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2503   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2504   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2505   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2506   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2507   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2508   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2509   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2510   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2511   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2512   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2513   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2514   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2515   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2516   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2517   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2518   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2519   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2520   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2521   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2522   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2523   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2524   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2525   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2526   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2527   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2528   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2529   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2530   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2531   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2532   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2533   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2534   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2535   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2536   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2537   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2538   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2539   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2540   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2541   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2542   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2543   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2544   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2545   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2546   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2547   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2548   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2549   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2550   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2551   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2552   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2553   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2554   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2555   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2556   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2557   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2558   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2559   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2560   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2561 
  2562 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2563 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2564 
  2565 
  2566 *** FOL ***
  2567 
  2568 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2569 
  2570 
  2571 *** ZF ***
  2572 
  2573 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2574 analysis.
  2575 
  2576 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2577 
  2578 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2579 
  2580 
  2581 *** ML ***
  2582 
  2583 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2584 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2585 
  2586 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2587 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2588 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2589 
  2590 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2591 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2592 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2593 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2594 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2595 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2596 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2597 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2598 
  2599 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2600 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2601 
  2602 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2603 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2604 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2605 
  2606 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2607 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2608 
  2609 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2610 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2611 context as well.
  2612 
  2613 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2614 
  2615   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2616   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2617   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2618   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2619   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2620   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2621   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2622   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2623   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2624   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2625   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2626   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2627 
  2628 
  2629 *** System ***
  2630 
  2631 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2632 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2633 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2634 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2635 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2636 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2637 the generic user home was intended.
  2638 
  2639 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2640 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2641 
  2642 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2643 (not just JRE).
  2644 
  2645 
  2646 
  2647 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2648 ------------------------------------
  2649 
  2650 *** General ***
  2651 
  2652 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2653 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2654 
  2655   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2656     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2657     files for checking).
  2658 
  2659   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2660     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2661     positions.
  2662 
  2663   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2664     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2665     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2666 
  2667   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2668     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2669     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2670 
  2671   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2672     cores.
  2673 
  2674   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2675     versions (garbage collection).
  2676 
  2677 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2678 including some remaining limitations.
  2679 
  2680 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2681 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2682 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2683 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2684 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2685 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2686 
  2687 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2688 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2689 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2690 
  2691 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2692 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2693 usedir option -Q.
  2694 
  2695 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2696 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2697 
  2698   long_names   ~> names_long
  2699   short_names  ~> names_short
  2700   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2701 
  2702 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2703 
  2704   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2705 
  2706 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2707 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2708 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2709 
  2710 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2711 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2712 
  2713 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2714   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2715   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2716   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2717     "Classical Reasoner".
  2718 
  2719 
  2720 *** HOL ***
  2721 
  2722 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2723 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2724 
  2725 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2726 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2727 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2728 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2729 class complete_linorder.
  2730 
  2731 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2732 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2733 
  2734 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2735 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2736 
  2737   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2738   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2739   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2740   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2741   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2742   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2743   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2744   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2745   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2746   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2747   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2748 
  2749 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2750 
  2751   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2752   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2753   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2754   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2755   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2756   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2757   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2758   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2759   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2760   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2761   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2762   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2763   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2764   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2765   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2766   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2767 
  2768 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2769 
  2770 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2771 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2772 
  2773 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2774 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2775 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2776 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2777 
  2778 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2779 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2780 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2781 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2782 
  2783 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2784 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2785 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2786 
  2787 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2788 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2789 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2790 
  2791 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2792 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2793 
  2794 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2795 
  2796     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2797     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2798 
  2799 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2800 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2801 
  2802 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2803 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2804 
  2805 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2806 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2807 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2808 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2809 
  2810   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2811   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2812   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2813   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2814   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2815   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2816   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2817 
  2818 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2819 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2820 
  2821   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2822   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2823   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2824   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2825   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2826   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2827   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2828   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2829   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2830   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2831   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2832   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2833   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2834   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2835   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2836   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2837   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2838   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2839   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2840   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2841   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2842   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2843   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2844   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2845   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2846   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2847   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2848   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2849   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2850   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2851   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2852   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2853   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2854   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2855   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2856   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2857   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2858   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2859   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2860   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2861   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2862   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2863   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2864   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2865   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2866   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2867   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2868   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2869   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2870   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2871   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2872   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2873   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2874   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2875   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2876   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2877   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2878   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2879   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2880   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2881   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2882   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2883   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2884   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2885   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2886   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2887   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2888   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2889   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2890   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2891   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2892   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2893   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2894   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2895   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2896   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2897   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2898   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2899   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2900   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2901   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2902   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2903 
  2904 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2905 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2906 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2907 
  2908 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2909 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2910 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2911 
  2912 * Code generation:
  2913 
  2914   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2915     characters in the target language.
  2916 
  2917   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2918     instead.
  2919 
  2920   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2921 
  2922   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2923     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2924 
  2925       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2926 
  2927 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2928 
  2929 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2930 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2931 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2932 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2933 syntax.
  2934 
  2935 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2936 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2937 
  2938 * Nitpick:
  2939   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2940   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2941   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2942     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2943 
  2944 * Sledgehammer:
  2945   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2946   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2947     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2948   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2949     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2950   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2951     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2952   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2953     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2954   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2955     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2956 
  2957 * Metis:
  2958   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2959   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2960     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2961 
  2962 * Command 'try':
  2963   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2964     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2965   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2966     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2967 
  2968 * Quickcheck:
  2969   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2970     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2971   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2972     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2973   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2974     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2975     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2976     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2977   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2978     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2979 
  2980 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2981 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2982 
  2983 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2984 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2985 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2986 
  2987 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2988 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2989 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2990 
  2991 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2992 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2993 
  2994 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2995 arithmetic.
  2996 
  2997 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2998 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2999 and lattice type classes.
