NEWS
author haftmann
Wed Jan 04 21:28:29 2017 +0100 (2017-01-04)
changeset 64786 340db65fd2c1
parent 64785 ae0bbc8e45ad
child 64787 067cacdd1117
permissions -rw-r--r--
reworked to provide auxiliary operations Euclidean_Algorithm.* to instantiate gcd etc. for euclidean rings
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history of user-relevant changes
     2 =================================================
     3 
     4 (Note: Isabelle/jEdit shows a tree-view of the NEWS file in Sidekick.)
     5 
     6 
     7 New in this Isabelle version
     8 ----------------------------
     9 
    10 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    11 
    12 * Command-line invocation "isabelle jedit -R -l LOGIC" opens the ROOT
    13 entry of the specified logic session in the editor, while its parent is
    14 used for formal checking.
    15 
    16 
    17 *** HOL ***
    18 
    19 * Dropped aliasses RangeP, DomainP for Rangep, Domainp respectively.
    20 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    21 
    22 * Dropped abbreviation transP, antisymP, single_valuedP;
    23 use constants transp, antisymp, single_valuedp instead.
    24 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    25 
    26 * Algebraic type class hierarchy of euclidean (semi)rings in HOL:
    27 euclidean_(semi)ring, euclidean_(semi)ring_cancel,
    28 unique_euclidean_(semi)ring; instantiation requires
    29 provision of a euclidean size.
    30 
    31 * Reworking of theory Euclidean_Algorithm in session HOL-Number_Theory:
    32   - Euclidean induction is available as rule eucl_induct;
    33   - Constants Euclidean_Algorithm.gcd, Euclidean_Algorithm.lcm,
    34     Euclidean_Algorithm.Gcd and Euclidean_Algorithm.Lcm allow
    35     easy instantiation of euclidean (semi)rings as GCD (semi)rings.
    36   - Coefficients obtained by extended euclidean algorithm are
    37     available as "bezout_coefficients".
    38 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    39 
    40 * Swapped orientation of congruence rules mod_add_left_eq,
    41 mod_add_right_eq, mod_add_eq, mod_mult_left_eq, mod_mult_right_eq,
    42 mod_mult_eq, mod_minus_eq, mod_diff_left_eq, mod_diff_right_eq,
    43 mod_diff_eq.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    44 
    45 * Generalized some facts:
    46     zminus_zmod ~> mod_minus_eq
    47     zdiff_zmod_left ~> mod_diff_left_eq
    48     zdiff_zmod_right ~> mod_diff_right_eq
    49     zmod_eq_dvd_iff ~> mod_eq_dvd_iff
    50 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    51 
    52 * Named collection mod_simps covers various congruence rules
    53 concerning mod, replacing former zmod_simps.
    54 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    55 
    56 * (Co)datatype package:
    57   - The 'size_gen_o_map' lemma is no longer generated for datatypes
    58     with type class annotations. As a result, the tactic that derives
    59     it no longer fails on nested datatypes. Slight INCOMPATIBILITY.
    60 
    61 * The theorem in Permutations has been renamed:
    62   bij_swap_ompose_bij ~> bij_swap_compose_bij
    63 
    64 
    65 New in Isabelle2016-1 (December 2016)
    66 -------------------------------------
    67 
    68 *** General ***
    69 
    70 * Splitter in proof methods "simp", "auto" and friends:
    71   - The syntax "split add" has been discontinued, use plain "split",
    72     INCOMPATIBILITY.
    73   - For situations with many conditional or case expressions, there is
    74     an alternative splitting strategy that can be much faster. It is
    75     selected by writing "split!" instead of "split". It applies safe
    76     introduction and elimination rules after each split rule. As a
    77     result the subgoal may be split into several subgoals.
    78 
    79 * Command 'bundle' provides a local theory target to define a bundle
    80 from the body of specification commands (such as 'declare',
    81 'declaration', 'notation', 'lemmas', 'lemma'). For example:
    82 
    83 bundle foo
    84 begin
    85   declare a [simp]
    86   declare b [intro]
    87 end
    88 
    89 * Command 'unbundle' is like 'include', but works within a local theory
    90 context. Unlike "context includes ... begin", the effect of 'unbundle'
    91 on the target context persists, until different declarations are given.
    92 
    93 * Simplified outer syntax: uniform category "name" includes long
    94 identifiers. Former "xname" / "nameref" / "name reference" has been
    95 discontinued.
    96 
    97 * Embedded content (e.g. the inner syntax of types, terms, props) may be
    98 delimited uniformly via cartouches. This works better than old-fashioned
    99 quotes when sub-languages are nested.
   100 
   101 * Mixfix annotations support general block properties, with syntax
   102 "(\<open>x=a y=b z \<dots>\<close>". Notable property names are "indent", "consistent",
   103 "unbreakable", "markup". The existing notation "(DIGITS" is equivalent
   104 to "(\<open>indent=DIGITS\<close>". The former notation "(00" for unbreakable blocks
   105 is superseded by "(\<open>unbreabable\<close>" --- rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   106 
   107 * Proof method "blast" is more robust wrt. corner cases of Pure
   108 statements without object-logic judgment.
   109 
   110 * Commands 'prf' and 'full_prf' are somewhat more informative (again):
   111 proof terms are reconstructed and cleaned from administrative thm nodes.
   112 
   113 * Code generator: config option "code_timing" triggers measurements of
   114 different phases of code generation. See src/HOL/ex/Code_Timing.thy for
   115 examples.
   116 
   117 * Code generator: implicits in Scala (stemming from type class
   118 instances) are generated into companion object of corresponding type
   119 class, to resolve some situations where ambiguities may occur.
   120 
   121 * Solve direct: option "solve_direct_strict_warnings" gives explicit
   122 warnings for lemma statements with trivial proofs.
   123 
   124 
   125 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   126 
   127 * More aggressive flushing of machine-generated input, according to
   128 system option editor_generated_input_delay (in addition to existing
   129 editor_input_delay for regular user edits). This may affect overall PIDE
   130 reactivity and CPU usage.
   131 
   132 * Syntactic indentation according to Isabelle outer syntax. Action
   133 "indent-lines" (shortcut C+i) indents the current line according to
   134 command keywords and some command substructure. Action
   135 "isabelle.newline" (shortcut ENTER) indents the old and the new line
   136 according to command keywords only; see also option
   137 "jedit_indent_newline".
   138 
   139 * Semantic indentation for unstructured proof scripts ('apply' etc.) via
   140 number of subgoals. This requires information of ongoing document
   141 processing and may thus lag behind, when the user is editing too
   142 quickly; see also option "jedit_script_indent" and
   143 "jedit_script_indent_limit".
   144 
   145 * Refined folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax: 'next' and 'qed'
   146 are treated as delimiters for fold structure; 'begin' and 'end'
   147 structure of theory specifications is treated as well.
   148 
   149 * Command 'proof' provides information about proof outline with cases,
   150 e.g. for proof methods "cases", "induct", "goal_cases".
   151 
   152 * Completion templates for commands involving "begin ... end" blocks,
   153 e.g. 'context', 'notepad'.
   154 
   155 * Sidekick parser "isabelle-context" shows nesting of context blocks
   156 according to 'begin' and 'end' structure.
   157 
   158 * Highlighting of entity def/ref positions wrt. cursor.
   159 
   160 * Action "isabelle.select-entity" (shortcut CS+ENTER) selects all
   161 occurrences of the formal entity at the caret position. This facilitates
   162 systematic renaming.
   163 
   164 * PIDE document markup works across multiple Isar commands, e.g. the
   165 results established at the end of a proof are properly identified in the
   166 theorem statement.
   167 
   168 * Cartouche abbreviations work both for " and ` to accomodate typical
   169 situations where old ASCII notation may be updated.
   170 
   171 * Dockable window "Symbols" also provides access to 'abbrevs' from the
   172 outer syntax of the current theory buffer. This provides clickable
   173 syntax templates, including entries with empty abbrevs name (which are
   174 inaccessible via keyboard completion).
   175 
   176 * IDE support for the Isabelle/Pure bootstrap process, with the
   177 following independent stages:
   178 
   179   src/Pure/ROOT0.ML
   180   src/Pure/ROOT.ML
   181   src/Pure/Pure.thy
   182   src/Pure/ML_Bootstrap.thy
   183 
   184 The ML ROOT files act like quasi-theories in the context of theory
   185 ML_Bootstrap: this allows continuous checking of all loaded ML files.
   186 The theory files are presented with a modified header to import Pure
   187 from the running Isabelle instance. Results from changed versions of
   188 each stage are *not* propagated to the next stage, and isolated from the
   189 actual Isabelle/Pure that runs the IDE itself. The sequential
   190 dependencies of the above files are only observed for batch build.
   191 
   192 * Isabelle/ML and Standard ML files are presented in Sidekick with the
   193 tree structure of section headings: this special comment format is
   194 described in "implementation" chapter 0, e.g. (*** section ***).
   195 
   196 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified
   197 within the theory header as 'abbrevs'. The theory syntax for 'keywords'
   198 has been simplified accordingly: optional abbrevs need to go into the
   199 new 'abbrevs' section.
   200 
   201 * Global abbreviations via $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and
   202 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs are no longer supported. Minor
   203 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'abbrevs' within theory header instead.
   204 
   205 * Action "isabelle.keymap-merge" asks the user to resolve pending
   206 Isabelle keymap changes that are in conflict with the current jEdit
   207 keymap; non-conflicting changes are always applied implicitly. This
   208 action is automatically invoked on Isabelle/jEdit startup and thus
   209 increases chances that users see new keyboard shortcuts when re-using
   210 old keymaps.
   211 
   212 * ML and document antiquotations for file-systems paths are more uniform
   213 and diverse:
   214 
   215   @{path NAME}   -- no file-system check
   216   @{file NAME}   -- check for plain file
   217   @{dir NAME}    -- check for directory
   218 
   219 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, former uses of @{file} and @{file_unchecked} may
   220 have to be changed.
   221 
   222 
   223 *** Document preparation ***
   224 
   225 * New symbol \<circle>, e.g. for temporal operator.
   226 
   227 * New document and ML antiquotation @{locale} for locales, similar to
   228 existing antiquotation @{class}.
   229 
   230 * Mixfix annotations support delimiters like \<^control>\<open>cartouche\<close> --
   231 this allows special forms of document output.
   232 
   233 * Raw LaTeX output now works via \<^latex>\<open>...\<close> instead of raw control
   234 symbol \<^raw:...>. INCOMPATIBILITY, notably for LaTeXsugar.thy and its
   235 derivatives.
   236 
   237 * \<^raw:...> symbols are no longer supported.
   238 
   239 * Old 'header' command is no longer supported (legacy since
   240 Isabelle2015).
   241 
   242 
   243 *** Isar ***
   244 
   245 * Many specification elements support structured statements with 'if' /
   246 'for' eigen-context, e.g. 'axiomatization', 'abbreviation',
   247 'definition', 'inductive', 'function'.
   248 
   249 * Toplevel theorem statements support eigen-context notation with 'if' /
   250 'for' (in postfix), which corresponds to 'assumes' / 'fixes' in the
   251 traditional long statement form (in prefix). Local premises are called
   252 "that" or "assms", respectively. Empty premises are *not* bound in the
   253 context: INCOMPATIBILITY.
   254 
   255 * Command 'define' introduces a local (non-polymorphic) definition, with
   256 optional abstraction over local parameters. The syntax resembles
   257 'definition' and 'obtain'. It fits better into the Isar language than
   258 old 'def', which is now a legacy feature.
   259 
   260 * Command 'obtain' supports structured statements with 'if' / 'for'
   261 context.
   262 
   263 * Command '\<proof>' is an alias for 'sorry', with different
   264 typesetting. E.g. to produce proof holes in examples and documentation.
   265 
   266 * The defining position of a literal fact \<open>prop\<close> is maintained more
   267 carefully, and made accessible as hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
   268 
   269 * Commands 'finally' and 'ultimately' used to expose the result as
   270 literal fact: this accidental behaviour has been discontinued. Rare
   271 INCOMPATIBILITY, use more explicit means to refer to facts in Isar.
   272 
   273 * Command 'axiomatization' has become more restrictive to correspond
   274 better to internal axioms as singleton facts with mandatory name. Minor
   275 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   276 
   277 * Proof methods may refer to the main facts via the dynamic fact
   278 "method_facts". This is particularly useful for Eisbach method
   279 definitions.
   280 
   281 * Proof method "use" allows to modify the main facts of a given method
   282 expression, e.g.
   283 
   284   (use facts in simp)
   285   (use facts in \<open>simp add: ...\<close>)
   286 
   287 * The old proof method "default" has been removed (legacy since
   288 Isabelle2016). INCOMPATIBILITY, use "standard" instead.
   289 
   290 
   291 *** Pure ***
   292 
   293 * Pure provides basic versions of proof methods "simp" and "simp_all"
   294 that only know about meta-equality (==). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in
   295 theory imports that merge Pure with e.g. Main of Isabelle/HOL: the order
   296 is relevant to avoid confusion of Pure.simp vs. HOL.simp.
   297 
   298 * The command 'unfolding' and proof method "unfold" include a second
   299 stage where given equations are passed through the attribute "abs_def"
   300 before rewriting. This ensures that definitions are fully expanded,
   301 regardless of the actual parameters that are provided. Rare
   302 INCOMPATIBILITY in some corner cases: use proof method (simp only:)
   303 instead, or declare [[unfold_abs_def = false]] in the proof context.
   304 
   305 * Type-inference improves sorts of newly introduced type variables for
   306 the object-logic, using its base sort (i.e. HOL.type for Isabelle/HOL).
   307 Thus terms like "f x" or "\<And>x. P x" without any further syntactic context
   308 produce x::'a::type in HOL instead of x::'a::{} in Pure. Rare
   309 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide explicit type constraints for Pure
   310 types where this is really intended.
   311 
   312 
   313 *** HOL ***
   314 
   315 * New proof method "argo" using the built-in Argo solver based on SMT
   316 technology. The method can be used to prove goals of quantifier-free
   317 propositional logic, goals based on a combination of quantifier-free
   318 propositional logic with equality, and goals based on a combination of
   319 quantifier-free propositional logic with linear real arithmetic
   320 including min/max/abs. See HOL/ex/Argo_Examples.thy for examples.
   321 
   322 * The new "nunchaku" program integrates the Nunchaku model finder. The
   323 tool is experimental. See ~~/src/HOL/Nunchaku/Nunchaku.thy for details.
   324 
   325 * Metis: The problem encoding has changed very slightly. This might
   326 break existing proofs. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   327 
   328 * Sledgehammer:
   329   - The MaSh relevance filter is now faster than before.
   330   - Produce syntactically correct Vampire 4.0 problem files.
   331 
   332 * (Co)datatype package:
   333   - New commands for defining corecursive functions and reasoning about
   334     them in "~~/src/HOL/Library/BNF_Corec.thy": 'corec', 'corecursive',
   335     'friend_of_corec', and 'corecursion_upto'; and 'corec_unique' proof
   336     method. See 'isabelle doc corec'.
   337   - The predicator :: ('a \<Rightarrow> bool) \<Rightarrow> 'a F \<Rightarrow> bool is now a first-class
   338     citizen in bounded natural functors.
   339   - 'primrec' now allows nested calls through the predicator in addition
   340     to the map function.
   341   - 'bnf' automatically discharges reflexive proof obligations.
   342   - 'bnf' outputs a slightly modified proof obligation expressing rel in
   343        terms of map and set
   344        (not giving a specification for rel makes this one reflexive).
   345   - 'bnf' outputs a new proof obligation expressing pred in terms of set
   346        (not giving a specification for pred makes this one reflexive).
   347     INCOMPATIBILITY: manual 'bnf' declarations may need adjustment.
   348   - Renamed lemmas:
   349       rel_prod_apply ~> rel_prod_inject
   350       pred_prod_apply ~> pred_prod_inject
   351     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   352   - The "size" plugin has been made compatible again with locales.
   353   - The theorems about "rel" and "set" may have a slightly different (but
   354     equivalent) form.
   355     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   356 
   357 * The 'coinductive' command produces a proper coinduction rule for
   358 mutual coinductive predicates. This new rule replaces the old rule,
   359 which exposed details of the internal fixpoint construction and was
   360 hard to use. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   361 
   362 * New abbreviations for negated existence (but not bounded existence):
   363 
   364   \<nexists>x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>x. P x)
   365   \<nexists>!x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>!x. P x)
   366 
   367 * The print mode "HOL" for ASCII syntax of binders "!", "?", "?!", "@"
   368 has been removed for output. It is retained for input only, until it is
   369 eliminated altogether.
   370 
   371 * The unique existence quantifier no longer provides 'binder' syntax,
   372 but uses syntax translations (as for bounded unique existence). Thus
   373 iterated quantification \<exists>!x y. P x y with its slightly confusing
   374 sequential meaning \<exists>!x. \<exists>!y. P x y is no longer possible. Instead,
   375 pattern abstraction admits simultaneous unique existence \<exists>!(x, y). P x y
   376 (analogous to existing notation \<exists>!(x, y)\<in>A. P x y). Potential
   377 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.
   378 
   379 * Conventional syntax "%(). t" for unit abstractions. Slight syntactic
   380 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   381 
   382 * Renamed constants and corresponding theorems:
   383 
   384     setsum ~> sum
   385     setprod ~> prod
   386     listsum ~> sum_list
   387     listprod ~> prod_list
   388 
   389 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   390 
   391 * Sligthly more standardized theorem names:
   392     sgn_times ~> sgn_mult
   393     sgn_mult' ~> Real_Vector_Spaces.sgn_mult
   394     divide_zero_left ~> div_0
   395     zero_mod_left ~> mod_0
   396     divide_zero ~> div_by_0
   397     divide_1 ~> div_by_1
   398     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_left ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
   399     div_mult_self1_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
   400     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_right ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
   401     div_mult_self2_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
   402     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_left ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_left
   403     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_right ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_right
   404     mod_div_equality ~> div_mult_mod_eq
   405     mod_div_equality2 ~> mult_div_mod_eq
   406     mod_div_equality3 ~> mod_div_mult_eq
   407     mod_div_equality4 ~> mod_mult_div_eq
   408     minus_div_eq_mod ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod
   409     minus_div_eq_mod2 ~> minus_mult_div_eq_mod
   410     minus_mod_eq_div ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult
   411     minus_mod_eq_div2 ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div
   412     div_mod_equality' ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult [symmetric]
   413     mod_div_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
   414     zmod_zdiv_equality ~> mult_div_mod_eq [symmetric]
   415     zmod_zdiv_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
   416     Divides.mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
   417     mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
   418     zmult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
   419     div_1 ~> div_by_Suc_0
   420     mod_1 ~> mod_by_Suc_0
   421 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   422 
   423 * New type class "idom_abs_sgn" specifies algebraic properties
   424 of sign and absolute value functions.  Type class "sgn_if" has
   425 disappeared.  Slight INCOMPATIBILITY.
   426 
   427 * Dedicated syntax LENGTH('a) for length of types.
   428 
   429 * Characters (type char) are modelled as finite algebraic type
   430 corresponding to {0..255}.
   431 
   432   - Logical representation:
   433     * 0 is instantiated to the ASCII zero character.
   434     * All other characters are represented as "Char n"
   435       with n being a raw numeral expression less than 256.
   436     * Expressions of the form "Char n" with n greater than 255
   437       are non-canonical.
   438   - Printing and parsing:
   439     * Printable characters are printed and parsed as "CHR ''\<dots>''"
   440       (as before).
   441     * The ASCII zero character is printed and parsed as "0".
   442     * All other canonical characters are printed as "CHR 0xXX"
   443       with XX being the hexadecimal character code.  "CHR n"
   444       is parsable for every numeral expression n.
   445     * Non-canonical characters have no special syntax and are
   446       printed as their logical representation.
   447   - Explicit conversions from and to the natural numbers are
   448     provided as char_of_nat, nat_of_char (as before).
   449   - The auxiliary nibble type has been discontinued.
   450 
   451 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   452 
   453 * Type class "div" with operation "mod" renamed to type class "modulo"
   454 with operation "modulo", analogously to type class "divide". This
   455 eliminates the need to qualify any of those names in the presence of
   456 infix "mod" syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   457 
   458 * Statements and proofs of Knaster-Tarski fixpoint combinators lfp/gfp
   459 have been clarified. The fixpoint properties are lfp_fixpoint, its
   460 symmetric lfp_unfold (as before), and the duals for gfp. Auxiliary items
   461 for the proof (lfp_lemma2 etc.) are no longer exported, but can be
   462 easily recovered by composition with eq_refl. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   463 
   464 * Constant "surj" is a mere input abbreviation, to avoid hiding an
   465 equation in term output. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   466 
   467 * Command 'code_reflect' accepts empty constructor lists for datatypes,
   468 which renders those abstract effectively.
   469 
   470 * Command 'export_code' checks given constants for abstraction
   471 violations: a small guarantee that given constants specify a safe
   472 interface for the generated code.
   473 
   474 * Code generation for Scala: ambiguous implicts in class diagrams are
   475 spelt out explicitly.
   476 
   477 * Static evaluators (Code_Evaluation.static_* in Isabelle/ML) rely on
   478 explicitly provided auxiliary definitions for required type class
   479 dictionaries rather than half-working magic. INCOMPATIBILITY, see the
   480 tutorial on code generation for details.
   481 
   482 * Theory Set_Interval: substantial new theorems on indexed sums and
   483 products.
   484 
   485 * Locale bijection establishes convenient default simp rules such as
   486 "inv f (f a) = a" for total bijections.
   487 
   488 * Abstract locales semigroup, abel_semigroup, semilattice,
   489 semilattice_neutr, ordering, ordering_top, semilattice_order,
   490 semilattice_neutr_order, comm_monoid_set, semilattice_set,
   491 semilattice_neutr_set, semilattice_order_set,
   492 semilattice_order_neutr_set monoid_list, comm_monoid_list,
   493 comm_monoid_list_set, comm_monoid_mset, comm_monoid_fun use boldified
   494 syntax uniformly that does not clash with corresponding global syntax.
