NEWS
author haftmann
Tue Mar 18 22:11:46 2014 +0100 (2014-03-18)
changeset 56212 3253aaf73a01
parent 56205 ceb8a93460b7
child 56214 d503c51e869a
permissions -rw-r--r--
consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF and SUP instead uniformly
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
    25 supports input methods via ` (backquote), or << and >> (double angle
    26 brackets).
    27 
    28 
    29 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    30 
    31 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    32 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    33 
    34 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
    35 auxiliary ML files.
    36 
    37 * Improved completion based on context information about embedded
    38 languages: keywords are only completed for outer syntax, symbols or
    39 antiquotations for languages that support them.  E.g. no symbol
    40 completion for ML source, but within ML strings, comments,
    41 antiquotations.
    42 
    43 * Semantic completions may get extended by appending a suffix of
    44 underscores to an already recognized name, e.g. "foo_" to complete
    45 "foo" or "foobar" if these are known in the context.  The special
    46 identifier "__" serves as a wild-card in this respect: it completes to
    47 the full collection of names from the name space (truncated according
    48 to the system option "completion_limit").
    49 
    50 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
    51 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
    52 
    53 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
    54 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
    55 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
    56 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
    57 
    58 * New panel: Simplifier trace.  Provides an interactive view of the
    59 simplification process, enabled by the newly-introduced
    60 "simplifier_trace" declaration.
    61 
    62 
    63 *** Pure ***
    64 
    65 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
    66 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
    67 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
    68 'instance' with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem might be
    69 postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof finished
    70 trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous (without
    71 any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
    72 Axclass.axiomatize_class, Axclass.axiomatize_classrel,
    73 Axclass.axiomatize_arity.
    74 
    75 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
    76 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
    77 instantiated theorem.
    78 
    79 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
    80 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
    81 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
    82 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
    83 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
    84 
    85   attribute_setup standard =
    86     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
    87 
    88 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
    89 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
    90 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
    91 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
    92 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
    93 
    94 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
    95 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
    96 differently).
    97 
    98 
    99 *** HOL ***
   100 
   101 * Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF
   102 and SUP instead uniformly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   103 
   104 * More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
   105 or SUP and Sup.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   106 
   107 * INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
   108 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   109 
   110 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
   111   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   112   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   113   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   114   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   115   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   116 
   117 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules
   118   can now deal with conjunctions.
   119   For help with converting proofs, the old behaviour of the simplifier
   120   can be restored like this:  declare/using [[simp_legacy_precond]]
   121   This configuration option will disappear again in the future.
   122 
   123 * Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   124 
   125 * HOL-Word:
   126   * Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a
   127   duplicate of "word_arith_wis".
   128   * Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
   129   "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
   130   "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
   131 
   132 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   133 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   134 
   135 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.
   136 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   137 
   138 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures" option.
   139 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   140 
   141 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   142 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   143 
   144 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
   145   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
   146   "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" commands are now part of "Main".
   147   Theory renamings:
   148     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   149     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   150     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   151     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   152     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   153     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   154     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   155     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   156     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   157     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   158     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   159     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   160     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   161     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   162     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   163     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   164     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   165     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   166     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   167     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   168     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   169     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   170   New theories:
   171     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   172     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   173     Library/BNF_Decl.thy
   174     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   175     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   176   Discontinued theories:
   177     BNF/BNF.thy
   178     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   179   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   180 
   181 * New (co)datatype package:
   182   * "primcorec" is fully implemented.
   183   * Renamed commands:
   184       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   185       primrec_new ~> primrec
   186       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   187     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   188   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   189     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   190     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   191   * The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer generated.
   192     Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually using "prim(co)rec".
   193     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   194 
   195 * Old datatype package:
   196   * The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been renamed
   197     "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" -> "sum.case").
   198     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   199   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   200     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   201     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   202 
   203 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions, their
   204   relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new BNF-based
   205   datatype package.
   206   Renamed constants:
   207     Option.set ~> set_option
   208     Option.map ~> map_option
   209     option_rel ~> rel_option
   210     option_rec ~> case_option
   211   Renamed theorems:
   212     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   213     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   214     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   215     option.recs ~> option.case
   216     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   217     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   218     map.simps ~> list.map
   219     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   220     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   221     the.simps ~> option.sel
   222   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   223 
   224 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   225     sum_map ~> map_sum
   226     map_pair ~> map_prod
   227     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   228     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   229     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   230     set_rel ~> rel_set
   231     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   232     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "Library/FSet.thy")
   233     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   234     vset ~> rel_vset (in "Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   235 
   236 * New theory:
   237     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   238 
   239 * Theory reorganizations:
   240   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   241 
   242 * SMT module:
   243   * A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2
   244     and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g., 4.3). The new proof method is
   245     called "smt2", and the new Z3 is called "z3_new" in Sledgehammer and
   246     elsewhere.
   247 
   248 * Sledgehammer:
   249   - New prover "z3_new" with support for Isar proofs
   250   - New option:
   251       smt_proofs
   252   - Renamed options:
   253       isar_compress ~> compress_isar
   254       isar_try0 ~> try0_isar
   255     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   256 
   257 * Metis:
   258   - Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis (full_types)' instead.
   259     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   260 
   261 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   262 
   263 * Command renaming: enriched_type ~> functor. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   264 
   265 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   266 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   267 
   268 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   269 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   270 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   271 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   272 
   273 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   274 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   275 
   276 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   277 with the given constants.
   278 
   279 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   280 
   281 Fact consolidations:
   282     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   283     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   284     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   285     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   286     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   287     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   288     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   289     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   290     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   291     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   292     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   293     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   294     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   295     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   296     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   297     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   298     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   299     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   300     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   301     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   302     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   303     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   304     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   305     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   306     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   307     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   308     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   309     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   310     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   311     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   312     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   313     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   314     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   315     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   316     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   317     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   318     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   319     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   320     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   321     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   322 
   323 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   324 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   325 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   326 
   327 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   328 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   329 
   330 For min_ac or max_ac, prefor more general collection ac_simps.
   331 
   332 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   333 
   334 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   335 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   336 
   337 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   338 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   339 
   340 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   341 operations on records.
   342 
   343 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   344 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   345 
   346 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   347     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   348 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   349 
   350 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   351     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   352     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   353 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   354 
   355 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   356   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   357   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   358   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   359     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   360   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   361     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   362   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   363 INCOMPATBILITY.
   364 
   365 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   366     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   367     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   368     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   369     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   370 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   371 
   372 * Fact name consolidation:
   373     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   374     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   375     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   376     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   377     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   378 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   379 
   380 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   381 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   382 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   383 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   384 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   385 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   386 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   387 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   388 
   389 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   390 
   391 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   392 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   393 
   394 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   395 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   396 
   397 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   398 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   399 or the brute way with
   400 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   401 
   402 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   403 
   404 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   405 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   406 
   407 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   408 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   409 
   410 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   411 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   412 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   413 INCOMPATIBILITY
   414 
   415 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   416 
   417 * Nitpick:
   418   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   419     infinite values.
   420   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as "Abs_Integ" and
   421     "Rep_Integ".
   422   - Removed "std" option.
   423   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   424     "hide_types".
   425 
   426 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   427   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   428   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   429     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   430     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   431     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   432     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   433     intervals.
   434 
   435 
   436 *** Scala ***
   437 
   438 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
   439 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
   440 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
   441 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
   442 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   443 
   444 
   445 *** ML ***
   446 
   447 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   448 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   449 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   450 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   451 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   452 of schematic variables.
   453 
   454 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   455 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   456 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   457 formal context.
   458 
   459 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   460 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   461 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   462 actually belongs to it).
   463 
   464 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
   465 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
   466 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
   467 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
   468 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
   469 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
   470 
   471 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
   472 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   473 
   474 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
   475 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
   476 
   477 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
   478 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
   479 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
   480 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
   481 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
   482 
   483 
   484 *** System ***
   485 
   486 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   487 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   488 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   489 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   490 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   491 
   492 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   493 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   494 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   495 
   496 
   497 
   498 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   499 -------------------------------------
   500 
   501 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   502 
   503 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   504 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   505 
   506 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   507 after edits surrounding the command location.
   508 
   509 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   510 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   511 e.g. out-of-memory).
   512 
   513 
   514 *** System ***
   515 
   516 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   517 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   518 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   519 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   520 
   521 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   522 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   523 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   524 
   525 
   526 
   527 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   528 -------------------------------------
   529 
   530 *** General ***
   531 
   532 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   533 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   534 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   535 
   536 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   537 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   538 
   539 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   540 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   541 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   542 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   543 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   544 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   545 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   546 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   547 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   548 syntax.
   549 
   550 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   551 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   552 
   553 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   554 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   555 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   556 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   557 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   558 
   559 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   560 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   561 
   562 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   563 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   564 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   565 
   566 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   567 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   568 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   569 
   570 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   571 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   572 
   573 
   574 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   575 
   576 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   577 Documentation panel.
   578 
   579 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   580 documentation.
   581 
   582 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   583 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   584 
   585 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   586 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   587 normal editing and checking process.
   588 
   589 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   590 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   591 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   592 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   593 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   594 
   595 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   596 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   597 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   598 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   599 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   600 
   601 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   602 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   603 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   604 
   605 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   606 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   607 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   608 to resolve conflict.
   609 
   610 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   611 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   612 
   613 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   614 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   615 such command executions while editing.
   616 
   617 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   618 document content.
   619 
   620 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   621 toplevel theorem statements.
   622 
   623 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   624 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   625 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   626 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   627 
   628 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   629 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   630 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   631 
   632 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   633 / Global Options / Appearance".
   634 
   635 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   636 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   637 
   638 
   639 *** Pure ***
   640 
   641 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   642 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   643 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   644 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   645 details.