  3000 
  3001 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  3002 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  3003 
  3004 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  3005 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  3006 
  3007 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  3008 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  3009 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3010 
  3011   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  3012   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  3013   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  3014   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  3015 
  3016 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  3017 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  3018 constants:
  3019 
  3020   type inat   ~> type enat
  3021   Fin         ~> enat
  3022   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  3023   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  3024   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  3025 
  3026 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  3027 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3028 
  3029 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  3030 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  3031 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  3032 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  3033 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  3034 
  3035 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  3036 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  3037 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  3038 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  3039 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  3040 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  3041 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3042 
  3043   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  3044   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  3045   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  3046   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  3047 
  3048 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  3049 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  3050 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3051 
  3052   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  3053   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  3054   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  3055   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  3056   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  3057   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  3058   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  3059   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  3060   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  3061   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  3062   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  3063   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  3064   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3065   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3066   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  3067   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3068   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  3069   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  3070   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  3071   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  3072   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  3073   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  3074   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  3075   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  3076   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  3077   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  3078   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  3079   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  3080   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  3081   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3082   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3083   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  3084   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  3085   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  3086   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  3087   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  3088   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  3089   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  3090   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  3091   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  3092   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  3093   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  3094   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  3095   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  3096   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  3097   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  3098   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  3099   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  3100   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  3101   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  3102   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  3103 
  3104 * Session HOL-Probability:
  3105   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  3106   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  3107   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  3108   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  3109     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3110 
  3111 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3112 
  3113   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  3114   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  3115   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3116   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  3117   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  3118   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  3119   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  3120   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  3121   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  3122   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  3123   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3124   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  3125   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  3126   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  3127   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  3128   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  3129   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  3130   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  3131   UU_I ~> bottomI
  3132   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  3133   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3134   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3135   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  3136   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  3137   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  3138 
  3139 
  3140 *** Document preparation ***
  3141 
  3142 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  3143 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  3144 same.
  3145 
  3146 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  3147 result.
  3148 
  3149 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  3150 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  3151 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  3152 
  3153 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  3154 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  3155 
  3156 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  3157 like this:
  3158 
  3159   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  3160   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  3161 
  3162 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  3163 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  3164 layouts.
  3165 
  3166 
  3167 *** ML ***
  3168 
  3169 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  3170 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  3171 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  3172 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  3173 under external program control.
  3174 
  3175 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  3176 data, which requires explicit setup.
  3177 
  3178 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  3179 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  3180 (better known as Proof General).
  3181 
  3182 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3183 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3184 
  3185 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3186 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3187 
  3188 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3189 (including quotes etc.).
  3190 
  3191 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3192 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3193 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3194 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3195 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3196 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3197 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3198 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3199 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3200 
  3201 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3202 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3203 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3204 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3205 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3206 
  3207 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3208 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3209 
  3210 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3211 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3212 
  3213 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3214 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3215 
  3216 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3217 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3218 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3219 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3220 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3221 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3222 proper Proof.context.
  3223 
  3224 
  3225 *** System ***
  3226 
  3227 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3228 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3229 
  3230 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3231 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3232 
  3233 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3234 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3235 
  3236   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3237   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3238   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3239   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3240   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3241 
  3242 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3243 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3244 
  3245 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3246 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3247 example:
  3248 
  3249   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3250 
  3251 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3252 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3253 
  3254 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3255 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3256 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3257 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3258 
  3259 
  3260 
  3261 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3262 ----------------------------------
  3263 
  3264 *** General ***
  3265 
  3266 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3267 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3268 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3269 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3270 like this:
  3271 
  3272   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3273 
  3274 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3275 
  3276 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3277 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3278 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3279 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3280 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3281 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3282 
  3283 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3284 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3285 the following package declarations:
  3286 
  3287   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3288   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3289 
  3290 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3291 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3292 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3293 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3294 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3295 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3296 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3297 
  3298 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3299 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3300 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3301 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3302 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3303 
  3304 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3305 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3306 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3307 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3308 
  3309 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3310 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3311 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3312 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3313 
  3314   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3315 
  3316   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3317   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3318   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3319   show_types                    show_types
  3320   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3321   show_consts                   show_consts
  3322   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3323 
  3324   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3325   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3326   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3327 
  3328   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3329   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3330 
  3331   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3332 
  3333   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3334   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3335   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3336   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3337   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3338 
  3339 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3340 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3341 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3342 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3343 
  3344 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3345 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3346 
  3347   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3348   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3349 
  3350 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3351 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3352 float_token.
  3353 
  3354 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3355 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3356 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3357 
  3358 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3359 DejaVu Sans.
  3360 
  3361 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3362 
  3363 
  3364 *** Pure ***
  3365 
  3366 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3367 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3368 time.
  3369 
  3370 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3371 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3372 
  3373 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3374 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3375 
  3376 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3377 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3378 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3379 command already provided this functionality.
  3380 
  3381 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3382 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3383 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3384 without interpretations.
  3385 
  3386 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3387 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3388 
  3389 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3390 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3391 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3392 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3393 
  3394 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3395 'definition' instead.
  3396 
  3397 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3398 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3399 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3400 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3401 
  3402 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3403 constructors.
  3404 
  3405 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3406 the local file system.
  3407 
  3408 
  3409 *** HOL ***
  3410 
  3411 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3412 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3413 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3414 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3415 
  3416   declare [[coercion f]]
  3417 
  3418 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3419 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3420 
  3421   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3422 
  3423 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3424 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3425 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3426 other theories like this:
  3427 
  3428   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3429 
  3430 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3431 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3432 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3433 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3434 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3435 for examples.
  3436 
  3437 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3438 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3439 
  3440 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3441 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3442 
  3443 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3444 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3445 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3446 
  3447 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3448 functorial structure of types.
  3449 
  3450 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3451 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3452 
  3453 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3454 languages.
  3455 
  3456 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3457 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3458 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3459 
  3460 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3461 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3462 
  3463 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3464 combinators any longer.