   495 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   496 
   497 * Former locale lifting_syntax is now a bundle, which is easier to
   498 include in a local context or theorem statement, e.g. "context includes
   499 lifting_syntax begin ... end". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   500 
   501 * Some old / obsolete theorems have been renamed / removed, potential
   502 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   503 
   504   nat_less_cases  --  removed, use linorder_cases instead
   505   inv_image_comp  --  removed, use image_inv_f_f instead
   506   image_surj_f_inv_f  ~>  image_f_inv_f
   507 
   508 * Some theorems about groups and orders have been generalised from
   509   groups to semi-groups that are also monoids:
   510     le_add_same_cancel1
   511     le_add_same_cancel2
   512     less_add_same_cancel1
   513     less_add_same_cancel2
   514     add_le_same_cancel1
   515     add_le_same_cancel2
   516     add_less_same_cancel1
   517     add_less_same_cancel2
   518 
   519 * Some simplifications theorems about rings have been removed, since
   520   superseeded by a more general version:
   521     less_add_cancel_left_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel1
   522     less_add_cancel_right_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel2
   523     less_eq_add_cancel_left_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel1
   524     less_eq_add_cancel_right_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel2
   525     less_eq_add_cancel_left_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel1
   526     less_eq_add_cancel_right_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel2
   527     less_add_cancel_left_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel1
   528     less_add_cancel_right_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel2
   529 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   530 
   531 * Renamed split_if -> if_split and split_if_asm -> if_split_asm to
   532 resemble the f.split naming convention, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   533 
   534 * Added class topological_monoid.
   535 
   536 * The following theorems have been renamed:
   537 
   538   setsum_left_distrib ~> sum_distrib_right
   539   setsum_right_distrib ~> sum_distrib_left
   540 
   541 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   542 
   543 * Compound constants INFIMUM and SUPREMUM are mere abbreviations now.
   544 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   545 
   546 * "Gcd (f ` A)" and "Lcm (f ` A)" are printed with optional
   547 comprehension-like syntax analogously to "Inf (f ` A)" and "Sup (f `
   548 A)".
   549 
   550 * Class semiring_Lcd merged into semiring_Gcd. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   551 
   552 * The type class ordered_comm_monoid_add is now called
   553 ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add. A new type class ordered_comm_monoid_add
   554 is introduced as the combination of ordered_ab_semigroup_add +
   555 comm_monoid_add. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   556 
   557 * Introduced the type classes canonically_ordered_comm_monoid_add and
   558 dioid.
   559 
   560 * Introduced the type class ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. When
   561 instantiating linordered_semiring_strict and ordered_ab_group_add, an
   562 explicit instantiation of ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le might
   563 be required. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   564 
   565 * Dropped various legacy fact bindings, whose replacements are often
   566 of a more general type also:
   567   lcm_left_commute_nat ~> lcm.left_commute
   568   lcm_left_commute_int ~> lcm.left_commute
   569   gcd_left_commute_nat ~> gcd.left_commute
   570   gcd_left_commute_int ~> gcd.left_commute
   571   gcd_greatest_iff_nat ~> gcd_greatest_iff
   572   gcd_greatest_iff_int ~> gcd_greatest_iff
   573   coprime_dvd_mult_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult
   574   coprime_dvd_mult_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult
   575   zpower_numeral_even ~> power_numeral_even
   576   gcd_mult_cancel_nat ~> gcd_mult_cancel
   577   gcd_mult_cancel_int ~> gcd_mult_cancel
   578   div_gcd_coprime_nat ~> div_gcd_coprime
   579   div_gcd_coprime_int ~> div_gcd_coprime
   580   zpower_numeral_odd ~> power_numeral_odd
   581   zero_less_int_conv ~> of_nat_0_less_iff
   582   gcd_greatest_nat ~> gcd_greatest
   583   gcd_greatest_int ~> gcd_greatest
   584   coprime_mult_nat ~> coprime_mult
   585   coprime_mult_int ~> coprime_mult
   586   lcm_commute_nat ~> lcm.commute
   587   lcm_commute_int ~> lcm.commute
   588   int_less_0_conv ~> of_nat_less_0_iff
   589   gcd_commute_nat ~> gcd.commute
   590   gcd_commute_int ~> gcd.commute
   591   Gcd_insert_nat ~> Gcd_insert
   592   Gcd_insert_int ~> Gcd_insert
   593   of_int_int_eq ~> of_int_of_nat_eq
   594   lcm_least_nat ~> lcm_least
   595   lcm_least_int ~> lcm_least
   596   lcm_assoc_nat ~> lcm.assoc
   597   lcm_assoc_int ~> lcm.assoc
   598   int_le_0_conv ~> of_nat_le_0_iff
   599   int_eq_0_conv ~> of_nat_eq_0_iff
   600   Gcd_empty_nat ~> Gcd_empty
   601   Gcd_empty_int ~> Gcd_empty
   602   gcd_assoc_nat ~> gcd.assoc
   603   gcd_assoc_int ~> gcd.assoc
   604   zero_zle_int ~> of_nat_0_le_iff
   605   lcm_dvd2_nat ~> dvd_lcm2
   606   lcm_dvd2_int ~> dvd_lcm2
   607   lcm_dvd1_nat ~> dvd_lcm1
   608   lcm_dvd1_int ~> dvd_lcm1
   609   gcd_zero_nat ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
   610   gcd_zero_int ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
   611   gcd_dvd2_nat ~> gcd_dvd2
   612   gcd_dvd2_int ~> gcd_dvd2
   613   gcd_dvd1_nat ~> gcd_dvd1
   614   gcd_dvd1_int ~> gcd_dvd1
   615   int_numeral ~> of_nat_numeral
   616   lcm_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
   617   lcm_ac_int ~> ac_simps
   618   gcd_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
   619   gcd_ac_int ~> ac_simps
   620   abs_int_eq ~> abs_of_nat
   621   zless_int ~> of_nat_less_iff
   622   zdiff_int ~> of_nat_diff
   623   zadd_int ~> of_nat_add
   624   int_mult ~> of_nat_mult
   625   int_Suc ~> of_nat_Suc
   626   inj_int ~> inj_of_nat
   627   int_1 ~> of_nat_1
   628   int_0 ~> of_nat_0
   629   Lcm_empty_nat ~> Lcm_empty
   630   Lcm_empty_int ~> Lcm_empty
   631   Lcm_insert_nat ~> Lcm_insert
   632   Lcm_insert_int ~> Lcm_insert
   633   comp_fun_idem_gcd_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
   634   comp_fun_idem_gcd_int ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
   635   comp_fun_idem_lcm_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
   636   comp_fun_idem_lcm_int ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
   637   Lcm_eq_0 ~> Lcm_eq_0_I
   638   Lcm0_iff ~> Lcm_0_iff
   639   Lcm_dvd_int ~> Lcm_least
   640   divides_mult_nat ~> divides_mult
   641   divides_mult_int ~> divides_mult
   642   lcm_0_nat ~> lcm_0_right
   643   lcm_0_int ~> lcm_0_right
   644   lcm_0_left_nat ~> lcm_0_left
   645   lcm_0_left_int ~> lcm_0_left
   646   dvd_gcd_D1_nat ~> dvd_gcdD1
   647   dvd_gcd_D1_int ~> dvd_gcdD1
   648   dvd_gcd_D2_nat ~> dvd_gcdD2
   649   dvd_gcd_D2_int ~> dvd_gcdD2
   650   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
   651   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
   652   realpow_minus_mult ~> power_minus_mult
   653   realpow_Suc_le_self ~> power_Suc_le_self
   654   dvd_Gcd, dvd_Gcd_nat, dvd_Gcd_int removed in favour of Gcd_greatest
   655 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   656 
   657 * Renamed HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy to
   658 HOL/Quotient_Examples/Quotient_FSet.thy INCOMPATIBILITY.
   659 
   660 * Session HOL-Library: theory FinFun bundles "finfun_syntax" and
   661 "no_finfun_syntax" allow to control optional syntax in local contexts;
   662 this supersedes former theory FinFun_Syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, e.g. use
   663 "unbundle finfun_syntax" to imitate import of
   664 "~~/src/HOL/Library/FinFun_Syntax".
   665 
   666 * Session HOL-Library: theory Multiset_Permutations (executably) defines
   667 the set of permutations of a given set or multiset, i.e. the set of all
   668 lists that contain every element of the carrier (multi-)set exactly
   669 once.
   670 
   671 * Session HOL-Library: multiset membership is now expressed using
   672 set_mset rather than count.
   673 
   674   - Expressions "count M a > 0" and similar simplify to membership
   675     by default.
   676 
   677   - Converting between "count M a = 0" and non-membership happens using
   678     equations count_eq_zero_iff and not_in_iff.
   679 
   680   - Rules count_inI and in_countE obtain facts of the form
   681     "count M a = n" from membership.
   682 
   683   - Rules count_in_diffI and in_diff_countE obtain facts of the form
   684     "count M a = n + count N a" from membership on difference sets.
   685 
   686 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   687 
   688 * Session HOL-Library: theory LaTeXsugar uses new-style "dummy_pats" for
   689 displaying equations in functional programming style --- variables
   690 present on the left-hand but not on the righ-hand side are replaced by
   691 underscores.
   692 
   693 * Session HOL-Library: theory Combinator_PER provides combinator to
   694 build partial equivalence relations from a predicate and an equivalence
   695 relation.
   696 
   697 * Session HOL-Library: theory Perm provides basic facts about almost
   698 everywhere fix bijections.
   699 
   700 * Session HOL-Library: theory Normalized_Fraction allows viewing an
   701 element of a field of fractions as a normalized fraction (i.e. a pair of
   702 numerator and denominator such that the two are coprime and the
   703 denominator is normalized wrt. unit factors).
   704 
   705 * Session HOL-NSA has been renamed to HOL-Nonstandard_Analysis.
   706 
   707 * Session HOL-Multivariate_Analysis has been renamed to HOL-Analysis.
   708 
   709 * Session HOL-Analysis: measure theory has been moved here from
   710 HOL-Probability. When importing HOL-Analysis some theorems need
   711 additional name spaces prefixes due to name clashes. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   712 
   713 * Session HOL-Analysis: more complex analysis including Cauchy's
   714 inequality, Liouville theorem, open mapping theorem, maximum modulus
   715 principle, Residue theorem, Schwarz Lemma.
   716 
   717 * Session HOL-Analysis: Theory of polyhedra: faces, extreme points,
   718 polytopes, and the Krein–Milman Minkowski theorem.
   719 
   720 * Session HOL-Analysis: Numerous results ported from the HOL Light
   721 libraries: homeomorphisms, continuous function extensions, invariance of
   722 domain.
   723 
   724 * Session HOL-Probability: the type of emeasure and nn_integral was
   725 changed from ereal to ennreal, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   726 
   727   emeasure :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> ennreal
   728   nn_integral :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> ennreal) \<Rightarrow> ennreal
   729 
   730 * Session HOL-Probability: Code generation and QuickCheck for
   731 Probability Mass Functions.
   732 
   733 * Session HOL-Probability: theory Random_Permutations contains some
   734 theory about choosing a permutation of a set uniformly at random and
   735 folding over a list in random order.
   736 
   737 * Session HOL-Probability: theory SPMF formalises discrete
   738 subprobability distributions.
   739 
   740 * Session HOL-Library: the names of multiset theorems have been
   741 normalised to distinguish which ordering the theorems are about
   742 
   743     mset_less_eqI ~> mset_subset_eqI
   744     mset_less_insertD ~> mset_subset_insertD
   745     mset_less_eq_count ~> mset_subset_eq_count
   746     mset_less_diff_self ~> mset_subset_diff_self
   747     mset_le_exists_conv ~> mset_subset_eq_exists_conv
   748     mset_le_mono_add_right_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel
   749     mset_le_mono_add_left_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel
   750     mset_le_mono_add ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add
   751     mset_le_add_left ~> mset_subset_eq_add_left
   752     mset_le_add_right ~> mset_subset_eq_add_right
   753     mset_le_single ~> mset_subset_eq_single
   754     mset_le_multiset_union_diff_commute ~> mset_subset_eq_multiset_union_diff_commute
   755     diff_le_self ~> diff_subset_eq_self
   756     mset_leD ~> mset_subset_eqD
   757     mset_lessD ~> mset_subsetD
   758     mset_le_insertD ~> mset_subset_eq_insertD
   759     mset_less_of_empty ~> mset_subset_of_empty
   760     mset_less_size ~> mset_subset_size
   761     wf_less_mset_rel ~> wf_subset_mset_rel
   762     count_le_replicate_mset_le ~> count_le_replicate_mset_subset_eq
   763     mset_remdups_le ~> mset_remdups_subset_eq
   764     ms_lesseq_impl ~> subset_eq_mset_impl
   765 
   766 Some functions have been renamed:
   767     ms_lesseq_impl -> subset_eq_mset_impl
   768 
   769 * HOL-Library: multisets are now ordered with the multiset ordering
   770     #\<subseteq># ~> \<le>
   771     #\<subset># ~> <
   772     le_multiset ~> less_eq_multiset
   773     less_multiset ~> le_multiset
   774 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   775 
   776 * Session HOL-Library: the prefix multiset_order has been discontinued:
   777 the theorems can be directly accessed. As a consequence, the lemmas
   778 "order_multiset" and "linorder_multiset" have been discontinued, and the
   779 interpretations "multiset_linorder" and "multiset_wellorder" have been
   780 replaced by instantiations. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   781 
   782 * Session HOL-Library: some theorems about the multiset ordering have
   783 been renamed:
   784 
   785     le_multiset_def ~> less_eq_multiset_def
   786     less_multiset_def ~> le_multiset_def
   787     less_eq_imp_le_multiset ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
   788     mult_less_not_refl ~> mset_le_not_refl
   789     mult_less_trans ~> mset_le_trans
   790     mult_less_not_sym ~> mset_le_not_sym
   791     mult_less_asym ~> mset_le_asym
   792     mult_less_irrefl ~> mset_le_irrefl
   793     union_less_mono2{,1,2} ~> union_le_mono2{,1,2}
   794 
   795     le_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O ~> less_eq_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O
   796     le_multiset_total ~> less_eq_multiset_total
   797     less_multiset_right_total ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
   798     le_multiset_empty_left ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_left
   799     le_multiset_empty_right ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_right
   800     less_multiset_empty_right ~> le_multiset_empty_left
   801     less_multiset_empty_left ~> le_multiset_empty_right
   802     union_less_diff_plus ~> union_le_diff_plus
   803     ex_gt_count_imp_less_multiset ~> ex_gt_count_imp_le_multiset
   804     less_multiset_plus_left_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_left_nonempty
   805     le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty
   806 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   807 
   808 * Session HOL-Library: the lemma mset_map has now the attribute [simp].
   809 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   810 
   811 * Session HOL-Library: some theorems about multisets have been removed.
   812 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the following replacements:
   813 
   814     le_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
   815     less_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
   816     le_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
   817     less_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
   818     add_eq_self_empty_iff ~> add_cancel_left_right
   819     mset_subset_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
   820     mset_less_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
   821     mset_le_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
   822     empty_inter ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_left
   823     inter_empty ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_right
   824     empty_sup ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_left
   825     sup_empty ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_right
   826     bdd_below_multiset ~> subset_mset.bdd_above_bot
   827     subset_eq_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
   828     le_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
   829     mset_subset_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
   830     mset_less_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
   831 
   832 * Session HOL-Library: some typeclass constraints about multisets have
   833 been reduced from ordered or linordered to preorder. Multisets have the
   834 additional typeclasses order_bot, no_top,
   835 ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le, ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add,
   836 linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add, and
   837 ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   838 
   839 * Session HOL-Library: there are some new simplification rules about
   840 multisets, the multiset ordering, and the subset ordering on multisets.
   841 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   842 
   843 * Session HOL-Library: the subset ordering on multisets has now the
   844 interpretations ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le and
   845 bounded_lattice_bot. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   846 
   847 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: single has been removed in favor
   848 of add_mset that roughly corresponds to Set.insert. Some theorems have
   849 removed or changed:
   850 
   851   single_not_empty ~> add_mset_not_empty or empty_not_add_mset
   852   fold_mset_insert ~> fold_mset_add_mset
   853   image_mset_insert ~> image_mset_add_mset
   854   union_single_eq_diff
   855   multi_self_add_other_not_self
   856   diff_single_eq_union
   857 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   858 
   859 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: some theorems have been changed
   860 to use add_mset instead of single:
   861 
   862   mset_add
   863   multi_self_add_other_not_self
   864   diff_single_eq_union
   865   union_single_eq_diff
   866   union_single_eq_member
   867   add_eq_conv_diff
   868   insert_noteq_member
   869   add_eq_conv_ex
   870   multi_member_split
   871   multiset_add_sub_el_shuffle
   872   mset_subset_eq_insertD
   873   mset_subset_insertD
   874   insert_subset_eq_iff
   875   insert_union_subset_iff
   876   multi_psub_of_add_self
   877   inter_add_left1
   878   inter_add_left2
   879   inter_add_right1
   880   inter_add_right2
   881   sup_union_left1
   882   sup_union_left2
   883   sup_union_right1
   884   sup_union_right2
   885   size_eq_Suc_imp_eq_union
   886   multi_nonempty_split
   887   mset_insort
   888   mset_update
   889   mult1I
   890   less_add
   891   mset_zip_take_Cons_drop_twice
   892   rel_mset_Zero
   893   msed_map_invL
   894   msed_map_invR
   895   msed_rel_invL
   896   msed_rel_invR
   897   le_multiset_right_total
   898   multiset_induct
   899   multiset_induct2_size
   900   multiset_induct2
   901 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   902 
   903 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the definitions of some
   904 constants have changed to use add_mset instead of adding a single
   905 element:
   906 
   907   image_mset
   908   mset
   909   replicate_mset
   910   mult1
   911   pred_mset
   912   rel_mset'
   913   mset_insort
   914 
   915 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   916 
   917 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: due to the above changes, the
   918 attributes of some multiset theorems have been changed:
   919 
   920   insert_DiffM  [] ~> [simp]
   921   insert_DiffM2 [simp] ~> []
   922   diff_add_mset_swap [simp]
   923   fold_mset_add_mset [simp]
   924   diff_diff_add [simp] (for multisets only)
   925   diff_cancel [simp] ~> []
   926   count_single [simp] ~> []
   927   set_mset_single [simp] ~> []
   928   size_multiset_single [simp] ~> []
   929   size_single [simp] ~> []
   930   image_mset_single [simp] ~> []
   931   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel [simp] ~> []
   932   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel [simp] ~> []
   933   fold_mset_single [simp] ~> []
   934   subset_eq_empty [simp] ~> []
   935   empty_sup [simp] ~> []
   936   sup_empty [simp] ~> []
   937   inter_empty [simp] ~> []
   938   empty_inter [simp] ~> []
   939 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   940 
   941 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the order of the variables in
   942 the second cases of multiset_induct, multiset_induct2_size,
   943 multiset_induct2 has been changed (e.g. Add A a ~> Add a A).
   944 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   945 
   946 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: there is now a simplification
   947 procedure on multisets. It mimics the behavior of the procedure on
   948 natural numbers. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   949 
   950 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: renamed sums and products of
   951 multisets:
   952 
   953   msetsum ~> sum_mset
   954   msetprod ~> prod_mset
   955 
   956 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the notation for intersection
   957 and union of multisets have been changed:
   958 
   959   #\<inter> ~> \<inter>#
   960   #\<union> ~> \<union>#
   961 
   962 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   963 
   964 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the lemma
   965 one_step_implies_mult_aux on multisets has been removed, use
   966 one_step_implies_mult instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   967 
   968 * Session HOL-Library: theory Complete_Partial_Order2 provides reasoning
   969 support for monotonicity and continuity in chain-complete partial orders
   970 and about admissibility conditions for fixpoint inductions.
   971 
   972 * Session HOL-Library: theory Library/Polynomial contains also
   973 derivation of polynomials (formerly in Library/Poly_Deriv) but not
   974 gcd/lcm on polynomials over fields. This has been moved to a separate
   975 theory Library/Polynomial_GCD_euclidean.thy, to pave way for a possible
   976 future different type class instantiation for polynomials over factorial
   977 rings. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   978 
   979 * Session HOL-Library: theory Sublist provides function "prefixes" with
   980 the following renaming
   981 
   982   prefixeq -> prefix
   983   prefix -> strict_prefix
   984   suffixeq -> suffix
   985   suffix -> strict_suffix
   986 
   987 Added theory of longest common prefixes.
   988 
   989 * Session HOL-Number_Theory: algebraic foundation for primes:
   990 Generalisation of predicate "prime" and introduction of predicates
   991 "prime_elem", "irreducible", a "prime_factorization" function, and the
   992 "factorial_ring" typeclass with instance proofs for nat, int, poly. Some
   993 theorems now have different names, most notably "prime_def" is now
   994 "prime_nat_iff". INCOMPATIBILITY.
   995 
   996 * Session Old_Number_Theory has been removed, after porting remaining
   997 theories.
   998 
   999 * Session HOL-Types_To_Sets provides an experimental extension of
  1000 Higher-Order Logic to allow translation of types to sets.
  1001 
  1002 
  1003 *** ML ***
  1004 
  1005 * Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm use efficient operations from the Poly/ML
  1006 library (notably for big integers). Subtle change of semantics:
  1007 Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm both normalize the sign, results are never
  1008 negative. This coincides with the definitions in HOL/GCD.thy.
  1009 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1010 
  1011 * Structure Rat for rational numbers is now an integral part of
  1012 Isabelle/ML, with special notation @int/nat or @int for numerals (an
  1013 abbreviation for antiquotation @{Pure.rat argument}) and ML pretty
  1014 printing. Standard operations on type Rat.rat are provided via ad-hoc
  1015 overloading of + - * / < <= > >= ~ abs. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  1016 use + instead of +/ etc. Moreover, exception Rat.DIVZERO has been
  1017 superseded by General.Div.