   646 
   647 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   648 
   649 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   650 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   651 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   652 
   653 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   654 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   655 
   656 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   657 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   658 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   659 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   660 
   661 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   662 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   663 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   664 
   665 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   666 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   667 
   668 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   669 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   670 situations.
   671 
   672 
   673 *** HOL ***
   674 
   675 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   676 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   677 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   678 
   679 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   680 
   681 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   682 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   683 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   684 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   685 
   686   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   687 
   688 * Code generator:
   689   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   690     'code_instance'.
   691   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   692     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   693 
   694 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   695 examples.
   696 
   697 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   698 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   699 to distinguish both when desired.
   700 
   701 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   702 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   703 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   704 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   705 
   706 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   707 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   708 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   709 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   710 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   711 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   712 
   713 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   714 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   715 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   716 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   717 
   718 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   719 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   720 
   721 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   722 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   723 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   724 
   725 * Lifting:
   726   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   727     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   728       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   729       transfer rules
   730     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   731       correspondence relation can be generated
   732     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   733       parametricity
   734     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   735   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   736   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   737     copies
   738   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   739     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   740     anonymous context)
   741   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   742     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   743   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   744     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   745   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   746     INCOMPATIBILITY
   747 
   748 * Transfer:
   749   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   750     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   751   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   752   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   753     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   754   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   755 
   756 * Reification and reflection:
   757   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   758     "Reification".
   759   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   760   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   761 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   762 
   763 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   764   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   765     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   766     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   767   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   768     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   769   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   770     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   771     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   772     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   773     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   774     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   775     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   776     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   777   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   778     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   779   - Fact renames:
   780       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   781       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   782 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   783 
   784 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   785 
   786 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   787 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   788 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   789 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   790 
   791 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   792 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   793 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   794 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   795 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   796 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   797 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   798 lemmas.
   799 
   800 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   801 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   802 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   803 
   804 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   805 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   806 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   807 
   808 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   809 top and bottom elements.
   810 
   811 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   812 
   813 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   814 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   815 
   816  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   817    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   818    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   819 
   820  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   821    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   822    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   823 
   824    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   825    arbitrary filter.
   826 
   827  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   828    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   829    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   830    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   831    on a compact set.
   832 
   833  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   834    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   835    linear_continuum_topology).
   836 
   837  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   838    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   839    on all sequences converging to x.
   840 
   841  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   842    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   843    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   844    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   845    left or right.
   846 
   847  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   848 
   849      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   850 
   851  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   852    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   853 
   854  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   855    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   856    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   857    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   858    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   859    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   860 
   861  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   862 
   863    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   864 
   865    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   866      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   867 
   868    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   869 
   870    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   871      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   872 
   873    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   874 
   875    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   876 
   877  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   878 
   879 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   880 
   881 * Nitpick:
   882   - Added option "spy".
   883   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
   884 
   885 * Sledgehammer:
   886   - Renamed option:
   887       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   888     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   889   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
   890   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
   891   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
   892 
   893 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   894 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   895 
   896 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   897   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   898   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   899     generated code.
   900   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   901   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   902   - Fact renames:
   903     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   904     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   905     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   906 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   907 
   908 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   909 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   910 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   911 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   912 
   913 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   914 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   915 
   916 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   917 
   918 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   919 
   920     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   921     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   922 
   923 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   924 
   925 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   926 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   927 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   928 
   929 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   930 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   931 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   932 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   933 
   934 * HOL-BNF:
   935   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   936     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   937     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   938     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   939   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   940     coinduct).
   941   - Renamed keywords:
   942     data ~> datatype_new
   943     codata ~> codatatype
   944     bnf_def ~> bnf
   945   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   946     discs ~> disc
   947     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   948     map_id' ~> map_id
   949     sels ~> sel
   950     set_map' ~> set_map
   951     sets ~> set
   952 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   953 
   954 
   955 *** ML ***
   956 
   957 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   958 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   959 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   960 Examples.thy in particular.
   961 
   962 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   963 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   964 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   965 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   966 
   967 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   968 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   969 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   970 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   971 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   972 
   973 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   974 
   975     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   976     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   977 
   978 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   979 
   980 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   981 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   982 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   983 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   984 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   985 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   986 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   987 
   988 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   989 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   990 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   991 clasets separately from the context.
   992 
   993 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   994 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   995 
   996 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   997 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   998 
   999 
  1000 *** System ***
  1001 
  1002 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  1003 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1004 
  1005 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  1006 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1007 
  1008 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  1009 settings variable.
  1010 
  1011 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  1012 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  1013 always pdf.
  1014 
  1015 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  1016 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  1017 
  1018 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  1019 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  1020 
  1021 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  1022 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  1023 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  1024 
  1025 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  1026 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  1027 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  1028 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  1029 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1030 for HTML presentation of theories.
  1031 
  1032 
  1033 
  1034 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  1035 -----------------------------------
  1036 
  1037 *** General ***
  1038 
  1039 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  1040 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  1041 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  1042 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  1043 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  1044 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  1045 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  1046 
  1047 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  1048 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  1049 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  1050 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  1051 
  1052 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  1053 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  1054 
  1055 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  1056 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  1057 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  1058 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  1059 dependencies properly.
  1060 
  1061 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  1062 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  1063 
  1064 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  1065 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  1066 
  1067 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  1068 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  1069 and "class ... context ...".
  1070 
  1071 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  1072 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  1073 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  1074 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  1075 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  1076 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  1077 
  1078 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  1079 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  1080 
  1081 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  1082 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  1083 
  1084 
  1085 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1086 
  1087 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  1088 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  1089 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  1090 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  1091 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  1092 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  1093 
  1094 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  1095 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  1096 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  1097 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  1098 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  1099 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  1100 
  1101 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  1102 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  1103 browser on demand.
  1104 
  1105 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  1106 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  1107 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  1108 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  1109 
  1110 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  1111 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  1112 
  1113 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  1114 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  1115 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  1116 potentially infinite message streams.
  1117 
  1118 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  1119 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  1120 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  1121 schemes.
  1122 
  1123 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1124 symbols.
  1125 
  1126 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1127 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1128 
  1129 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1130 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1131 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1132 
  1133 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1134 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1135 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1136 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1137 
  1138 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1139 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1140 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1141 
  1142 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1143 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1144 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1145 Isabelle distribution.
  1146 
  1147 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1148 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1149 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1150 
  1151 
  1152 *** Pure ***
  1153 
  1154 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1155 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1156 
  1157 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1158 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1159 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1160 
  1161 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1162 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1163 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1164 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1165 with some care where this is really required.
  1166 
  1167 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1168 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1169 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1170 
  1171   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1172 
  1173 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1174 a Hasse diagram.
  1175 
  1176 
  1177 *** HOL ***
  1178 
  1179 * Sledgehammer:
  1180 
  1181   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1182     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1183   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1184   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1185   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1186   - Renamed options:
  1187       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1188       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1189       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1190       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1191 
  1192 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1193 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1194 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1195 
  1196 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1197 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1198 
  1199 * Lifting:
  1200   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1201   - quot_del attribute
  1202   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1203 
  1204 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1205 expressions.
  1206 
  1207 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1208 pointfree expressions.
  1209 
  1210 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1211 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1212 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1213 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1214 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1215 
  1216 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1217 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1218 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1219 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1220 accordingly.
  1221 
  1222 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1223 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1224 
  1225 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1226 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1227 
  1228 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1229 
  1230 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1231 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1232 
  1233 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1234 
  1235 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1236 
  1237   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1238   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1239 
  1240 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1241 
  1242 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1243 
  1244   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1245   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1246 
  1247 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1248 
  1249 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1250 
  1251   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1252     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1253     output f x converges to G.
  1254 
  1255   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1256     infinity (at_bot).
  1257 
  1258   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1259     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1260 
  1261   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1262     at_top".
  1263 
  1264 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1265 
  1266 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1267 lattice type classes.
  1268 
  1269 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1270 
  1271     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1272     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1273 
  1274 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1275 
  1276 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1277 changes as follows.
  1278 
  1279   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1280 
  1281       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1282       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1283 
  1284   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1285     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1286     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1287     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1288 
  1289   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1290     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1291     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1292 
  1293   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1294     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1295     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1296     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1297 
  1298   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1299     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1300 
  1301       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1302       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1303       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1304       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1305       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1306       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1307       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1308       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1309       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1310       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1311       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1312       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1313       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1314       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1315       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1316       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1317 
  1318 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1319 
  1320 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1321 
  1322 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1323 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1324 
  1325 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1326 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1327 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1328 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1329 
  1330   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1331   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1332   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1333   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1334   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1335   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1336   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1337   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1338   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1339   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1340 
  1341 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1342 
  1343 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1344 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1345 Data").
  1346 
  1347 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1348 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1349 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1350 code.
  1351 
  1352 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1353 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1354 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1355 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1356 
  1357 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1358 
  1359 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1360 
  1361 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1362 
  1363   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1364   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1365 
  1366 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1367 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1368 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1369 
  1370   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1371 
  1372     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1373     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1374     cart_base i  removed
  1375     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1376 
  1377   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1378 
  1379   Renamed lemmas:
  1380 
  1381     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1382     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1383     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1384     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1385     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1386     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1387     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1388     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1389     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1390     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1391 
  1392 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1393 
  1394 * HOL/Probability:
  1395 
  1396   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1397 
  1398   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1399     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1400     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1401 
  1402   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1403     projective family).
  1404 
  1405 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1406 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1407 
  1408 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1409 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1410 datatypes.
  1411 
  1412 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1413 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1414 
  1415 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1416 trees for the code generator.
  1417 
  1418 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1419 Lifting/Transfer.
  1420 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1421 
  1422 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1423 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1424 
  1425 
  1426 *** Document preparation ***
  1427 
  1428 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1429 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1430 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1431 
  1432 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1433 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1434 
  1435 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1436 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1437 document/root.tex.