  3465 
  3466 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3467 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3468 
  3469 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3470 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3471 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3472 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3473 
  3474   record 'a foo = ...
  3475   ...
  3476   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3477 
  3478 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3479 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3480 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3481 
  3482 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3483 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3484 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3485 
  3486 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3487 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3488 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3489 
  3490 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3491 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3492 
  3493 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3494 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3495 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3496 independently.
  3497 
  3498 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3499 counter example search.
  3500 
  3501 * Sledgehammer:
  3502   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3503     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3504     sledgehammer").
  3505   - Renamed commands:
  3506     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3507     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3508     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3509     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3510   - Renamed options:
  3511     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3512     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3513     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3514     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3515     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3516 
  3517 * Nitpick:
  3518   - Renamed options:
  3519     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3520     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3521     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3522   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3523   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3524   - Added "whack" option.
  3525   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3526   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3527   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3528   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3529     higher cardinalities.
  3530   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3531 
  3532 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3533 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3534 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3535 
  3536     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3537 
  3538 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3539 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3540 
  3541 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3542 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3543 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3544 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3545 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3546 "smt_solver".
  3547 
  3548 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3549 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3550 
  3551 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3552 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3553 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3554 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3555 
  3556 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3557   - Renamed:
  3558     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3559     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3560     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3561   - Added:
  3562     smt_verbose
  3563     smt_random_seed
  3564     smt_datatypes
  3565     smt_infer_triggers
  3566     smt_monomorph_limit
  3567     cvc3_options
  3568     remote_cvc3_options
  3569     remote_z3_options
  3570     yices_options
  3571 
  3572 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3573 header.
  3574 
  3575 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3576 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3577 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3578 
  3579   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3580 
  3581 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3582 
  3583 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3584 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3585 
  3586 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3587 
  3588 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3589 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3590 
  3591 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3592 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3593 
  3594 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3595 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3596 
  3597 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3598 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3599 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3600 
  3601 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3602 
  3603 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3604 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3605 
  3606 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3607 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3608 
  3609 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3610 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3611 for congruent(2)).
  3612 
  3613 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3614 
  3615   types
  3616     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3617     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3618 
  3619   constants
  3620     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3621     True ~> HOL.True
  3622     False ~> HOL.False
  3623     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3624     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3625     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3626     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3627     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3628     The ~> HOL.The
  3629     All ~> HOL.All
  3630     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3631     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3632     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3633     If ~> HOL.If
  3634     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3635     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3636     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3637     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3638     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3639     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3640     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3641     op : ~> Set.member
  3642     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3643 
  3644 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3645 
  3646 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3647 
  3648     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3649     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3650     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3651     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3652     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3653     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3654     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3655     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3656 
  3657 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3658 
  3659 * More stylized fact names:
  3660 
  3661   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3662   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3663   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3664   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3665 
  3666 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3667 
  3668 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3669 
  3670   constants
  3671     null ~> List.null
  3672 
  3673   facts
  3674     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3675     null_empty ~> null_def
  3676 
  3677 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3678 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3679 generation.
  3680 
  3681 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3682 Haskell code.
  3683 
  3684 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3685 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3686 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3687 
  3688 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3689 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3690 
  3691 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3692 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3693 
  3694 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3695 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3696 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3697 
  3698 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3699 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3700 
  3701 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3702 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3703 
  3704 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3705 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3706 referred to by its qualified name.
  3707 
  3708   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3709   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3710   product ~>  Enum.product
  3711 
  3712 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3713 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3714 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3715 
  3716 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3717 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3718 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3719 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3720 
  3721 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3722 sort_key.
  3723 
  3724 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3725 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3726 
  3727 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3728 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3729 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3730 
  3731   types
  3732     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3733               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3734               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3735         (depends on your needs)
  3736 
  3737   constants
  3738      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3739      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3740      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3741 
  3742 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3743 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3744 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3745 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3746 
  3747 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3748 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3749 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3750 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3751 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3752 
  3753 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3754 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3755 
  3756 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3757 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3758 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3759 
  3760 
  3761 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3762 
  3763 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3764 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3765 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3766 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3767 compatibility.
  3768 
  3769 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3770 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3771 
  3772 
  3773 *** HOLCF ***
  3774 
  3775 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3776 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3777 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3778 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3779 
  3780 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3781 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3782 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3783 
  3784   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3785   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3786   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3787 
  3788 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3789 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3790 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3791 
  3792 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3793 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3794 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3795 domain definition now works:
  3796 
  3797   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3798 
  3799 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3800 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3801 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3802 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3803 
  3804   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3805     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3806 
  3807   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3808 
  3809 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3810 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3811 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3812 
  3813 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3814 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3815 
  3816 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3817 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3818 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3819 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3820 
  3821 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3822 
  3823 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3824 
  3825 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3826 
  3827 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3828 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3829 
  3830 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3831 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3832 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3833 
  3834 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3835 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3836 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3837 
  3838 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3839 still supported as an input translation.
  3840 
  3841 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3842 
  3843   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3844   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3845   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3846   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3847   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3848   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3849   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3850 
  3851 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3852 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3853 
  3854   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3855   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3856   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3857   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3858   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3859   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3860 
  3861 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3862 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3863 
  3864 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3865 
  3866   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3867   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3868   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3869   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3870 
  3871 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3872 
  3873 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3874 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3875 
  3876 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3877 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3878 
  3879   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3880   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3881   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3882   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3883   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3884   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3885   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3886   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3887   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3888   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3889   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3890   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3891   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3892   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3893   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3894   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3895   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3896   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3897   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3898   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3899 
  3900 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3901 
  3902   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3903   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3904   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3905   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3906   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3907   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3908   box_less             ~> box_below
  3909   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3910   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3911   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3912   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3913   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3914   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3915   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3916   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3917   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3918   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3919   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3920   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3921   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3922   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3923   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3924   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3925   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3926   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3927   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3928   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3929   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3930   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3931   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3932   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3933   up_less              ~> up_below
  3934   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3935   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3936   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3937   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3938   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3939   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3940   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3941   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3942   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3943   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3944   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3945   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3946   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3947 
  3948 
  3949 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3950 
  3951 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3952 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3953 
  3954 
  3955 *** ML ***
  3956 
  3957 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3958 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3959 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3960 
  3961 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3962 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3963 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3964 
  3965 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3966 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3967 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3968 
  3969 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3970 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3971 
  3972 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3973 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3974 
  3975 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3976 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3977 
  3978 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3979 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3980 
  3981 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3982 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3983 almost all situations.