  1018 
  1019 * ML antiquotation @{path} is superseded by @{file}, which ensures that
  1020 the argument is a plain file. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1021 
  1022 * Antiquotation @{make_string} is available during Pure bootstrap --
  1023 with approximative output quality.
  1024 
  1025 * Low-level ML system structures (like PolyML and RunCall) are no longer
  1026 exposed to Isabelle/ML user-space. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1027 
  1028 * The ML function "ML" provides easy access to run-time compilation.
  1029 This is particularly useful for conditional compilation, without
  1030 requiring separate files.
  1031 
  1032 * Option ML_exception_debugger controls detailed exception trace via the
  1033 Poly/ML debugger. Relevant ML modules need to be compiled beforehand
  1034 with ML_file_debug, or with ML_file and option ML_debugger enabled. Note
  1035 debugger information requires consirable time and space: main
  1036 Isabelle/HOL with full debugger support may need ML_system_64.
  1037 
  1038 * Local_Theory.restore has been renamed to Local_Theory.reset to
  1039 emphasize its disruptive impact on the cumulative context, notably the
  1040 scope of 'private' or 'qualified' names. Note that Local_Theory.reset is
  1041 only appropriate when targets are managed, e.g. starting from a global
  1042 theory and returning to it. Regular definitional packages should use
  1043 balanced blocks of Local_Theory.open_target versus
  1044 Local_Theory.close_target instead. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1045 
  1046 * Structure TimeLimit (originally from the SML/NJ library) has been
  1047 replaced by structure Timeout, with slightly different signature.
  1048 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1049 
  1050 * Discontinued cd and pwd operations, which are not well-defined in a
  1051 multi-threaded environment. Note that files are usually located
  1052 relatively to the master directory of a theory (see also
  1053 File.full_path). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1054 
  1055 * Binding.empty_atts supersedes Thm.empty_binding and
  1056 Attrib.empty_binding. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1057 
  1058 
  1059 *** System ***
  1060 
  1061 * SML/NJ and old versions of Poly/ML are no longer supported.
  1062 
  1063 * Poly/ML heaps now follow the hierarchy of sessions, and thus require
  1064 much less disk space.
  1065 
  1066 * The Isabelle ML process is now managed directly by Isabelle/Scala, and
  1067 shell scripts merely provide optional command-line access. In
  1068 particular:
  1069 
  1070   . Scala module ML_Process to connect to the raw ML process,
  1071     with interaction via stdin/stdout/stderr or in batch mode;
  1072   . command-line tool "isabelle console" as interactive wrapper;
  1073   . command-line tool "isabelle process" as batch mode wrapper.
  1074 
  1075 * The executable "isabelle_process" has been discontinued. Tools and
  1076 prover front-ends should use ML_Process or Isabelle_Process in
  1077 Isabelle/Scala. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1078 
  1079 * New command-line tool "isabelle process" supports ML evaluation of
  1080 literal expressions (option -e) or files (option -f) in the context of a
  1081 given heap image. Errors lead to premature exit of the ML process with
  1082 return code 1.
  1083 
  1084 * The command-line tool "isabelle build" supports option -N for cyclic
  1085 shuffling of NUMA CPU nodes. This may help performance tuning on Linux
  1086 servers with separate CPU/memory modules.
  1087 
  1088 * System option "threads" (for the size of the Isabelle/ML thread farm)
  1089 is also passed to the underlying ML runtime system as --gcthreads,
  1090 unless there is already a default provided via ML_OPTIONS settings.
  1091 
  1092 * System option "checkpoint" helps to fine-tune the global heap space
  1093 management of isabelle build. This is relevant for big sessions that may
  1094 exhaust the small 32-bit address space of the ML process (which is used
  1095 by default).
  1096 
  1097 * System option "profiling" specifies the mode for global ML profiling
  1098 in "isabelle build". Possible values are "time", "allocations". The
  1099 command-line tool "isabelle profiling_report" helps to digest the
  1100 resulting log files.
  1101 
  1102 * System option "ML_process_policy" specifies an optional command prefix
  1103 for the underlying ML process, e.g. to control CPU affinity on
  1104 multiprocessor systems. The "isabelle jedit" tool allows to override the
  1105 implicit default via option -p.
  1106 
  1107 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" provides option -r to help to
  1108 bootstrapping Isabelle/Pure interactively.
  1109 
  1110 * Command-line tool "isabelle yxml" has been discontinued.
  1111 INCOMPATIBILITY, use operations from the modules "XML" and "YXML" in
  1112 Isabelle/ML or Isabelle/Scala.
  1113 
  1114 * Many Isabelle tools that require a Java runtime system refer to the
  1115 settings ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS64,
  1116 depending on the underlying platform. The settings for "isabelle build"
  1117 ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64 have been
  1118 discontinued. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1119 
  1120 * The Isabelle system environment always ensures that the main
  1121 executables are found within the shell search $PATH: "isabelle" and
  1122 "isabelle_scala_script".
  1123 
  1124 * Isabelle tools may consist of .scala files: the Scala compiler is
  1125 invoked on the spot. The source needs to define some object that extends
  1126 Isabelle_Tool.Body.
  1127 
  1128 * File.bash_string, File.bash_path etc. represent Isabelle/ML and
  1129 Isabelle/Scala strings authentically within GNU bash. This is useful to
  1130 produce robust shell scripts under program control, without worrying
  1131 about spaces or special characters. Note that user output works via
  1132 Path.print (ML) or Path.toString (Scala). INCOMPATIBILITY, the old (and
  1133 less versatile) operations File.shell_quote, File.shell_path etc. have
  1134 been discontinued.
  1135 
  1136 * The isabelle_java executable allows to run a Java process within the
  1137 name space of Java and Scala components that are bundled with Isabelle,
  1138 but without the Isabelle settings environment.
  1139 
  1140 * Isabelle/Scala: the SSH module supports ssh and sftp connections, for
  1141 remote command-execution and file-system access. This resembles
  1142 operations from module File and Isabelle_System to some extent. Note
  1143 that Path specifications need to be resolved remotely via
  1144 ssh.remote_path instead of File.standard_path: the implicit process
  1145 environment is different, Isabelle settings are not available remotely.
  1146 
  1147 * Isabelle/Scala: the Mercurial module supports repositories via the
  1148 regular hg command-line interface. The repositroy clone and working
  1149 directory may reside on a local or remote file-system (via ssh
  1150 connection).
  1151 
  1152 
  1153 
  1154 New in Isabelle2016 (February 2016)
  1155 -----------------------------------
  1156 
  1157 *** General ***
  1158 
  1159 * Eisbach is now based on Pure instead of HOL. Objects-logics may import
  1160 either the theory ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach (for HOL etc.) or
  1161 ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach_Old_Appl_Syntax (for FOL, ZF etc.). Note that
  1162 the HOL-Eisbach session located in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/ contains further
  1163 examples that do require HOL.
  1164 
  1165 * Better resource usage on all platforms (Linux, Windows, Mac OS X) for
  1166 both Isabelle/ML and Isabelle/Scala.  Slightly reduced heap space usage.
  1167 
  1168 * Former "xsymbols" syntax with Isabelle symbols is used by default,
  1169 without any special print mode. Important ASCII replacement syntax
  1170 remains available under print mode "ASCII", but less important syntax
  1171 has been removed (see below).
  1172 
  1173 * Support for more arrow symbols, with rendering in LaTeX and Isabelle
  1174 fonts: \<Lleftarrow> \<Rrightarrow> \<longlongleftarrow> \<longlongrightarrow> \<longlonglongleftarrow> \<longlonglongrightarrow>.
  1175 
  1176 * Special notation \<struct> for the first implicit 'structure' in the
  1177 context has been discontinued. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit
  1178 structure name instead, notably in indexed notation with block-subscript
  1179 (e.g. \<odot>\<^bsub>A\<^esub>).
  1180 
  1181 * The glyph for \<diamond> in the IsabelleText font now corresponds better to its
  1182 counterpart \<box> as quantifier-like symbol. A small diamond is available as
  1183 \<diamondop>; the old symbol \<struct> loses this rendering and any special
  1184 meaning.
  1185 
  1186 * Syntax for formal comments "-- text" now also supports the symbolic
  1187 form "\<comment> text". Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -c" helps
  1188 to update old sources.
  1189 
  1190 * Toplevel theorem statements have been simplified as follows:
  1191 
  1192   theorems             ~>  lemmas
  1193   schematic_lemma      ~>  schematic_goal
  1194   schematic_theorem    ~>  schematic_goal
  1195   schematic_corollary  ~>  schematic_goal
  1196 
  1197 Command-line tool "isabelle update_theorems" updates theory sources
  1198 accordingly.
  1199 
  1200 * Toplevel theorem statement 'proposition' is another alias for
  1201 'theorem'.
  1202 
  1203 * The old 'defs' command has been removed (legacy since Isabelle2014).
  1204 INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular 'definition' instead. Overloaded and/or
  1205 deferred definitions require a surrounding 'overloading' block.
  1206 
  1207 
  1208 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1209 
  1210 * IDE support for the source-level debugger of Poly/ML, to work with
  1211 Isabelle/ML and official Standard ML. Option "ML_debugger" and commands
  1212 'ML_file_debug', 'ML_file_no_debug', 'SML_file_debug',
  1213 'SML_file_no_debug' control compilation of sources with or without
  1214 debugging information. The Debugger panel allows to set breakpoints (via
  1215 context menu), step through stopped threads, evaluate local ML
  1216 expressions etc. At least one Debugger view needs to be active to have
  1217 any effect on the running ML program.
  1218 
  1219 * The State panel manages explicit proof state output, with dynamic
  1220 auto-update according to cursor movement. Alternatively, the jEdit
  1221 action "isabelle.update-state" (shortcut S+ENTER) triggers manual
  1222 update.
  1223 
  1224 * The Output panel no longer shows proof state output by default, to
  1225 avoid GUI overcrowding. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the State panel instead or
  1226 enable option "editor_output_state".
  1227 
  1228 * The text overview column (status of errors, warnings etc.) is updated
  1229 asynchronously, leading to much better editor reactivity. Moreover, the
  1230 full document node content is taken into account. The width of the
  1231 column is scaled according to the main text area font, for improved
  1232 visibility.
  1233 
  1234 * The main text area no longer changes its color hue in outdated
  1235 situations. The text overview column takes over the role to indicate
  1236 unfinished edits in the PIDE pipeline. This avoids flashing text display
  1237 due to ad-hoc updates by auxiliary GUI components, such as the State
  1238 panel.
  1239 
  1240 * Slightly improved scheduling for urgent print tasks (e.g. command
  1241 state output, interactive queries) wrt. long-running background tasks.
  1242 
  1243 * Completion of symbols via prefix of \<name> or \<^name> or \name is
  1244 always possible, independently of the language context. It is never
  1245 implicit: a popup will show up unconditionally.
  1246 
  1247 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified in
  1248 $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs, with
  1249 support for simple templates using ASCII 007 (bell) as placeholder.
  1250 
  1251 * Symbols \<oplus>, \<Oplus>, \<otimes>, \<Otimes>, \<odot>, \<Odot>, \<ominus>, \<oslash> no longer provide abbreviations for
  1252 completion like "+o", "*o", ".o" etc. -- due to conflicts with other
  1253 ASCII syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain backslash-completion or define
  1254 suitable abbreviations in $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs.
  1255 
  1256 * Action "isabelle-emph" (with keyboard shortcut C+e LEFT) controls
  1257 emphasized text style; the effect is visible in document output, not in
  1258 the editor.
  1259 
  1260 * Action "isabelle-reset" now uses keyboard shortcut C+e BACK_SPACE,
  1261 instead of former C+e LEFT.
  1262 
  1263 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" and the isabelle.Main
  1264 application wrapper treat the default $USER_HOME/Scratch.thy more
  1265 uniformly, and allow the dummy file argument ":" to open an empty buffer
  1266 instead.
  1267 
  1268 * New command-line tool "isabelle jedit_client" allows to connect to an
  1269 already running Isabelle/jEdit process. This achieves the effect of
  1270 single-instance applications seen on common GUI desktops.
  1271 
  1272 * The default look-and-feel for Linux is the traditional "Metal", which
  1273 works better with GUI scaling for very high-resolution displays (e.g.
  1274 4K). Moreover, it is generally more robust than "Nimbus".
  1275 
  1276 * Update to jedit-5.3.0, with improved GUI scaling and support of
  1277 high-resolution displays (e.g. 4K).
  1278 
  1279 * The main Isabelle executable is managed as single-instance Desktop
  1280 application uniformly on all platforms: Linux, Windows, Mac OS X.
  1281 
  1282 
  1283 *** Document preparation ***
  1284 
  1285 * Commands 'paragraph' and 'subparagraph' provide additional section
  1286 headings. Thus there are 6 levels of standard headings, as in HTML.
  1287 
  1288 * Command 'text_raw' has been clarified: input text is processed as in
  1289 'text' (with antiquotations and control symbols). The key difference is
  1290 the lack of the surrounding isabelle markup environment in output.
  1291 
  1292 * Text is structured in paragraphs and nested lists, using notation that
  1293 is similar to Markdown. The control symbols for list items are as
  1294 follows:
  1295 
  1296   \<^item>  itemize
  1297   \<^enum>  enumerate
  1298   \<^descr>  description
  1299 
  1300 * There is a new short form for antiquotations with a single argument
  1301 that is a cartouche: \<^name>\<open>...\<close> is equivalent to @{name \<open>...\<close>} and
  1302 \<open>...\<close> without control symbol is equivalent to @{cartouche \<open>...\<close>}.
  1303 \<^name> without following cartouche is equivalent to @{name}. The
  1304 standard Isabelle fonts provide glyphs to render important control
  1305 symbols, e.g. "\<^verbatim>", "\<^emph>", "\<^bold>".
  1306 
  1307 * Antiquotations @{noindent}, @{smallskip}, @{medskip}, @{bigskip} with
  1308 corresponding control symbols \<^noindent>, \<^smallskip>, \<^medskip>, \<^bigskip> specify spacing formally, using
  1309 standard LaTeX macros of the same names.
  1310 
  1311 * Antiquotation @{cartouche} in Isabelle/Pure is the same as @{text}.
  1312 Consequently, \<open>...\<close> without any decoration prints literal quasi-formal
  1313 text. Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -t" helps to update
  1314 old sources, by approximative patching of the content of string and
  1315 cartouche tokens seen in theory sources.
  1316 
  1317 * The @{text} antiquotation now ignores the antiquotation option
  1318 "source". The given text content is output unconditionally, without any
  1319 surrounding quotes etc. Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, put quotes into the
  1320 argument where they are really intended, e.g. @{text \<open>"foo"\<close>}. Initial
  1321 or terminal spaces are ignored.
  1322 
  1323 * Antiquotations @{emph} and @{bold} output LaTeX source recursively,
  1324 adding appropriate text style markup. These may be used in the short
  1325 form \<^emph>\<open>...\<close> and \<^bold>\<open>...\<close>.
  1326 
  1327 * Document antiquotation @{footnote} outputs LaTeX source recursively,
  1328 marked as \footnote{}. This may be used in the short form \<^footnote>\<open>...\<close>.
  1329 
  1330 * Antiquotation @{verbatim [display]} supports option "indent".
  1331 
  1332 * Antiquotation @{theory_text} prints uninterpreted theory source text
  1333 (Isar outer syntax with command keywords etc.). This may be used in the
  1334 short form \<^theory_text>\<open>...\<close>. @{theory_text [display]} supports option "indent".
  1335 
  1336 * Antiquotation @{doc ENTRY} provides a reference to the given
  1337 documentation, with a hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
  1338 
  1339 * Antiquotations @{command}, @{method}, @{attribute} print checked
  1340 entities of the Isar language.
  1341 
  1342 * HTML presentation uses the standard IsabelleText font and Unicode
  1343 rendering of Isabelle symbols like Isabelle/Scala/jEdit.  The former
  1344 print mode "HTML" loses its special meaning.
  1345 
  1346 
  1347 *** Isar ***
  1348 
  1349 * Local goals ('have', 'show', 'hence', 'thus') allow structured rule
  1350 statements like fixes/assumes/shows in theorem specifications, but the
  1351 notation is postfix with keywords 'if' (or 'when') and 'for'. For
  1352 example:
  1353 
  1354   have result: "C x y"
  1355     if "A x" and "B y"
  1356     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  1357     <proof>
  1358 
  1359 The local assumptions are bound to the name "that". The result is
  1360 exported from context of the statement as usual. The above roughly
  1361 corresponds to a raw proof block like this:
  1362 
  1363   {
  1364     fix x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  1365     assume that: "A x" "B y"
  1366     have "C x y" <proof>
  1367   }
  1368   note result = this
  1369 
  1370 The keyword 'when' may be used instead of 'if', to indicate 'presume'
  1371 instead of 'assume' above.
  1372 
  1373 * Assumptions ('assume', 'presume') allow structured rule statements
  1374 using 'if' and 'for', similar to 'have' etc. above. For example:
  1375 
  1376   assume result: "C x y"
  1377     if "A x" and "B y"
  1378     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  1379 
  1380 This assumes "\<And>x y::'a. A x \<Longrightarrow> B y \<Longrightarrow> C x y" and produces a general
  1381 result as usual: "A ?x \<Longrightarrow> B ?y \<Longrightarrow> C ?x ?y".
  1382 
  1383 Vacuous quantification in assumptions is omitted, i.e. a for-context
  1384 only effects propositions according to actual use of variables. For
  1385 example:
  1386 
  1387   assume "A x" and "B y" for x and y
  1388 
  1389 is equivalent to:
  1390 
  1391   assume "\<And>x. A x" and "\<And>y. B y"
  1392 
  1393 * The meaning of 'show' with Pure rule statements has changed: premises
  1394 are treated in the sense of 'assume', instead of 'presume'. This means,
  1395 a goal like "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x" can be solved completely as
  1396 follows:
  1397 
  1398   show "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  1399 
  1400 or:
  1401 
  1402   show "C x" if "A x" "B x" for x
  1403 
  1404 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, the old behaviour may be recovered as follows:
  1405 
  1406   show "C x" when "A x" "B x" for x
  1407 
  1408 * New command 'consider' states rules for generalized elimination and
  1409 case splitting. This is like a toplevel statement "theorem obtains" used
  1410 within a proof body; or like a multi-branch 'obtain' without activation
  1411 of the local context elements yet.
  1412 
  1413 * Proof method "cases" allows to specify the rule as first entry of
  1414 chained facts.  This is particularly useful with 'consider':
  1415 
  1416   consider (a) A | (b) B | (c) C <proof>
  1417   then have something
  1418   proof cases
  1419     case a
  1420     then show ?thesis <proof>
  1421   next
  1422     case b
  1423     then show ?thesis <proof>
  1424   next
  1425     case c
  1426     then show ?thesis <proof>
  1427   qed
  1428 
  1429 * Command 'case' allows fact name and attribute specification like this:
  1430 
  1431   case a: (c xs)
  1432   case a [attributes]: (c xs)
  1433 
  1434 Facts that are introduced by invoking the case context are uniformly
  1435 qualified by "a"; the same name is used for the cumulative fact. The old
  1436 form "case (c xs) [attributes]" is no longer supported. Rare
  1437 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt uses of case facts in exotic situations,
  1438 and always put attributes in front.
  1439 
  1440 * The standard proof method of commands 'proof' and '..' is now called
  1441 "standard" to make semantically clear what it is; the old name "default"
  1442 is still available as legacy for some time. Documentation now explains
  1443 '..' more accurately as "by standard" instead of "by rule".
  1444 
  1445 * Nesting of Isar goal structure has been clarified: the context after
  1446 the initial backwards refinement is retained for the whole proof, within
  1447 all its context sections (as indicated via 'next'). This is e.g.
  1448 relevant for 'using', 'including', 'supply':
  1449 
  1450   have "A \<and> A" if a: A for A
  1451     supply [simp] = a
  1452   proof
  1453     show A by simp
  1454   next
  1455     show A by simp
  1456   qed
  1457 
  1458 * Command 'obtain' binds term abbreviations (via 'is' patterns) in the
  1459 proof body as well, abstracted over relevant parameters.
  1460 
  1461 * Improved type-inference for theorem statement 'obtains': separate
  1462 parameter scope for of each clause.
  1463 
  1464 * Term abbreviations via 'is' patterns also work for schematic
  1465 statements: result is abstracted over unknowns.
  1466 
  1467 * Command 'subgoal' allows to impose some structure on backward
  1468 refinements, to avoid proof scripts degenerating into long of 'apply'
  1469 sequences. Further explanations and examples are given in the isar-ref
  1470 manual.
  1471 
  1472 * Command 'supply' supports fact definitions during goal refinement
  1473 ('apply' scripts).
  1474 
  1475 * Proof method "goal_cases" turns the current subgoals into cases within
  1476 the context; the conclusion is bound to variable ?case in each case. For
  1477 example:
  1478 
  1479 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  1480   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  1481 proof goal_cases
  1482   case (1 x)
  1483   then show ?case using \<open>A x\<close> \<open>B x\<close> sorry
  1484 next
  1485   case (2 y z)
  1486   then show ?case using \<open>U y\<close> \<open>V z\<close> sorry
  1487 qed
  1488 
  1489 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  1490   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  1491 proof goal_cases
  1492   case prems: 1
  1493   then show ?case using prems sorry
  1494 next
  1495   case prems: 2
  1496   then show ?case using prems sorry
  1497 qed
  1498 
  1499 * The undocumented feature of implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc.
  1500 is marked as legacy, and will be removed eventually. The proof method
  1501 "goals" achieves a similar effect within regular Isar; often it can be
  1502 done more adequately by other means (e.g. 'consider').
  1503 
  1504 * The vacuous fact "TERM x" may be established "by fact" or as `TERM x`
  1505 as well, not just "by this" or "." as before.
  1506 
  1507 * Method "sleep" succeeds after a real-time delay (in seconds). This is
  1508 occasionally useful for demonstration and testing purposes.