  1438 
  1439 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1440 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1441 
  1442 
  1443 *** ML ***
  1444 
  1445 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1446 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1447 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1448 
  1449 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1450 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1451 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1452 
  1453 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1454 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1455 necessarily printing visible text.
  1456 
  1457 
  1458 *** System ***
  1459 
  1460 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1461 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1462 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1463 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1464 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1465 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1466 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1467 
  1468 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1469 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1470 
  1471   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1472 
  1473 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1474 
  1475 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1476 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1477 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1478 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1479 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1480 
  1481 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1482 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1483 
  1484 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1485 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1486 
  1487 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1488 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1489 
  1490 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1491 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1492 version of Isabelle.
  1493 
  1494 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1495 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1496 
  1497 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1498 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1499 for home-made settings.
  1500 
  1501 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1502 
  1503 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1504 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1505 configuration.
  1506 
  1507 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1508 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1509 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1510 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1511 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1512 
  1513 
  1514 
  1515 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1516 ------------------------------
  1517 
  1518 *** General ***
  1519 
  1520 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1521 
  1522   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1523     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1524   - markup for bound variables
  1525   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1526   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1527   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1528     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1529 
  1530 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1531 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1532 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1533 
  1534 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1535 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1536 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1537 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1538 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1539 
  1540   context
  1541     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1542     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1543   begin
  1544 
  1545   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1546 
  1547   end
  1548 
  1549   thm my_trans
  1550 
  1551 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1552 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1553 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1554 
  1555 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1556 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1557 
  1558 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1559 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1560 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1561 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1562 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1563 
  1564 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1565 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1566 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1567 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1568 indices of schematic variables.
  1569 
  1570 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1571 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1572 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1573 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1574 etc. was exploited.
  1575 
  1576 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1577 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1578 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1579 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1580 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1581 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1582 
  1583 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1584 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1585 manual.
  1586 
  1587 
  1588 *** Pure ***
  1589 
  1590 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1591 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1592 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1593 
  1594 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1595 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1596 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1597 undocumented feature.)
  1598 
  1599 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1600 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1601 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1602 
  1603   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1604 
  1605   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1606     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1607 
  1608 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1609 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1610 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1611 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1612 
  1613 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1614 
  1615     num ~> num_token
  1616     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1617     xstr ~> str_token
  1618 
  1619 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1620 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1621 position information via constraints).
  1622 
  1623 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1624 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1625 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1626 
  1627 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1628 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1629 
  1630 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1631 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1632 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1633 
  1634 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1635 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1636 
  1637 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1638 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1639 
  1640   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1641 
  1642 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1643 
  1644 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1645 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1646 
  1647 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1648 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1649 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1650 
  1651 
  1652 *** HOL ***
  1653 
  1654 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1655 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1656 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1657 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1658 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1659 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1660 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1661 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1662 possible.
  1663 
  1664 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1665 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1666 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1667 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1668 
  1669 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1670 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1671 
  1672 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1673 
  1674 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1675 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1676 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1677 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1678 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1679 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1680 
  1681   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1682     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1683 
  1684   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1685     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1686     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1687 
  1688   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1689     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1690 
  1691   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1692     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1693     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1694 
  1695   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1696     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1697 
  1698 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1699 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1700 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1701 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1702 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1703 
  1704   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1705     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1706     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1707     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1708     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1709 
  1710     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1711     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1712 
  1713   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1714     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1715     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1716     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1717     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1718     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1719     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1720     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1721 
  1722   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1723     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1724     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1725     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1726 
  1727   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1728     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1729     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1730     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1731 
  1732   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1733     from type nat to type int.
  1734 
  1735 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1736 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1737 
  1738   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1739     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1740     type.  Example syntax:
  1741 
  1742     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1743       is List.insert
  1744 
  1745     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1746     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1747     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1748     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1749     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1750     by the package.
  1751 
  1752   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1753     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1754     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1755     code generation for each constant.
  1756 
  1757   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1758     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1759     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1760     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1761     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1762 
  1763   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1764     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1765     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1766 
  1767 * Quotient package:
  1768 
  1769   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1770     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1771 
  1772   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1773     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1774 
  1775   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1776     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1777     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1778 
  1779   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1780     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1781 
  1782 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1783 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1784 
  1785 * Quickcheck:
  1786 
  1787   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1788     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1789     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1790     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1791     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1792 
  1793     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1794     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1795     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1796 
  1797     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1798     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1799 
  1800     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1801     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1802     show genuine counterexamples.
  1803 
  1804   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1805     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1806 
  1807     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1808     constructors of that type.
  1809 
  1810   - Support for multisets.
  1811 
  1812   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1813 
  1814   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1815     conjectures in a locale context.
  1816 
  1817 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1818 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1819 
  1820 * Sledgehammer:
  1821   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1822     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1823   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1824   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1825     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1826   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1827   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1828   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1829   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1830 
  1831 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1832 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1833 
  1834 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1835 
  1836 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1837 
  1838 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1839 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1840 
  1841   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1842 
  1843 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1844 a list and a nat.
  1845 
  1846 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1847 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1848 
  1849 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1850 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1851 default.
  1852 
  1853 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1854 
  1855   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1856 
  1857 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1858 
  1859 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1860 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1861 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1862 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1863 one_case.
  1864 
  1865 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1866 the result of the fact expression.
  1867 
  1868 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1869 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1870 of some relation theorems:
  1871 
  1872   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1873   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1874   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1875   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1876   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1877   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1878 
  1879 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1880 
  1881 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1882 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1883 
  1884 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1885 
  1886 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1887 to match the constant's name:
  1888 
  1889   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1890   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1891   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1892   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1893   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1894   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1895   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1896   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1897   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1898   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1899   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1900   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1901   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1902   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1903   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1904   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1905   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1906   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1907   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1908   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1909   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1910   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1911   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1912   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1913 
  1914 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1915 
  1916 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1917 and corresponding theorem names:
  1918 
  1919   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1920 
  1921   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1922 
  1923   - Renamed theorems:
  1924 
  1925     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1926     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1927     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1928     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1929     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1930     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1931     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1932     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1933     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1934     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1935     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1936     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1937     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1938     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1939     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1940     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1941     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1942     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1943     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1944     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1945     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1946     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1947     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1948 
  1949     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1950 
  1951     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1952 
  1953 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1954 
  1955 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1956 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1957 
  1958   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1959   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1960   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1961   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1962   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1963   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1964   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1965   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1966   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1967   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1968   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1969   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1970   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1971   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1972   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1973   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1974   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1975   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1976   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1977   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1978   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1979 
  1980 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1981 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1982 
  1983 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1984 
  1985 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1986 
  1987   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1988   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1989   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1990   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1991   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1992   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1993   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1994   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1995   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1996   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1997   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1998   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1999   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  2000   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  2001   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  2002   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  2003   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  2004   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  2005 
  2006 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2007 
  2008 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  2009 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  2010 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  2011 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  2012 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  2013 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  2014 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  2015 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  2016 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  2017 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  2018 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  2019 
  2020 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  2021 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  2022 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  2023 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  2024 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  2025 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  2026 
  2027 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  2028 through option types.
  2029 
  2030 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  2031 relations.
  2032 
  2033 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2034 
  2035 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  2036 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2037 
  2038   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  2039   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  2040   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  2041   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  2042   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2043   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2044   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  2045   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2046   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  2047   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2048   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  2049   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  2050   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2051   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2052   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2053   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  2054   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  2055   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  2056   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2057   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2058   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  2059   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  2060   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2061   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2062   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  2063   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2064   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  2065   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  2066   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  2067   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  2068   zless_le ~> less_le
  2069   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  2070   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  2071   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  2072 
  2073 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  2074 
  2075   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  2076 
  2077 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  2078 
  2079 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  2080 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  2081 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  2082 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  2083 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2084 
  2085 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2086 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  2087 
  2088 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  2089 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  2090 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  2091 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  2092 follows:
  2093 
  2094   Operations:
  2095   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  2096   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  2097   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  2098   del -> rbt_del
  2099   delete -> rbt_delete
  2100   ins -> rbt_ins
  2101   insert -> rbt_insert
  2102   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  2103   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  2104   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  2105   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  2106   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  2107   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  2108   tree_less -> rbt_less
  2109   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  2110   union -> rbt_union
  2111   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  2112   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  2113 
  2114   Lemmas:
  2115   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  2116   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  2117   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  2118   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  2119   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  2120   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  2121   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2122   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2123   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2124   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2125   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2126   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2127   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2128   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2129   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2130   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2131   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2132   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2133   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2134   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2135   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2136   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2137   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2138   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2139   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2140   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2141   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2142   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2143   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2144   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2145   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2146   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2147   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2148   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2149   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2150   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2151   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2152   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2153   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2154   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2155   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2156   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2157   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2158   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2159   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2160   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2161   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2162   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2163   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2164   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2165   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2166   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2167   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2168   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2169   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2170   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2171   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2172   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2173   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2174   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2175   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2176   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2177   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2178   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2179   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2180   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2181   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2182   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2183   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2184   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2185   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2186   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2187   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2188   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2189   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2190   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2191   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2192   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2193   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2194   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2195   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2196   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2197   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2198 
  2199 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2200 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2201 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2202 
  2203   Changed Operations:
  2204   float_abs -> abs
  2205   float_nprt -> nprt
  2206   float_pprt -> pprt
  2207   pow2 -> use powr
  2208   round_down -> float_round_down
  2209   round_up -> float_round_up
  2210   scale -> exponent
  2211 
  2212   Removed Operations:
  2213   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2214 
  2215   Renamed Lemmas:
  2216   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2217   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2218   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2219   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2220   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2221   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2222   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2223   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2224   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2225   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2226   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2227   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2228   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2229   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2230   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2231   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2232   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2233   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2234   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2235   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2236   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2237   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2238   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2239   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2240   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2241   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2242   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2243   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2244   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2245   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2246   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2247   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2248   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2249   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2250   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2251   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2252 
  2253   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2254   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2255   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2256   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2257   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2258   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2259   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2260   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2261   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2262   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2263 
  2264 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2265 association lists with distinct keys.