  3984 
  3985 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3986 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3987 Isabelle/ML.
  3988 
  3989 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3990 meaning.
  3991 
  3992 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3993 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3994 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3995 
  3996 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3997 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3998 
  3999 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  4000 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  4001 
  4002 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  4003 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  4004 @{thms} for most purposes.
  4005 
  4006 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  4007 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  4008 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  4009 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  4010 configuration options.
  4011 
  4012 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  4013 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  4014 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  4015 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  4016 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  4017 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  4018 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  4019 
  4020 
  4021 
  4022 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  4023 ---------------------------------
  4024 
  4025 *** General ***
  4026 
  4027 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  4028 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  4029 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  4030 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  4031 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  4032 their full internal name.
  4033 
  4034 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  4035 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  4036 Some hints on upgrading:
  4037 
  4038   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  4039     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  4040     which are independent of this issue.
  4041 
  4042   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  4043     provides the following special forms:
  4044 
  4045       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  4046       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  4047       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  4048 
  4049     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  4050     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  4051     extra variables".
  4052 
  4053     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  4054     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  4055     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  4056     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  4057     "logic".
  4058 
  4059   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  4060     antiquotations:
  4061 
  4062       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  4063       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  4064       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  4065       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  4066 
  4067   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  4068     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  4069     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  4070     antiquotations.
  4071 
  4072 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  4073 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  4074 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  4075 diagnose syntax problems.
  4076 
  4077 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  4078 
  4079 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  4080 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  4081 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  4082 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  4083 
  4084 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  4085 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  4086 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  4087 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4088 
  4089 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  4090 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  4091 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  4092 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  4093 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4094 
  4095 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  4096 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  4097 
  4098 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  4099 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  4100 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  4101 
  4102   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  4103 
  4104 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  4105 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  4106 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  4107 
  4108 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  4109 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  4110 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4111 
  4112 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  4113 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  4114 
  4115 
  4116 *** Pure ***
  4117 
  4118 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  4119 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  4120 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  4121 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  4122 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  4123 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  4124 inspect proof terms.
  4125 
  4126 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  4127 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  4128 are added internally.  For example:
  4129 
  4130   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  4131 
  4132 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  4133 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4134 
  4135 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4136 
  4137 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4138 'class' instead.
  4139 
  4140 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  4141 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  4142 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4143 
  4144 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  4145 invariants.
  4146 
  4147 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  4148 user space functionality any longer.
  4149 
  4150 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  4151 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  4152 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4153 
  4154 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  4155 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  4156 
  4157 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  4158 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  4159 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  4160 
  4161 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  4162 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  4163 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  4164 
  4165 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  4166 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4167 
  4168 
  4169 *** HOL ***
  4170 
  4171 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  4172 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  4173 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  4174 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  4175 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  4176 
  4177 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  4178 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  4179 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  4180 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4181 
  4182   fun
  4183     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4184   where
  4185     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4186 
  4187   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4188     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4189 
  4190   quotient_definition
  4191     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4192 
  4193 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4194 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4195 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4196 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4197 
  4198 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4199 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4200 
  4201 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4202 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4203 
  4204 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4205 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4206 
  4207 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4208 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4209 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4210 
  4211 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4212 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4213 
  4214 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4215 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4216 
  4217 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4218 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4219 
  4220 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4221 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4222 
  4223 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4224 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4225 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4226 
  4227   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4228   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4229   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4230   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4231   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4232   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4233   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4234   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4235   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4236   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4237   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4238   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4239   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4240   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4241   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4242   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4243   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4244   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4245   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4246   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4247   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4248   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4249   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4250   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4251   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4252   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4253   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4254   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4255   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4256   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4257 
  4258 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4259 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4260 
  4261 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4262 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4263 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4264 
  4265 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4266 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4267 
  4268 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4269 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4270 
  4271 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4272 
  4273 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4274 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4275 
  4276 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4277 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4278 
  4279 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4280 
  4281 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4282 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4283 
  4284 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4285 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4286 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4287 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4288 
  4289 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4290   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4291   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4292   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4293 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4294 
  4295 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4296 lattices):
  4297 
  4298     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4299     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4300 
  4301     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4302 
  4303     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4304     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4305     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4306     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4307     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4308     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4309     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4310     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4311     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4312     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4313     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4314     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4315     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4316 
  4317     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4318     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4319     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4320     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4321     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4322     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4323     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4324     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4325     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4326     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4327     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4328     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4329     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4330     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4331     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4332     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4333     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4334     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4335 
  4336   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4337   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4338 
  4339     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4340     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4341     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4342     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4343     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4344 
  4345 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4346 
  4347 * Refined field classes:
  4348   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4349     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4350     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4351   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4352 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4353 
  4354 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4355   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4356   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4357   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4358     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4359   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4360     equal_neg_zero.
  4361 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4362 
  4363 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4364 sets to lattices:
  4365 
  4366   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4367   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4368   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4369   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4370   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4371   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4372   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4373   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4374   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4375   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4376 
  4377 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4378 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4379 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4380 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4381 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4382 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4383 
  4384 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4385 multiset order:
  4386 
  4387   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4388     <= and <;
  4389   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4390     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4391     multiset_order;
  4392   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4393     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4394     generation;
  4395   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4396     if needed.