  1509 
  1510 
  1511 *** Pure ***
  1512 
  1513 * Qualifiers in locale expressions default to mandatory ('!') regardless
  1514 of the command. Previously, for 'locale' and 'sublocale' the default was
  1515 optional ('?'). The old synatx '!' has been discontinued.
  1516 INCOMPATIBILITY, remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  1517 
  1518 * Keyword 'rewrites' identifies rewrite morphisms in interpretation
  1519 commands. Previously, the keyword was 'where'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1520 
  1521 * More gentle suppression of syntax along locale morphisms while
  1522 printing terms. Previously 'abbreviation' and 'notation' declarations
  1523 would be suppressed for morphisms except term identity. Now
  1524 'abbreviation' is also kept for morphims that only change the involved
  1525 parameters, and only 'notation' is suppressed. This can be of great help
  1526 when working with complex locale hierarchies, because proof states are
  1527 displayed much more succinctly. It also means that only notation needs
  1528 to be redeclared if desired, as illustrated by this example:
  1529 
  1530   locale struct = fixes composition :: "'a => 'a => 'a" (infixl "\<cdot>" 65)
  1531   begin
  1532     definition derived (infixl "\<odot>" 65) where ...
  1533   end
  1534 
  1535   locale morphism =
  1536     left: struct composition + right: struct composition'
  1537     for composition (infix "\<cdot>" 65) and composition' (infix "\<cdot>''" 65)
  1538   begin
  1539     notation right.derived ("\<odot>''")
  1540   end
  1541 
  1542 * Command 'global_interpretation' issues interpretations into global
  1543 theories, with optional rewrite definitions following keyword 'defines'.
  1544 
  1545 * Command 'sublocale' accepts optional rewrite definitions after keyword
  1546 'defines'.
  1547 
  1548 * Command 'permanent_interpretation' has been discontinued. Use
  1549 'global_interpretation' or 'sublocale' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1550 
  1551 * Command 'print_definitions' prints dependencies of definitional
  1552 specifications. This functionality used to be part of 'print_theory'.
  1553 
  1554 * Configuration option rule_insts_schematic has been discontinued
  1555 (intermediate legacy feature in Isabelle2015). INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1556 
  1557 * Abbreviations in type classes now carry proper sort constraint. Rare
  1558 INCOMPATIBILITY in situations where the previous misbehaviour has been
  1559 exploited.
  1560 
  1561 * Refinement of user-space type system in type classes: pseudo-local
  1562 operations behave more similar to abbreviations. Potential
  1563 INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  1564 
  1565 
  1566 *** HOL ***
  1567 
  1568 * The 'typedef' command has been upgraded from a partially checked
  1569 "axiomatization", to a full definitional specification that takes the
  1570 global collection of overloaded constant / type definitions into
  1571 account. Type definitions with open dependencies on overloaded
  1572 definitions need to be specified as "typedef (overloaded)". This
  1573 provides extra robustness in theory construction. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1574 
  1575 * Qualification of various formal entities in the libraries is done more
  1576 uniformly via "context begin qualified definition ... end" instead of
  1577 old-style "hide_const (open) ...". Consequently, both the defined
  1578 constant and its defining fact become qualified, e.g. Option.is_none and
  1579 Option.is_none_def. Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY in applications.
  1580 
  1581 * Some old and rarely used ASCII replacement syntax has been removed.
  1582 INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax with symbols should be used instead.
  1583 The subsequent commands help to reproduce the old forms, e.g. to
  1584 simplify porting old theories:
  1585 
  1586   notation iff  (infixr "<->" 25)
  1587 
  1588   notation Times  (infixr "<*>" 80)
  1589 
  1590   type_notation Map.map  (infixr "~=>" 0)
  1591   notation Map.map_comp  (infixl "o'_m" 55)
  1592 
  1593   type_notation FinFun.finfun ("(_ =>f /_)" [22, 21] 21)
  1594 
  1595   notation FuncSet.funcset  (infixr "->" 60)
  1596   notation FuncSet.extensional_funcset  (infixr "->\<^sub>E" 60)
  1597 
  1598   notation Omega_Words_Fun.conc (infixr "conc" 65)
  1599 
  1600   notation Preorder.equiv ("op ~~")
  1601     and Preorder.equiv ("(_/ ~~ _)" [51, 51] 50)
  1602 
  1603   notation (in topological_space) tendsto (infixr "--->" 55)
  1604   notation (in topological_space) LIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  1605   notation LIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  1606 
  1607   notation NSA.approx (infixl "@=" 50)
  1608   notation NSLIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----NS> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  1609   notation NSLIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --NS> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  1610 
  1611 * The alternative notation "\<Colon>" for type and sort constraints has been
  1612 removed: in LaTeX document output it looks the same as "::".
  1613 INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain "::" instead.
  1614 
  1615 * Commands 'inductive' and 'inductive_set' work better when names for
  1616 intro rules are omitted: the "cases" and "induct" rules no longer
  1617 declare empty case_names, but no case_names at all. This allows to use
  1618 numbered cases in proofs, without requiring method "goal_cases".
  1619 
  1620 * Inductive definitions ('inductive', 'coinductive', etc.) expose
  1621 low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  1622 "inductive_internals" is enabled. This refers to the internal predicate
  1623 definition and its monotonicity result. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1624 
  1625 * Recursive function definitions ('fun', 'function', 'partial_function')
  1626 expose low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  1627 "function_internals" is enabled. Its internal inductive definition is
  1628 also subject to "inductive_internals". Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1629 
  1630 * BNF datatypes ('datatype', 'codatatype', etc.) expose low-level facts
  1631 of the internal construction only if the option "bnf_internals" is
  1632 enabled. This supersedes the former option "bnf_note_all". Rare
  1633 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1634 
  1635 * Combinator to represent case distinction on products is named
  1636 "case_prod", uniformly, discontinuing any input aliasses. Very popular
  1637 theorem aliasses have been retained.
  1638 
  1639 Consolidated facts:
  1640   PairE ~> prod.exhaust
  1641   Pair_eq ~> prod.inject
  1642   pair_collapse ~> prod.collapse
  1643   Pair_fst_snd_eq ~> prod_eq_iff
  1644   split_twice ~> prod.case_distrib
  1645   split_weak_cong ~> prod.case_cong_weak
  1646   split_split ~> prod.split
  1647   split_split_asm ~> prod.split_asm
  1648   splitI ~> case_prodI
  1649   splitD ~> case_prodD
  1650   splitI2 ~> case_prodI2
  1651   splitI2' ~> case_prodI2'
  1652   splitE ~> case_prodE
  1653   splitE' ~> case_prodE'
  1654   split_pair ~> case_prod_Pair
  1655   split_eta ~> case_prod_eta
  1656   split_comp ~> case_prod_comp
  1657   mem_splitI ~> mem_case_prodI
  1658   mem_splitI2 ~> mem_case_prodI2
  1659   mem_splitE ~> mem_case_prodE
  1660   The_split ~> The_case_prod
  1661   cond_split_eta ~> cond_case_prod_eta
  1662   Collect_split_in_rel_leE ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leE
  1663   Collect_split_in_rel_leI ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leI
  1664   in_rel_Collect_split_eq ~> in_rel_Collect_case_prod_eq
  1665   Collect_split_Grp_eqD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_eqD
  1666   Collect_split_Grp_inD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_in
  1667   Domain_Collect_split ~> Domain_Collect_case_prod
  1668   Image_Collect_split ~> Image_Collect_case_prod
  1669   Range_Collect_split ~> Range_Collect_case_prod
  1670   Eps_split ~> Eps_case_prod
  1671   Eps_split_eq ~> Eps_case_prod_eq
  1672   split_rsp ~> case_prod_rsp
  1673   curry_split ~> curry_case_prod
  1674   split_curry ~> case_prod_curry
  1675 
  1676 Changes in structure HOLogic:
  1677   split_const ~> case_prod_const
  1678   mk_split ~> mk_case_prod
  1679   mk_psplits ~> mk_ptupleabs
  1680   strip_psplits ~> strip_ptupleabs
  1681 
  1682 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1683 
  1684 * The coercions to type 'real' have been reorganised. The function
  1685 'real' is no longer overloaded, but has type 'nat => real' and
  1686 abbreviates of_nat for that type. Also 'real_of_int :: int => real'
  1687 abbreviates of_int for that type. Other overloaded instances of 'real'
  1688 have been replaced by 'real_of_ereal' and 'real_of_float'.
  1689 
  1690 Consolidated facts (among others):
  1691   real_of_nat_le_iff -> of_nat_le_iff
  1692   real_of_nat_numeral of_nat_numeral
  1693   real_of_int_zero of_int_0
  1694   real_of_nat_zero of_nat_0
  1695   real_of_one of_int_1
  1696   real_of_int_add of_int_add
  1697   real_of_nat_add of_nat_add
  1698   real_of_int_diff of_int_diff
  1699   real_of_nat_diff of_nat_diff
  1700   floor_subtract floor_diff_of_int
  1701   real_of_int_inject of_int_eq_iff
  1702   real_of_int_gt_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_less_iff
  1703   real_of_int_ge_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_le_iff
  1704   real_of_nat_ge_zero of_nat_0_le_iff
  1705   real_of_int_ceiling_ge le_of_int_ceiling
  1706   ceiling_less_eq ceiling_less_iff
  1707   ceiling_le_eq ceiling_le_iff
  1708   less_floor_eq less_floor_iff
  1709   floor_less_eq floor_less_iff
  1710   floor_divide_eq_div floor_divide_of_int_eq
  1711   real_of_int_zero_cancel of_nat_eq_0_iff
  1712   ceiling_real_of_int ceiling_of_int
  1713 
  1714 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1715 
  1716 * Theory Map: lemma map_of_is_SomeD was a clone of map_of_SomeD and has
  1717 been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1718 
  1719 * Quickcheck setup for finite sets.
  1720 
  1721 * Discontinued simp_legacy_precond. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1722 
  1723 * Sledgehammer:
  1724   - The MaSh relevance filter has been sped up.
  1725   - Proof reconstruction has been improved, to minimize the incidence of
  1726     cases where Sledgehammer gives a proof that does not work.
  1727   - Auto Sledgehammer now minimizes and preplays the results.
  1728   - Handle Vampire 4.0 proof output without raising exception.
  1729   - Eliminated "MASH" environment variable. Use the "MaSh" option in
  1730     Isabelle/jEdit instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1731   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option and related subcommands.
  1732 
  1733 * Nitpick:
  1734   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "finite" predicate.
  1735   - Fixed soundness bug in "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  1736   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "rat" type.
  1737   - Removed "check_potential" and "check_genuine" options.
  1738   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option.
  1739 
  1740 * (Co)datatype package:
  1741   - New commands "lift_bnf" and "copy_bnf" for lifting (copying) a BNF
  1742     structure on the raw type to an abstract type defined using typedef.
  1743   - Always generate "case_transfer" theorem.
  1744   - For mutual types, generate slightly stronger "rel_induct",
  1745     "rel_coinduct", and "coinduct" theorems. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1746   - Allow discriminators and selectors with the same name as the type
  1747     being defined.
  1748   - Avoid various internal name clashes (e.g., 'datatype f = f').
  1749 
  1750 * Transfer: new methods for interactive debugging of 'transfer' and
  1751 'transfer_prover': 'transfer_start', 'transfer_step', 'transfer_end',
  1752 'transfer_prover_start' and 'transfer_prover_end'.
  1753 
  1754 * New diagnostic command print_record for displaying record definitions.
  1755 
  1756 * Division on integers is bootstrapped directly from division on
  1757 naturals and uses generic numeral algorithm for computations. Slight
  1758 INCOMPATIBILITY, simproc numeral_divmod replaces and generalizes former
  1759 simprocs binary_int_div and binary_int_mod
  1760 
  1761 * Tightened specification of class semiring_no_zero_divisors. Minor
  1762 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1763 
  1764 * Class algebraic_semidom introduces common algebraic notions of
  1765 integral (semi)domains, particularly units. Although logically subsumed
  1766 by fields, is is not a super class of these in order not to burden
  1767 fields with notions that are trivial there.
  1768 
  1769 * Class normalization_semidom specifies canonical representants for
  1770 equivalence classes of associated elements in an integral (semi)domain.
  1771 This formalizes associated elements as well.
  1772 
  1773 * Abstract specification of gcd/lcm operations in classes semiring_gcd,
  1774 semiring_Gcd, semiring_Lcd. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: facts gcd_nat.commute
  1775 and gcd_int.commute are subsumed by gcd.commute, as well as
  1776 gcd_nat.assoc and gcd_int.assoc by gcd.assoc.
  1777 
  1778 * Former constants Fields.divide (_ / _) and Divides.div (_ div _) are
  1779 logically unified to Rings.divide in syntactic type class Rings.divide,
  1780 with infix syntax (_ div _). Infix syntax (_ / _) for field division is
  1781 added later as abbreviation in class Fields.inverse. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1782 instantiations must refer to Rings.divide rather than the former
  1783 separate constants, hence infix syntax (_ / _) is usually not available
  1784 during instantiation.
  1785 
  1786 * New cancellation simprocs for boolean algebras to cancel complementary
  1787 terms for sup and inf. For example, "sup x (sup y (- x))" simplifies to
  1788 "top". INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1789 
  1790 * Class uniform_space introduces uniform spaces btw topological spaces
  1791 and metric spaces. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: open_<type>_def needs to be
  1792 introduced in the form of an uniformity. Some constants are more general
  1793 now, it may be necessary to add type class constraints.
  1794 
  1795   open_real_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  1796   open_complex_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  1797 
  1798 * Library/Monad_Syntax: notation uses symbols \<bind> and \<then>. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1799 
  1800 * Library/Multiset:
  1801   - Renamed multiset inclusion operators:
  1802       < ~> <#
  1803       > ~> >#
  1804       <= ~> <=#
  1805       >= ~> >=#
  1806       \<le> ~> \<le>#
  1807       \<ge> ~> \<ge>#
  1808     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1809   - Added multiset inclusion operator syntax:
  1810       \<subset>#
  1811       \<subseteq>#
  1812       \<supset>#
  1813       \<supseteq>#
  1814   - "'a multiset" is no longer an instance of the "order",
  1815     "ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le", "ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_diff",
  1816     "semilattice_inf", and "semilattice_sup" type classes. The theorems
  1817     previously provided by these type classes (directly or indirectly)
  1818     are now available through the "subset_mset" interpretation
  1819     (e.g. add_mono ~> subset_mset.add_mono).
  1820     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1821   - Renamed conversions:
  1822       multiset_of ~> mset
  1823       multiset_of_set ~> mset_set
  1824       set_of ~> set_mset
  1825     INCOMPATIBILITY
  1826   - Renamed lemmas:
  1827       mset_le_def ~> subseteq_mset_def
  1828       mset_less_def ~> subset_mset_def
  1829       less_eq_multiset.rep_eq ~> subseteq_mset_def
  1830     INCOMPATIBILITY
  1831   - Removed lemmas generated by lift_definition:
  1832     less_eq_multiset.abs_eq, less_eq_multiset.rsp,
  1833     less_eq_multiset.transfer, less_eq_multiset_def
  1834     INCOMPATIBILITY
  1835 
  1836 * Library/Omega_Words_Fun: Infinite words modeled as functions nat \<Rightarrow> 'a.
  1837 
  1838 * Library/Bourbaki_Witt_Fixpoint: Added formalisation of the
  1839 Bourbaki-Witt fixpoint theorem for increasing functions in
  1840 chain-complete partial orders.
  1841 
  1842 * Library/Old_Recdef: discontinued obsolete 'defer_recdef' command.
  1843 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'function' instead.
  1844 
  1845 * Library/Periodic_Fun: a locale that provides convenient lemmas for
  1846 periodic functions.
  1847 
  1848 * Library/Formal_Power_Series: proper definition of division (with
  1849 remainder) for formal power series; instances for Euclidean Ring and
  1850 GCD.
  1851 
  1852 * HOL-Imperative_HOL: obsolete theory Legacy_Mrec has been removed.
  1853 
  1854 * HOL-Statespace: command 'statespace' uses mandatory qualifier for
  1855 import of parent, as for general 'locale' expressions. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1856 remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  1857 
  1858 * HOL-Decision_Procs: The "approximation" method works with "powr"
  1859 (exponentiation on real numbers) again.
  1860 
  1861 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: theory Cauchy_Integral_Thm with Contour
  1862 integrals (= complex path integrals), Cauchy's integral theorem, winding
  1863 numbers and Cauchy's integral formula, Liouville theorem, Fundamental
  1864 Theorem of Algebra. Ported from HOL Light.
  1865 
  1866 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: topological concepts such as connected
  1867 components, homotopic paths and the inside or outside of a set.
  1868 
  1869 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: radius of convergence of power series and
  1870 various summability tests; Harmonic numbers and the Euler–Mascheroni
  1871 constant; the Generalised Binomial Theorem; the complex and real
  1872 Gamma/log-Gamma/Digamma/ Polygamma functions and their most important
  1873 properties.
  1874 
  1875 * HOL-Probability: The central limit theorem based on Levy's uniqueness
  1876 and continuity theorems, weak convergence, and characterisitc functions.
  1877 
  1878 * HOL-Data_Structures: new and growing session of standard data
  1879 structures.
  1880 
  1881 
  1882 *** ML ***
  1883 
  1884 * The following combinators for low-level profiling of the ML runtime
  1885 system are available:
  1886 
  1887   profile_time          (*CPU time*)
  1888   profile_time_thread   (*CPU time on this thread*)
  1889   profile_allocations   (*overall heap allocations*)
  1890 
  1891 * Antiquotation @{undefined} or \<^undefined> inlines (raise Match).
  1892 
  1893 * Antiquotation @{method NAME} inlines the (checked) name of the given
  1894 Isar proof method.
  1895 
  1896 * Pretty printing of Poly/ML compiler output in Isabelle has been
  1897 improved: proper treatment of break offsets and blocks with consistent
  1898 breaks.
  1899 
  1900 * The auxiliary module Pure/display.ML has been eliminated. Its
  1901 elementary thm print operations are now in Pure/more_thm.ML and thus
  1902 called Thm.pretty_thm, Thm.string_of_thm etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1903 
  1904 * Simproc programming interfaces have been simplified:
  1905 Simplifier.make_simproc and Simplifier.define_simproc supersede various
  1906 forms of Simplifier.mk_simproc, Simplifier.simproc_global etc. Note that
  1907 term patterns for the left-hand sides are specified with implicitly
  1908 fixed variables, like top-level theorem statements. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1909 
  1910 * Instantiation rules have been re-organized as follows:
  1911 
  1912   Thm.instantiate  (*low-level instantiation with named arguments*)
  1913   Thm.instantiate' (*version with positional arguments*)
  1914 
  1915   Drule.infer_instantiate  (*instantiation with type inference*)
  1916   Drule.infer_instantiate'  (*version with positional arguments*)
  1917 
  1918 The LHS only requires variable specifications, instead of full terms.
  1919 Old cterm_instantiate is superseded by infer_instantiate.
  1920 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to re-adjust some ML names and types accordingly.
  1921 
  1922 * Old tactic shorthands atac, rtac, etac, dtac, ftac have been
  1923 discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular assume_tac, resolve_tac etc.
  1924 instead (with proper context).
  1925 
  1926 * Thm.instantiate (and derivatives) no longer require the LHS of the
  1927 instantiation to be certified: plain variables are given directly.
  1928 
  1929 * Subgoal.SUBPROOF and Subgoal.FOCUS combinators use anonymous
  1930 quasi-bound variables (like the Simplifier), instead of accidentally
  1931 named local fixes. This has the potential to improve stability of proof
  1932 tools, but can also cause INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that don't observe
  1933 the proof context discipline.
  1934 
  1935 * Isar proof methods are based on a slightly more general type
  1936 context_tactic, which allows to change the proof context dynamically
  1937 (e.g. to update cases) and indicate explicit Seq.Error results. Former
  1938 METHOD_CASES is superseded by CONTEXT_METHOD; further combinators are
  1939 provided in src/Pure/Isar/method.ML for convenience. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1940 
  1941 
  1942 *** System ***
  1943 
  1944 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" enables print mode "ASCII".
  1945 
  1946 * Command-line tool "isabelle update_then" expands old Isar command
  1947 conflations:
  1948 
  1949     hence  ~>  then have
  1950     thus   ~>  then show
  1951 
  1952 This syntax is more orthogonal and improves readability and
  1953 maintainability of proofs.
  1954 
  1955 * Global session timeout is multiplied by timeout_scale factor. This
  1956 allows to adjust large-scale tests (e.g. AFP) to overall hardware
  1957 performance.
  1958 
  1959 * Property values in etc/symbols may contain spaces, if written with the
  1960 replacement character "␣" (Unicode point 0x2324). For example:
  1961 
  1962     \<star>  code: 0x0022c6  group: operator  font: Deja␣Vu␣Sans␣Mono
  1963 
  1964 * Java runtime environment for x86_64-windows allows to use larger heap
  1965 space.
  1966 
  1967 * Java runtime options are determined separately for 32bit vs. 64bit
  1968 platforms as follows.
  1969 
  1970   - Isabelle desktop application: platform-specific files that are
  1971     associated with the main app bundle
  1972 
  1973   - isabelle jedit: settings
  1974     JEDIT_JAVA_SYSTEM_OPTIONS
  1975     JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  1976 
  1977   - isabelle build: settings
  1978     ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  1979 
  1980 * Bash shell function "jvmpath" has been renamed to "platform_path": it
  1981 is relevant both for Poly/ML and JVM processes.
  1982 
  1983 * Poly/ML default platform architecture may be changed from 32bit to
  1984 64bit via system option ML_system_64. A system restart (and rebuild) is
  1985 required after change.
  1986 
  1987 * Poly/ML 5.6 runs natively on x86-windows and x86_64-windows, which
  1988 both allow larger heap space than former x86-cygwin.