  2266 
  2267 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2268 annotated commands.
  2269 
  2270 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2271 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2272 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2273 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2274 
  2275 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2276 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2277 instead.
  2278 
  2279   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2280   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2281   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2282   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2283   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2284   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2285   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2286   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2287   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2288   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2289   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2290   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2291   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2292   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2293   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2294   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2295   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2296   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2297   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2298   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2299   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2300   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2301   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2302   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2303   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2304   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2305   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2306   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2307   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2308   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2309   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2310   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2311   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2312   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2313   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2314   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2315   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2316   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2317   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2318   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2319   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2320 
  2321 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2322 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2323 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2324 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2325 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2326 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2327 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2328 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2329 
  2330 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2331 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2332 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2333 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2334 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2335 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2336 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2337 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2338 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2339 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2340 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2341 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2342 
  2343   Renamed constants:
  2344   measure -> emeasure
  2345   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2346   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2347   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2348   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2349 
  2350   Removed locales:
  2351   completeable_measure_space
  2352   finite_measure_space
  2353   finite_prob_space
  2354   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2355   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2356   finite_sigma_algebra
  2357   measure_space
  2358   pair_finite_prob_space
  2359   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2360   pair_finite_space
  2361   pair_sigma_algebra
  2362   product_sigma_algebra
  2363 
  2364   Removed constants:
  2365   conditional_space
  2366   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2367   image_space
  2368   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2369   pair_measure_generator
  2370   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2371   subvimage
  2372 
  2373   Replacement theorems:
  2374   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2375   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2376   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2377   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2378   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2379   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2380   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2381   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2382   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2383   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2384   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2385   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2386   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2387   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2388   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2389   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2390   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2391   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2392   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2393   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2394   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2395   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2396   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2397   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2398   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2399   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2400   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2401   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2402   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2403   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2404   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2405   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2406   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2407   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2408   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2409   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2410   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2411   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2412   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2413   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2414   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2415   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2416   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2417   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2418   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2419   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2420   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2421   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2422   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2423   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2424   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2425   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2426   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2427   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2428   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2429   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2430   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2431   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2432   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2433   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2434   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2435   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2436   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2437   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2438   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2439   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2440   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2441   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2442   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2443   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2444   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2445   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2446   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2447   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2448   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2449   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2450   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2451   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2452   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2453   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2454   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2455   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2456   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2457   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2458   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2459   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2460   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2461   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2462   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2463   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2464   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2465   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2466   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2467   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2468   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2469   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2470   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2471   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2472   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2473   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2474   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2475   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2476   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2477   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2478   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2479   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2480   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2481   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2482   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2483   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2484   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2485   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2486   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2487   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2488   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2489   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2490   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2491   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2492   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2493   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2494   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2495   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2496   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2497   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2498   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2499   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2500   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2501   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2502 
  2503 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2504 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2505 
  2506 
  2507 *** FOL ***
  2508 
  2509 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2510 
  2511 
  2512 *** ZF ***
  2513 
  2514 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2515 analysis.
  2516 
  2517 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2518 
  2519 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2520 
  2521 
  2522 *** ML ***
  2523 
  2524 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2525 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2526 
  2527 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2528 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2529 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2530 
  2531 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2532 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2533 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2534 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2535 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2536 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2537 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2538 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2539 
  2540 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2541 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2542 
  2543 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2544 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2545 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2546 
  2547 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2548 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2549 
  2550 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2551 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2552 context as well.
  2553 
  2554 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2555 
  2556   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2557   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2558   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2559   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2560   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2561   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2562   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2563   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2564   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2565   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2566   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2567   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2568 
  2569 
  2570 *** System ***
  2571 
  2572 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2573 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2574 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2575 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2576 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2577 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2578 the generic user home was intended.
  2579 
  2580 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2581 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2582 
  2583 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2584 (not just JRE).
  2585 
  2586 
  2587 
  2588 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2589 ------------------------------------
  2590 
  2591 *** General ***
  2592 
  2593 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2594 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2595 
  2596   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2597     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2598     files for checking).
  2599 
  2600   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2601     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2602     positions.
  2603 
  2604   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2605     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2606     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2607 
  2608   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2609     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2610     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2611 
  2612   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2613     cores.
  2614 
  2615   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2616     versions (garbage collection).
  2617 
  2618 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2619 including some remaining limitations.
  2620 
  2621 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2622 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2623 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2624 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2625 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2626 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2627 
  2628 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2629 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2630 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2631 
  2632 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2633 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2634 usedir option -Q.
  2635 
  2636 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2637 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2638 
  2639   long_names   ~> names_long
  2640   short_names  ~> names_short
  2641   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2642 
  2643 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2644 
  2645   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2646 
  2647 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2648 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2649 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2650 
  2651 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2652 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2653 
  2654 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2655   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2656   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2657   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2658     "Classical Reasoner".
  2659 
  2660 
  2661 *** HOL ***
  2662 
  2663 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2664 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2665 
  2666 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2667 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2668 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2669 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2670 class complete_linorder.
  2671 
  2672 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2673 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2674 
  2675 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2676 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2677 
  2678   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2679   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2680   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2681   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2682   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2683   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2684   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2685   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2686   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2687   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2688   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2689 
  2690 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2691 
  2692   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2693   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2694   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2695   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2696   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2697   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2698   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2699   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2700   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2701   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2702   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2703   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2704   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2705   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2706   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2707   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2708 
  2709 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2710 
  2711 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2712 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2713 
  2714 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2715 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2716 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2717 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2718 
  2719 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2720 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2721 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2722 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2723 
  2724 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2725 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2726 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2727 
  2728 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2729 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2730 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2731 
  2732 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2733 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2734 
  2735 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2736 
  2737     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2738     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2739 
  2740 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2741 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2742 
  2743 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2744 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2745 
  2746 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2747 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2748 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2749 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2750 
  2751   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2752   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2753   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2754   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2755   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2756   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2757   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2758 
  2759 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2760 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2761 
  2762   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2763   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2764   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2765   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2766   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2767   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2768   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2769   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2770   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2771   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2772   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2773   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2774   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2775   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2776   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2777   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2778   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2779   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2780   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2781   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2782   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2783   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2784   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2785   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2786   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2787   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2788   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2789   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2790   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2791   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2792   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2793   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2794   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2795   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2796   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2797   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2798   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2799   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2800   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2801   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2802   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2803   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2804   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2805   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2806   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2807   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2808   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2809   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2810   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2811   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2812   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2813   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2814   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2815   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2816   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2817   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2818   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2819   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2820   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2821   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2822   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2823   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2824   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2825   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2826   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2827   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2828   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2829   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2830   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2831   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2832   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2833   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2834   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2835   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2836   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2837   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2838   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2839   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2840   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2841   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2842   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2843   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2844 
  2845 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2846 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2847 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2848 
  2849 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2850 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2851 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2852 
  2853 * Code generation:
  2854 
  2855   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2856     characters in the target language.
  2857 
  2858   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2859     instead.
  2860 
  2861   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2862 
  2863   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2864     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2865 
  2866       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2867 
  2868 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2869 
  2870 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2871 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2872 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2873 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2874 syntax.
  2875 
  2876 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2877 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2878 
  2879 * Nitpick:
  2880   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2881   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2882   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2883     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2884 
  2885 * Sledgehammer:
  2886   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2887   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2888     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2889   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2890     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2891   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2892     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2893   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2894     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2895   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2896     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2897 
  2898 * Metis:
  2899   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2900   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2901     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2902 
  2903 * Command 'try':
  2904   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2905     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2906   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2907     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2908 
  2909 * Quickcheck:
  2910   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2911     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2912   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2913     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2914   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2915     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2916     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2917     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2918   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2919     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2920 
  2921 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2922 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2923 
  2924 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2925 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2926 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2927 
  2928 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2929 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2930 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2931 
  2932 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2933 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2934 
  2935 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2936 arithmetic.
  2937 
  2938 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2939 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2940 and lattice type classes.
  2941 
  2942 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2943 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2944 
  2945 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2946 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2947 
  2948 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2949 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2950 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2951 
  2952   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2953   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2954   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2955   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2956 
  2957 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2958 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2959 constants:
  2960 
  2961   type inat   ~> type enat
  2962   Fin         ~> enat
  2963   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2964   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2965   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2966 
  2967 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2968 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2969 
  2970 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2971 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2972 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2973 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2974 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2975 
  2976 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2977 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2978 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2979 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2980 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2981 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2982 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2983 
  2984   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2985   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2986   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2987   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2988 
  2989 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2990 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2991 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2992 
  2993   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2994   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2995   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2996   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2997   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2998   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2999   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  3000   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  3001   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  3002   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  3003   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  3004   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  3005   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3006   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3007   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  3008   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3009   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  3010   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  3011   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  3012   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  3013   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  3014   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  3015   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  3016   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  3017   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  3018   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  3019   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  3020   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  3021   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  3022   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3023   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3024   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  3025   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  3026   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  3027   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  3028   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  3029   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  3030   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  3031   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  3032   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  3033   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  3034   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  3035   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  3036   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  3037   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  3038   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  3039   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  3040   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  3041   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  3042   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  3043   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  3044 
  3045 * Session HOL-Probability:
  3046   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  3047   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  3048   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  3049   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  3050     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3051 
  3052 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3053 
  3054   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  3055   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  3056   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3057   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  3058   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  3059   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  3060   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  3061   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  3062   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  3063   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  3064   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3065   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  3066   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  3067   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  3068   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  3069   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  3070   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  3071   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  3072   UU_I ~> bottomI
  3073   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  3074   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3075   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3076   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  3077   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  3078   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  3079 
  3080 
  3081 *** Document preparation ***
  3082 
  3083 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  3084 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  3085 same.