  4397 
  4398 Renamed:
  4399 
  4400   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4401   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4402   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4403 
  4404 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4405 
  4406 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4407 
  4408 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4409 
  4410 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4411 
  4412 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4413 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4414 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4415 
  4416   Constants:
  4417   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4418   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4419   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4420   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4421   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4422   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4423   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4424   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4425   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4426   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4427   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4428   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4429   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4430 
  4431   Lemmas:
  4432   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4433   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4434   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4435   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4436   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4437   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4438   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4439   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4440   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4441   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4442   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4443   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4444   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4445 
  4446 * Sledgehammer:
  4447   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4448     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4449     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4450     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4451     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4452     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4453     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4454   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4455   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4456     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4457   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4458     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4459     is still experimental.)
  4460   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4461     full-typed mode.
  4462   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4463 
  4464 * Nitpick:
  4465   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4466   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4467   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4468     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4469   - Added support for quotient types.
  4470   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4471     constructs.
  4472   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4473     "termination" proofs).
  4474   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4475   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4476   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4477   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4478     record getters.
  4479   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4480   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4481   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4482   - Added "atoms" option.
  4483   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4484     problems.
  4485   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4486     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4487     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4488   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4489     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4490   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4491 
  4492 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4493   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4494   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4495   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4496   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4497   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4498   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4499   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4500   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4501   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4502 
  4503 
  4504 *** HOLCF ***
  4505 
  4506 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4507 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4508 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4509 
  4510 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4511 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4512 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4513 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4514 
  4515 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4516 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4517 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4518 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4519 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4520 
  4521 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4522 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4523 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4524 
  4525 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4526 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4527 
  4528   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4529   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4530 
  4531 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4532 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4533 
  4534   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4535   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4536   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4537   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4538   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4539 
  4540 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4541 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4542 
  4543   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4544   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4545   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4546 
  4547 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4548 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4549 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4550 
  4551 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4552 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4553 
  4554 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4555 
  4556 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4557 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4558 
  4559 
  4560 *** ML ***
  4561 
  4562 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4563 
  4564     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4565     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4566 
  4567     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4568     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4569     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4570     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4571 
  4572     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4573     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4574     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4575 
  4576 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4577 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4578 
  4579 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4580 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4581 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4582 
  4583 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4584 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4585 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4586 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4587 
  4588 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4589 the context or even global references.
  4590 
  4591 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4592 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4593 
  4594 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4595 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4596 
  4597   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4598   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4599   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4600   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4601   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4602   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4603   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4604   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4605   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4606   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4607 
  4608 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4609 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4610 
  4611 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4612 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4613 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4614 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4615 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4616 
  4617 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4618 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4619 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4620 Theory_Data version.
  4621 
  4622 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4623 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4624 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4625 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4626 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4627 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4628 explicitly in rare situations.
  4629 
  4630 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4631 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4632 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4633 
  4634 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4635 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4636 
  4637 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4638 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4639 quite rare).
  4640 
  4641 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4642 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4643 
  4644 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4645 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4646 terms.
  4647 
  4648 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4649 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4650 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4651 
  4652 
  4653 *** System ***
  4654 
  4655 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4656 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4657 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4658 
  4659 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4660 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4661 respectively.
  4662 
  4663 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4664 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4665 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4666 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4667 
  4668   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4669 
  4670 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4671 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4672 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4673 component.
  4674 
  4675 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4676 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4677 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4678 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4679 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4680 the user for manual installation.
  4681 
  4682 
  4683 
  4684 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4685 -------------------------------------
  4686 
  4687 *** General ***
  4688 
  4689 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4690 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4691 
  4692 
  4693 *** Pure ***
  4694 
  4695 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4696 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4697 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4698 
  4699 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4700 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4701 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4702 
  4703 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4704 interpretation.
  4705 
  4706 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4707 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4708 
  4709 
  4710 *** Document preparation ***
  4711 
  4712 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4713 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4714 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4715 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4716 
  4717 
  4718 *** HOL ***
  4719 
  4720 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4721 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4722 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4723 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4724 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4725 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4726 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4727 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4728 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4729 
  4730 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4731 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4732 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4733 
  4734 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4735 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4736 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4737 
  4738 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4739 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4740 
  4741 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4742 
  4743 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4744 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4745 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4746 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4747 
  4748 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4749 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4750 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4751 "mirabelle" utility.
  4752 
  4753 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4754 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4755 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4756 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4757 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4758 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4759 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4760 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4761 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4762 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4763 
  4764 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4765 procedure only.
  4766 
  4767 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4768 
  4769 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4770 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4771 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4772 that fail later.
  4773 
  4774 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4775 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4776 
  4777 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4778 the same method as the approximation method.
  4779 
  4780 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4781 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4782 series expansion.
  4783 
  4784 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4785 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4786 
  4787 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4788 reals.
  4789 
  4790 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4791 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4792 
  4793 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4794 fixpoint theorem.
  4795 
  4796 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4797   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4798     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4799   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4800     accordingly
  4801   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4802     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4803   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4804     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4805 
  4806 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4807 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4808 lattice.
  4809 
  4810 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4811 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4812 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4813 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4814 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4815 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4816 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4817 
  4818 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4819   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4820     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4821   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4822     le_inf_iff
  4823   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4824     sup_aci)
  4825   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4826   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4827   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4828     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4829     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4830     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4831     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4832     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4833     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4834     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4835     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4836     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4837     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4838   - authentic syntax for
  4839     Set.Pow
  4840     Set.image
  4841   - mere abbreviations:
  4842     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4843     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4844     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4845     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4846     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4847     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4848     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4849     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4850   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4851 
  4852 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4853 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4854 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4855 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4856 
  4857 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4858 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4859 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4860 
  4861 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4862 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4863 
  4864 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4865 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4866 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4867 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4868 
  4869 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4870 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4871 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4872 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4873 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4874 
  4875 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4876 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4877 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4878 
  4879 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4880 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4881 
  4882 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4883 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4884 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4885 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4886 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4887 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4888 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4889 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4890 
  4891 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4892     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4893     code_post       replaces    code post
  4894     etc.