  1989 
  1990 * Heap images are 10-15% smaller due to less wasteful persistent theory
  1991 content (using ML type theory_id instead of theory);
  1992 
  1993 
  1994 
  1995 New in Isabelle2015 (May 2015)
  1996 ------------------------------
  1997 
  1998 *** General ***
  1999 
  2000 * Local theory specification commands may have a 'private' or
  2001 'qualified' modifier to restrict name space accesses to the local scope,
  2002 as provided by some "context begin ... end" block. For example:
  2003 
  2004   context
  2005   begin
  2006 
  2007   private definition ...
  2008   private lemma ...
  2009 
  2010   qualified definition ...
  2011   qualified lemma ...
  2012 
  2013   lemma ...
  2014   theorem ...
  2015 
  2016   end
  2017 
  2018 * Command 'experiment' opens an anonymous locale context with private
  2019 naming policy.
  2020 
  2021 * Command 'notepad' requires proper nesting of begin/end and its proof
  2022 structure in the body: 'oops' is no longer supported here. Minor
  2023 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'sorry' instead.
  2024 
  2025 * Command 'named_theorems' declares a dynamic fact within the context,
  2026 together with an attribute to maintain the content incrementally. This
  2027 supersedes functor Named_Thms in Isabelle/ML, but with a subtle change
  2028 of semantics due to external visual order vs. internal reverse order.
  2029 
  2030 * 'find_theorems': search patterns which are abstractions are
  2031 schematically expanded before search. Search results match the naive
  2032 expectation more closely, particularly wrt. abbreviations.
  2033 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2034 
  2035 * Commands 'method_setup' and 'attribute_setup' now work within a local
  2036 theory context.
  2037 
  2038 * Outer syntax commands are managed authentically within the theory
  2039 context, without implicit global state. Potential for accidental
  2040 INCOMPATIBILITY, make sure that required theories are really imported.
  2041 
  2042 * Historical command-line terminator ";" is no longer accepted (and
  2043 already used differently in Isar). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle
  2044 update_semicolons" to remove obsolete semicolons from old theory
  2045 sources.
  2046 
  2047 * Structural composition of proof methods (meth1; meth2) in Isar
  2048 corresponds to (tac1 THEN_ALL_NEW tac2) in ML.
  2049 
  2050 * The Eisbach proof method language allows to define new proof methods
  2051 by combining existing ones with their usual syntax. The "match" proof
  2052 method provides basic fact/term matching in addition to
  2053 premise/conclusion matching through Subgoal.focus, and binds fact names
  2054 from matches as well as term patterns within matches. The Isabelle
  2055 documentation provides an entry "eisbach" for the Eisbach User Manual.
  2056 Sources and various examples are in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/.
  2057 
  2058 
  2059 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2060 
  2061 * Improved folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax. Alternatively,
  2062 the "sidekick" mode may be used for document structure.
  2063 
  2064 * Extended bracket matching based on Isar language structure. System
  2065 option jedit_structure_limit determines maximum number of lines to scan
  2066 in the buffer.
  2067 
  2068 * Support for BibTeX files: context menu, context-sensitive token
  2069 marker, SideKick parser.
  2070 
  2071 * Document antiquotation @{cite} provides formal markup, which is
  2072 interpreted semi-formally based on .bib files that happen to be open in
  2073 the editor (hyperlinks, completion etc.).
  2074 
  2075 * Less waste of vertical space via negative line spacing (see Global
  2076 Options / Text Area).
  2077 
  2078 * Improved graphview panel with optional output of PNG or PDF, for
  2079 display of 'thy_deps', 'class_deps' etc.
  2080 
  2081 * The commands 'thy_deps' and 'class_deps' allow optional bounds to
  2082 restrict the visualized hierarchy.
  2083 
  2084 * Improved scheduling for asynchronous print commands (e.g. provers
  2085 managed by the Sledgehammer panel) wrt. ongoing document processing.
  2086 
  2087 
  2088 *** Document preparation ***
  2089 
  2090 * Document markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection',
  2091 'subsubsection', 'text', 'txt', 'text_raw' work uniformly in any
  2092 context, even before the initial 'theory' command. Obsolete proof
  2093 commands 'sect', 'subsect', 'subsubsect', 'txt_raw' have been
  2094 discontinued, use 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection', 'text_raw'
  2095 instead. The old 'header' command is still retained for some time, but
  2096 should be replaced by 'chapter', 'section' etc. (using "isabelle
  2097 update_header"). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2098 
  2099 * Official support for "tt" style variants, via \isatt{...} or
  2100 \begin{isabellett}...\end{isabellett}. The somewhat fragile \verb or
  2101 verbatim environment of LaTeX is no longer used. This allows @{ML} etc.
  2102 as argument to other macros (such as footnotes).
  2103 
  2104 * Document antiquotation @{verbatim} prints ASCII text literally in "tt"
  2105 style.
  2106 
  2107 * Discontinued obsolete option "document_graph": session_graph.pdf is
  2108 produced unconditionally for HTML browser_info and PDF-LaTeX document.
  2109 
  2110 * Diagnostic commands and document markup commands within a proof do not
  2111 affect the command tag for output. Thus commands like 'thm' are subject
  2112 to proof document structure, and no longer "stick out" accidentally.
  2113 Commands 'text' and 'txt' merely differ in the LaTeX style, not their
  2114 tags. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  2115 
  2116 * System option "pretty_margin" is superseded by "thy_output_margin",
  2117 which is also accessible via document antiquotation option "margin".
  2118 Only the margin for document output may be changed, but not the global
  2119 pretty printing: that is 76 for plain console output, and adapted
  2120 dynamically in GUI front-ends. Implementations of document
  2121 antiquotations need to observe the margin explicitly according to
  2122 Thy_Output.string_of_margin. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2123 
  2124 * Specification of 'document_files' in the session ROOT file is
  2125 mandatory for document preparation. The legacy mode with implicit
  2126 copying of the document/ directory is no longer supported. Minor
  2127 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2128 
  2129 
  2130 *** Pure ***
  2131 
  2132 * Proof methods with explicit instantiation ("rule_tac", "subgoal_tac"
  2133 etc.) allow an optional context of local variables ('for' declaration):
  2134 these variables become schematic in the instantiated theorem; this
  2135 behaviour is analogous to 'for' in attributes "where" and "of".
  2136 Configuration option rule_insts_schematic (default false) controls use
  2137 of schematic variables outside the context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2138 declare rule_insts_schematic = true temporarily and update to use local
  2139 variable declarations or dummy patterns instead.
  2140 
  2141 * Explicit instantiation via attributes "where", "of", and proof methods
  2142 "rule_tac" with derivatives like "subgoal_tac" etc. admit dummy patterns
  2143 ("_") that stand for anonymous local variables.
  2144 
  2145 * Generated schematic variables in standard format of exported facts are
  2146 incremented to avoid material in the proof context. Rare
  2147 INCOMPATIBILITY, explicit instantiation sometimes needs to refer to
  2148 different index.
  2149 
  2150 * Lexical separation of signed and unsigned numerals: categories "num"
  2151 and "float" are unsigned. INCOMPATIBILITY: subtle change in precedence
  2152 of numeral signs, particularly in expressions involving infix syntax
  2153 like "(- 1) ^ n".
  2154 
  2155 * Old inner token category "xnum" has been discontinued.  Potential
  2156 INCOMPATIBILITY for exotic syntax: may use mixfix grammar with "num"
  2157 token category instead.
  2158 
  2159 
  2160 *** HOL ***
  2161 
  2162 * New (co)datatype package:
  2163   - The 'datatype_new' command has been renamed 'datatype'. The old
  2164     command of that name is now called 'old_datatype' and is provided
  2165     by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  2166     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  2167     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2168   - Renamed theorems:
  2169       disc_corec ~> corec_disc
  2170       disc_corec_iff ~> corec_disc_iff
  2171       disc_exclude ~> distinct_disc
  2172       disc_exhaust ~> exhaust_disc
  2173       disc_map_iff ~> map_disc_iff
  2174       sel_corec ~> corec_sel
  2175       sel_exhaust ~> exhaust_sel
  2176       sel_map ~> map_sel
  2177       sel_set ~> set_sel
  2178       sel_split ~> split_sel
  2179       sel_split_asm ~> split_sel_asm
  2180       strong_coinduct ~> coinduct_strong
  2181       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  2182     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2183   - The "no_code" option to "free_constructors", "datatype_new", and
  2184     "codatatype" has been renamed "plugins del: code".
  2185     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2186   - The rules "set_empty" have been removed. They are easy
  2187     consequences of other set rules "by auto".
  2188     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2189   - The rule "set_cases" is now registered with the "[cases set]"
  2190     attribute. This can influence the behavior of the "cases" proof
  2191     method when more than one case rule is applicable (e.g., an
  2192     assumption is of the form "w : set ws" and the method "cases w"
  2193     is invoked). The solution is to specify the case rule explicitly
  2194     (e.g. "cases w rule: widget.exhaust").
  2195     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2196   - Renamed theories:
  2197       BNF_Comp ~> BNF_Composition
  2198       BNF_FP_Base ~> BNF_Fixpoint_Base
  2199       BNF_GFP ~> BNF_Greatest_Fixpoint
  2200       BNF_LFP ~> BNF_Least_Fixpoint
  2201       BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> BNF_Wellorder_Constructions
  2202       Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> Cardinals/Wellorder_Constructions
  2203     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2204   - Lifting and Transfer setup for basic HOL types sum and prod (also
  2205     option) is now performed by the BNF package. Theories Lifting_Sum,
  2206     Lifting_Product and Lifting_Option from Main became obsolete and
  2207     were removed. Changed definitions of the relators rel_prod and
  2208     rel_sum (using inductive).
  2209     INCOMPATIBILITY: use rel_prod.simps and rel_sum.simps instead
  2210     of rel_prod_def and rel_sum_def.
  2211     Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: (rarely used by name) transfer theorem names
  2212     changed (e.g. map_prod_transfer ~> prod.map_transfer).
  2213   - Parametricity theorems for map functions, relators, set functions,
  2214     constructors, case combinators, discriminators, selectors and
  2215     (co)recursors are automatically proved and registered as transfer
  2216     rules.
  2217 
  2218 * Old datatype package:
  2219   - The old 'datatype' command has been renamed 'old_datatype', and
  2220     'rep_datatype' has been renamed 'old_rep_datatype'. They are
  2221     provided by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  2222     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  2223     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2224   - Renamed theorems:
  2225       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  2226     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2227   - Renamed theory:
  2228       ~~/src/HOL/Datatype.thy ~> ~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy
  2229     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2230 
  2231 * Nitpick:
  2232   - Fixed soundness bug related to the strict and non-strict subset
  2233     operations.
  2234 
  2235 * Sledgehammer:
  2236   - CVC4 is now included with Isabelle instead of CVC3 and run by
  2237     default.
  2238   - Z3 is now always enabled by default, now that it is fully open
  2239     source. The "z3_non_commercial" option is discontinued.
  2240   - Minimization is now always enabled by default.
  2241     Removed sub-command:
  2242       min
  2243   - Proof reconstruction, both one-liners and Isar, has been
  2244     dramatically improved.
  2245   - Improved support for CVC4 and veriT.
  2246 
  2247 * Old and new SMT modules:
  2248   - The old 'smt' method has been renamed 'old_smt' and moved to
  2249     'src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy'. It is provided for compatibility,
  2250     until applications have been ported to use the new 'smt' method. For
  2251     the method to work, an older version of Z3 (e.g. Z3 3.2 or 4.0) must
  2252     be installed, and the environment variable "OLD_Z3_SOLVER" must
  2253     point to it.
  2254     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2255   - The 'smt2' method has been renamed 'smt'.
  2256     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2257   - New option 'smt_reconstruction_step_timeout' to limit the
  2258     reconstruction time of Z3 proof steps in the new 'smt' method.
  2259   - New option 'smt_statistics' to display statistics of the new 'smt'
  2260     method, especially runtime statistics of Z3 proof reconstruction.
  2261 
  2262 * Lifting: command 'lift_definition' allows to execute lifted constants
  2263 that have as a return type a datatype containing a subtype. This
  2264 overcomes long-time limitations in the area of code generation and
  2265 lifting, and avoids tedious workarounds.
  2266 
  2267 * Command and antiquotation "value" provide different evaluation slots
  2268 (again), where the previous strategy (NBE after ML) serves as default.
  2269 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2270 
  2271 * Add NO_MATCH-simproc, allows to check for syntactic non-equality.
  2272 
  2273 * field_simps: Use NO_MATCH-simproc for distribution rules, to avoid
  2274 non-termination in case of distributing a division. With this change
  2275 field_simps is in some cases slightly less powerful, if it fails try to
  2276 add algebra_simps, or use divide_simps. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2277 
  2278 * Separate class no_zero_divisors has been given up in favour of fully
  2279 algebraic semiring_no_zero_divisors. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2280 
  2281 * Class linordered_semidom really requires no zero divisors.
  2282 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2283 
  2284 * Classes division_ring, field and linordered_field always demand
  2285 "inverse 0 = 0". Given up separate classes division_ring_inverse_zero,
  2286 field_inverse_zero and linordered_field_inverse_zero. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2287 
  2288 * Classes cancel_ab_semigroup_add / cancel_monoid_add specify explicit
  2289 additive inverse operation. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2290 
  2291 * Complex powers and square roots. The functions "ln" and "powr" are now
  2292 overloaded for types real and complex, and 0 powr y = 0 by definition.
  2293 INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be necessary.
  2294 
  2295 * The functions "sin" and "cos" are now defined for any type of sort
  2296 "{real_normed_algebra_1,banach}" type, so in particular on "real" and
  2297 "complex" uniformly. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be
  2298 needed.
  2299 
  2300 * New library of properties of the complex transcendental functions sin,
  2301 cos, tan, exp, Ln, Arctan, Arcsin, Arccos. Ported from HOL Light.
  2302 
  2303 * The factorial function, "fact", now has type "nat => 'a" (of a sort
  2304 that admits numeric types including nat, int, real and complex.
  2305 INCOMPATIBILITY: an expression such as "fact 3 = 6" may require a type
  2306 constraint, and the combination "real (fact k)" is likely to be
  2307 unsatisfactory. If a type conversion is still necessary, then use
  2308 "of_nat (fact k)" or "real_of_nat (fact k)".
  2309 
  2310 * Removed functions "natfloor" and "natceiling", use "nat o floor" and
  2311 "nat o ceiling" instead. A few of the lemmas have been retained and
  2312 adapted: in their names "natfloor"/"natceiling" has been replaced by
  2313 "nat_floor"/"nat_ceiling".
  2314 
  2315 * Qualified some duplicated fact names required for boostrapping the
  2316 type class hierarchy:
  2317   ab_add_uminus_conv_diff ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  2318   field_inverse_zero ~> inverse_zero
  2319   field_divide_inverse ~> divide_inverse
  2320   field_inverse ~> left_inverse
  2321 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2322 
  2323 * Eliminated fact duplicates:
  2324   mult_less_imp_less_right ~> mult_right_less_imp_less
  2325   mult_less_imp_less_left ~> mult_left_less_imp_less
  2326 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2327 
  2328 * Fact consolidation: even_less_0_iff is subsumed by
  2329 double_add_less_zero_iff_single_add_less_zero (simp by default anyway).
  2330 
  2331 * Generalized and consolidated some theorems concerning divsibility:
  2332   dvd_reduce ~> dvd_add_triv_right_iff
  2333   dvd_plus_eq_right ~> dvd_add_right_iff
  2334   dvd_plus_eq_left ~> dvd_add_left_iff
  2335 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2336 
  2337 * "even" and "odd" are mere abbreviations for "2 dvd _" and "~ 2 dvd _"
  2338 and part of theory Main.
  2339   even_def ~> even_iff_mod_2_eq_zero
  2340 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2341 
  2342 * Lemma name consolidation: divide_Numeral1 ~> divide_numeral_1. Minor
  2343 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2344 
  2345 * Bootstrap of listsum as special case of abstract product over lists.
  2346 Fact rename:
  2347     listsum_def ~> listsum.eq_foldr
  2348 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2349 
  2350 * Product over lists via constant "listprod".
  2351 
  2352 * Theory List: renamed drop_Suc_conv_tl and nth_drop' to
  2353 Cons_nth_drop_Suc.
  2354 
  2355 * New infrastructure for compiling, running, evaluating and testing
  2356 generated code in target languages in HOL/Library/Code_Test. See
  2357 HOL/Codegenerator_Test/Code_Test* for examples.
  2358 
  2359 * Library/Multiset:
  2360   - Introduced "replicate_mset" operation.
  2361   - Introduced alternative characterizations of the multiset ordering in
  2362     "Library/Multiset_Order".
  2363   - Renamed multiset ordering:
  2364       <# ~> #<#
  2365       <=# ~> #<=#
  2366       \<subset># ~> #\<subset>#
  2367       \<subseteq># ~> #\<subseteq>#
  2368     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2369   - Introduced abbreviations for ill-named multiset operations:
  2370       <#, \<subset># abbreviate < (strict subset)
  2371       <=#, \<le>#, \<subseteq># abbreviate <= (subset or equal)
  2372     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2373   - Renamed
  2374       in_multiset_of ~> in_multiset_in_set
  2375       Multiset.fold ~> fold_mset
  2376       Multiset.filter ~> filter_mset
  2377     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2378   - Removed mcard, is equal to size.
  2379   - Added attributes:
  2380       image_mset.id [simp]
  2381       image_mset_id [simp]
  2382       elem_multiset_of_set [simp, intro]
  2383       comp_fun_commute_plus_mset [simp]
  2384       comp_fun_commute.fold_mset_insert [OF comp_fun_commute_plus_mset, simp]
  2385       in_mset_fold_plus_iff [iff]
  2386       set_of_Union_mset [simp]
  2387       in_Union_mset_iff [iff]
  2388     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2389 
  2390 * Library/Sum_of_Squares: simplified and improved "sos" method. Always
  2391 use local CSDP executable, which is much faster than the NEOS server.
  2392 The "sos_cert" functionality is invoked as "sos" with additional
  2393 argument. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2394 
  2395 * HOL-Decision_Procs: New counterexample generator quickcheck
  2396 [approximation] for inequalities of transcendental functions. Uses
  2397 hardware floating point arithmetic to randomly discover potential
  2398 counterexamples. Counterexamples are certified with the "approximation"
  2399 method. See HOL/Decision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Quickcheck_Ex.thy for
  2400 examples.
  2401 
  2402 * HOL-Probability: Reworked measurability prover
  2403   - applies destructor rules repeatedly
  2404   - removed application splitting (replaced by destructor rule)
  2405   - added congruence rules to rewrite measure spaces under the sets
  2406     projection
  2407 
  2408 * New proof method "rewrite" (in theory ~~/src/HOL/Library/Rewrite) for
  2409 single-step rewriting with subterm selection based on patterns.
  2410 
  2411 
  2412 *** ML ***
  2413 
  2414 * Subtle change of name space policy: undeclared entries are now
  2415 considered inaccessible, instead of accessible via the fully-qualified
  2416 internal name. This mainly affects Name_Space.intern (and derivatives),
  2417 which may produce an unexpected Long_Name.hidden prefix. Note that
  2418 contemporary applications use the strict Name_Space.check (and
  2419 derivatives) instead, which is not affected by the change. Potential
  2420 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare applications of Name_Space.intern.
  2421 
  2422 * Subtle change of error semantics of Toplevel.proof_of: regular user
  2423 ERROR instead of internal Toplevel.UNDEF.
  2424 
  2425 * Basic combinators map, fold, fold_map, split_list, apply are available
  2426 as parameterized antiquotations, e.g. @{map 4} for lists of quadruples.
  2427 
  2428 * Renamed "pairself" to "apply2", in accordance to @{apply 2}.
  2429 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2430 
  2431 * Former combinators NAMED_CRITICAL and CRITICAL for central critical
  2432 sections have been discontinued, in favour of the more elementary
  2433 Multithreading.synchronized and its high-level derivative
  2434 Synchronized.var (which is usually sufficient in applications). Subtle
  2435 INCOMPATIBILITY: synchronized access needs to be atomic and cannot be
  2436 nested.
  2437 
  2438 * Synchronized.value (ML) is actually synchronized (as in Scala): subtle
  2439 change of semantics with minimal potential for INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2440 
  2441 * The main operations to certify logical entities are Thm.ctyp_of and
  2442 Thm.cterm_of with a local context; old-style global theory variants are
  2443 available as Thm.global_ctyp_of and Thm.global_cterm_of.
  2444 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2445 
  2446 * Elementary operations in module Thm are no longer pervasive.
  2447 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified Thm.prop_of, Thm.cterm_of,
  2448 Thm.term_of etc.
  2449 
  2450 * Proper context for various elementary tactics: assume_tac,
  2451 resolve_tac, eresolve_tac, dresolve_tac, forward_tac, match_tac,
  2452 compose_tac, Splitter.split_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2453 
  2454 * Tactical PARALLEL_ALLGOALS is the most common way to refer to
  2455 PARALLEL_GOALS.
  2456 
  2457 * Goal.prove_multi is superseded by the fully general Goal.prove_common,
  2458 which also allows to specify a fork priority.
  2459 
  2460 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "COMMAND"} is superseded by
  2461 @{command_keyword COMMAND} (usually without quotes and with PIDE
  2462 markup). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2463 
  2464 * Cartouches within ML sources are turned into values of type
  2465 Input.source (with formal position information).
  2466 
  2467 
  2468 *** System ***
  2469 
  2470 * The Isabelle tool "update_cartouches" changes theory files to use
  2471 cartouches instead of old-style {* verbatim *} or `alt_string` tokens.
  2472 
  2473 * The Isabelle tool "build" provides new options -X, -k, -x.
  2474 
  2475 * Discontinued old-fashioned "codegen" tool. Code generation can always
  2476 be externally triggered using an appropriate ROOT file plus a
  2477 corresponding theory. Parametrization is possible using environment
  2478 variables, or ML snippets in the most extreme cases. Minor
  2479 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2480 
  2481 * JVM system property "isabelle.threads" determines size of Scala thread
  2482 pool, like Isabelle system option "threads" for ML.