  3086 
  3087 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  3088 result.
  3089 
  3090 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  3091 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  3092 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  3093 
  3094 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  3095 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  3096 
  3097 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  3098 like this:
  3099 
  3100   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  3101   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  3102 
  3103 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  3104 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  3105 layouts.
  3106 
  3107 
  3108 *** ML ***
  3109 
  3110 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  3111 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  3112 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  3113 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  3114 under external program control.
  3115 
  3116 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  3117 data, which requires explicit setup.
  3118 
  3119 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  3120 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  3121 (better known as Proof General).
  3122 
  3123 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3124 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3125 
  3126 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3127 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3128 
  3129 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3130 (including quotes etc.).
  3131 
  3132 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3133 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3134 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3135 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3136 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3137 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3138 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3139 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3140 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3141 
  3142 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3143 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3144 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3145 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3146 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3147 
  3148 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3149 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3150 
  3151 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3152 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3153 
  3154 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3155 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3156 
  3157 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3158 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3159 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3160 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3161 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3162 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3163 proper Proof.context.
  3164 
  3165 
  3166 *** System ***
  3167 
  3168 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3169 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3170 
  3171 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3172 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3173 
  3174 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3175 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3176 
  3177   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3178   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3179   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3180   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3181   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3182 
  3183 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3184 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3185 
  3186 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3187 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3188 example:
  3189 
  3190   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3191 
  3192 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3193 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3194 
  3195 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3196 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3197 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3198 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3199 
  3200 
  3201 
  3202 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3203 ----------------------------------
  3204 
  3205 *** General ***
  3206 
  3207 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3208 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3209 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3210 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3211 like this:
  3212 
  3213   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3214 
  3215 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3216 
  3217 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3218 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3219 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3220 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3221 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3222 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3223 
  3224 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3225 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3226 the following package declarations:
  3227 
  3228   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3229   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3230 
  3231 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3232 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3233 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3234 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3235 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3236 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3237 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3238 
  3239 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3240 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3241 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3242 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3243 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3244 
  3245 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3246 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3247 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3248 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3249 
  3250 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3251 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3252 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3253 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3254 
  3255   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3256 
  3257   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3258   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3259   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3260   show_types                    show_types
  3261   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3262   show_consts                   show_consts
  3263   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3264 
  3265   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3266   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3267   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3268 
  3269   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3270   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3271 
  3272   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3273 
  3274   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3275   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3276   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3277   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3278   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3279 
  3280 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3281 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3282 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3283 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3284 
  3285 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3286 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3287 
  3288   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3289   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3290 
  3291 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3292 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3293 float_token.
  3294 
  3295 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3296 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3297 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3298 
  3299 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3300 DejaVu Sans.
  3301 
  3302 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3303 
  3304 
  3305 *** Pure ***
  3306 
  3307 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3308 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3309 time.
  3310 
  3311 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3312 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3313 
  3314 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3315 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3316 
  3317 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3318 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3319 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3320 command already provided this functionality.
  3321 
  3322 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3323 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3324 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3325 without interpretations.
  3326 
  3327 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3328 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3329 
  3330 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3331 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3332 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3333 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3334 
  3335 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3336 'definition' instead.
  3337 
  3338 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3339 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3340 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3341 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3342 
  3343 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3344 constructors.
  3345 
  3346 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3347 the local file system.
  3348 
  3349 
  3350 *** HOL ***
  3351 
  3352 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3353 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3354 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3355 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3356 
  3357   declare [[coercion f]]
  3358 
  3359 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3360 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3361 
  3362   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3363 
  3364 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3365 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3366 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3367 other theories like this:
  3368 
  3369   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3370 
  3371 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3372 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3373 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3374 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3375 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3376 for examples.
  3377 
  3378 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3379 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3380 
  3381 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3382 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3383 
  3384 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3385 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3386 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3387 
  3388 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3389 functorial structure of types.
  3390 
  3391 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3392 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3393 
  3394 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3395 languages.
  3396 
  3397 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3398 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3399 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3400 
  3401 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3402 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3403 
  3404 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3405 combinators any longer.
  3406 
  3407 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3408 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3409 
  3410 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3411 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3412 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3413 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3414 
  3415   record 'a foo = ...
  3416   ...
  3417   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3418 
  3419 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3420 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3421 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3422 
  3423 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3424 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3425 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3426 
  3427 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3428 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3429 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3430 
  3431 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3432 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3433 
  3434 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3435 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3436 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3437 independently.
  3438 
  3439 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3440 counter example search.
  3441 
  3442 * Sledgehammer:
  3443   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3444     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3445     sledgehammer").
  3446   - Renamed commands:
  3447     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3448     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3449     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3450     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3451   - Renamed options:
  3452     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3453     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3454     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3455     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3456     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3457 
  3458 * Nitpick:
  3459   - Renamed options:
  3460     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3461     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3462     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3463   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3464   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3465   - Added "whack" option.
  3466   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3467   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3468   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3469   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3470     higher cardinalities.
  3471   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3472 
  3473 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3474 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3475 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3476 
  3477     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3478 
  3479 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3480 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3481 
  3482 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3483 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3484 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3485 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3486 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3487 "smt_solver".
  3488 
  3489 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3490 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3491 
  3492 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3493 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3494 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3495 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3496 
  3497 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3498   - Renamed:
  3499     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3500     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3501     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3502   - Added:
  3503     smt_verbose
  3504     smt_random_seed
  3505     smt_datatypes
  3506     smt_infer_triggers
  3507     smt_monomorph_limit
  3508     cvc3_options
  3509     remote_cvc3_options
  3510     remote_z3_options
  3511     yices_options
  3512 
  3513 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3514 header.
  3515 
  3516 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3517 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3518 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3519 
  3520   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3521 
  3522 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3523 
  3524 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3525 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3526 
  3527 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3528 
  3529 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3530 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3531 
  3532 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3533 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3534 
  3535 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3536 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3537 
  3538 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3539 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3540 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3541 
  3542 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3543 
  3544 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3545 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3546 
  3547 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3548 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3549 
  3550 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3551 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3552 for congruent(2)).
  3553 
  3554 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3555 
  3556   types
  3557     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3558     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3559 
  3560   constants
  3561     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3562     True ~> HOL.True
  3563     False ~> HOL.False
  3564     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3565     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3566     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3567     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3568     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3569     The ~> HOL.The
  3570     All ~> HOL.All
  3571     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3572     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3573     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3574     If ~> HOL.If
  3575     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3576     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3577     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3578     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3579     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3580     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3581     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3582     op : ~> Set.member
  3583     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3584 
  3585 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3586 
  3587 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3588 
  3589     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3590     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3591     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3592     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3593     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3594     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3595     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3596     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3597 
  3598 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3599 
  3600 * More stylized fact names:
  3601 
  3602   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3603   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3604   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3605   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3606 
  3607 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3608 
  3609 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3610 
  3611   constants
  3612     null ~> List.null
  3613 
  3614   facts
  3615     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3616     null_empty ~> null_def
  3617 
  3618 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3619 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3620 generation.
  3621 
  3622 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3623 Haskell code.
  3624 
  3625 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3626 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3627 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3628 
  3629 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3630 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3631 
  3632 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3633 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3634 
  3635 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3636 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3637 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3638 
  3639 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3640 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3641 
  3642 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3643 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3644 
  3645 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3646 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3647 referred to by its qualified name.
  3648 
  3649   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3650   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3651   product ~>  Enum.product
  3652 
  3653 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3654 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3655 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3656 
  3657 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3658 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3659 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3660 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3661 
  3662 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3663 sort_key.
  3664 
  3665 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3666 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3667 
  3668 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3669 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3670 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3671 
  3672   types
  3673     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3674               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3675               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3676         (depends on your needs)
  3677 
  3678   constants
  3679      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3680      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3681      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3682 
  3683 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3684 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3685 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3686 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3687 
  3688 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3689 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3690 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3691 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3692 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3693 
  3694 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3695 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3696 
  3697 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3698 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3699 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3700 
  3701 
  3702 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3703 
  3704 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3705 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3706 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3707 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3708 compatibility.
  3709 
  3710 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3711 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3712 
  3713 
  3714 *** HOLCF ***
  3715 
  3716 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3717 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3718 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3719 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3720 
  3721 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3722 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3723 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3724 
  3725   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3726   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3727   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3728 
  3729 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3730 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3731 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3732 
  3733 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3734 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3735 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3736 domain definition now works:
  3737 
  3738   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3739 
  3740 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3741 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3742 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3743 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3744 
  3745   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3746     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3747 
  3748   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3749 
  3750 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3751 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3752 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3753 
  3754 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3755 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3756 
  3757 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3758 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3759 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3760 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3761 
  3762 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3763 
  3764 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3765 
  3766 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3767 
  3768 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3769 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3770 
  3771 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3772 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3773 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3774 
  3775 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3776 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3777 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3778 
  3779 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3780 still supported as an input translation.
  3781 
  3782 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3783 
  3784   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3785   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3786   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3787   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3788   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3789   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3790   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3791 
  3792 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3793 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3794 
  3795   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3796   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3797   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3798   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3799   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3800   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3801 
  3802 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3803 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3804 
  3805 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3806 
  3807   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3808   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3809   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3810   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3811 
  3812 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3813 
  3814 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3815 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3816 
  3817 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3818 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3819 
  3820   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3821   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3822   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3823   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3824   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3825   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3826   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3827   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3828   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3829   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3830   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3831   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3832   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3833   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3834   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3835   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3836   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3837   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3838   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3839   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3840 
  3841 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3842 
  3843   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3844   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3845   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3846   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3847   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3848   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3849   box_less             ~> box_below
  3850   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3851   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3852   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3853   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3854   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3855   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3856   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3857   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3858   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3859   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3860   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3861   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3862   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3863   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3864   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3865   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3866   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3867   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3868   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3869   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3870   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3871   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3872   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3873   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3874   up_less              ~> up_below
  3875   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3876   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3877   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3878   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3879   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3880   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3881   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3882   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3883   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3884   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3885   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3886   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3887   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3888 
  3889 
  3890 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3891 
  3892 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3893 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3894 
  3895 
  3896 *** ML ***
  3897 
  3898 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3899 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3900 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3901 
  3902 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3903 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3904 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3905 
  3906 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3907 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3908 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3909 
  3910 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3911 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3912 
  3913 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3914 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3915 
  3916 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3917 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3918 
  3919 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3920 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3921 
  3922 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3923 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3924 almost all situations.
  3925 
  3926 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3927 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3928 Isabelle/ML.
  3929 
  3930 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3931 meaning.
  3932 
  3933 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3934 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3935 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3936 
  3937 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3938 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3939 
  3940 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3941 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3942 
  3943 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3944 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3945 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3946 
  3947 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3948 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3949 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3950 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3951 configuration options.
  3952 
  3953 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3954 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3955 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3956 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3957 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3958 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3959 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3960 
  3961 
  3962 
  3963 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3964 ---------------------------------
  3965 
  3966 *** General ***
  3967 
  3968 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3969 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3970 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3971 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3972 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3973 their full internal name.
  3974 
  3975 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3976 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3977 Some hints on upgrading:
  3978 
  3979   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3980     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3981     which are independent of this issue.
  3982 
  3983   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3984     provides the following special forms:
  3985 
  3986       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3987       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3988       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3989 
  3990     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3991     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3992     extra variables".
  3993 
  3994     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3995     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3996     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3997     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3998     "logic".
  3999 
  4000   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  4001     antiquotations:
  4002 
  4003       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  4004       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  4005       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  4006       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  4007 
  4008   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  4009     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  4010     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  4011     antiquotations.
  4012 
  4013 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  4014 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  4015 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  4016 diagnose syntax problems.
  4017 
  4018 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  4019 
  4020 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  4021 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  4022 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  4023 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  4024 
  4025 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  4026 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  4027 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  4028 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4029 
  4030 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  4031 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  4032 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  4033 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  4034 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4035 
  4036 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  4037 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  4038 
  4039 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  4040 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  4041 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  4042 
  4043   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  4044 
  4045 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  4046 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  4047 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  4048 
  4049 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  4050 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  4051 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4052 
  4053 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  4054 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  4055 
  4056 
  4057 *** Pure ***
  4058 
  4059 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  4060 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  4061 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  4062 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  4063 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  4064 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  4065 inspect proof terms.
  4066 
  4067 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  4068 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  4069 are added internally.  For example:
  4070 
  4071   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  4072 
  4073 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  4074 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4075 
  4076 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4077 
  4078 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4079 'class' instead.
  4080 
  4081 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  4082 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  4083 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4084 
  4085 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  4086 invariants.
  4087 
  4088 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  4089 user space functionality any longer.
  4090 
  4091 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  4092 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  4093 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4094 
  4095 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  4096 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  4097 
  4098 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  4099 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  4100 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  4101 
  4102 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  4103 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  4104 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  4105 
  4106 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  4107 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4108 
  4109 
  4110 *** HOL ***
  4111 
  4112 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  4113 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  4114 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  4115 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  4116 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  4117 
  4118 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  4119 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  4120 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  4121 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4122 
  4123   fun
  4124     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4125   where
  4126     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4127 
  4128   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4129     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4130 
  4131   quotient_definition
  4132     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4133 
  4134 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4135 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4136 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4137 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4138 
  4139 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4140 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4141 
  4142 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4143 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4144 
  4145 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4146 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4147 
  4148 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4149 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4150 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4151 
  4152 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4153 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4154 
  4155 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4156 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4157 
  4158 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4159 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4160 
  4161 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4162 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4163 
  4164 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4165 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4166 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4167 
  4168   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4169   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4170   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4171   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4172   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4173   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4174   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4175   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4176   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4177   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4178   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4179   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4180   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4181   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4182   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4183   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4184   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4185   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4186   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4187   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4188   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4189   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4190   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4191   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4192   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4193   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4194   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4195   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4196   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4197   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4198 
  4199 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4200 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4201 
  4202 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4203 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4204 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4205 
  4206 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4207 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4208 
  4209 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4210 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4211 
  4212 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4213 
  4214 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4215 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4216 
  4217 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4218 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4219 
  4220 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4221 
  4222 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4223 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4224 
  4225 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4226 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4227 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4228 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4229 
  4230 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4231   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4232   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4233   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4234 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4235 
  4236 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4237 lattices):
  4238 
  4239     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4240     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4241 
  4242     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4243 
  4244     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4245     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4246     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4247     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4248     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4249     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4250     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4251     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4252     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4253     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4254     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4255     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4256     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4257 
  4258     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4259     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4260     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4261     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4262     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4263     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4264     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4265     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4266     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4267     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4268     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4269     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4270     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4271     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4272     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4273     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4274     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4275     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4276 
  4277   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4278   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4279 
  4280     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4281     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4282     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4283     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4284     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4285 
  4286 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4287 
  4288 * Refined field classes:
  4289   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4290     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4291     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4292   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4293 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4294 
  4295 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4296   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4297   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4298   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4299     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4300   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4301     equal_neg_zero.
  4302 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4303 
  4304 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4305 sets to lattices:
  4306 
  4307   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4308   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4309   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4310   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4311   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4312   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4313   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4314   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4315   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4316   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4317 
  4318 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4319 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4320 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4321 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4322 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4323 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4324 
  4325 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4326 multiset order:
  4327 
  4328   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4329     <= and <;
  4330   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4331     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4332     multiset_order;
  4333   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4334     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4335     generation;
  4336   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4337     if needed.
  4338 
  4339 Renamed:
  4340 
  4341   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4342   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4343   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4344 
  4345 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4346 
  4347 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4348 
  4349 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4350 
  4351 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4352 
  4353 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4354 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4355 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4356 
  4357   Constants:
  4358   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4359   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4360   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4361   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4362   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4363   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4364   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4365   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4366   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4367   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4368   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4369   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4370   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4371 
  4372   Lemmas:
  4373   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4374   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4375   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4376   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4377   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4378   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4379   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4380   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4381   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4382   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4383   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4384   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4385   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4386 
  4387 * Sledgehammer:
  4388   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4389     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4390     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4391     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4392     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4393     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4394     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4395   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4396   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4397     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4398   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4399     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4400     is still experimental.)
  4401   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4402     full-typed mode.
  4403   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4404 
  4405 * Nitpick:
  4406   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4407   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4408   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4409     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4410   - Added support for quotient types.
  4411   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4412     constructs.
  4413   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4414     "termination" proofs).
  4415   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4416   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4417   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4418   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4419     record getters.
  4420   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4421   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4422   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4423   - Added "atoms" option.
  4424   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4425     problems.
  4426   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4427     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4428     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4429   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4430     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4431   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4432 
  4433 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4434   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4435   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4436   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4437   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4438   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4439   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4440   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4441   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4442   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4443 
  4444 
  4445 *** HOLCF ***
  4446 
  4447 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4448 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4449 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4450 
  4451 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4452 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4453 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4454 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4455 
  4456 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4457 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4458 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4459 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4460 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4461 
  4462 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4463 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4464 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4465 
  4466 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4467 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4468 
  4469   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4470   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4471 
  4472 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4473 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4474 
  4475   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4476   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4477   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4478   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4479   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4480 
  4481 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4482 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4483 
  4484   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4485   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4486   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4487 
  4488 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4489 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4490 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4491 
  4492 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4493 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4494 
  4495 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4496 
  4497 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4498 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4499 
  4500 
  4501 *** ML ***
  4502 
  4503 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4504 
  4505     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4506     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4507 
  4508     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4509     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4510     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4511     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4512 
  4513     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4514     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4515     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4516 
  4517 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4518 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4519 
  4520 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4521 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4522 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4523 
  4524 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4525 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4526 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4527 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4528 
  4529 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4530 the context or even global references.
  4531 
  4532 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4533 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4534 
  4535 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4536 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4537 
  4538   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4539   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4540   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4541   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4542   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4543   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4544   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4545   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4546   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4547   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4548 
  4549 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4550 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4551 
  4552 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4553 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4554 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4555 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4556 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4557 
  4558 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4559 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4560 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4561 Theory_Data version.
  4562 
  4563 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4564 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4565 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4566 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4567 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4568 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4569 explicitly in rare situations.
  4570 
  4571 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4572 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4573 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4574 
  4575 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4576 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4577 
  4578 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4579 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4580 quite rare).
  4581 
  4582 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4583 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4584 
  4585 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4586 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4587 terms.
  4588 
  4589 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4590 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4591 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4592 
  4593 
  4594 *** System ***
  4595 
  4596 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4597 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4598 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4599 
  4600 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4601 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4602 respectively.
  4603 
  4604 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4605 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4606 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4607 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4608 
  4609   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4610 
  4611 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4612 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4613 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4614 component.
  4615 
  4616 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4617 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4618 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4619 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4620 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4621 the user for manual installation.
  4622 
  4623 
  4624 
  4625 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4626 -------------------------------------
  4627 
  4628 *** General ***
  4629 
  4630 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4631 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4632 
  4633 
  4634 *** Pure ***
  4635 
  4636 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4637 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4638 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4639 
  4640 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4641 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4642 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4643 
  4644 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4645 interpretation.
  4646 
  4647 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4648 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4649 
  4650 
  4651 *** Document preparation ***
  4652 
  4653 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4654 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4655 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4656 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4657 
  4658 
  4659 *** HOL ***
  4660 
  4661 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4662 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4663 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4664 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4665 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4666 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4667 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4668 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4669 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4670 
  4671 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4672 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4673 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4674 
  4675 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4676 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4677 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4678 
  4679 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4680 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4681 
  4682 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4683 
  4684 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4685 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4686 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4687 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4688 
  4689 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4690 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4691 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4692 "mirabelle" utility.
  4693 
  4694 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4695 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4696 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4697 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4698 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4699 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4700 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4701 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4702 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4703 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4704 
  4705 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4706 procedure only.
  4707 
  4708 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4709 
  4710 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4711 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4712 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4713 that fail later.
  4714 
  4715 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4716 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4717 
  4718 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4719 the same method as the approximation method.
  4720 
  4721 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4722 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4723 series expansion.
  4724 
  4725 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4726 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4727 
  4728 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4729 reals.
  4730 
  4731 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4732 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4733 
  4734 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4735 fixpoint theorem.
  4736 
  4737 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4738   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4739     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4740   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4741     accordingly
  4742   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4743     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4744   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4745     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4746 
  4747 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4748 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4749 lattice.
  4750 
  4751 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4752 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4753 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4754 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4755 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4756 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4757 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4758 
  4759 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4760   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4761     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4762   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4763     le_inf_iff
  4764   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4765     sup_aci)
  4766   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4767   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4768   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4769     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4770     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4771     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4772     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4773     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4774     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4775     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4776     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4777     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4778     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4779   - authentic syntax for
  4780     Set.Pow
  4781     Set.image
  4782   - mere abbreviations:
  4783     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4784     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4785     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4786     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4787     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4788     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4789     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4790     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4791   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4792 
  4793 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4794 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4795 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4796 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4797 
  4798 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4799 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4800 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4801 
  4802 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4803 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4804 
  4805 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4806 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4807 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4808 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4809 
  4810 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4811 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4812 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4813 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4814 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4815 
  4816 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4817 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4818 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4819 
  4820 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4821 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4822 
  4823 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4824 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4825 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4826 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4827 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4828 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4829 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4830 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4831 
  4832 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4833     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4834     code_post       replaces    code post
  4835     etc.
  4836   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4837 
  4838 * Renamed methods:
  4839     sizechange -> size_change
  4840     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4841   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4842 
  4843 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4844 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4845 
  4846 * Renamed theorems:
  4847     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4848     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4849     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4850     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4851     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4852   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4853 
  4854 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4855 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4856 
  4857 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4858 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4859 
  4860 
  4861 *** HOLCF ***
  4862 
  4863 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4864 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4865 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4866 
  4867 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4868 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4869 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4870 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4871 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4872 
  4873 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4874 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4875 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4876 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4877 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4878 
  4879 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4880 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4881 constructor are pre-configured.
  4882 
  4883 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4884 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4885 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4886 
  4887 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4888 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4889 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4890 as well.)
  4891 
  4892 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4893 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4894 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4895 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4896 examples.
  4897 
  4898 
  4899 *** ML ***
  4900 
  4901 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4902 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4903 
  4904 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4905 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4906 position, logical grouping etc.
  4907 
  4908 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4909 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4910 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4911 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4912 
  4913 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4914 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4915 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4916 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4917 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4918 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4919 
  4920 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4921 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4922 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4923 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4924 experiments with references.
  4925 
  4926 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4927 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4928 
  4929 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4930 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4931 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4932 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4933 
  4934 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4935 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4936 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4937 
  4938 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4939 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4940 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4941 
  4942 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4943 
  4944 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4945 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4946 
  4947 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4948 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4949 
  4950 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4951 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4952 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4953 
  4954 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4955 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4956 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4957 
  4958 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4959 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4960 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4961 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4962 
  4963 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4964 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4965 instead of global theory.
  4966 
  4967 
  4968 *** System ***
  4969 
  4970 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4971 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4972 usedir option -q.
  4973 
  4974 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4975 also the system manual.
  4976 
  4977 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4978 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4979 
  4980 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4981 this is always enabled.
  4982 
  4983 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4984 
  4985 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4986 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4987 currently supported on Linux only.
  4988 
  4989 
  4990 
  4991 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4992 --------------------------------
  4993 
  4994 *** General ***
  4995 
  4996 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4997 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4998 
  4999   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  5000     "isatool."
  5001 
  5002   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  5003     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  5004 
  5005   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  5006     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  5007 
  5008 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  5009 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  5010 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  5011 
  5012 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  5013 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  5014 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  5015 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  5016 via "isabelle emacs".
  5017 
  5018 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  5019 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  5020 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  5021 
  5022 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  5023 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  5024 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5025 
  5026 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  5027 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  5028 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  5029 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  5030 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  5031 
  5032 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  5033 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  5034 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  5035 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5036 
  5037 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  5038 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  5039 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  5040 
  5041 
  5042 *** Pure ***
  5043 
  5044 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  5045 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  5046 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  5047 
  5048 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  5049 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  5050 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  5051 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  5052 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  5053 
  5054 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  5055 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  5056 useful in locale declarations.
  5057 
  5058 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  5059 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  5060 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  5061 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  5062 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  5063 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  5064 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  5065 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  5066 no longer generated.
  5067 
  5068 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  5069 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  5070 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  5071 
  5072 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  5073 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  5074 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  5075 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  5076 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  5077 
  5078 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5079 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  5080 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  5081 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  5082 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  5083 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  5084 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  5085 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  5086 
  5087 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  5088 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  5089 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  5090 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  5091 
  5092 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5093 
  5094 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  5095 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  5096 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  5097 
  5098 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  5099 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5100 
  5101 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  5102 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  5103 in HOL, write
  5104 
  5105     class foo = ...
  5106 
  5107 instead of
  5108 
  5109     class foo = type + ...
  5110 
  5111 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  5112 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5113 
  5114 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  5115 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  5116 
  5117 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  5118 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  5119 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  5120 
  5121 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5122 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5123 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5124 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5125 directly in regular applications.
  5126 
  5127 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5128 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5129 
  5130 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5131 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5132 
  5133 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5134 theory context.
  5135 
  5136 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5137 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5138 
  5139 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5140 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5141 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5142 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5143 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5144 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5145 
  5146   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5147 
  5148 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5149 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5150 normalization.
  5151 
  5152 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5153 addressing etc.
  5154 
  5155 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5156 
  5157   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5158   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5159 
  5160 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5161 
  5162   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5163      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5164      parts of the code generator framework).
  5165 
  5166   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5167      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5168      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5169 
  5170 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5171 
  5172 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5173 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5174 
  5175 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5176 patterns, e.g.
  5177 
  5178     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5179 
  5180 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5181 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5182 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5183 hyphen:
  5184 
  5185     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5186 
  5187 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5188 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5189 
  5190 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5191 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5192 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5193 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5194 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5195 higher-order unification.
  5196 
  5197 
  5198 *** Document preparation ***
  5199 
  5200 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5201 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5202 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5203 
  5204 
  5205 *** HOL ***
  5206 
  5207 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5208 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5209 
  5210 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5211 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5212 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5213 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5214 Main, as before.
  5215 
  5216 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5217 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5218 
  5219 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5220 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5221 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5222 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5223 
  5224 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5225 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5226 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5227 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5228 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5229 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5230 
  5231 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5232 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5233 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5234 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5235 
  5236 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5237 menu.
  5238 
  5239 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5240 (contains the empty clause).
  5241 
  5242 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5243 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5244 
  5245 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5246 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5247 
  5248 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5249 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5250 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5251 
  5252 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5253 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5254 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5255 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5256 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5257 
  5258 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5259 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5260 
  5261 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5262 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5263 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5264 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5265 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5266 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5267 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5268 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5269 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5270 
  5271 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5272 
  5273 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5274 
  5275 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5276 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5277 
  5278 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5279 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5280 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5281 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5282 
  5283 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5284 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5285 
  5286     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5287     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5288     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5289     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5290     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5291     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5292     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5293     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5294 
  5295 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5296 theory Set.
  5297 
  5298 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5299 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5300 
  5301 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5302 
  5303 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5304 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5305 
  5306 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5307 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5308 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5309 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5310 allowed. For examples see
  5311 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5312 
  5313 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5314 
  5315 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5316 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5317 
  5318 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5319 structure:
  5320 
  5321     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5322     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5323     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5324     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5325     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5326     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5327     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5328     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5329     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5330     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5331     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5332     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5333     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5334     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5335     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5336     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5337     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5338     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5339     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5340     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5341     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5342     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5343     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5344     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5345     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5346     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5347     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5348     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5349     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5350     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5351     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5352     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5353     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5354 
  5355     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5356     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5357     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5358     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5359     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5360     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5361     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5362     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5363     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5364     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5365 
  5366     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5367     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5368     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5369     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5370     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5371     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5372 
  5373 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5374 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5375 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5376 
  5377 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5378 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5379 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5380 
  5381 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5382 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5383 
  5384 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5385 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5386 
  5387 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5388 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5389 proofs, e.g.
  5390 
  5391   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5392 
  5393 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5394 
  5395 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5396 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5397 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5398 
  5399 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5400 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5401 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5402 
  5403 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5404 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5405 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5406 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5407 
  5408 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5409 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5410 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5411 preorder_class.*.
  5412 
  5413 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5414 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5415 
  5416 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5417 
  5418   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5419 
  5420 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5421 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5422 fold_image.
  5423 
  5424 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5425 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5426 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5427 the former will disappear at some point.
  5428 
  5429 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5430 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5431 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5432 
  5433 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5434 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5435 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5436 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5437 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5438 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5439 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5440 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5441 
  5442 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5443 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5444 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5445 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5446 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5447 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5448 
  5449     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5450     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5451     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5452     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5453     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5454     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5455     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5456 
  5457 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5458 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5459 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5460 
  5461 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5462 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5463 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5464 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5465 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5466 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5467 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5468 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5469 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5470 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5471 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5472 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5473 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5474 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5475 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5476 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5477 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5478 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5479 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5480 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5481 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5482 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5483 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5484 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5485 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5486 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5487 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5488 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5489 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5490 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5491 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5492 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5493 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5494 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5495 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5496 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5497 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5498 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5499 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5500 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5501 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5502 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5503 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5504 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5505 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5506 
  5507 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5508 
  5509 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5510 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5511 
  5512 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5513 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5514 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5515 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5516 
  5517 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5518 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5519 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5520 theory RealVector.
  5521 
  5522 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5523 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5524 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5525 and inner products are included.
  5526 
  5527 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5528 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5529 supported.
  5530 
  5531 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5532 first diagonalization argument.
  5533 
  5534 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5535 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5536 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5537 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5538 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5539 
  5540     hide (open) const gcd
  5541     abbreviation gcd where
  5542       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5543     notation (output)
  5544       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5545 
  5546 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5547 
  5548 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5549 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5550 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5551 
  5552 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5553 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5554 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5555 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5556 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5557 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5558 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5559 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5560 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5561 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5562 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5563 cases.
  5564 
  5565 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5566 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5567 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5568 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5569 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5570 
  5571     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5572     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5573     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5574     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5575     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5576 
  5577 
  5578 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5579 
  5580 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5581 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5582 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5583 
  5584 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5585 
  5586 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5587 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5588 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5589 
  5590 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5591 
  5592 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5593 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5594 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5595 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5596 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5597 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5598 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5599 
  5600 
  5601 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5602 
  5603 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5604 
  5605 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5606 theory targets.
  5607 
  5608 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5609 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5610 'inductive' etc.
  5611 
  5612 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5613 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5614 
  5615 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5616 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5617 
  5618 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5619 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5620 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5621 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5622 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5623 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5624 the algorithm W:
  5625 
  5626  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5627  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5628          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5629 
  5630 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5631 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5632 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5633 
  5634 
  5635 *** HOLCF ***
  5636 
  5637 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5638 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5639 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5640 
  5641 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5642 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5643 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5644 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5645 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5646 
  5647 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5648 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5649 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5650 
  5651 
  5652 *** ZF ***
  5653 
  5654 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5655 
  5656 
  5657 *** ML ***
  5658 
  5659 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5660 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5661 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5662 5.2.1!
  5663 
  5664 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5665 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5666 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5667 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5668 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5669 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5670 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5671 
  5672 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5673 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5674 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5675 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5676 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5677 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5678 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5679 
  5680 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5681 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5682 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5683 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5684 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5685 
  5686 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5687 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5688 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5689 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5690 Method.add_method.
  5691 
  5692 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5693 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5694 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5695 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5696 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5697 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5698 
  5699 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5700 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5701 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5702 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5703 examples.
  5704 
  5705 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5706 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5707 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5708 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5709 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5710 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5711 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5712 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5713 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5714 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5715 
  5716 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5717 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5718 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5719 
  5720 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5721 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5722 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5723 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5724 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5725 resort for legacy applications.
  5726 
  5727 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5728 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5729 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5730 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5731 explicit runtime argument.
  5732 
  5733 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5734 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5735 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5736 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5737 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5738 
  5739 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5740 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5741 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5742 theory state.
  5743 
  5744 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5745 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5746 
  5747   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5748   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5749   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5750   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5751   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5752   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5753   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5754   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5755   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5756   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5757 
  5758 
  5759 *** System ***
  5760 
  5761 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5762 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5763 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5764 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5765 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5766 
  5767 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5768 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5769 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5770 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5771 
  5772 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5773 
  5774 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5775 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5776 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5777 prover operations.
  5778 
  5779 
  5780 
  5781 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5782 -------------------------------
  5783 
  5784 *** General ***
  5785 
  5786 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5787 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5788 
  5789 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5790 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5791 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5792 provides a proper context already.
  5793 
  5794 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5795 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5796 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5797 
  5798 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5799 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5800 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5801 swap theory imports.
  5802 
  5803 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5804 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5805 
  5806 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5807 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5808 white space without escapes.
  5809 
  5810 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5811 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5812 "foo_bar".
  5813 
  5814 
  5815 *** Pure ***
  5816 
  5817 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5818 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5819 
  5820 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5821 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5822 
  5823 (1) unused_thms
  5824      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5825 
  5826 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5827      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5828      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5829 
  5830 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5831      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5832      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5833      their ancestors.
  5834 
  5835 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5836 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5837 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5838 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5839 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5840 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5841 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5842 
  5843 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5844 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5845 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5846 
  5847 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5848 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5849 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5850 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5851 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5852 
  5853 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5854 
  5855 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5856 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5857 update of theories within ML code.
  5858 
  5859 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5860 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5861 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5862 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5863 
  5864 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5865 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5866 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5867 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5868 
  5869 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5870 
  5871 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5872 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5873 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5874 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5875 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5876 
  5877 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5878 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5879 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5880 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5881 situations.
  5882 
  5883 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5884 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5885 proof text.
  5886 
  5887 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5888 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5889 
  5890 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5891 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5892 predicates.
  5893 
  5894 
  5895 *** Document preparation ***
  5896 
  5897 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5898 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5899 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5900 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5901 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5902 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5903 
  5904 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5905 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5906 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5907 
  5908 
  5909 *** HOL ***
  5910 
  5911 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5912 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5913 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5914 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5915 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5916 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5917 
  5918 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5919 with multithreading.
  5920 
  5921 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5922 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5923 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5924 
  5925 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5926 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5927 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5928 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5929 
  5930 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5931 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5932 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5933 and makes them available separately.  See
  5934 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5935 
  5936 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5937 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5938 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5939 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5940 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5941 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5942 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5943 the declared rules.
  5944 
  5945 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5946 
  5947   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5948 
  5949 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5950 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5951 
  5952 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5953 
  5954   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5955 
  5956   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5957     definitions on => and bool.
  5958 
  5959   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5960     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5961     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5962 
  5963       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5964       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5965       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5966       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5967       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5968       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5969       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5970       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5971 
  5972   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5973     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5974     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5975 
  5976   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5977     The proof pattern
  5978 
  5979       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5980       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5981 
  5982     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5983     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5984 
  5985       have "EX S. P S"
  5986       proof
  5987         show "P S" <...>
  5988       qed
  5989 
  5990   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5991     The proof pattern
  5992 
  5993       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5994       also have "S = T" <...>
  5995       finally have "P T" .
  5996 
  5997     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5998     must be replaced by something like
  5999 
  6000       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6001       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  6002       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  6003 
  6004   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  6005     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  6006 
  6007       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  6008 
  6009     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  6010     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  6011     type of the form
  6012 
  6013       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  6014 
  6015     rather than
  6016 
  6017       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  6018 
  6019 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  6020 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  6021 
  6022 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6023 
  6024 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  6025 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  6026 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6027 
  6028 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  6029 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6030 
  6031 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  6032 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6033 
  6034 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  6035 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  6036 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6037 
  6038 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  6039 the same name in theory Orderings:
  6040 
  6041   less_trans
  6042   less_linear
  6043   le_imp_less_or_eq
  6044   le_less_trans
  6045   less_le_trans
  6046   less_not_sym
  6047   less_asym
  6048 
  6049 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  6050 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  6051 and different variable names.
  6052 
  6053 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  6054 
  6055 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  6056 finite maps.
  6057 
  6058 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  6059 
  6060 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  6061 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  6062 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  6063 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  6064 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  6065 accordingly.
  6066 
  6067 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  6068 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  6069 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  6070 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  6071 
  6072 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  6073 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  6074 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  6075 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  6076 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  6077 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6078 
  6079 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  6080 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6081 
  6082 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  6083 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  6084 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  6085 
  6086 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  6087 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6088 
  6089 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  6090 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  6091 
  6092 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  6093 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6094 
  6095 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  6096 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6097 
  6098 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  6099 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  6100 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6101 
  6102 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  6103 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6104 
  6105 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  6106 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  6107 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  6108 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  6109 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  6110 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6111 
  6112 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  6113 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  6114 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  6115 
  6116 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  6117 
  6118 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  6119 
  6120 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  6121 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  6122 well-orders on sets and on types.
  6123 
  6124 
  6125 *** ZF ***
  6126 
  6127 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  6128 same session:
  6129 
  6130   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  6131   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  6132   Int       -> Int_ZF
  6133   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  6134   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  6135   List      -> List_ZF
  6136   Main      -> Main_ZF
  6137 
  6138 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  6139 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  6140 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  6141 
  6142 
  6143 *** ML ***
  6144 
  6145 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  6146 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  6147 
  6148 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  6149 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  6150 
  6151 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  6152 
  6153 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  6154 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  6155 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  6156 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  6157 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6158 
  6159 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  6160 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  6161 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  6162 
  6163 
  6164 *** System ***
  6165 
  6166 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  6167 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  6168 
  6169 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  6170 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  6171 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  6172 
  6173 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  6174 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  6175 
  6176 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  6177 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  6178 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  6179 
  6180 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  6181 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  6182 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  6183 
  6184 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  6185 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  6186 
  6187 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  6188 way of changing the user's settings is via
  6189 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  6190 script.
  6191 
  6192 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  6193 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  6194 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  6195 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  6196 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  6197 
  6198 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  6199 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  6200 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  6201 
  6202 
  6203 
  6204 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  6205 -----------------------------------
  6206 
  6207 *** General ***
  6208 
  6209 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  6210 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  6211 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6212 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  6213 
  6214 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  6215 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  6216 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6217 
  6218 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  6219 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  6220 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  6221 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6222 
  6223 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  6224 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  6225 quotes.
  6226 
  6227 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  6228 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  6229 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  6230 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  6231 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  6232 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  6233 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  6234 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  6235 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  6236 
  6237 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  6238 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  6239 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  6240 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  6241 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  6242 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  6243 
  6244 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  6245 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  6246 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  6247 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  6248 
  6249 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  6250 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  6251 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  6252 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  6253 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  6254 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  6255 
  6256 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  6257 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  6258 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  6259 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  6260 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  6261 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  6262 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  6263 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  6264 
  6265 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  6266 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  6267 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  6268 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).