  4895   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4896 
  4897 * Renamed methods:
  4898     sizechange -> size_change
  4899     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4900   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4901 
  4902 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4903 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4904 
  4905 * Renamed theorems:
  4906     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4907     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4908     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4909     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4910     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4911   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4912 
  4913 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4914 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4915 
  4916 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4917 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4918 
  4919 
  4920 *** HOLCF ***
  4921 
  4922 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4923 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4924 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4925 
  4926 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4927 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4928 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4929 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4930 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4931 
  4932 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4933 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4934 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4935 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4936 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4937 
  4938 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4939 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4940 constructor are pre-configured.
  4941 
  4942 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4943 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4944 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4945 
  4946 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4947 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4948 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4949 as well.)
  4950 
  4951 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4952 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4953 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4954 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4955 examples.
  4956 
  4957 
  4958 *** ML ***
  4959 
  4960 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4961 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4962 
  4963 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4964 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4965 position, logical grouping etc.
  4966 
  4967 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4968 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4969 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4970 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4971 
  4972 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4973 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4974 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4975 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4976 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4977 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4978 
  4979 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4980 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4981 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4982 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4983 experiments with references.
  4984 
  4985 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4986 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4987 
  4988 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4989 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4990 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4991 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4992 
  4993 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4994 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4995 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4996 
  4997 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4998 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4999 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5000 
  5001 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5002 
  5003 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  5004 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5005 
  5006 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  5007 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  5008 
  5009 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  5010 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  5011 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  5012 
  5013 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  5014 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  5015 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5016 
  5017 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  5018 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  5019 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  5020 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5021 
  5022 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5023 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  5024 instead of global theory.
  5025 
  5026 
  5027 *** System ***
  5028 
  5029 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  5030 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  5031 usedir option -q.
  5032 
  5033 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  5034 also the system manual.
  5035 
  5036 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  5037 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  5038 
  5039 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  5040 this is always enabled.
  5041 
  5042 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  5043 
  5044 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  5045 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  5046 currently supported on Linux only.
  5047 
  5048 
  5049 
  5050 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  5051 --------------------------------
  5052 
  5053 *** General ***
  5054 
  5055 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  5056 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5057 
  5058   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  5059     "isatool."
  5060 
  5061   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  5062     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  5063 
  5064   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  5065     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  5066 
  5067 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  5068 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  5069 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  5070 
  5071 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  5072 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  5073 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  5074 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  5075 via "isabelle emacs".
  5076 
  5077 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  5078 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  5079 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  5080 
  5081 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  5082 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  5083 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5084 
  5085 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  5086 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  5087 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  5088 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  5089 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  5090 
  5091 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  5092 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  5093 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  5094 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5095 
  5096 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  5097 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  5098 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  5099 
  5100 
  5101 *** Pure ***
  5102 
  5103 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  5104 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  5105 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  5106 
  5107 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  5108 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  5109 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  5110 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  5111 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  5112 
  5113 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  5114 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  5115 useful in locale declarations.
  5116 
  5117 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  5118 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  5119 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  5120 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  5121 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  5122 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  5123 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  5124 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  5125 no longer generated.
  5126 
  5127 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  5128 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  5129 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  5130 
  5131 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  5132 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  5133 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  5134 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  5135 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  5136 
  5137 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5138 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  5139 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  5140 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  5141 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  5142 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  5143 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  5144 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  5145 
  5146 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  5147 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  5148 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  5149 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  5150 
  5151 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5152 
  5153 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  5154 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  5155 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  5156 
  5157 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  5158 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5159 
  5160 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  5161 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  5162 in HOL, write
  5163 
  5164     class foo = ...
  5165 
  5166 instead of
  5167 
  5168     class foo = type + ...
  5169 
  5170 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  5171 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5172 
  5173 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  5174 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  5175 
  5176 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  5177 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  5178 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  5179 
  5180 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5181 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5182 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5183 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5184 directly in regular applications.
  5185 
  5186 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5187 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5188 
  5189 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5190 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5191 
  5192 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5193 theory context.
  5194 
  5195 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5196 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5197 
  5198 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5199 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5200 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5201 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5202 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5203 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5204 
  5205   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5206 
  5207 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5208 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5209 normalization.
  5210 
  5211 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5212 addressing etc.
  5213 
  5214 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5215 
  5216   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5217   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5218 
  5219 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5220 
  5221   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5222      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5223      parts of the code generator framework).
  5224 
  5225   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5226      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5227      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5228 
  5229 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5230 
  5231 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5232 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5233 
  5234 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5235 patterns, e.g.
  5236 
  5237     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5238 
  5239 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5240 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5241 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5242 hyphen:
  5243 
  5244     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5245 
  5246 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5247 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5248 
  5249 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5250 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5251 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5252 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5253 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5254 higher-order unification.
  5255 
  5256 
  5257 *** Document preparation ***
  5258 
  5259 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5260 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5261 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5262 
  5263 
  5264 *** HOL ***
  5265 
  5266 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5267 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5268 
  5269 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5270 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5271 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5272 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5273 Main, as before.
  5274 
  5275 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5276 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5277 
  5278 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5279 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5280 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5281 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5282 
  5283 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5284 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5285 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5286 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5287 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5288 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5289 
  5290 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5291 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5292 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5293 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5294 
  5295 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5296 menu.
  5297 
  5298 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5299 (contains the empty clause).
  5300 
  5301 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5302 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5303 
  5304 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5305 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5306 
  5307 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5308 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5309 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5310 
  5311 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5312 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5313 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5314 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5315 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5316 
  5317 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5318 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5319 
  5320 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5321 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5322 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5323 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5324 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5325 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5326 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5327 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5328 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5329 
  5330 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5331 
  5332 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5333 
  5334 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5335 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5336 
  5337 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5338 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5339 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5340 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5341 
  5342 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5343 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5344 
  5345     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5346     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5347     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5348     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5349     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5350     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5351     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5352     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5353 
  5354 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5355 theory Set.
  5356 
  5357 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5358 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5359 
  5360 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5361 
  5362 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5363 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5364 
  5365 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5366 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5367 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5368 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5369 allowed. For examples see
  5370 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5371 
  5372 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5373 
  5374 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5375 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5376 
  5377 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5378 structure:
  5379 
  5380     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5381     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5382     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5383     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5384     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5385     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5386     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5387     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5388     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5389     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5390     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5391     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5392     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5393     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5394     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5395     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5396     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5397     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5398     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5399     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5400     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5401     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5402     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5403     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5404     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5405     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5406     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5407     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5408     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5409     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5410     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5411     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5412     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5413 
  5414     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5415     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5416     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5417     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5418     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5419     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5420     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5421     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5422     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5423     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5424 
  5425     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5426     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5427     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5428     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5429     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5430     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5431 
  5432 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5433 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5434 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5435 
  5436 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5437 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5438 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5439 
  5440 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5441 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5442 
  5443 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5444 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5445 
  5446 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5447 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5448 proofs, e.g.
  5449 
  5450   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5451 
  5452 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5453 
  5454 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5455 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5456 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5457 
  5458 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5459 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5460 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5461 
  5462 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5463 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5464 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5465 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5466 
  5467 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5468 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5469 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5470 preorder_class.*.
  5471 
  5472 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5473 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5474 
  5475 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5476 
  5477   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5478 
  5479 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5480 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5481 fold_image.
  5482 
  5483 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5484 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5485 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5486 the former will disappear at some point.
  5487 
  5488 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5489 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5490 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5491 
  5492 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5493 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5494 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5495 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5496 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5497 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5498 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5499 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5500 
  5501 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5502 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5503 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5504 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5505 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5506 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5507 
  5508     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5509     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5510     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5511     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5512     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5513     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5514     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5515 
  5516 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5517 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5518 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5519 
  5520 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5521 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5522 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5523 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5524 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5525 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5526 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5527 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5528 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5529 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5530 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5531 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5532 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5533 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5534 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5535 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5536 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5537 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5538 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5539 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5540 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5541 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5542 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5543 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5544 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5545 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5546 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5547 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5548 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5549 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5550 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5551 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5552 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5553 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5554 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5555 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5556 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5557 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5558 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5559 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5560 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5561 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5562 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5563 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5564 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5565 
  5566 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5567 
  5568 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5569 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5570 
  5571 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5572 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5573 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5574 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5575 
  5576 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5577 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5578 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5579 theory RealVector.
  5580 
  5581 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5582 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5583 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5584 and inner products are included.
  5585 
  5586 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5587 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5588 supported.
  5589 
  5590 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5591 first diagonalization argument.
  5592 
  5593 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5594 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5595 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5596 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5597 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5598 
  5599     hide (open) const gcd
  5600     abbreviation gcd where
  5601       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5602     notation (output)
  5603       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5604 
  5605 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5606 
  5607 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5608 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5609 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5610 
  5611 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5612 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5613 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5614 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5615 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5616 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5617 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5618 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5619 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5620 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5621 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5622 cases.
  5623 
  5624 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5625 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5626 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5627 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5628 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5629 
  5630     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5631     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5632     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5633     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5634     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5635 
  5636 
  5637 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5638 
  5639 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5640 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5641 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5642 
  5643 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5644 
  5645 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5646 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5647 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5648 
  5649 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5650 
  5651 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5652 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5653 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5654 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5655 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5656 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5657 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5658 
  5659 
  5660 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5661 
  5662 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5663 
  5664 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5665 theory targets.
  5666 
  5667 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5668 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5669 'inductive' etc.
  5670 
  5671 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5672 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5673 
  5674 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5675 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5676 
  5677 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5678 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5679 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5680 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5681 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5682 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5683 the algorithm W:
  5684 
  5685  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5686  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5687          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5688 
  5689 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5690 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5691 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5692 
  5693 
  5694 *** HOLCF ***
  5695 
  5696 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5697 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5698 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5699 
  5700 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5701 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5702 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5703 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5704 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5705 
  5706 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5707 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5708 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5709 
  5710 
  5711 *** ZF ***
  5712 
  5713 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5714 
  5715 
  5716 *** ML ***
  5717 
  5718 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5719 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5720 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5721 5.2.1!
  5722 
  5723 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5724 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5725 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5726 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5727 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5728 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5729 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5730 
  5731 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5732 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5733 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5734 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5735 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5736 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5737 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5738 
  5739 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5740 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5741 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5742 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5743 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5744 
  5745 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5746 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5747 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5748 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5749 Method.add_method.
  5750 
  5751 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5752 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5753 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5754 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5755 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5756 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5757 
  5758 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5759 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5760 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5761 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5762 examples.
  5763 
  5764 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5765 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5766 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5767 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5768 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5769 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5770 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5771 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5772 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5773 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5774 
  5775 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5776 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5777 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5778 
  5779 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5780 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5781 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5782 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5783 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5784 resort for legacy applications.
  5785 
  5786 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5787 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5788 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5789 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5790 explicit runtime argument.
  5791 
  5792 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5793 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5794 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5795 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5796 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5797 
  5798 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5799 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5800 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5801 theory state.
  5802 
  5803 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5804 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5805 
  5806   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5807   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5808   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5809   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5810   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5811   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5812   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5813   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5814   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5815   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5816 
  5817 
  5818 *** System ***
  5819 
  5820 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5821 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5822 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5823 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5824 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5825 
  5826 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5827 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5828 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5829 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5830 
  5831 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5832 
  5833 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5834 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5835 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5836 prover operations.
  5837 
  5838 
  5839 
  5840 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5841 -------------------------------
  5842 
  5843 *** General ***
  5844 
  5845 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5846 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5847 
  5848 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5849 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5850 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5851 provides a proper context already.
  5852 
  5853 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5854 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5855 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5856 
  5857 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5858 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5859 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5860 swap theory imports.
  5861 
  5862 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5863 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5864 
  5865 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5866 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5867 white space without escapes.
  5868 
  5869 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5870 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5871 "foo_bar".
  5872 
  5873 
  5874 *** Pure ***
  5875 
  5876 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5877 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5878 
  5879 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5880 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5881 
  5882 (1) unused_thms
  5883      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5884 
  5885 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5886      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5887      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5888 
  5889 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5890      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5891      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5892      their ancestors.
  5893 
  5894 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5895 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5896 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5897 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5898 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5899 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5900 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5901 
  5902 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5903 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5904 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5905 
  5906 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5907 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5908 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5909 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5910 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5911 
  5912 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5913 
  5914 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5915 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5916 update of theories within ML code.
  5917 
  5918 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5919 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5920 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5921 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5922 
  5923 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5924 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5925 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5926 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5927 
  5928 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5929 
  5930 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5931 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5932 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5933 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5934 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5935 
  5936 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5937 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5938 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5939 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5940 situations.
  5941 
  5942 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5943 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5944 proof text.
  5945 
  5946 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5947 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5948 
  5949 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5950 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5951 predicates.
  5952 
  5953 
  5954 *** Document preparation ***
  5955 
  5956 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5957 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5958 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5959 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5960 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5961 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5962 
  5963 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5964 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5965 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5966 
  5967 
  5968 *** HOL ***
  5969 
  5970 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5971 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5972 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5973 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5974 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5975 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5976 
  5977 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5978 with multithreading.
  5979 
  5980 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5981 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5982 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5983 
  5984 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5985 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5986 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5987 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5988 
  5989 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5990 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5991 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5992 and makes them available separately.  See
  5993 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5994 
  5995 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5996 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5997 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5998 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5999 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  6000 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  6001 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  6002 the declared rules.
  6003 
  6004 This setup also deals with rules like 
  6005 
  6006   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  6007 
  6008 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  6009 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  6010 
  6011 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  6012 
  6013   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  6014 
  6015   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  6016     definitions on => and bool.
  6017 
  6018   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  6019     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  6020     the following theorems have been renamed:
  6021 
  6022       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  6023       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  6024       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  6025       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  6026       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  6027       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  6028       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  6029       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  6030 
  6031   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  6032     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  6033     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  6034 
  6035   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  6036     The proof pattern
  6037 
  6038       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6039       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  6040 
  6041     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  6042     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  6043 
  6044       have "EX S. P S"
  6045       proof
  6046         show "P S" <...>
  6047       qed
  6048 
  6049   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  6050     The proof pattern
  6051 
  6052       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6053       also have "S = T" <...>
  6054       finally have "P T" .
  6055 
  6056     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  6057     must be replaced by something like
  6058 
  6059       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6060       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  6061       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  6062 
  6063   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  6064     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  6065 
  6066       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  6067 
  6068     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  6069     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  6070     type of the form
  6071 
  6072       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  6073 
  6074     rather than
  6075 
  6076       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  6077 
  6078 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  6079 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  6080 
  6081 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6082 
  6083 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  6084 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  6085 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6086 
  6087 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  6088 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6089 
  6090 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  6091 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6092 
  6093 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  6094 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  6095 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6096 
  6097 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  6098 the same name in theory Orderings:
  6099 
  6100   less_trans
  6101   less_linear
  6102   le_imp_less_or_eq
  6103   le_less_trans
  6104   less_le_trans
  6105   less_not_sym
  6106   less_asym
  6107 
  6108 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  6109 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  6110 and different variable names.
  6111 
  6112 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  6113 
  6114 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  6115 finite maps.
  6116 
  6117 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  6118 
  6119 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  6120 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  6121 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  6122 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  6123 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  6124 accordingly.
  6125 
  6126 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  6127 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  6128 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  6129 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  6130 
  6131 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  6132 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  6133 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  6134 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  6135 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  6136 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6137 
  6138 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  6139 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6140 
  6141 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  6142 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  6143 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  6144 
  6145 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  6146 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6147 
  6148 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  6149 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  6150 
  6151 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  6152 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6153 
  6154 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  6155 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6156 
  6157 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  6158 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  6159 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6160 
  6161 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  6162 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6163 
  6164 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  6165 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  6166 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  6167 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  6168 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  6169 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6170 
  6171 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  6172 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  6173 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  6174 
  6175 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  6176 
  6177 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  6178 
  6179 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  6180 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  6181 well-orders on sets and on types.
  6182 
  6183 
  6184 *** ZF ***
  6185 
  6186 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  6187 same session:
  6188 
  6189   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  6190   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  6191   Int       -> Int_ZF
  6192   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  6193   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  6194   List      -> List_ZF
  6195   Main      -> Main_ZF
  6196 
  6197 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  6198 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  6199 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  6200 
  6201 
  6202 *** ML ***
  6203 
  6204 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  6205 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  6206 
  6207 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  6208 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  6209 
  6210 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  6211 
  6212 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  6213 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  6214 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  6215 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  6216 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6217 
  6218 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  6219 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  6220 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  6221 
  6222 
  6223 *** System ***
  6224 
  6225 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  6226 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  6227 
  6228 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  6229 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  6230 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  6231 
  6232 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  6233 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  6234 
  6235 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  6236 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  6237 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  6238 
  6239 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  6240 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  6241 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  6242 
  6243 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  6244 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  6245 
  6246 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  6247 way of changing the user's settings is via
  6248 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  6249 script.
  6250 
  6251 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  6252 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  6253 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  6254 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  6255 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  6256 
  6257 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  6258 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  6259 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  6260 
  6261 
  6262 
  6263 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  6264 -----------------------------------
  6265 
  6266 *** General ***
  6267 
  6268 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  6269 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  6270 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6271 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  6272