  2483 
  2484 * JVM system property "isabelle.laf" determines the default Swing
  2485 look-and-feel, via internal class name or symbolic name as in the jEdit
  2486 menu Global Options / Appearance.
  2487 
  2488 * Support for Proof General and Isar TTY loop has been discontinued.
  2489 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use standard PIDE infrastructure instead.
  2490 
  2491 
  2492 
  2493 New in Isabelle2014 (August 2014)
  2494 ---------------------------------
  2495 
  2496 *** General ***
  2497 
  2498 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
  2499 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
  2500 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
  2501 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
  2502 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
  2503 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
  2504 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
  2505 some examples.
  2506 
  2507 * Standard tactics and proof methods such as "clarsimp", "auto" and
  2508 "safe" now preserve equality hypotheses "x = expr" where x is a free
  2509 variable.  Locale assumptions and chained facts containing "x"
  2510 continue to be useful.  The new method "hypsubst_thin" and the
  2511 configuration option "hypsubst_thin" (within the attribute name space)
  2512 restore the previous behavior.  INCOMPATIBILITY, especially where
  2513 induction is done after these methods or when the names of free and
  2514 bound variables clash.  As first approximation, old proofs may be
  2515 repaired by "using [[hypsubst_thin = true]]" in the critical spot.
  2516 
  2517 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
  2518 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
  2519 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
  2520 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
  2521 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
  2522 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
  2523 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
  2524 proof tools.
  2525 
  2526 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
  2527 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
  2528 supports input via ` (backquote).
  2529 
  2530 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
  2531 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
  2532 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
  2533 
  2534 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
  2535 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
  2536 string token.  General renovation of its syntax using text cartouches.
  2537 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2538 
  2539 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary workaround for
  2540 Isabelle/ML in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
  2541 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.  Potential
  2542 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2543 
  2544 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
  2545 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
  2546 
  2547 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
  2548 not check existence within the file-system.
  2549 
  2550 * Updated and extended manuals: codegen, datatypes, implementation,
  2551 isar-ref, jedit, system.
  2552 
  2553 
  2554 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2555 
  2556 * Improved Document panel: simplified interaction where every single
  2557 mouse click (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit
  2558 buffer.
  2559 
  2560 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons), with connection
  2561 to PIDE hyperlinks.
  2562 
  2563 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
  2564 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
  2565 
  2566 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
  2567 auxiliary ML files.
  2568 
  2569 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism, with simple
  2570 templates, completion language context, name-space completion,
  2571 file-name completion, spell-checker completion.
  2572 
  2573 * Refined GUI popup for completion: more robust key/mouse event
  2574 handling and propagation to enclosing text area -- avoid loosing
  2575 keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
  2576 
  2577 * Completion popup supports both ENTER and TAB (default) to select an
  2578 item, depending on Isabelle options.
  2579 
  2580 * Refined insertion of completion items wrt. jEdit text: multiple
  2581 selections, rectangular selections, rectangular selection as "tall
  2582 caret".
  2583 
  2584 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
  2585 completion popup and context-menu.
  2586 
  2587 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
  2588 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
  2589 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
  2590 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
  2591 
  2592 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
  2593 to highlight text via regular expression.
  2594 
  2595 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
  2596 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
  2597 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
  2598 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
  2599 
  2600 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
  2601 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
  2602 
  2603 * Empty editors buffers that are no longer required (e.g.\ via theory
  2604 imports) are automatically removed from the document model.
  2605 
  2606 * Improved monitor panel.
  2607 
  2608 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
  2609 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
  2610 
  2611 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
  2612 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
  2613 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
  2614 
  2615 * New Simplifier Trace panel provides an interactive view of the
  2616 simplification process, enabled by the "simp_trace_new" attribute
  2617 within the context.
  2618 
  2619 
  2620 *** Pure ***
  2621 
  2622 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
  2623 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
  2624 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
  2625 'instance' command with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem
  2626 might be postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof
  2627 finished trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous
  2628 (without any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
  2629 Axclass.class_axiomatization, Axclass.classrel_axiomatization,
  2630 Axclass.arity_axiomatization.
  2631 
  2632 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
  2633 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
  2634 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
  2635 renaming needs to be applied:
  2636 
  2637   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
  2638   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
  2639   all            ~>  Pure.all
  2640   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
  2641   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
  2642 
  2643 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
  2644 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
  2645 old constants:
  2646 
  2647 setup {*
  2648   fn thy => thy
  2649     |> Sign.root_path
  2650     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
  2651     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
  2652     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
  2653     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
  2654 *}
  2655 
  2656 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
  2657 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
  2658 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
  2659 
  2660 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
  2661 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
  2662 instantiated theorem.
  2663 
  2664 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
  2665 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
  2666 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
  2667 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
  2668 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
  2669 
  2670   attribute_setup standard =
  2671     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
  2672 
  2673 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
  2674 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
  2675 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
  2676 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
  2677 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
  2678 
  2679 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
  2680 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
  2681 differently, e.g. via cartouches).
  2682 
  2683 * Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,
  2684 but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.
  2685 
  2686 * Code generator preprocessor: explicit control of simp tracing on a
  2687 per-constant basis.  See attribute "code_preproc".
  2688 
  2689 
  2690 *** HOL ***
  2691 
  2692 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict target
  2693 language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2694 
  2695 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
  2696 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2697 
  2698 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.  Minor
  2699 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2700 
  2701 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures"
  2702 option.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2703 
  2704 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
  2705 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2706 
  2707 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
  2708 with the given constants.
  2709 
  2710 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
  2711 operations on records.
  2712 
  2713 * Command and antiquotation "value" are now hardcoded against nbe and
  2714 ML.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2715 
  2716 * Renamed command 'enriched_type' to 'functor'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2717 
  2718 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
  2719 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
  2720 
  2721 * Qualified String.implode and String.explode.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2722 
  2723 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules can
  2724 now deal with conjunctions.  For help with converting proofs, the old
  2725 behaviour of the simplifier can be restored like this: declare/using
  2726 [[simp_legacy_precond]].  This configuration option will disappear
  2727 again in the future.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2728 
  2729 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
  2730 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2731 
  2732 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from session
  2733   "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".  The commands 'bnf', 'wrap_free_constructors',
  2734   'datatype_new', 'codatatype', 'primcorec', 'primcorecursive' are now
  2735   part of theory "Main".
  2736 
  2737   Theory renamings:
  2738     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
  2739     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
  2740     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
  2741     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
  2742     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
  2743     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
  2744     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
  2745     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
  2746     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
  2747     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
  2748     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
  2749     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
  2750     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
  2751     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
  2752     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
  2753     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
  2754     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
  2755     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
  2756     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
  2757     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
  2758     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
  2759     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
  2760 
  2761   New theories:
  2762     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
  2763     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
  2764     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
  2765     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
  2766     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
  2767 
  2768   Discontinued theories:
  2769     BNF/BNF.thy
  2770     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
  2771 
  2772 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2773 
  2774 * New (co)datatype package:
  2775   - Command 'primcorec' is fully implemented.
  2776   - Command 'datatype_new' generates size functions ("size_xxx" and
  2777     "size") as required by 'fun'.
  2778   - BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style
  2779     (co)datatypes with Transfer.
  2780   - Renamed commands:
  2781       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
  2782       primrec_new ~> primrec
  2783       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
  2784     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2785   - The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
  2786     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
  2787     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2788   - The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer
  2789     generated.  Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually
  2790     using "prim(co)rec".
  2791     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2792   - No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by
  2793     default, eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
  2794     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2795   - No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
  2796     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
  2797     "discs_sels" option is passed.
  2798     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2799 
  2800 * Old datatype package:
  2801   - The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been
  2802     renamed "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" ->
  2803     "sum.case").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2804   - The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have
  2805     been renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g.,
  2806     "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2807 
  2808 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions,
  2809   their relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new
  2810   BNF-based datatype package.
  2811 
  2812   Renamed constants:
  2813     Option.set ~> set_option
  2814     Option.map ~> map_option
  2815     option_rel ~> rel_option
  2816 
  2817   Renamed theorems:
  2818     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
  2819     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
  2820     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
  2821     option.recs ~> option.rec
  2822     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
  2823     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
  2824     map.simps ~> list.map
  2825     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
  2826     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
  2827     the.simps ~> option.sel
  2828 
  2829 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2830 
  2831 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
  2832     sum_map ~> map_sum
  2833     map_pair ~> map_prod
  2834     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
  2835     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
  2836     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
  2837     set_rel ~> rel_set
  2838     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
  2839     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "src/HOL/Library/FSet.thy")
  2840     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "src/HOL/Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
  2841     vset ~> rel_vset (in "src/HOL/Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
  2842 
  2843 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2844 
  2845 * Lifting and Transfer:
  2846   - a type variable as a raw type is supported
  2847   - stronger reflexivity prover
  2848   - rep_eq is always generated by lift_definition
  2849   - setup for Lifting/Transfer is now automated for BNFs
  2850     + holds for BNFs that do not contain a dead variable
  2851     + relator_eq, relator_mono, relator_distr, relator_domain,
  2852       relator_eq_onp, quot_map, transfer rules for bi_unique, bi_total,
  2853       right_unique, right_total, left_unique, left_total are proved
  2854       automatically
  2855     + definition of a predicator is generated automatically
  2856     + simplification rules for a predicator definition are proved
  2857       automatically for datatypes
  2858   - consolidation of the setup of Lifting/Transfer
  2859     + property that a relator preservers reflexivity is not needed any
  2860       more
  2861       Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2862     + left_total and left_unique rules are now transfer rules
  2863       (reflexivity_rule attribute not needed anymore)
  2864       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2865     + Domainp does not have to be a separate assumption in
  2866       relator_domain theorems (=> more natural statement)
  2867       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2868   - registration of code equations is more robust
  2869     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2870   - respectfulness proof obligation is preprocessed to a more readable
  2871     form
  2872     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2873   - eq_onp is always unfolded in respectfulness proof obligation
  2874     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2875   - unregister lifting setup for Code_Numeral.integer and
  2876     Code_Numeral.natural
  2877     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2878   - Lifting.invariant -> eq_onp
  2879     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2880 
  2881 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof
  2882 traces.  This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and
  2883 "dpll".  Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT
  2884 solvers should use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now
  2885 the default SAT solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and
  2886 corresponding tactics; the old default can be restored using "declare
  2887 [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2888 
  2889 * SMT module: A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called
  2890 "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2 and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g.,
  2891 4.3). The new proof method is called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also
  2892 supported as oracles. Yices is no longer supported, because no version
  2893 of the solver can handle both SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
  2894 
  2895 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
  2896 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
  2897 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
  2898 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
  2899 
  2900 * Sledgehammer:
  2901   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
  2902   - MaSh overhaul:
  2903     . New SML-based learning algorithms eliminate the dependency on
  2904       Python and increase performance and reliability.
  2905     . MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the
  2906       traditional MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable
  2907       MaSh, set the "MaSh" system option in Isabelle/jEdit Plugin
  2908       Options / Isabelle / General to "none".
  2909   - New option:
  2910       smt_proofs
  2911   - Renamed options:
  2912       isar_compress ~> compress
  2913       isar_try0 ~> try0
  2914 
  2915 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2916 
  2917 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
  2918 
  2919 * Nitpick:
  2920   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could
  2921     take infinite values.
  2922   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as
  2923     "Abs_Integ" and "Rep_Integ".
  2924   - Removed "std" option.
  2925   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
  2926     "hide_types".
  2927 
  2928 * Metis: Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis
  2929 (full_types)' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2930 
  2931 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
  2932 
  2933 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
  2934   - Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
  2935   - Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF and
  2936     SUP instead uniformly.
  2937   - More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
  2938     or SUP and Sup.
  2939   - INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
  2940   - Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
  2941   - Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong, with
  2942     simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace former
  2943     INT_cong, SUP_cong
  2944 
  2945 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2946 
  2947 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice.
  2948 
  2949 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
  2950 
  2951   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  2952   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  2953   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  2954   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  2955 
  2956 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2957 
  2958 * Theory reorganization: split of Big_Operators.thy into
  2959 Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy.
  2960 
  2961 * Consolidated some facts about big group operators:
  2962 
  2963     setsum_0' ~> setsum.neutral
  2964     setsum_0 ~> setsum.neutral_const
  2965     setsum_addf ~> setsum.distrib
  2966     setsum_cartesian_product ~> setsum.cartesian_product
  2967     setsum_cases ~> setsum.If_cases
  2968     setsum_commute ~> setsum.commute
  2969     setsum_cong ~> setsum.cong
  2970     setsum_delta ~> setsum.delta
  2971     setsum_delta' ~> setsum.delta'
  2972     setsum_diff1' ~> setsum.remove
  2973     setsum_empty ~> setsum.empty
  2974     setsum_infinite ~> setsum.infinite
  2975     setsum_insert ~> setsum.insert
  2976     setsum_inter_restrict'' ~> setsum.inter_filter
  2977     setsum_mono_zero_cong_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_left
  2978     setsum_mono_zero_cong_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_right
  2979     setsum_mono_zero_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_left
  2980     setsum_mono_zero_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_right
  2981     setsum_reindex ~> setsum.reindex
  2982     setsum_reindex_cong ~> setsum.reindex_cong
  2983     setsum_reindex_nonzero ~> setsum.reindex_nontrivial
  2984     setsum_restrict_set ~> setsum.inter_restrict
  2985     setsum_Plus ~> setsum.Plus
  2986     setsum_setsum_restrict ~> setsum.commute_restrict
  2987     setsum_Sigma ~> setsum.Sigma
  2988     setsum_subset_diff ~> setsum.subset_diff
  2989     setsum_Un_disjoint ~> setsum.union_disjoint
  2990     setsum_UN_disjoint ~> setsum.UNION_disjoint
  2991     setsum_Un_Int ~> setsum.union_inter
  2992     setsum_Union_disjoint ~> setsum.Union_disjoint
  2993     setsum_UNION_zero ~> setsum.Union_comp
  2994     setsum_Un_zero ~> setsum.union_inter_neutral
  2995     strong_setprod_cong ~> setprod.strong_cong
  2996     strong_setsum_cong ~> setsum.strong_cong
  2997     setprod_1' ~> setprod.neutral
  2998     setprod_1 ~> setprod.neutral_const
  2999     setprod_cartesian_product ~> setprod.cartesian_product
  3000     setprod_cong ~> setprod.cong
  3001     setprod_delta ~> setprod.delta
  3002     setprod_delta' ~> setprod.delta'
  3003     setprod_empty ~> setprod.empty
  3004     setprod_infinite ~> setprod.infinite
  3005     setprod_insert ~> setprod.insert
  3006     setprod_mono_one_cong_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_left
  3007     setprod_mono_one_cong_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_right
  3008     setprod_mono_one_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_left
  3009     setprod_mono_one_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_right
  3010     setprod_reindex ~> setprod.reindex
  3011     setprod_reindex_cong ~> setprod.reindex_cong
  3012     setprod_reindex_nonzero ~> setprod.reindex_nontrivial
  3013     setprod_Sigma ~> setprod.Sigma
  3014     setprod_subset_diff ~> setprod.subset_diff
  3015     setprod_timesf ~> setprod.distrib
  3016     setprod_Un2 ~> setprod.union_diff2
  3017     setprod_Un_disjoint ~> setprod.union_disjoint
  3018     setprod_UN_disjoint ~> setprod.UNION_disjoint
  3019     setprod_Un_Int ~> setprod.union_inter
  3020     setprod_Union_disjoint ~> setprod.Union_disjoint
  3021     setprod_Un_one ~> setprod.union_inter_neutral
  3022 
  3023   Dropped setsum_cong2 (simple variant of setsum.cong).
  3024   Dropped setsum_inter_restrict' (simple variant of setsum.inter_restrict)
  3025   Dropped setsum_reindex_id, setprod_reindex_id
  3026     (simple variants of setsum.reindex [symmetric], setprod.reindex [symmetric]).
  3027 
  3028 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3029 
  3030 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
  3031 
  3032   Fact consolidations:
  3033     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
  3034     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
  3035     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
  3036     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
  3037     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
  3038     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
  3039     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
  3040     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
  3041     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
  3042     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
  3043     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
  3044     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
  3045     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
  3046     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
  3047     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
  3048     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
  3049     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
  3050     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
  3051     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
  3052     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
  3053     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
  3054     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
  3055     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
  3056     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
  3057     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
  3058     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
  3059     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
  3060     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
  3061     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
  3062     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
  3063     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
  3064     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
  3065     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
  3066     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
  3067     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
  3068     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
  3069     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
  3070     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
  3071     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
  3072     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
  3073 
  3074 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
  3075 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
  3076 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
  3077 
  3078 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1,
  3079 min.cobounded2, max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
  3080 
  3081 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
  3082 
  3083 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3084 
  3085 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~>
  3086 Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3087 
  3088 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
  3089 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3090 
  3091 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
  3092     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
  3093 
  3094 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3095 
  3096 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and
  3097   consolidation:
  3098     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
  3099     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
  3100 
  3101 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3102 
  3103 * Abolished neg_numeral.
  3104   - Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
  3105   - Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
  3106   - When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
  3107     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
  3108   - HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
  3109     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
  3110   - Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
  3111 
  3112 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3113 
  3114 * Reduced name variants for rules on associativity and commutativity:
  3115 
  3116     add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  3117     add_commute ~> add.commute
  3118     add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  3119     mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  3120     mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  3121     mult_left_commute ~> mult.left_commute
  3122     nat_add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  3123     nat_add_commute ~> add.commute
  3124     nat_add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  3125     nat_mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  3126     nat_mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  3127     eq_assoc ~> iff_assoc
  3128     eq_left_commute ~> iff_left_commute
  3129 
  3130 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3131 
  3132 * Fact collections add_ac and mult_ac are considered old-fashioned.
  3133 Prefer ac_simps instead, or specify rules
  3134 (add|mult).(assoc|commute|left_commute) individually.
  3135 
  3136 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
  3137     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
  3138     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
  3139     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
  3140     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
  3141 
  3142 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3143 
  3144 * Fact name consolidation:
  3145     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  3146     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
  3147     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
  3148     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
  3149     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
  3150 
  3151 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3152 
  3153 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
  3154 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
  3155 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
  3156 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
  3157 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
  3158 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly have
  3159 been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and field_simps.
  3160 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3161 
  3162 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
  3163 
  3164 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
  3165 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
  3166 
  3167 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
  3168 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
  3169 
  3170 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
  3171 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
  3172 or the brute way with
  3173 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
  3174 
  3175 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in theory
  3176 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them instead of explicitly
  3177 stating boundedness of sets.
  3178 
  3179 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow more
  3180 syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain shows up as
  3181 additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3182 
  3183 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
  3184   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
  3185   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
  3186   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
  3187   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
  3188   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
  3189   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
  3190   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
  3191   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
  3192   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
  3193   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
  3194   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
  3195 
  3196   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
  3197 
  3198   removed auxiliary lemmas:
  3199 
  3200     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
  3201     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr,
  3202     real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded, summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2,
  3203     sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom, sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero,
  3204     summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
  3205 
  3206 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3207 
  3208 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
  3209   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
  3210 
  3211   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
  3212 
  3213   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
  3214 
  3215   - removed constant isDiff
  3216 
  3217   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as
  3218     input syntax.
  3219 
  3220   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed.
  3221 
  3222   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
  3223 
  3224   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
  3225 
  3226   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
  3227 
  3228   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which
  3229     includes now rules for DERIV, has_derivative and
  3230     has_vector_derivative.
  3231 
  3232   - Other renamings:
  3233     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
  3234     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
  3235     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
  3236     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
  3237     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
  3238     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
  3239     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
  3240 
  3241 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3242 
  3243 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the
  3244 continuous_on_intros, isCont_intros collections, these facts are now
  3245 in continuous_intros.
  3246 
  3247 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im,
  3248 the Complex constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use
  3249 primcorec to defined the behaviour of a complex-valued function.
  3250 
  3251 Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they
  3252 are available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This
  3253 especially removes
  3254 
  3255     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
  3256 
  3257 Instead the reverse direction is supported with
  3258     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
  3259 
  3260 Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
  3261 
  3262   Renamings:
  3263     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
  3264     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
  3265     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
  3266     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
  3267     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
  3268     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
  3269     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
  3270     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
  3271     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
  3272     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
  3273     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
  3274     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
  3275 
  3276     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
  3277     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
  3278     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
  3279 
  3280   Removed theorems:
  3281     complex_zero_def
  3282     complex_add_def
  3283     complex_minus_def
  3284     complex_diff_def
  3285     complex_one_def
  3286     complex_mult_def
  3287     complex_inverse_def
  3288     complex_scaleR_def
  3289 
  3290 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3291 
  3292 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
  3293 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3294 
  3295 * HOL-Library: new theory src/HOL/Library/Tree.thy.
  3296 
  3297 * HOL-Library: removed theory src/HOL/Library/Kleene_Algebra.thy; it
  3298 is subsumed by session Kleene_Algebra in AFP.
  3299 
  3300 * HOL-Library / theory RBT: various constants and facts are hidden;
  3301 lifting setup is unregistered.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3302 
  3303 * HOL-Cardinals: new theory src/HOL/Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy.
  3304 
  3305 * HOL-Word: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
  3306 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3307 
  3308 * HOL-Word:
  3309   - Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a duplicate
  3310     of "word_arith_wis".
  3311   - Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
  3312     "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
  3313     "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
  3314 
  3315 * HOL-Number_Theory:
  3316   - consolidated the proofs of the binomial theorem
  3317   - the function fib is again of type nat => nat and not overloaded
  3318   - no more references to Old_Number_Theory in the HOL libraries
  3319     (except the AFP)
  3320 
  3321 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3322 
  3323 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
  3324   - Type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces.
  3325   - New theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
  3326     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
  3327   - Changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
  3328     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
  3329     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
  3330     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
  3331     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-)open
  3332     intervals.
  3333   - removed dependencies on type class ordered_euclidean_space with
  3334     introduction of "cbox" on euclidean_space
  3335     - renamed theorems:
  3336         interval ~> box
  3337         mem_interval ~> mem_box
  3338         interval_eq_empty ~> box_eq_empty
  3339         interval_ne_empty ~> box_ne_empty
  3340         interval_sing(1) ~> cbox_sing
  3341         interval_sing(2) ~> box_sing
  3342         subset_interval_imp ~> subset_box_imp
  3343         subset_interval ~> subset_box
  3344         open_interval ~> open_box
  3345         closed_interval ~> closed_cbox
  3346         interior_closed_interval ~> interior_cbox
  3347         bounded_closed_interval ~> bounded_cbox
  3348         compact_interval ~> compact_cbox
  3349         bounded_subset_closed_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_cbox_symmetric
  3350         bounded_subset_closed_interval ~> bounded_subset_cbox
  3351         mem_interval_componentwiseI ~> mem_box_componentwiseI
  3352         convex_box ~> convex_prod
  3353         rel_interior_real_interval ~> rel_interior_real_box
  3354         convex_interval ~> convex_box
  3355         convex_hull_eq_real_interval ~> convex_hull_eq_real_cbox
  3356         frechet_derivative_within_closed_interval ~> frechet_derivative_within_cbox
  3357         content_closed_interval' ~> content_cbox'
  3358         elementary_subset_interval ~> elementary_subset_box
  3359         diameter_closed_interval ~> diameter_cbox
  3360         frontier_closed_interval ~> frontier_cbox
  3361         frontier_open_interval ~> frontier_box
  3362         bounded_subset_open_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_box_symmetric
  3363         closure_open_interval ~> closure_box
  3364         open_closed_interval_convex ~> open_cbox_convex
  3365         open_interval_midpoint ~> box_midpoint
  3366         content_image_affinity_interval ~> content_image_affinity_cbox
  3367         is_interval_interval ~> is_interval_cbox + is_interval_box + is_interval_closed_interval
  3368         bounded_interval ~> bounded_closed_interval + bounded_boxes
  3369 
  3370     - respective theorems for intervals over the reals:
  3371         content_closed_interval + content_cbox
  3372         has_integral + has_integral_real
  3373         fine_division_exists + fine_division_exists_real
  3374         has_integral_null + has_integral_null_real
  3375         tagged_division_union_interval + tagged_division_union_interval_real
  3376         has_integral_const + has_integral_const_real
  3377         integral_const + integral_const_real
  3378         has_integral_bound + has_integral_bound_real
  3379         integrable_continuous + integrable_continuous_real
  3380         integrable_subinterval + integrable_subinterval_real
  3381         has_integral_reflect_lemma + has_integral_reflect_lemma_real
  3382         integrable_reflect + integrable_reflect_real
  3383         integral_reflect + integral_reflect_real
  3384         image_affinity_interval + image_affinity_cbox
  3385         image_smult_interval + image_smult_cbox
  3386         integrable_const + integrable_const_ivl
  3387         integrable_on_subinterval + integrable_on_subcbox
  3388 
  3389   - renamed theorems:
  3390     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
  3391     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
  3392     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
  3393 
  3394 * HOL-Probability:
  3395   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
  3396 
  3397     . Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
  3398       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
  3399 
  3400     . Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
  3401 
  3402   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general
  3403     Bochner integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
  3404 
  3405     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
  3406     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
  3407     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
  3408     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
  3409     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
  3410     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
  3411     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
  3412     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
  3413     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
  3414     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
  3415     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
  3416     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  nn_integral_liminf
  3417     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
  3418     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
  3419     integral_indicator          ~>
  3420          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
  3421     positive_integral_fst       ~>  nn_integral_fst'
  3422     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> nn_integral_fst
  3423     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> nn_integral_snd
  3424 
  3425     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
  3426          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
  3427 
  3428     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
  3429          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
  3430 
  3431     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
  3432          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
  3433 
  3434     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
  3435          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
  3436          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
  3437 
  3438     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
  3439          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  3440 
  3441     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
  3442          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
  3443 
  3444     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
  3445          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
  3446          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  3447 
  3448     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
  3449          nn_integral_real_affine
  3450 
  3451     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
  3452          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
  3453 
  3454     The following theorems where removed:
  3455 
  3456     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
  3457     lebesgue_integral_uminus
  3458     lebesgue_integral_cmult
  3459     lebesgue_integral_multc
  3460     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
  3461     integral_cmul_indicator
  3462     integral_real
  3463 
  3464   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal
  3465     distributed random variables.
  3466 
  3467 * HOL-Decision_Procs: Separate command 'approximate' for approximative
  3468 computation in src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor
  3469 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3470 
  3471 
  3472 *** Scala ***
  3473 
  3474 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
  3475 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
  3476 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
  3477 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
  3478 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3479 
  3480 * Substantial reworking of internal PIDE protocol communication
  3481 channels.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3482 
  3483 
  3484 *** ML ***
  3485 
  3486 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
  3487 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
  3488 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
  3489 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
  3490 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
  3491 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
  3492 
  3493 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
  3494 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  3495 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
  3496 actually belongs to it).
  3497 
  3498 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
  3499 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
  3500 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
  3501 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
  3502 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
  3503 of schematic variables.
  3504 
  3505 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
  3506 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3507 
  3508 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
  3509 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context
  3510 via "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3511 
  3512 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
  3513 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3514 
  3515 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
  3516 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
  3517 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
  3518 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3519 
  3520 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
  3521 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3522 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
  3523 formal context.
  3524 
  3525 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
  3526 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3527 
  3528 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
  3529 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
  3530 
  3531 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
  3532 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
  3533 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
  3534 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
  3535 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
  3536 
  3537 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
  3538 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
  3539 purposes.
  3540 
  3541 
  3542 *** System ***
  3543 
  3544 * Proof General with its traditional helper scripts is now an optional
  3545 Isabelle component, e.g. see ProofGeneral-4.2-2 from the Isabelle
  3546 component repository http://isabelle.in.tum.de/components/.  Note that
  3547 the "system" manual provides general explanations about add-on
  3548 components, especially those that are not bundled with the release.
  3549 
  3550 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
  3551 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
  3552 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
  3553 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
  3554 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the ISABELLE_PROCESS
  3555 settings variable.
  3556 
  3557 * Former "isabelle tty" has been superseded by "isabelle console",
  3558 with implicit build like "isabelle jedit", and without the mostly
  3559 obsolete Isar TTY loop.
  3560 
  3561 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
  3562 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
  3563 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
  3564 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
  3565 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
  3566 
  3567 * Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize".  Note that the usual format
  3568 for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,
  3569 as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.
  3570 
  3571 * Removed obsolete tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality may be
  3572 integrated into Isabelle/jEdit eventually.
  3573 
  3574 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
  3575 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
  3576 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
  3577 
  3578 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
  3579 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
  3580 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
  3581 processing is started.
  3582 
  3583 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
  3584 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
  3585 
  3586 
  3587 
  3588 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
  3589 -------------------------------------
  3590 
  3591 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3592 
  3593 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
  3594 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
  3595 
  3596 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
  3597 after edits surrounding the command location.
  3598 
  3599 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
  3600 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
  3601 e.g. out-of-memory).
  3602 
  3603 
  3604 *** System ***
  3605 
  3606 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
  3607 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
  3608 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
  3609 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
  3610 
  3611 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
  3612 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
  3613 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
  3614 
  3615 
  3616 
  3617 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
  3618 -------------------------------------
  3619 
  3620 *** General ***
  3621 
  3622 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
  3623 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
  3624 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3625 
  3626 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
  3627 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3628 
  3629 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
  3630 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
  3631 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
  3632 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
  3633 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
  3634 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
  3635 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
  3636 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
  3637 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
  3638 syntax.
  3639 
  3640 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
  3641 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3642 
  3643 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
  3644 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
  3645 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
  3646 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
  3647 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
  3648 
  3649 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
  3650 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3651 
  3652 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
  3653 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
  3654 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
  3655 
  3656 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
  3657 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
  3658 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
  3659 
  3660 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
  3661 eliminated old "ref" manual.
  3662 
  3663 
  3664 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3665 
  3666 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
  3667 Documentation panel.
  3668 
  3669 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
  3670 documentation.
  3671 
  3672 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
  3673 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
  3674 
  3675 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
  3676 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
  3677 normal editing and checking process.
  3678 
  3679 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
  3680 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
  3681 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
  3682 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
  3683 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
  3684 
  3685 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
  3686 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
  3687 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
  3688 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
  3689 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
  3690 
  3691 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
  3692 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
  3693 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
  3694 
  3695 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
  3696 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
  3697 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
  3698 to resolve conflict.
  3699 
  3700 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
  3701 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
  3702 
  3703 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
  3704 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
  3705 such command executions while editing.
  3706 
  3707 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
  3708 document content.
  3709 
  3710 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
  3711 toplevel theorem statements.
  3712 
  3713 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
  3714 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
  3715 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
  3716 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
  3717 
  3718 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
  3719 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
  3720 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
  3721 
  3722 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  3723 / Global Options / Appearance".
  3724 
  3725 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  3726 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  3727 
  3728 
  3729 *** Pure ***
  3730 
  3731 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  3732 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  3733 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  3734 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  3735 details.
  3736 
  3737 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  3738 
  3739 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  3740 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  3741 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  3742 
  3743 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  3744 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3745 
  3746 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  3747 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  3748 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  3749 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3750 
  3751 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  3752 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  3753 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3754 
  3755 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  3756 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  3757 
  3758 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  3759 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  3760 situations.
  3761 
  3762 
  3763 *** HOL ***
  3764 
  3765 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  3766 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  3767 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3768 
  3769 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  3770 
  3771 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  3772 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  3773 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  3774 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  3775 
  3776   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  3777 
  3778 * Code generator:
  3779   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  3780     'code_instance'.
  3781   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  3782     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  3783 
  3784 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  3785 examples.
  3786 
  3787 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  3788 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  3789 to distinguish both when desired.
  3790 
  3791 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  3792 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  3793 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  3794 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3795 
  3796 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  3797 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  3798 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  3799 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  3800 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  3801 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3802 
  3803 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  3804 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  3805 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3806 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  3807 
  3808 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  3809 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  3810 
  3811 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  3812 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  3813 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  3814 
  3815 * Lifting:
  3816   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  3817     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  3818       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  3819       transfer rules
  3820     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  3821       correspondence relation can be generated
  3822     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  3823       parametricity
  3824     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  3825   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  3826   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  3827     copies
  3828   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  3829     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  3830     anonymous context)
  3831   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  3832     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  3833   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  3834     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  3835   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  3836     INCOMPATIBILITY
  3837 
  3838 * Transfer:
  3839   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  3840     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  3841   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  3842   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  3843     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  3844   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  3845 
  3846 * Reification and reflection:
  3847   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  3848     "Reification".
  3849   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  3850   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  3851 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3852 
  3853 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  3854   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  3855     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  3856     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  3857   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  3858     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  3859   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  3860     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  3861     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  3862     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  3863     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  3864     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  3865     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  3866     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  3867   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  3868     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  3869   - Fact renames:
  3870       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  3871       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  3872 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3873 
  3874 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  3875 
  3876 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  3877 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  3878 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  3879 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3880 
  3881 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  3882 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  3883 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  3884 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  3885 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  3886 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  3887 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  3888 lemmas.
  3889 
  3890 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  3891 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  3892 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3893 
  3894 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  3895 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3896 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  3897 
  3898 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  3899 top and bottom elements.
  3900 
  3901 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  3902 
  3903 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  3904 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  3905 
  3906  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  3907    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  3908    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  3909 
  3910  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  3911    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  3912    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  3913 
  3914    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  3915    arbitrary filter.
  3916 
  3917  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  3918    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  3919    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  3920    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  3921    on a compact set.
  3922 
  3923  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  3924    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  3925    linear_continuum_topology).
  3926 
  3927  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  3928    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  3929    on all sequences converging to x.
  3930 
  3931  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  3932    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  3933    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  3934    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  3935    left or right.
  3936 
  3937  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  3938 
  3939      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  3940 
  3941  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  3942    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  3943 
  3944  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  3945    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  3946    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  3947    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  3948    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  3949    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  3950 
  3951  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  3952 
  3953    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  3954 
  3955    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  3956      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  3957 
  3958    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  3959 
  3960    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  3961      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  3962 
  3963    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  3964 
  3965    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  3966 
  3967  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  3968 
  3969 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3970 
  3971 * Nitpick:
  3972   - Added option "spy".
  3973   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  3974 
  3975 * Sledgehammer:
  3976   - Renamed option:
  3977       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  3978     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3979   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  3980   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  3981   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  3982 
  3983 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  3984 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  3985 
  3986 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  3987   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  3988   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  3989     generated code.
  3990   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  3991   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  3992   - Fact renames:
  3993     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  3994     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  3995     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  3996 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  3997 
  3998 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  3999 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  4000 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  4001 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  4002 
  4003 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  4004 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  4005 
  4006 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4007 
  4008 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  4009 
  4010     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  4011     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  4012 
  4013 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4014 
  4015 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  4016 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  4017 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  4018 
  4019 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  4020 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  4021 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  4022 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4023 
  4024 * HOL-BNF:
  4025   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  4026     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  4027     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  4028     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  4029   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  4030     coinduct).
  4031   - Renamed keywords:
  4032     data ~> datatype_new
  4033     codata ~> codatatype
  4034     bnf_def ~> bnf
  4035   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  4036     discs ~> disc
  4037     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  4038     map_id' ~> map_id
  4039     sels ~> sel
  4040     set_map' ~> set_map
  4041     sets ~> set
  4042 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  4043 
  4044 
  4045 *** ML ***
  4046 
  4047 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  4048 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  4049 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  4050 Examples.thy in particular.
  4051 
  4052 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  4053 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  4054 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  4055 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  4056 
  4057 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  4058 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  4059 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  4060 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  4061 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4062 
  4063 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  4064 
  4065     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  4066     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  4067 
  4068 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4069 
  4070 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  4071 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  4072 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  4073 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  4074 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  4075 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  4076 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  4077 
  4078 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  4079 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  4080 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  4081 clasets separately from the context.
  4082 
  4083 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  4084 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  4085 
  4086 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  4087 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  4088 
  4089 
  4090 *** System ***
  4091 
  4092 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  4093 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4094 
  4095 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  4096 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4097 
  4098 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  4099 settings variable.
  4100 
  4101 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  4102 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  4103 always pdf.
  4104 
  4105 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  4106 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  4107 
  4108 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  4109 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  4110 
  4111 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  4112 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  4113 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  4114 
  4115 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  4116 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  4117 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  4118 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  4119 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  4120 for HTML presentation of theories.
  4121 
  4122 
  4123 
  4124 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  4125 -----------------------------------
  4126 
  4127 *** General ***
  4128 
  4129 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  4130 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  4131 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  4132 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  4133 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  4134 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  4135 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  4136 
  4137 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  4138 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  4139 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  4140 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  4141 
  4142 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  4143 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  4144 
  4145 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  4146 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  4147 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  4148 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  4149 dependencies properly.
  4150 
  4151 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  4152 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  4153 
  4154 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  4155 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  4156 
  4157 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  4158 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  4159 and "class ... context ...".
  4160 
  4161 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  4162 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  4163 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  4164 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  4165 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  4166 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  4167 
  4168 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  4169 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  4170 
  4171 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  4172 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  4173 
  4174 
  4175 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  4176 
  4177 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  4178 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  4179 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  4180 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  4181 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  4182 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  4183 
  4184 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  4185 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  4186 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  4187 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  4188 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  4189 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  4190 
  4191 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  4192 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  4193 browser on demand.
  4194 
  4195 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  4196 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  4197 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  4198 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  4199 
  4200 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  4201 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  4202 
  4203 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  4204 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  4205 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  4206 potentially infinite message streams.
  4207 
  4208 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  4209 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  4210 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  4211 schemes.
  4212 
  4213 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  4214 symbols.
  4215 
  4216 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  4217 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  4218 
  4219 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  4220 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  4221 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  4222 
  4223 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  4224 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  4225 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  4226 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  4227 
  4228 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  4229 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  4230 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  4231 
  4232 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  4233 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  4234 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  4235 Isabelle distribution.
  4236 
  4237 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  4238 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  4239 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  4240 
  4241 
  4242 *** Pure ***
  4243 
  4244 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  4245 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  4246 
  4247 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  4248 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  4249 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4250 
  4251 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4252 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  4253 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  4254 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  4255 with some care where this is really required.
  4256 
  4257 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  4258 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  4259 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  4260 
  4261   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  4262 
  4263 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  4264 a Hasse diagram.
  4265 
  4266 
  4267 *** HOL ***
  4268 
  4269 * Sledgehammer:
  4270 
  4271   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  4272     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  4273   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  4274   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  4275   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  4276   - Renamed options:
  4277       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  4278       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  4279       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  4280       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  4281 
  4282 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  4283 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  4284 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  4285 
  4286 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  4287 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4288 
  4289 * Lifting:
  4290   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  4291   - quot_del attribute
  4292   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  4293 
  4294 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  4295 expressions.
  4296 
  4297 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  4298 pointfree expressions.
  4299 
  4300 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  4301 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  4302 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  4303 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  4304 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4305 
  4306 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  4307 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  4308 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  4309 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  4310 accordingly.
  4311 
  4312 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  4313 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4314 
  4315 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  4316 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4317 
  4318 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4319 
  4320 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  4321 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  4322 
  4323 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  4324 
  4325 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  4326 
  4327   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  4328   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  4329 
  4330 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4331 
  4332 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  4333 
  4334   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  4335   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  4336 
  4337 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4338 
  4339 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  4340 
  4341   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  4342     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  4343     output f x converges to G.
  4344 
  4345   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  4346     infinity (at_bot).
  4347 
  4348   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  4349     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  4350 
  4351   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  4352     at_top".
  4353 
  4354 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4355 
  4356 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  4357 lattice type classes.
  4358 
  4359 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  4360 
  4361     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  4362     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  4363 
  4364 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4365 
  4366 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  4367 changes as follows.
  4368 
  4369   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  4370 
  4371       prefix ~> prefixeq
  4372       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  4373 
  4374   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  4375     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  4376     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  4377     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  4378 
  4379   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  4380     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  4381     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  4382 
  4383   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  4384     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  4385     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  4386     Library/Prefix_Order.
  4387 
  4388   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  4389     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  4390 
  4391       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  4392       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  4393       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  4394       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  4395       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  4396       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  4397       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  4398       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  4399       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  4400       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  4401       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  4402       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  4403       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  4404       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  4405       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  4406       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  4407 
  4408 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4409 
  4410 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  4411 
  4412 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  4413 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  4414 
  4415 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  4416 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  4417 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  4418 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  4419 
  4420   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  4421   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  4422   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  4423   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  4424   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  4425   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  4426   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  4427   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  4428   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  4429   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  4430 
  4431 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4432 
  4433 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  4434 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  4435 Data").
  4436 
  4437 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  4438 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  4439 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  4440 code.
  4441 
  4442 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  4443 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  4444 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  4445 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4446 
  4447 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  4448 
  4449 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  4450 
  4451 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  4452 
  4453   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  4454   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  4455 
  4456 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  4457 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  4458 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  4459 
  4460   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  4461 
  4462     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  4463     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  4464     cart_base i  removed
  4465     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  4466 
  4467   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  4468 
  4469   Renamed lemmas:
  4470 
  4471     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  4472     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  4473     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  4474     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  4475     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  4476     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  4477     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  4478     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  4479     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  4480     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  4481 
  4482 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4483 
  4484 * HOL/Probability:
  4485 
  4486   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  4487 
  4488   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  4489     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  4490     (borel_measurable_induct).
  4491 
  4492   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  4493     projective family).
  4494 
  4495 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  4496 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  4497 
  4498 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  4499 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  4500 datatypes.
  4501 
  4502 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  4503 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  4504 
  4505 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  4506 trees for the code generator.
  4507 
  4508 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  4509 Lifting/Transfer.
  4510 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4511 
  4512 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  4513 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4514 
  4515 
  4516 *** Document preparation ***
  4517 
  4518 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  4519 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  4520 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  4521 
  4522 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  4523 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  4524 
  4525 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  4526 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  4527 document/root.tex.
  4528 
  4529 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  4530 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4531 
  4532 
  4533 *** ML ***
  4534 
  4535 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  4536 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  4537 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  4538 
  4539 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  4540 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  4541 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  4542 
  4543 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  4544 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  4545 necessarily printing visible text.
  4546 
  4547 
  4548 *** System ***
  4549 
  4550 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  4551 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  4552 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  4553 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  4554 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  4555 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  4556 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  4557 
  4558 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  4559 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  4560 
  4561   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  4562 
  4563 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  4564 
  4565 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  4566 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  4567 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  4568 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  4569 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  4570 
  4571 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  4572 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  4573 
  4574 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  4575 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  4576 
  4577 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  4578 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4579 
  4580 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  4581 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  4582 version of Isabelle.
  4583 
  4584 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  4585 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  4586 
  4587 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  4588 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  4589 for home-made settings.
  4590 
  4591 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  4592 
  4593 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  4594 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  4595 configuration.
  4596 
  4597 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  4598 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  4599 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  4600 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  4601 bundled as Isabelle component.
  4602 
  4603 
  4604 
  4605 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  4606 ------------------------------
  4607 
  4608 *** General ***
  4609 
  4610 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  4611 
  4612   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  4613     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  4614   - markup for bound variables
  4615   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  4616   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  4617   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  4618     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  4619 
  4620 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  4621 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  4622 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  4623 
  4624 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  4625 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  4626 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  4627 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  4628 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  4629 
  4630   context
  4631     fixes x y z :: 'a
  4632     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  4633   begin
  4634 
  4635   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  4636 
  4637   end
  4638 
  4639   thm my_trans
  4640 
  4641 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  4642 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  4643 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  4644 
  4645 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  4646 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  4647 
  4648 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  4649 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  4650 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  4651 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  4652 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  4653 
  4654 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  4655 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  4656 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  4657 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  4658 indices of schematic variables.
  4659 
  4660 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  4661 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  4662 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  4663 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  4664 etc. was exploited.
  4665 
  4666 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  4667 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  4668 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  4669 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  4670 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  4671 of the material of that old tutorial.
  4672 
  4673 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  4674 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  4675 manual.
  4676 
  4677 
  4678 *** Pure ***
  4679 
  4680 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  4681 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  4682 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  4683 
  4684 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  4685 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  4686 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  4687 undocumented feature.)
  4688 
  4689 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  4690 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  4691 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  4692 
  4693   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  4694 
  4695   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  4696     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  4697 
  4698 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  4699 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  4700 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  4701 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  4702 
  4703 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  4704 
  4705     num ~> num_token
  4706     xnum ~> xnum_token
  4707     xstr ~> str_token
  4708 
  4709 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  4710 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  4711 position information via constraints).
  4712 
  4713 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  4714 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  4715 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4716 
  4717 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  4718 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  4719 
  4720 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  4721 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  4722 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4723 
  4724 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  4725 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4726 
  4727 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  4728 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  4729 
  4730   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  4731 
  4732 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4733 
  4734 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  4735 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4736 
  4737 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  4738 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  4739 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  4740 
  4741 
  4742 *** HOL ***
  4743 
  4744 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  4745 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  4746 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  4747 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  4748 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  4749 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  4750 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  4751 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  4752 possible.
  4753 
  4754 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  4755 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  4756 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  4757 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  4758 
  4759 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  4760 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4761 
  4762 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  4763 
  4764 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  4765 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  4766 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  4767 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  4768 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  4769 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  4770 
  4771   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  4772     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  4773 
  4774   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  4775     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  4776     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  4777 
  4778   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  4779     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  4780 
  4781   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  4782     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  4783     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  4784 
  4785   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  4786     Redefine using other integer operations.
  4787 
  4788 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  4789 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  4790 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  4791 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  4792 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  4793 
  4794   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  4795     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  4796     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  4797     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  4798     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  4799 
  4800     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  4801     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  4802 
  4803   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  4804     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  4805     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  4806     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  4807     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  4808     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  4809     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  4810     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  4811 
  4812   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  4813     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  4814     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  4815     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  4816 
  4817   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  4818     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  4819     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  4820     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  4821 
  4822   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  4823     from type nat to type int.
  4824 
  4825 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  4826 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  4827 
  4828   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  4829     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  4830     type.  Example syntax:
  4831 
  4832     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  4833       is List.insert
  4834 
  4835     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  4836     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  4837     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  4838     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  4839     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  4840     by the package.
  4841 
  4842   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  4843     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  4844     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  4845     code generation for each constant.
  4846 
  4847   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  4848     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  4849     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  4850     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  4851     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  4852 
  4853   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  4854     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  4855     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  4856 
  4857 * Quotient package:
  4858 
  4859   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  4860     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  4861 
  4862   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  4863     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  4864 
  4865   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  4866     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  4867     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4868 
  4869   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  4870     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4871 
  4872 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  4873 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  4874 
  4875 * Quickcheck:
  4876 
  4877   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  4878     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  4879     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  4880     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  4881     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  4882 
  4883     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  4884     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  4885     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  4886 
  4887     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  4888     continues searching for genuine ones.
  4889 
  4890     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  4891     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  4892     show genuine counterexamples.
  4893 
  4894   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  4895     value generators for a given type and operations.
  4896 
  4897     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  4898     constructors of that type.
  4899 
  4900   - Support for multisets.
  4901 
  4902   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  4903 
  4904   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  4905     conjectures in a locale context.
  4906 
  4907 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  4908 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  4909 
  4910 * Sledgehammer:
  4911   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  4912     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  4913   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  4914   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  4915     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  4916   - Sped up the minimizer.
  4917   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  4918   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  4919   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  4920 
  4921 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  4922 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  4923 
  4924 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  4925 
  4926 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4927 
  4928 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  4929 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  4930 
  4931   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  4932 
  4933 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  4934 a list and a nat.
  4935 
  4936 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  4937 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  4938 
  4939 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  4940 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  4941 default.
  4942 
  4943 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  4944 
  4945   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  4946 
  4947 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  4948 
  4949 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  4950 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  4951 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  4952 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  4953 one_case.
  4954 
  4955 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  4956 the result of the fact expression.
  4957 
  4958 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  4959 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  4960 of some relation theorems:
  4961 
  4962   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  4963   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  4964   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  4965   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  4966   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  4967   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  4968 
  4969 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  4970 
  4971 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  4972 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  4973 
  4974 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4975 
  4976 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  4977 to match the constant's name:
  4978 
  4979   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  4980   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  4981   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  4982   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  4983   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  4984   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  4985   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  4986   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  4987   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  4988   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  4989   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  4990   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  4991   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  4992   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  4993   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  4994   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  4995   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  4996   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  4997   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  4998   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  4999   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  5000   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  5001   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  5002   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  5003 
  5004 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5005 
  5006 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  5007 and corresponding theorem names:
  5008 
  5009   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  5010 
  5011   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  5012 
  5013   - Renamed theorems:
  5014 
  5015     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  5016     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  5017     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  5018     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  5019     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  5020     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  5021     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  5022     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  5023     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  5024     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  5025     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  5026     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  5027     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  5028     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  5029     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  5030     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  5031     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  5032     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  5033     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  5034     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  5035     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  5036     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  5037     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  5038 
  5039     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  5040 
  5041     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  5042 
  5043 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5044 
  5045 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  5046 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  5047 
  5048   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  5049   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  5050   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  5051   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  5052   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  5053   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  5054   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  5055   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  5056   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  5057   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  5058   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  5059   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  5060   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  5061   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  5062   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  5063   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  5064   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  5065   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  5066   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  5067   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  5068   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  5069 
  5070 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  5071 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5072 
  5073 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5074 
  5075 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  5076 
  5077   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  5078   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  5079   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  5080   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  5081   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  5082   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  5083   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  5084   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  5085   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  5086   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  5087   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  5088   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  5089   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  5090   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  5091   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  5092   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  5093   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  5094   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  5095 
  5096 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5097 
  5098 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  5099 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  5100 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  5101 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  5102 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  5103 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  5104 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  5105 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  5106 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  5107 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  5108 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  5109 
  5110 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  5111 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  5112 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  5113 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  5114 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  5115 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  5116 
  5117 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  5118 through option types.
  5119 
  5120 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  5121 relations.
  5122 
  5123 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5124 
  5125 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  5126 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  5127 
  5128   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  5129   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  5130   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  5131   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  5132   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  5133   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  5134   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  5135   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  5136   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  5137   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  5138   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  5139   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  5140   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  5141   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  5142   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  5143   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  5144   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  5145   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  5146   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  5147   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  5148   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  5149   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  5150   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  5151   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  5152   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  5153   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  5154   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  5155   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  5156   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  5157   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  5158   zless_le ~> less_le
  5159   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  5160   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  5161   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  5162 
  5163 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  5164 
  5165   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  5166 
  5167 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  5168 
  5169 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  5170 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  5171 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  5172 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  5173 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5174 
  5175 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5176 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  5177 
  5178 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  5179 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  5180 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  5181 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  5182 follows:
  5183 
  5184   Operations:
  5185   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  5186   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  5187   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  5188   del -> rbt_del
  5189   delete -> rbt_delete
  5190   ins -> rbt_ins
  5191   insert -> rbt_insert
  5192   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  5193   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  5194   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  5195   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  5196   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  5197   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  5198   tree_less -> rbt_less
  5199   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  5200   union -> rbt_union
  5201   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  5202   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  5203 
  5204   Lemmas:
  5205   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  5206   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  5207   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  5208   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  5209   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  5210   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  5211   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  5212   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  5213   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  5214   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  5215   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  5216   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  5217   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  5218   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  5219   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  5220   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  5221   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  5222   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  5223   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  5224   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  5225   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  5226   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  5227   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  5228   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  5229   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  5230   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  5231   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  5232   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  5233   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  5234   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  5235   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  5236   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  5237   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  5238   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  5239   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  5240   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  5241   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  5242   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  5243   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  5244   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  5245   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  5246   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  5247   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  5248   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  5249   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  5250   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  5251   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  5252   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  5253   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  5254   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  5255   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  5256   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  5257   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  5258   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  5259   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  5260   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  5261   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  5262   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  5263   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  5264   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  5265   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  5266   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  5267   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  5268   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  5269   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  5270   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  5271   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  5272   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  5273   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  5274   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  5275   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  5276   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  5277   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  5278   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  5279   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  5280   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  5281   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  5282   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  5283   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  5284   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  5285   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  5286   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  5287   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  5288 
  5289 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  5290 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  5291 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5292 
  5293   Changed Operations:
  5294   float_abs -> abs
  5295   float_nprt -> nprt
  5296   float_pprt -> pprt
  5297   pow2 -> use powr
  5298   round_down -> float_round_down
  5299   round_up -> float_round_up
  5300   scale -> exponent
  5301 
  5302   Removed Operations:
  5303   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  5304 
  5305   Renamed Lemmas:
  5306   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  5307   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  5308   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  5309   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  5310   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  5311   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  5312   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  5313   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  5314   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  5315   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  5316   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  5317   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  5318   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  5319   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  5320   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  5321   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  5322   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  5323   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  5324   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  5325   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  5326   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  5327   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  5328   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  5329   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  5330   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  5331   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  5332   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  5333   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  5334   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  5335   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  5336   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  5337   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  5338   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  5339   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  5340   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  5341   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  5342 
  5343   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  5344   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  5345   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  5346   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  5347   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  5348   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  5349   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  5350   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  5351   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  5352   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  5353 
  5354 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  5355 association lists with distinct keys.
  5356 
  5357 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  5358 annotated commands.
  5359 
  5360 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  5361 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  5362 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  5363 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5364 
  5365 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  5366 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  5367 instead.
  5368 
  5369   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  5370   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  5371   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  5372   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  5373   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  5374   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  5375   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  5376   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  5377   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  5378   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  5379   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  5380   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  5381   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  5382   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  5383   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  5384   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  5385   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  5386   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  5387   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  5388   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  5389   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  5390   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  5391   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  5392   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  5393   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  5394   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  5395   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  5396   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  5397   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  5398   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  5399   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  5400   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  5401   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  5402   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  5403   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  5404   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  5405   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  5406   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  5407   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  5408   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  5409   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  5410 
  5411 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  5412 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  5413 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  5414 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  5415 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  5416 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  5417 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  5418 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  5419 
  5420 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  5421 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  5422 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  5423 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  5424 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  5425 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  5426 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  5427 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  5428 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  5429 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  5430 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  5431 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5432 
  5433   Renamed constants:
  5434   measure -> emeasure
  5435   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  5436   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  5437   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  5438   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  5439 
  5440   Removed locales:
  5441   completeable_measure_space
  5442   finite_measure_space
  5443   finite_prob_space
  5444   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  5445   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  5446   finite_sigma_algebra
  5447   measure_space
  5448   pair_finite_prob_space
  5449   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  5450   pair_finite_space
  5451   pair_sigma_algebra
  5452   product_sigma_algebra
  5453 
  5454   Removed constants:
  5455   conditional_space
  5456   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  5457   image_space
  5458   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  5459   pair_measure_generator
  5460   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  5461   subvimage
  5462 
  5463   Replacement theorems:
  5464   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  5465   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  5466   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  5467   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  5468   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  5469   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  5470   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  5471   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  5472   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  5473   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  5474   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  5475   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  5476   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  5477   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  5478   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  5479   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  5480   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  5481   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  5482   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  5483   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  5484   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  5485   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  5486   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  5487   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  5488   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  5489   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  5490   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  5491   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  5492   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  5493   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  5494   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  5495   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  5496   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  5497   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  5498   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  5499   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  5500   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  5501   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  5502   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  5503   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  5504   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  5505   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  5506   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  5507   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  5508   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  5509   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  5510   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  5511   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  5512   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  5513   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  5514   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  5515   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  5516   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  5517   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  5518   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  5519   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  5520   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  5521   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  5522   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  5523   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  5524   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  5525   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  5526   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  5527   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  5528   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  5529   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  5530   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  5531   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  5532   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  5533   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  5534   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  5535   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  5536   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  5537   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  5538   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  5539   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  5540   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  5541   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  5542   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  5543   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  5544   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  5545   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  5546   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  5547   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  5548   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  5549   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  5550   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  5551   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  5552   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  5553   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  5554   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  5555   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  5556   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  5557   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  5558   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  5559   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  5560   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  5561   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  5562   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  5563   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  5564   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  5565   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  5566   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  5567   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  5568   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  5569   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  5570   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  5571   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  5572   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  5573   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  5574   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  5575   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  5576   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  5577   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  5578   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  5579   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  5580   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  5581   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  5582   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  5583   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  5584   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  5585   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  5586   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  5587   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  5588   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  5589   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  5590   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  5591   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  5592 
  5593 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  5594 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  5595 
  5596 
  5597 *** FOL ***
  5598 
  5599 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  5600 
  5601 
  5602 *** ZF ***
  5603 
  5604 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  5605 analysis.
  5606 
  5607 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  5608 
  5609 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5610 
  5611 
  5612 *** ML ***
  5613 
  5614 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  5615 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  5616 
  5617 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  5618 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  5619 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  5620 
  5621 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  5622 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  5623 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  5624 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  5625 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  5626 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  5627 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  5628 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  5629 
  5630 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  5631 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  5632 
  5633 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  5634 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  5635 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  5636 
  5637 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  5638 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5639 
  5640 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  5641 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  5642 context as well.
  5643 
  5644 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  5645 
  5646   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  5647   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  5648   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  5649   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  5650   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  5651   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  5652   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  5653   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  5654   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  5655   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  5656   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  5657   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  5658 
  5659 
  5660 *** System ***
  5661 
  5662 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  5663 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  5664 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  5665 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  5666 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  5667 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  5668 the generic user home was intended.
  5669 
  5670 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  5671 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  5672 
  5673 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  5674 (not just JRE).
  5675 
  5676 
  5677 
  5678 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  5679 ------------------------------------
  5680 
  5681 *** General ***
  5682 
  5683 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  5684 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  5685 
  5686   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  5687     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  5688     files for checking).
  5689 
  5690   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  5691     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  5692     positions.
  5693 
  5694   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  5695     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  5696     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  5697 
  5698   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  5699     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  5700     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  5701 
  5702   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  5703     cores.
  5704 
  5705   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  5706     versions (garbage collection).
  5707 
  5708 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  5709 including some remaining limitations.
  5710 
  5711 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  5712 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  5713 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  5714 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  5715 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  5716 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5717 
  5718 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  5719 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  5720 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  5721 
  5722 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  5723 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  5724 usedir option -Q.
  5725 
  5726 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  5727 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  5728 
  5729   long_names   ~> names_long
  5730   short_names  ~> names_short
  5731   unique_names ~> names_unique
  5732 
  5733 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  5734 
  5735   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  5736 
  5737 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  5738 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  5739 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  5740 
  5741 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  5742 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  5743 
  5744 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  5745   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  5746   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  5747   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  5748     "Classical Reasoner".
  5749 
  5750 
  5751 *** HOL ***
  5752 
  5753 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  5754 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5755 
  5756 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  5757 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  5758 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  5759 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  5760 class complete_linorder.
  5761 
  5762 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  5763 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  5764 
  5765 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  5766 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  5767 
  5768   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  5769   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  5770   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  5771   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  5772   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  5773   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  5774   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  5775   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  5776   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  5777   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  5778   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  5779 
  5780 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  5781 
  5782   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  5783   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  5784   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  5785   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  5786   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  5787   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  5788   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  5789   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  5790   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  5791   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  5792   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  5793   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  5794   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  5795   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  5796   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  5797   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  5798 
  5799 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5800 
  5801 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  5802 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5803 
  5804 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  5805 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  5806 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  5807 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5808 
  5809 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  5810 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  5811 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  5812 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5813 
  5814 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  5815 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  5816 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  5817 
  5818 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  5819 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  5820 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5821 
  5822 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  5823 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  5824 
  5825 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  5826 
  5827     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  5828     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  5829 
  5830 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  5831 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5832 
  5833 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  5834 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5835 
  5836 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  5837 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  5838 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  5839 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5840 
  5841   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  5842   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  5843   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  5844   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  5845   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  5846   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  5847   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  5848 
  5849 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  5850 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5851 
  5852   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  5853   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  5854   real_less_def ~> less_le
  5855   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  5856   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  5857   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  5858   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  5859   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  5860   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  5861   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  5862   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  5863   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  5864   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  5865   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  5866   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  5867   real_le_linear ~> linear
  5868   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  5869   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  5870   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  5871   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  5872   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  5873   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  5874   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  5875   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  5876   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  5877   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  5878   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  5879   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  5880   expi_add ~> exp_add
  5881   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  5882   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  5883   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  5884   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  5885   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  5886   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  5887   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  5888   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  5889   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  5890   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  5891   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  5892   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  5893   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  5894   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  5895   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  5896   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  5897   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  5898   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  5899   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  5900   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  5901   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  5902   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  5903   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  5904   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  5905   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  5906   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  5907   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  5908   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  5909   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  5910   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  5911   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  5912   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  5913   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  5914   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  5915   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  5916   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  5917   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  5918   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  5919   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  5920   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  5921   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  5922   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  5923   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  5924   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  5925   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  5926   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  5927   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  5928   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  5929   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  5930   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  5931   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  5932   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  5933   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  5934 
  5935 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  5936 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  5937 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  5938 
  5939 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  5940 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  5941 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  5942 
  5943 * Code generation:
  5944 
  5945   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  5946     characters in the target language.
  5947 
  5948   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  5949     instead.
  5950 
  5951   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  5952 
  5953   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  5954     reactivated by the following theory command:
  5955 
  5956       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  5957 
  5958 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5959 
  5960 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  5961 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  5962 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  5963 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  5964 syntax.
  5965 
  5966 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  5967 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  5968 
  5969 * Nitpick:
  5970   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  5971   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  5972   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  5973     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5974 
  5975 * Sledgehammer:
  5976   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  5977   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  5978     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  5979   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  5980     this can be done within reasonable time.
  5981   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  5982     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5983   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  5984     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  5985   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  5986     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5987 
  5988 * Metis:
  5989   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5990   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  5991     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5992 
  5993 * Command 'try':
  5994   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  5995     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5996   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  5997     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  5998 
  5999 * Quickcheck:
  6000   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  6001     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  6002   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  6003     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  6004   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  6005     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  6006     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  6007     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  6008   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  6009     (formly in HOL/Library).
  6010 
  6011 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  6012 use 'partial_function' instead.
  6013 
  6014 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  6015 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  6016 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  6017 
  6018 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  6019 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  6020 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6021 
  6022 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  6023 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6024 
  6025 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  6026 arithmetic.
  6027 
  6028 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  6029 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  6030 and lattice type classes.
  6031 
  6032 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  6033 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  6034 
  6035 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  6036 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  6037 
  6038 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  6039 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  6040 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6041 
  6042   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  6043   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  6044   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  6045   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  6046 
  6047 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  6048 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  6049 constants:
  6050 
  6051   type inat   ~> type enat
  6052   Fin         ~> enat
  6053   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  6054   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  6055   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  6056 
  6057 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  6058 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6059 
  6060 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  6061 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  6062 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  6063 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  6064 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  6065 
  6066 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  6067 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  6068 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  6069 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  6070 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  6071 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  6072 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6073 
  6074   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  6075   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  6076   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  6077   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  6078 
  6079 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  6080 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  6081 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6082 
  6083   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  6084   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  6085   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  6086   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  6087   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  6088   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  6089   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  6090   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  6091   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  6092   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  6093   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  6094   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  6095   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  6096   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  6097   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  6098   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  6099   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  6100   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  6101   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  6102   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  6103   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  6104   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  6105   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  6106   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  6107   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  6108   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  6109   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  6110   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  6111   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  6112   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  6113   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  6114   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  6115   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  6116   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  6117   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  6118   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  6119   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  6120   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  6121   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  6122   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  6123   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  6124   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  6125   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  6126   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  6127   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  6128   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  6129   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  6130   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  6131   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  6132   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  6133   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  6134 
  6135 * Session HOL-Probability:
  6136   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  6137   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  6138   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  6139   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  6140     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6141 
  6142 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6143 
  6144   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  6145   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  6146   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  6147   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  6148   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  6149   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  6150   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  6151   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  6152   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  6153   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  6154   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  6155   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  6156   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  6157   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  6158   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  6159   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  6160   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  6161   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  6162   UU_I ~> bottomI
  6163   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  6164   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  6165   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  6166   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  6167   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  6168   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  6169 
  6170 
  6171 *** Document preparation ***
  6172 
  6173 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  6174 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  6175 same.
  6176 
  6177 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  6178 result.
  6179 
  6180 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  6181 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  6182 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  6183 
  6184 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  6185 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  6186 
  6187 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  6188 like this:
  6189 
  6190   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  6191   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  6192 
  6193 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  6194 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  6195 layouts.
  6196 
  6197 
  6198 *** ML ***
  6199 
  6200 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  6201 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  6202 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  6203 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  6204 under external program control.
  6205 
  6206 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  6207 data, which requires explicit setup.
  6208 
  6209 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  6210 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  6211 (better known as Proof General).
  6212 
  6213 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  6214 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  6215 
  6216 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  6217 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  6218 
  6219 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  6220 (including quotes etc.).
  6221 
  6222 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  6223 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  6224 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  6225 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  6226 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  6227 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  6228 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  6229 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  6230 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  6231 
  6232 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  6233 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  6234 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  6235 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  6236 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  6237 
  6238 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  6239 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  6240 
  6241 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  6242 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  6243 
  6244 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  6245 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  6246 
  6247 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  6248 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  6249 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  6250 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  6251 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  6252 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  6253 proper Proof.context.
  6254 
  6255 
  6256 *** System ***
  6257 
  6258 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  6259 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  6260 
  6261 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  6262 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  6263 
  6264 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  6265 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows: