NEWS
author blanchet
Mon May 26 14:15:48 2014 +0200 (2014-05-26)
changeset 57089 353652f47974
parent 57084 70e288a4b32d
child 57091 1fa9c19ba2c9
permissions -rw-r--r--
renamed 'MaSh' option
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
    25 supports input via ` (backquote).
    26 
    27 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
    28 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
    29 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
    30 
    31 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
    32 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
    33 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
    34 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
    35 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
    36 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
    37 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
    38 proof tools.
    39 
    40 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
    41 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
    42 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
    43 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
    44 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
    45 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
    46 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
    47 some examples.
    48 
    49 
    50 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    51 
    52 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism:
    53 
    54   - No completion for Isar keywords that have already been recognized
    55     by the prover, e.g. ":" within accepted Isar syntax looses its
    56     meaning as abbreviation for symbol "\<in>".
    57 
    58   - Completion context provides information about embedded languages
    59     of Isabelle: keywords are only completed for outer syntax, symbols
    60     or antiquotations for languages that support them.  E.g. no symbol
    61     completion for ML source, but within ML strings, comments,
    62     antiquotations.
    63 
    64   - Support for semantic completion based on failed name space lookup.
    65     The error produced by the prover contains information about
    66     alternative names that are accessible in a particular position.
    67     This may be used with explicit completion (C+b) or implicit
    68     completion after some delay.
    69 
    70   - Semantic completions may get extended by appending a suffix of
    71     underscores to an already recognized name, e.g. "foo_" to complete
    72     "foo" or "foobar" if these are known in the context.  The special
    73     identifier "__" serves as a wild-card in this respect: it
    74     completes to the full collection of names from the name space
    75     (truncated according to the system option "completion_limit").
    76 
    77   - Syntax completion of the editor and semantic completion of the
    78     prover are merged.  Since the latter requires a full round-trip of
    79     document update to arrive, the default for option
    80     jedit_completion_delay has been changed to 0.5s to improve the
    81     user experience.
    82 
    83   - Option jedit_completion_immediate may now get used with
    84     jedit_completion_delay > 0, to complete symbol abbreviations
    85     aggressively while benefiting from combined syntactic and semantic
    86     completion.
    87 
    88   - Support for simple completion templates (with single
    89     place-holder), e.g. "`" for text cartouche, or "@{" for
    90     antiquotation.
    91 
    92   - Support for path completion within the formal text, based on
    93     file-system content.
    94 
    95   - Improved treatment of completion vs. various forms of jEdit text
    96     selection (multiple selections, rectangular selections,
    97     rectangular selection as "tall caret").
    98 
    99   - More reliable treatment of GUI events vs. completion popups: avoid
   100     loosing keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
   101 
   102 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
   103 completion popup and context-menu.  See also "Plugin Options /
   104 Isabelle / General / Spell Checker" for some system options.
   105 
   106 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
   107 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
   108 
   109 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
   110 auxiliary ML files.
   111 
   112 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
   113 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
   114 
   115 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
   116 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
   117 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
   118 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
   119 
   120 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
   121 to highlight text via regular expression.
   122 
   123 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
   124 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
   125 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
   126 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
   127 
   128 * New panel: Simplifier trace.  Provides an interactive view of the
   129 simplification process, enabled by the newly-introduced
   130 "simplifier_trace" declaration.
   131 
   132 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons).
   133 
   134 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
   135 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
   136 
   137 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
   138 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
   139 
   140 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
   141 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
   142 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
   143 
   144 
   145 *** Pure ***
   146 
   147 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
   148 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
   149 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
   150 renaming needs to be applied:
   151 
   152   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
   153   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
   154   all            ~>  Pure.all
   155   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
   156   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
   157 
   158 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
   159 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
   160 old constants:
   161 
   162 setup {*
   163   fn thy => thy
   164     |> Sign.root_path
   165     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
   166     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
   167     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
   168     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
   169 *}
   170 
   171 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
   172 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
   173 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
   174 
   175 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
   176 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
   177 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
   178 'instance' with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem might be
   179 postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof finished
   180 trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous (without
   181 any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
   182 Axclass.axiomatize_class, Axclass.axiomatize_classrel,
   183 Axclass.axiomatize_arity.
   184 
   185 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
   186 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
   187 instantiated theorem.
   188 
   189 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
   190 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
   191 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
   192 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
   193 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
   194 
   195   attribute_setup standard =
   196     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
   197 
   198 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
   199 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
   200 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
   201 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
   202 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
   203 
   204 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
   205 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
   206 differently).
   207 
   208 
   209 *** HOL ***
   210 
   211 * Command and antiquotation ''value'' are hardcoded against nbe and
   212 ML now.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   213 
   214 * Separate command ''approximate'' for approximative computation
   215 in Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   216 
   217 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
   218   * Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
   219   * Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF
   220   and SUP instead uniformly.
   221   * More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
   222   or SUP and Sup.
   223   * INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
   224   * Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
   225   * Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong,
   226   with simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace
   227   former INT_cong, SUP_cong
   228 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   229 
   230 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
   231   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   232   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   233   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   234   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   235   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   236 
   237 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules
   238   can now deal with conjunctions.
   239   For help with converting proofs, the old behaviour of the simplifier
   240   can be restored like this:  declare/using [[simp_legacy_precond]]
   241   This configuration option will disappear again in the future.
   242 
   243 * HOL-Word:
   244   * Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a
   245   duplicate of "word_arith_wis".
   246   * Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
   247   "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
   248   "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
   249 
   250 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict
   251 target language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   252 
   253 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   254 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   255 
   256 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.
   257 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   258 
   259 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures" option.
   260 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   261 
   262 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   263 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   264 
   265 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
   266   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
   267   "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" commands are now part of "Main".
   268   Theory renamings:
   269     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   270     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   271     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   272     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   273     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   274     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   275     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   276     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   277     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   278     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   279     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   280     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   281     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   282     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   283     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   284     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   285     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   286     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   287     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   288     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   289     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   290     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   291   New theories:
   292     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   293     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   294     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
   295     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   296     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   297   Discontinued theories:
   298     BNF/BNF.thy
   299     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   300   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   301 
   302 * New (co)datatype package:
   303   * "primcorec" is fully implemented.
   304   * "datatype_new" generates size functions ("size_xxx" and "size") as
   305     required by "fun".
   306   * BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style (co)datatypes
   307     with Transfer.
   308   * Renamed commands:
   309       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   310       primrec_new ~> primrec
   311       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   312     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   313   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   314     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   315     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   316   * The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer generated.
   317     Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually using "prim(co)rec".
   318     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   319 
   320 * Old datatype package:
   321   * The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been renamed
   322     "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" -> "sum.case").
   323     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   324   * The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have been
   325     renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~>
   326     "case_prod").
   327     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   328 
   329 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions, their
   330   relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new BNF-based
   331   datatype package.
   332   Renamed constants:
   333     Option.set ~> set_option
   334     Option.map ~> map_option
   335     option_rel ~> rel_option
   336   Renamed theorems:
   337     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   338     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   339     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   340     option.recs ~> option.rec
   341     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   342     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   343     map.simps ~> list.map
   344     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   345     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   346     the.simps ~> option.sel
   347   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   348 
   349 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   350     sum_map ~> map_sum
   351     map_pair ~> map_prod
   352     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   353     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   354     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   355     set_rel ~> rel_set
   356     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   357     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "Library/FSet.thy")
   358     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   359     vset ~> rel_vset (in "Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   360 
   361 * New theory:
   362     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   363 
   364 * Theory reorganizations:
   365   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   366 
   367 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof traces.
   368   This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and "dpll".
   369   Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT solvers should
   370   use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now the default SAT
   371   solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and corresponding tactics;
   372   the old default can be restored using
   373   "declare [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   374 
   375 * SMT module:
   376   * A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2
   377     and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g., 4.3). The new proof method is
   378     called "smt2", and the new Z3 is called "z3_new" in Sledgehammer and
   379     elsewhere.
   380 
   381 * Sledgehammer:
   382   - New prover "z3_new" with support for Isar proofs
   383   - MaSh overhaul:
   384       - New SML-based learning engines eliminate the dependency on Python
   385         and increase performance and reliability.
   386       - Activation of MaSh now works via the "MaSh" system option (without
   387         requiring restart), instead of former settings variable "MASH".
   388         The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu Plugin
   389         Options / Isabelle / General. Allowed values include "sml" (for the
   390         default SML engine), "py" (for the old Python engine), and "none".
   391   - New option:
   392       smt_proofs
   393   - Renamed options:
   394       isar_compress ~> compress_isar
   395       isar_try0 ~> try0_isar
   396     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   397 
   398 * Metis:
   399   - Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis (full_types)' instead.
   400     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   401 
   402 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   403 
   404 * Command renaming: enriched_type ~> functor. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   405 
   406 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   407 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   408 
   409 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   410 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   411 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   412 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   413 
   414 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   415 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   416 
   417 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   418 with the given constants.
   419 
   420 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   421 
   422 Fact consolidations:
   423     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   424     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   425     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   426     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   427     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   428     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   429     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   430     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   431     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   432     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   433     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   434     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   435     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   436     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   437     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   438     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   439     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   440     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   441     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   442     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   443     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   444     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   445     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   446     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   447     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   448     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   449     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   450     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   451     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   452     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   453     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   454     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   455     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   456     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   457     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   458     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   459     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   460     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   461     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   462     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   463 
   464 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   465 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   466 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   467 
   468 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   469 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   470 
   471 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
   472 
   473 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   474 
   475 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   476 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   477 
   478 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   479 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   480 
   481 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   482 operations on records.
   483 
   484 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   485 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   486 
   487 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   488     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   489 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   490 
   491 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   492     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   493     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   494 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   495 
   496 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   497   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   498   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   499   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   500     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   501   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   502     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   503   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   504 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   505 
   506 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   507     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   508     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   509     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   510     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   511 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   512 
   513 * Fact name consolidation:
   514     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   515     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   516     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   517     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   518     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   519 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   520 
   521 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   522 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   523 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   524 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   525 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   526 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   527 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   528 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   529 
   530 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   531 
   532 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   533 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   534 
   535 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   536 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   537 
   538 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   539 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   540 or the brute way with
   541 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   542 
   543 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   544 
   545 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   546 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   547 
   548 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   549 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   550 
   551 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   552 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   553 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   554 INCOMPATIBILITY
   555 
   556 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
   557   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
   558   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
   559   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
   560   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
   561   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
   562   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
   563   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
   564   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
   565   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
   566   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
   567   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
   568 
   569   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
   570 
   571   removed auxiliary lemmas:
   572     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
   573     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr, real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded,
   574     summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2, sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom,
   575     sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero, summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
   576 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   577 
   578 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
   579   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
   580 
   581   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
   582 
   583   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
   584 
   585   - removed constant isDiff
   586 
   587   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as input
   588     syntax.
   589 
   590   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed
   591 
   592   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
   593 
   594   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
   595 
   596   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
   597 
   598   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which includes now rules for
   599     DERIV, has_derivative and has_vector_derivative.
   600 
   601   - Other renamings:
   602     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
   603     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
   604     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
   605     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
   606     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
   607     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
   608     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
   609 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   610 
   611 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the continuous_on_intros,
   612   isCont_intros collections, these facts are now in continuous_intros.
   613 
   614 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im, the Complex
   615   constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use primcorec to defined the
   616   behaviour of a complex-valued function.
   617 
   618   Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they are
   619   available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This especially
   620   removes
   621     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
   622 
   623   Instead the reverse direction is supported with
   624     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
   625 
   626   Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
   627 
   628   Renamings:
   629     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
   630     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
   631     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
   632     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
   633     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
   634     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
   635     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
   636     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
   637     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
   638     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
   639     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
   640     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
   641 
   642     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
   643     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
   644     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
   645 
   646   Removed theorems:
   647     complex_zero_def
   648     complex_add_def
   649     complex_minus_def
   650     complex_diff_def
   651     complex_one_def
   652     complex_mult_def
   653     complex_inverse_def
   654     complex_scaleR_def
   655 
   656 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   657 
   658 * Nitpick:
   659   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   660     infinite values.
   661   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as "Abs_Integ" and
   662     "Rep_Integ".
   663   - Removed "std" option.
   664   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   665     "hide_types".
   666 
   667 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   668   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   669   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   670     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   671     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   672     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   673     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   674     intervals.
   675 
   676   - renamed theorems:
   677     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
   678     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
   679     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
   680 
   681 * HOL-Probability:
   682   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general Bochner
   683     integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
   684 
   685     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
   686     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
   687     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
   688     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
   689     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
   690     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
   691     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
   692     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
   693     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
   694     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
   695     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
   696     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  positive_integral_liminf
   697     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
   698     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
   699     integral_indicator          ~>
   700          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
   701     positive_integral_fst       ~>  positive_integral_fst'
   702     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> positive_integral_fst
   703     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> positive_integral_snd
   704 
   705     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
   706          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
   707 
   708     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
   709          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
   710 
   711     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
   712          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
   713 
   714     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
   715          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
   716          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
   717 
   718     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
   719          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
   720 
   721     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
   722          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
   723 
   724     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
   725          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
   726          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
   727 
   728     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
   729          positive_integral_real_affine
   730 
   731     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
   732          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
   733 
   734     The following theorems where removed:
   735 
   736     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
   737     lebesgue_integral_uminus
   738     lebesgue_integral_cmult
   739     lebesgue_integral_multc
   740     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
   741     integral_cmul_indicator
   742     integral_real
   743 
   744   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
   745 
   746     * Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
   747       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
   748 
   749     * Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
   750 
   751 *** Scala ***
   752 
   753 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
   754 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
   755 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
   756 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
   757 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   758 
   759 
   760 *** ML ***
   761 
   762 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
   763 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   764 
   765 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
   766 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context via
   767 "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   768 
   769 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
   770 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   771 
   772 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
   773 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
   774 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
   775 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   776 
   777 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   778 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   779 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   780 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   781 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   782 of schematic variables.
   783 
   784 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   785 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   786 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   787 formal context.
   788 
   789 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   790 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   791 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   792 actually belongs to it).
   793 
   794 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
   795 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
   796 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
   797 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
   798 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
   799 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
   800 
   801 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
   802 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   803 
   804 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
   805 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
   806 
   807 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
   808 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
   809 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
   810 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
   811 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
   812 
   813 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
   814 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
   815 purposes.
   816 
   817 
   818 *** System ***
   819 
   820 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
   821 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
   822 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
   823 processing is started.
   824 
   825 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   826 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   827 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   828 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   829 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   830 
   831 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   832 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   833 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   834 
   835 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
   836 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
   837 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
   838 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
   839 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the $ISABELLE_PROCESS
   840 settings variable yet.
   841 
   842 * Retired the now unused Isabelle tool "wwwfind". Similar
   843 functionality may be integrated into PIDE/jEdit at a later point.
   844 
   845 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
   846 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
   847 
   848 
   849 
   850 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   851 -------------------------------------
   852 
   853 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   854 
   855 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   856 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   857 
   858 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   859 after edits surrounding the command location.
   860 
   861 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   862 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   863 e.g. out-of-memory).
   864 
   865 
   866 *** System ***
   867 
   868 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   869 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   870 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   871 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   872 
   873 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   874 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   875 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   876 
   877 
   878 
   879 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   880 -------------------------------------
   881 
   882 *** General ***
   883 
   884 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   885 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   886 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   887 
   888 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   889 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   890 
   891 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   892 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   893 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   894 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   895 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   896 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   897 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   898 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   899 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   900 syntax.
   901 
   902 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   903 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   904 
   905 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   906 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   907 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   908 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   909 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   910 
   911 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   912 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   913 
   914 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   915 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   916 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   917 
   918 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   919 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   920 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   921 
   922 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   923 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   924 
   925 
   926 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   927 
   928 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   929 Documentation panel.
   930 
   931 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   932 documentation.
   933 
   934 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   935 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   936 
   937 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   938 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   939 normal editing and checking process.
   940 
   941 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   942 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   943 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   944 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   945 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   946 
   947 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   948 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   949 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   950 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   951 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   952 
   953 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   954 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   955 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   956 
   957 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   958 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   959 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   960 to resolve conflict.
   961 
   962 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   963 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   964 
   965 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   966 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   967 such command executions while editing.
   968 
   969 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   970 document content.
   971 
   972 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   973 toplevel theorem statements.
   974 
   975 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   976 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   977 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   978 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   979 
   980 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   981 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   982 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   983 
   984 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   985 / Global Options / Appearance".
   986 
   987 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   988 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   989 
   990 
   991 *** Pure ***
   992 
   993 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   994 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   995 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   996 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   997 details.
   998 
   999 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  1000 
  1001 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  1002 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  1003 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  1004 
  1005 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  1006 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1007 
  1008 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  1009 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  1010 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  1011 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1012 
  1013 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  1014 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  1015 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1016 
  1017 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  1018 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  1019 
  1020 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  1021 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  1022 situations.
  1023 
  1024 
  1025 *** HOL ***
  1026 
  1027 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  1028 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  1029 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1030 
  1031 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  1032 
  1033 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  1034 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  1035 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  1036 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  1037 
  1038   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  1039 
  1040 * Code generator:
  1041   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  1042     'code_instance'.
  1043   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  1044     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  1045 
  1046 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  1047 examples.
  1048 
  1049 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  1050 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  1051 to distinguish both when desired.
  1052 
  1053 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  1054 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  1055 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  1056 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1057 
  1058 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  1059 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  1060 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  1061 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  1062 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  1063 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1064 
  1065 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  1066 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  1067 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1068 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  1069 
  1070 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  1071 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  1072 
  1073 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  1074 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  1075 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  1076 
  1077 * Lifting:
  1078   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  1079     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  1080       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  1081       transfer rules
  1082     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  1083       correspondence relation can be generated
  1084     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  1085       parametricity
  1086     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  1087   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  1088   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  1089     copies
  1090   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  1091     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  1092     anonymous context)
  1093   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  1094     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1095   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  1096     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  1097   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  1098     INCOMPATIBILITY
  1099 
  1100 * Transfer:
  1101   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  1102     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  1103   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  1104   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  1105     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  1106   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  1107 
  1108 * Reification and reflection:
  1109   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  1110     "Reification".
  1111   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  1112   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  1113 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1114 
  1115 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  1116   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  1117     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  1118     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  1119   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  1120     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  1121   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  1122     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  1123     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  1124     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  1125     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  1126     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  1127     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  1128     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  1129   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  1130     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  1131   - Fact renames:
  1132       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  1133       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  1134 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1135 
  1136 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  1137 
  1138 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  1139 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  1140 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  1141 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1142 
  1143 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  1144 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  1145 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  1146 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  1147 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  1148 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  1149 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  1150 lemmas.
  1151 
  1152 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  1153 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  1154 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1155 
  1156 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  1157 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  1158 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  1159 
  1160 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  1161 top and bottom elements.
  1162 
  1163 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  1164 
  1165 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  1166 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  1167 
  1168  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  1169    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  1170    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  1171 
  1172  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  1173    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  1174    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  1175 
  1176    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  1177    arbitrary filter.
  1178 
  1179  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  1180    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  1181    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  1182    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  1183    on a compact set.
  1184 
  1185  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  1186    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  1187    linear_continuum_topology).
  1188 
  1189  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  1190    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  1191    on all sequences converging to x.
  1192 
  1193  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  1194    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  1195    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  1196    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  1197    left or right.
  1198 
  1199  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  1200 
  1201      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  1202 
  1203  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  1204    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  1205 
  1206  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  1207    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  1208    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  1209    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  1210    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  1211    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  1212 
  1213  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  1214 
  1215    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  1216 
  1217    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  1218      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  1219 
  1220    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  1221 
  1222    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  1223      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  1224 
  1225    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  1226 
  1227    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  1228 
  1229  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  1230 
  1231 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1232 
  1233 * Nitpick:
  1234   - Added option "spy".
  1235   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  1236 
  1237 * Sledgehammer:
  1238   - Renamed option:
  1239       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  1240     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1241   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  1242   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  1243   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  1244 
  1245 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  1246 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  1247 
  1248 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  1249   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  1250   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  1251     generated code.
  1252   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  1253   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  1254   - Fact renames:
  1255     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  1256     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  1257     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  1258 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1259 
  1260 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  1261 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  1262 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  1263 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  1264 
  1265 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  1266 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  1267 
  1268 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1269 
  1270 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  1271 
  1272     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  1273     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  1274 
  1275 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1276 
  1277 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  1278 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  1279 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  1280 
  1281 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  1282 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  1283 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  1284 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1285 
  1286 * HOL-BNF:
  1287   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  1288     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  1289     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  1290     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  1291   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  1292     coinduct).
  1293   - Renamed keywords:
  1294     data ~> datatype_new
  1295     codata ~> codatatype
  1296     bnf_def ~> bnf
  1297   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  1298     discs ~> disc
  1299     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  1300     map_id' ~> map_id
  1301     sels ~> sel
  1302     set_map' ~> set_map
  1303     sets ~> set
  1304 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1305 
  1306 
  1307 *** ML ***
  1308 
  1309 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  1310 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  1311 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  1312 Examples.thy in particular.
  1313 
  1314 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  1315 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  1316 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  1317 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  1318 
  1319 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  1320 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  1321 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  1322 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  1323 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1324 
  1325 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  1326 
  1327     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  1328     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  1329 
  1330 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1331 
  1332 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  1333 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  1334 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  1335 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  1336 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  1337 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  1338 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  1339 
  1340 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  1341 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  1342 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  1343 clasets separately from the context.
  1344 
  1345 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  1346 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  1347 
  1348 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  1349 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  1350 
  1351 
  1352 *** System ***
  1353 
  1354 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  1355 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1356 
  1357 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  1358 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1359 
  1360 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  1361 settings variable.
  1362 
  1363 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  1364 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  1365 always pdf.
  1366 
  1367 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  1368 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  1369 
  1370 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  1371 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  1372 
  1373 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  1374 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  1375 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  1376 
  1377 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  1378 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  1379 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  1380 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  1381 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1382 for HTML presentation of theories.
  1383 
  1384 
  1385 
  1386 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  1387 -----------------------------------
  1388 
  1389 *** General ***
  1390 
  1391 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  1392 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  1393 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  1394 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  1395 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  1396 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  1397 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  1398 
  1399 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  1400 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  1401 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  1402 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  1403 
  1404 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  1405 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  1406 
  1407 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  1408 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  1409 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  1410 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  1411 dependencies properly.
  1412 
  1413 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  1414 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  1415 
  1416 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  1417 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  1418 
  1419 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  1420 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  1421 and "class ... context ...".
  1422 
  1423 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  1424 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  1425 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  1426 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  1427 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  1428 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  1429 
  1430 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  1431 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  1432 
  1433 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  1434 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  1435 
  1436 
  1437 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1438 
  1439 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  1440 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  1441 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  1442 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  1443 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  1444 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  1445 
  1446 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  1447 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  1448 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  1449 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  1450 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  1451 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  1452 
  1453 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  1454 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  1455 browser on demand.
  1456 
  1457 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  1458 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  1459 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  1460 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  1461 
  1462 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  1463 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  1464 
  1465 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  1466 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  1467 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  1468 potentially infinite message streams.
  1469 
  1470 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  1471 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  1472 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  1473 schemes.
  1474 
  1475 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1476 symbols.
  1477 
  1478 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1479 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1480 
  1481 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1482 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1483 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1484 
  1485 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1486 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1487 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1488 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1489 
  1490 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1491 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1492 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1493 
  1494 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1495 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1496 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1497 Isabelle distribution.
  1498 
  1499 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1500 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1501 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1502 
  1503 
  1504 *** Pure ***
  1505 
  1506 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1507 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1508 
  1509 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1510 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1511 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1512 
  1513 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1514 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1515 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1516 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1517 with some care where this is really required.
  1518 
  1519 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1520 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1521 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1522 
  1523   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1524 
  1525 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1526 a Hasse diagram.
  1527 
  1528 
  1529 *** HOL ***
  1530 
  1531 * Sledgehammer:
  1532 
  1533   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1534     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1535   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1536   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1537   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1538   - Renamed options:
  1539       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1540       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1541       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1542       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1543 
  1544 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1545 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1546 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1547 
  1548 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1549 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1550 
  1551 * Lifting:
  1552   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1553   - quot_del attribute
  1554   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1555 
  1556 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1557 expressions.
  1558 
  1559 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1560 pointfree expressions.
  1561 
  1562 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1563 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1564 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1565 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1566 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1567 
  1568 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1569 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1570 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1571 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1572 accordingly.
  1573 
  1574 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1575 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1576 
  1577 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1578 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1579 
  1580 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1581 
  1582 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1583 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1584 
  1585 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1586 
  1587 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1588 
  1589   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1590   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1591 
  1592 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1593 
  1594 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1595 
  1596   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1597   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1598 
  1599 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1600 
  1601 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1602 
  1603   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1604     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1605     output f x converges to G.
  1606 
  1607   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1608     infinity (at_bot).
  1609 
  1610   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1611     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1612 
  1613   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1614     at_top".
  1615 
  1616 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1617 
  1618 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1619 lattice type classes.
  1620 
  1621 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1622 
  1623     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1624     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1625 
  1626 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1627 
  1628 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1629 changes as follows.
  1630 
  1631   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1632 
  1633       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1634       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1635 
  1636   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1637     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1638     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1639     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1640 
  1641   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1642     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1643     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1644 
  1645   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1646     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1647     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1648     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1649 
  1650   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1651     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1652 
  1653       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1654       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1655       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1656       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1657       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1658       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1659       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1660       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1661       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1662       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1663       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1664       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1665       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1666       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1667       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1668       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1669 
  1670 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1671 
  1672 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1673 
  1674 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1675 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1676 
  1677 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1678 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1679 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1680 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1681 
  1682   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1683   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1684   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1685   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1686   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1687   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1688   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1689   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1690   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1691   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1692 
  1693 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1694 
  1695 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1696 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1697 Data").
  1698 
  1699 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1700 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1701 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1702 code.
  1703 
  1704 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1705 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1706 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1707 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1708 
  1709 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1710 
  1711 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1712 
  1713 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1714 
  1715   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1716   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1717 
  1718 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1719 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1720 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1721 
  1722   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1723 
  1724     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1725     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1726     cart_base i  removed
  1727     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1728 
  1729   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1730 
  1731   Renamed lemmas:
  1732 
  1733     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1734     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1735     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1736     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1737     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1738     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1739     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1740     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1741     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1742     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1743 
  1744 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1745 
  1746 * HOL/Probability:
  1747 
  1748   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1749 
  1750   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1751     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1752     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1753 
  1754   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1755     projective family).
  1756 
  1757 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1758 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1759 
  1760 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1761 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1762 datatypes.
  1763 
  1764 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1765 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1766 
  1767 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1768 trees for the code generator.
  1769 
  1770 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1771 Lifting/Transfer.
  1772 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1773 
  1774 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1775 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1776 
  1777 
  1778 *** Document preparation ***
  1779 
  1780 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1781 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1782 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1783 
  1784 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1785 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1786 
  1787 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1788 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1789 document/root.tex.
  1790 
  1791 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1792 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1793 
  1794 
  1795 *** ML ***
  1796 
  1797 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1798 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1799 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1800 
  1801 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1802 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1803 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1804 
  1805 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1806 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1807 necessarily printing visible text.
  1808 
  1809 
  1810 *** System ***
  1811 
  1812 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1813 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1814 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1815 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1816 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1817 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1818 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1819 
  1820 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1821 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1822 
  1823   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1824 
  1825 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1826 
  1827 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1828 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1829 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1830 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1831 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1832 
  1833 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1834 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1835 
  1836 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1837 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1838 
  1839 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1840 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1841 
  1842 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1843 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1844 version of Isabelle.
  1845 
  1846 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1847 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1848 
  1849 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1850 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1851 for home-made settings.
  1852 
  1853 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1854 
  1855 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1856 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1857 configuration.
  1858 
  1859 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1860 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1861 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1862 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1863 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1864 
  1865 
  1866 
  1867 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1868 ------------------------------
  1869 
  1870 *** General ***
  1871 
  1872 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1873 
  1874   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1875     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1876   - markup for bound variables
  1877   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1878   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1879   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1880     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1881 
  1882 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1883 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1884 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1885 
  1886 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1887 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1888 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1889 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1890 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1891 
  1892   context
  1893     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1894     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1895   begin
  1896 
  1897   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1898 
  1899   end
  1900 
  1901   thm my_trans
  1902 
  1903 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1904 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1905 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1906 
  1907 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1908 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1909 
  1910 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1911 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1912 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1913 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1914 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1915 
  1916 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1917 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1918 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1919 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1920 indices of schematic variables.
  1921 
  1922 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1923 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1924 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1925 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1926 etc. was exploited.
  1927 
  1928 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1929 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1930 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1931 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1932 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1933 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1934 
  1935 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1936 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1937 manual.
  1938 
  1939 
  1940 *** Pure ***
  1941 
  1942 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1943 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1944 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1945 
  1946 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1947 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1948 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1949 undocumented feature.)
  1950 
  1951 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1952 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1953 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1954 
  1955   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1956 
  1957   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1958     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1959 
  1960 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1961 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1962 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1963 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1964 
  1965 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1966 
  1967     num ~> num_token
  1968     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1969     xstr ~> str_token
  1970 
  1971 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1972 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1973 position information via constraints).
  1974 
  1975 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1976 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1977 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1978 
  1979 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1980 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1981 
  1982 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1983 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1984 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1985 
  1986 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1987 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1988 
  1989 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1990 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1991 
  1992   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1993 
  1994 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1995 
  1996 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1997 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1998 
  1999 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  2000 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  2001 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  2002 
  2003 
  2004 *** HOL ***
  2005 
  2006 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  2007 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  2008 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  2009 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  2010 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  2011 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  2012 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  2013 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  2014 possible.
  2015 
  2016 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  2017 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  2018 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  2019 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  2020 
  2021 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  2022 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2023 
  2024 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  2025 
  2026 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  2027 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  2028 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  2029 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  2030 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  2031 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  2032 
  2033   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  2034     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  2035 
  2036   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  2037     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  2038     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  2039 
  2040   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  2041     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  2042 
  2043   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  2044     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  2045     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  2046 
  2047   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  2048     Redefine using other integer operations.
  2049 
  2050 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  2051 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  2052 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  2053 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  2054 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  2055 
  2056   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  2057     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  2058     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  2059     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  2060     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  2061 
  2062     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  2063     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  2064 
  2065   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  2066     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  2067     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  2068     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  2069     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  2070     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  2071     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  2072     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  2073 
  2074   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  2075     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  2076     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  2077     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  2078 
  2079   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  2080     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  2081     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  2082     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  2083 
  2084   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  2085     from type nat to type int.
  2086 
  2087 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  2088 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  2089 
  2090   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  2091     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  2092     type.  Example syntax:
  2093 
  2094     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  2095       is List.insert
  2096 
  2097     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  2098     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  2099     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  2100     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  2101     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  2102     by the package.
  2103 
  2104   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  2105     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  2106     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  2107     code generation for each constant.
  2108 
  2109   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  2110     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  2111     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  2112     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  2113     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  2114 
  2115   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  2116     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  2117     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  2118 
  2119 * Quotient package:
  2120 
  2121   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  2122     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  2123 
  2124   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  2125     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  2126 
  2127   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  2128     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  2129     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2130 
  2131   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  2132     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2133 
  2134 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  2135 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  2136 
  2137 * Quickcheck:
  2138 
  2139   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  2140     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  2141     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  2142     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  2143     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  2144 
  2145     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  2146     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  2147     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  2148 
  2149     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  2150     continues searching for genuine ones.
  2151 
  2152     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  2153     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  2154     show genuine counterexamples.
  2155 
  2156   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  2157     value generators for a given type and operations.
  2158 
  2159     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  2160     constructors of that type.
  2161 
  2162   - Support for multisets.
  2163 
  2164   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  2165 
  2166   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  2167     conjectures in a locale context.
  2168 
  2169 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  2170 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  2171 
  2172 * Sledgehammer:
  2173   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  2174     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  2175   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  2176   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  2177     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  2178   - Sped up the minimizer.
  2179   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  2180   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  2181   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  2182 
  2183 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  2184 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  2185 
  2186 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  2187 
  2188 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2189 
  2190 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  2191 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  2192 
  2193   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  2194 
  2195 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  2196 a list and a nat.
  2197 
  2198 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  2199 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  2200 
  2201 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  2202 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  2203 default.
  2204 
  2205 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  2206 
  2207   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  2208 
  2209 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  2210 
  2211 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  2212 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  2213 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  2214 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  2215 one_case.
  2216 
  2217 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  2218 the result of the fact expression.
  2219 
  2220 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  2221 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  2222 of some relation theorems:
  2223 
  2224   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  2225   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2226   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  2227   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  2228   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  2229   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  2230 
  2231 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  2232 
  2233 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  2234 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  2235 
  2236 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2237 
  2238 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  2239 to match the constant's name:
  2240 
  2241   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  2242   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  2243   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  2244   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  2245   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  2246   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  2247   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  2248   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  2249   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  2250   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  2251   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  2252   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  2253   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  2254   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  2255   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  2256   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  2257   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  2258   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  2259   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  2260   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  2261   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  2262   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2263   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2264   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  2265 
  2266 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2267 
  2268 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  2269 and corresponding theorem names:
  2270 
  2271   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  2272 
  2273   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  2274 
  2275   - Renamed theorems:
  2276 
  2277     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  2278     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  2279     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  2280     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  2281     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  2282     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  2283     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  2284     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  2285     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  2286     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  2287     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  2288     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  2289     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2290     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  2291     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  2292     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  2293     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  2294     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  2295     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  2296     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  2297     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  2298     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  2299     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  2300 
  2301     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  2302 
  2303     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  2304 
  2305 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2306 
  2307 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  2308 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2309 
  2310   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  2311   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  2312   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  2313   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  2314   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  2315   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  2316   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  2317   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  2318   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  2319   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  2320   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  2321   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  2322   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  2323   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  2324   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  2325   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  2326   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  2327   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  2328   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  2329   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  2330   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  2331 
  2332 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  2333 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2334 
  2335 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2336 
  2337 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  2338 
  2339   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  2340   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  2341   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  2342   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  2343   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  2344   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  2345   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  2346   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  2347   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  2348   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  2349   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  2350   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  2351   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  2352   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  2353   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  2354   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  2355   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  2356   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  2357 
  2358 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2359 
  2360 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  2361 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  2362 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  2363 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  2364 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  2365 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  2366 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  2367 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  2368 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  2369 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  2370 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  2371 
  2372 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  2373 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  2374 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  2375 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  2376 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  2377 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  2378 
  2379 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  2380 through option types.
  2381 
  2382 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  2383 relations.
  2384 
  2385 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2386 
  2387 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  2388 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2389 
  2390   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  2391   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  2392   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  2393   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  2394   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2395   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2396   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  2397   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2398   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  2399   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2400   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  2401   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  2402   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2403   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2404   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2405   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  2406   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  2407   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  2408   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2409   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2410   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  2411   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  2412   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2413   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2414   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  2415   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2416   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  2417   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  2418   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  2419   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  2420   zless_le ~> less_le
  2421   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  2422   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  2423   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  2424 
  2425 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  2426 
  2427   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  2428 
  2429 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  2430 
  2431 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  2432 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  2433 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  2434 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  2435 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2436 
  2437 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2438 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  2439 
  2440 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  2441 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  2442 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  2443 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  2444 follows:
  2445 
  2446   Operations:
  2447   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  2448   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  2449   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  2450   del -> rbt_del
  2451   delete -> rbt_delete
  2452   ins -> rbt_ins
  2453   insert -> rbt_insert
  2454   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  2455   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  2456   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  2457   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  2458   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  2459   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  2460   tree_less -> rbt_less
  2461   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  2462   union -> rbt_union
  2463   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  2464   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  2465 
  2466   Lemmas:
  2467   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  2468   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  2469   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  2470   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  2471   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  2472   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  2473   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2474   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2475   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2476   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2477   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2478   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2479   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2480   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2481   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2482   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2483   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2484   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2485   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2486   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2487   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2488   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2489   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2490   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2491   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2492   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2493   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2494   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2495   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2496   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2497   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2498   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2499   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2500   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2501   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2502   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2503   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2504   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2505   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2506   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2507   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2508   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2509   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2510   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2511   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2512   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2513   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2514   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2515   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2516   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2517   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2518   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2519   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2520   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2521   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2522   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2523   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2524   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2525   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2526   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2527   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2528   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2529   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2530   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2531   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2532   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2533   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2534   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2535   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2536   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2537   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2538   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2539   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2540   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2541   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2542   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2543   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2544   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2545   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2546   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2547   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2548   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2549   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2550 
  2551 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2552 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2553 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2554 
  2555   Changed Operations:
  2556   float_abs -> abs
  2557   float_nprt -> nprt
  2558   float_pprt -> pprt
  2559   pow2 -> use powr
  2560   round_down -> float_round_down
  2561   round_up -> float_round_up
  2562   scale -> exponent
  2563 
  2564   Removed Operations:
  2565   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2566 
  2567   Renamed Lemmas:
  2568   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2569   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2570   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2571   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2572   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2573   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2574   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2575   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2576   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2577   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2578   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2579   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2580   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2581   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2582   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2583   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2584   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2585   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2586   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2587   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2588   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2589   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2590   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2591   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2592   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2593   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2594   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2595   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2596   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2597   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2598   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2599   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2600   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2601   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2602   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2603   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2604 
  2605   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2606   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2607   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2608   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2609   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2610   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2611   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2612   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2613   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2614   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2615 
  2616 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2617 association lists with distinct keys.
  2618 
  2619 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2620 annotated commands.
  2621 
  2622 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2623 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2624 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2625 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2626 
  2627 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2628 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2629 instead.
  2630 
  2631   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2632   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2633   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2634   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2635   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2636   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2637   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2638   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2639   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2640   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2641   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2642   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2643   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2644   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2645   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2646   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2647   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2648   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2649   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2650   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2651   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2652   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2653   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2654   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2655   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2656   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2657   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2658   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2659   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2660   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2661   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2662   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2663   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2664   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2665   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2666   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2667   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2668   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2669   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2670   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2671   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2672 
  2673 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2674 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2675 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2676 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2677 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2678 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2679 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2680 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2681 
  2682 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2683 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2684 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2685 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2686 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2687 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2688 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2689 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2690 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2691 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2692 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2693 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2694 
  2695   Renamed constants:
  2696   measure -> emeasure
  2697   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2698   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2699   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2700   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2701 
  2702   Removed locales:
  2703   completeable_measure_space
  2704   finite_measure_space
  2705   finite_prob_space
  2706   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2707   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2708   finite_sigma_algebra
  2709   measure_space
  2710   pair_finite_prob_space
  2711   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2712   pair_finite_space
  2713   pair_sigma_algebra
  2714   product_sigma_algebra
  2715 
  2716   Removed constants:
  2717   conditional_space
  2718   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2719   image_space
  2720   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2721   pair_measure_generator
  2722   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2723   subvimage
  2724 
  2725   Replacement theorems:
  2726   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2727   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2728   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2729   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2730   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2731   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2732   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2733   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2734   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2735   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2736   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2737   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2738   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2739   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2740   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2741   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2742   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2743   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2744   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2745   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2746   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2747   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2748   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2749   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2750   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2751   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2752   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2753   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2754   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2755   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2756   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2757   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2758   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2759   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2760   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2761   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2762   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2763   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2764   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2765   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2766   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2767   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2768   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2769   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2770   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2771   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2772   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2773   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2774   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2775   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2776   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2777   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2778   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2779   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2780   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2781   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2782   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2783   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2784   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2785   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2786   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2787   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2788   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2789   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2790   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2791   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2792   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2793   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2794   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2795   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2796   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2797   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2798   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2799   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2800   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2801   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2802   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2803   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2804   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2805   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2806   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2807   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2808   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2809   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2810   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2811   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2812   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2813   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2814   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2815   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2816   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2817   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2818   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2819   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2820   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2821   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2822   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2823   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2824   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2825   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2826   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2827   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2828   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2829   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2830   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2831   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2832   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2833   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2834   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2835   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2836   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2837   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2838   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2839   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2840   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2841   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2842   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2843   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2844   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2845   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2846   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2847   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2848   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2849   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2850   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2851   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2852   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2853   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2854 
  2855 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2856 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2857 
  2858 
  2859 *** FOL ***
  2860 
  2861 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2862 
  2863 
  2864 *** ZF ***
  2865 
  2866 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2867 analysis.
  2868 
  2869 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2870 
  2871 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2872 
  2873 
  2874 *** ML ***
  2875 
  2876 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2877 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2878 
  2879 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2880 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2881 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2882 
  2883 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2884 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2885 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2886 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2887 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2888 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2889 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2890 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2891 
  2892 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2893 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2894 
  2895 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2896 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2897 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2898 
  2899 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2900 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2901 
  2902 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2903 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2904 context as well.
  2905 
  2906 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2907 
  2908   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2909   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2910   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2911   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2912   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2913   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2914   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2915   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2916   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2917   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2918   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2919   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2920 
  2921 
  2922 *** System ***
  2923 
  2924 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2925 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2926 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2927 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2928 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2929 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2930 the generic user home was intended.
  2931 
  2932 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2933 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2934 
  2935 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2936 (not just JRE).
  2937 
  2938 
  2939 
  2940 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2941 ------------------------------------
  2942 
  2943 *** General ***
  2944 
  2945 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2946 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2947 
  2948   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2949     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2950     files for checking).
  2951 
  2952   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2953     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2954     positions.
  2955 
  2956   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2957     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2958     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2959 
  2960   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2961     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2962     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2963 
  2964   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2965     cores.
  2966 
  2967   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2968     versions (garbage collection).
  2969 
  2970 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2971 including some remaining limitations.
  2972 
  2973 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2974 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2975 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2976 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2977 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2978 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2979 
  2980 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2981 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2982 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2983 
  2984 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2985 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2986 usedir option -Q.
  2987 
  2988 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2989 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2990 
  2991   long_names   ~> names_long
  2992   short_names  ~> names_short
  2993   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2994 
  2995 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2996 
  2997   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2998 
  2999 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  3000 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  3001 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  3002 
  3003 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  3004 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  3005 
  3006 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  3007   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  3008   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  3009   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  3010     "Classical Reasoner".
  3011 
  3012 
  3013 *** HOL ***
  3014 
  3015 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  3016 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3017 
  3018 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  3019 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  3020 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  3021 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  3022 class complete_linorder.
  3023 
  3024 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  3025 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  3026 
  3027 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  3028 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  3029 
  3030   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  3031   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  3032   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3033   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3034   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3035   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3036   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  3037   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  3038   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  3039   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  3040   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  3041 
  3042 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  3043 
  3044   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  3045   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  3046   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  3047   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  3048   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  3049   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  3050   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  3051   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  3052   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  3053   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  3054   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  3055   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  3056   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  3057   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  3058   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  3059   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  3060 
  3061 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3062 
  3063 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  3064 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3065 
  3066 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  3067 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  3068 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  3069 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3070 
  3071 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  3072 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  3073 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  3074 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3075 
  3076 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  3077 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  3078 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  3079 
  3080 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  3081 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  3082 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3083 
  3084 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  3085 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  3086 
  3087 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  3088 
  3089     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  3090     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  3091 
  3092 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  3093 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3094 
  3095 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  3096 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3097 
  3098 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  3099 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  3100 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  3101 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3102 
  3103   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  3104   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  3105   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  3106   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  3107   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  3108   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  3109   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  3110 
  3111 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  3112 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3113 
  3114   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  3115   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  3116   real_less_def ~> less_le
  3117   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  3118   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  3119   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3120   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3121   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3122   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3123   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  3124   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  3125   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  3126   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  3127   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3128   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  3129   real_le_linear ~> linear
  3130   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  3131   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  3132   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  3133   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  3134   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  3135   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  3136   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  3137   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  3138   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  3139   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  3140   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  3141   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  3142   expi_add ~> exp_add
  3143   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  3144   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  3145   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  3146   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  3147   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3148   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  3149   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3150   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  3151   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3152   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3153   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3154   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3155   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3156   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  3157   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  3158   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  3159   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  3160   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3161   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3162   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3163   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  3164   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3165   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3166   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  3167   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  3168   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  3169   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  3170   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  3171   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3172   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3173   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3174   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  3175   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  3176   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3177   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3178   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  3179   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  3180   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3181   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  3182   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3183   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3184   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  3185   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  3186   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3187   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  3188   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  3189   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3190   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  3191   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3192   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  3193   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  3194   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  3195   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  3196 
  3197 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  3198 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  3199 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  3200 
  3201 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  3202 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  3203 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  3204 
  3205 * Code generation:
  3206 
  3207   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  3208     characters in the target language.
  3209 
  3210   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  3211     instead.
  3212 
  3213   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  3214 
  3215   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  3216     reactivated by the following theory command:
  3217 
  3218       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  3219 
  3220 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3221 
  3222 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  3223 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  3224 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  3225 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  3226 syntax.
  3227 
  3228 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  3229 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  3230 
  3231 * Nitpick:
  3232   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  3233   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  3234   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  3235     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3236 
  3237 * Sledgehammer:
  3238   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  3239   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  3240     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  3241   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  3242     this can be done within reasonable time.
  3243   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  3244     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3245   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  3246     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  3247   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  3248     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3249 
  3250 * Metis:
  3251   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3252   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  3253     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3254 
  3255 * Command 'try':
  3256   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  3257     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3258   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  3259     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  3260 
  3261 * Quickcheck:
  3262   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  3263     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3264   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  3265     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3266   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  3267     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  3268     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  3269     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  3270   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  3271     (formly in HOL/Library).
  3272 
  3273 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3274 use 'partial_function' instead.
  3275 
  3276 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  3277 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  3278 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  3279 
  3280 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  3281 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  3282 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3283 
  3284 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  3285 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3286 
  3287 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  3288 arithmetic.
  3289 
  3290 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  3291 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  3292 and lattice type classes.
  3293 
  3294 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  3295 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  3296 
  3297 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  3298 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  3299 
  3300 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  3301 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  3302 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3303 
  3304   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  3305   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  3306   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  3307   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  3308 
  3309 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  3310 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  3311 constants:
  3312 
  3313   type inat   ~> type enat
  3314   Fin         ~> enat
  3315   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  3316   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  3317   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  3318 
  3319 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  3320 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3321 
  3322 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  3323 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  3324 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  3325 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  3326 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  3327 
  3328 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  3329 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  3330 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  3331 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  3332 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  3333 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  3334 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3335 
  3336   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  3337   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  3338   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  3339   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  3340 
  3341 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  3342 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  3343 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3344 
  3345   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  3346   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  3347   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  3348   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  3349   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  3350   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  3351   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  3352   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  3353   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  3354   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  3355   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  3356   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  3357   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3358   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3359   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  3360   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3361   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  3362   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  3363   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  3364   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  3365   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  3366   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  3367   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  3368   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  3369   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  3370   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  3371   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  3372   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  3373   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  3374   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3375   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3376   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  3377   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  3378   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  3379   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  3380   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  3381   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  3382   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  3383   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  3384   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  3385   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  3386   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  3387   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  3388   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  3389   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  3390   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  3391   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  3392   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  3393   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  3394   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  3395   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  3396 
  3397 * Session HOL-Probability:
  3398   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  3399   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  3400   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  3401   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  3402     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3403 
  3404 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3405 
  3406   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  3407   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  3408   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3409   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  3410   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  3411   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  3412   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  3413   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  3414   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  3415   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  3416   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3417   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  3418   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  3419   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  3420   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  3421   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  3422   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  3423   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  3424   UU_I ~> bottomI
  3425   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  3426   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3427   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3428   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  3429   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  3430   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  3431 
  3432 
  3433 *** Document preparation ***
  3434 
  3435 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  3436 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  3437 same.
  3438 
  3439 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  3440 result.
  3441 
  3442 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  3443 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  3444 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  3445 
  3446 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  3447 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  3448 
  3449 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  3450 like this:
  3451 
  3452   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  3453   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  3454 
  3455 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  3456 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  3457 layouts.
  3458 
  3459 
  3460 *** ML ***
  3461 
  3462 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  3463 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  3464 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  3465 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  3466 under external program control.
  3467 
  3468 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  3469 data, which requires explicit setup.
  3470 
  3471 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  3472 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  3473 (better known as Proof General).
  3474 
  3475 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3476 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3477 
  3478 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3479 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3480 
  3481 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3482 (including quotes etc.).
  3483 
  3484 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3485 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3486 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3487 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3488 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3489 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3490 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3491 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3492 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3493 
  3494 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3495 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3496 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3497 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3498 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3499 
  3500 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3501 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3502 
  3503 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3504 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3505 
  3506 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3507 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3508 
  3509 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3510 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3511 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3512 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3513 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3514 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3515 proper Proof.context.
  3516 
  3517 
  3518 *** System ***
  3519 
  3520 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3521 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3522 
  3523 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3524 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3525 
  3526 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3527 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3528 
  3529   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3530   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3531   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3532   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3533   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3534 
  3535 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3536 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3537 
  3538 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3539 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3540 example:
  3541 
  3542   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3543 
  3544 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3545 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3546 
  3547 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3548 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3549 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3550 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3551 
  3552 
  3553 
  3554 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3555 ----------------------------------
  3556 
  3557 *** General ***
  3558 
  3559 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3560 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3561 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3562 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3563 like this:
  3564 
  3565   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3566 
  3567 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3568 
  3569 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3570 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3571 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3572 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3573 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3574 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3575 
  3576 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3577 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3578 the following package declarations:
  3579 
  3580   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3581   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3582 
  3583 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3584 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3585 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3586 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3587 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3588 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3589 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3590 
  3591 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3592 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3593 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3594 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3595 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3596 
  3597 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3598 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3599 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3600 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3601 
  3602 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3603 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3604 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3605 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3606 
  3607   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3608 
  3609   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3610   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3611   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3612   show_types                    show_types
  3613   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3614   show_consts                   show_consts
  3615   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3616 
  3617   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3618   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3619   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3620 
  3621   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3622   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3623 
  3624   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3625 
  3626   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3627   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3628   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3629   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3630   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3631 
  3632 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3633 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3634 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3635 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3636 
  3637 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3638 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3639 
  3640   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3641   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3642 
  3643 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3644 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3645 float_token.
  3646 
  3647 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3648 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3649 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3650 
  3651 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3652 DejaVu Sans.
  3653 
  3654 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3655 
  3656 
  3657 *** Pure ***
  3658 
  3659 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3660 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3661 time.
  3662 
  3663 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3664 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3665 
  3666 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3667 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3668 
  3669 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3670 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3671 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3672 command already provided this functionality.
  3673 
  3674 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3675 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3676 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3677 without interpretations.
  3678 
  3679 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3680 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3681 
  3682 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3683 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3684 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3685 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3686 
  3687 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3688 'definition' instead.
  3689 
  3690 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3691 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3692 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3693 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3694 
  3695 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3696 constructors.
  3697 
  3698 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3699 the local file system.
  3700 
  3701 
  3702 *** HOL ***
  3703 
  3704 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3705 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3706 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3707 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3708 
  3709   declare [[coercion f]]
  3710 
  3711 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3712 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3713 
  3714   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3715 
  3716 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3717 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3718 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3719 other theories like this:
  3720 
  3721   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3722 
  3723 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3724 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3725 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3726 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3727 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3728 for examples.
  3729 
  3730 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3731 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3732 
  3733 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3734 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3735 
  3736 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3737 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3738 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3739 
  3740 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3741 functorial structure of types.
  3742 
  3743 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3744 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3745 
  3746 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3747 languages.
  3748 
  3749 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3750 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3751 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3752 
  3753 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3754 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3755 
  3756 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3757 combinators any longer.
  3758 
  3759 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3760 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3761 
  3762 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3763 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3764 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3765 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3766 
  3767   record 'a foo = ...
  3768   ...
  3769   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3770 
  3771 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3772 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3773 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3774 
  3775 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3776 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3777 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3778 
  3779 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3780 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3781 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3782 
  3783 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3784 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3785 
  3786 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3787 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3788 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3789 independently.
  3790 
  3791 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3792 counter example search.
  3793 
  3794 * Sledgehammer:
  3795   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3796     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3797     sledgehammer").
  3798   - Renamed commands:
  3799     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3800     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3801     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3802     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3803   - Renamed options:
  3804     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3805     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3806     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3807     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3808     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3809 
  3810 * Nitpick:
  3811   - Renamed options:
  3812     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3813     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3814     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3815   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3816   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3817   - Added "whack" option.
  3818   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3819   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3820   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3821   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3822     higher cardinalities.
  3823   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3824 
  3825 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3826 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3827 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3828 
  3829     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3830 
  3831 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3832 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3833 
  3834 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3835 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3836 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3837 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3838 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3839 "smt_solver".
  3840 
  3841 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3842 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3843 
  3844 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3845 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3846 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3847 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3848 
  3849 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3850   - Renamed:
  3851     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3852     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3853     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3854   - Added:
  3855     smt_verbose
  3856     smt_random_seed
  3857     smt_datatypes
  3858     smt_infer_triggers
  3859     smt_monomorph_limit
  3860     cvc3_options
  3861     remote_cvc3_options
  3862     remote_z3_options
  3863     yices_options
  3864 
  3865 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3866 header.
  3867 
  3868 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3869 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3870 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3871 
  3872   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3873 
  3874 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3875 
  3876 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3877 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3878 
  3879 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3880 
  3881 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3882 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3883 
  3884 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3885 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3886 
  3887 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3888 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3889 
  3890 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3891 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3892 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3893 
  3894 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3895 
  3896 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3897 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3898 
  3899 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3900 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3901 
  3902 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3903 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3904 for congruent(2)).
  3905 
  3906 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3907 
  3908   types
  3909     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3910     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3911 
  3912   constants
  3913     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3914     True ~> HOL.True
  3915     False ~> HOL.False
  3916     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3917     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3918     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3919     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3920     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3921     The ~> HOL.The
  3922     All ~> HOL.All
  3923     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3924     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3925     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3926     If ~> HOL.If
  3927     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3928     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3929     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3930     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3931     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3932     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3933     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3934     op : ~> Set.member
  3935     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3936 
  3937 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3938 
  3939 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3940 
  3941     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3942     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3943     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3944     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3945     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3946     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3947     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3948     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3949 
  3950 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3951 
  3952 * More stylized fact names:
  3953 
  3954   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3955   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3956   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3957   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3958 
  3959 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3960 
  3961 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3962 
  3963   constants
  3964     null ~> List.null
  3965 
  3966   facts
  3967     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3968     null_empty ~> null_def
  3969 
  3970 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3971 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3972 generation.
  3973 
  3974 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3975 Haskell code.
  3976 
  3977 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3978 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3979 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3980 
  3981 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3982 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3983 
  3984 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3985 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3986 
  3987 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3988 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3989 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3990 
  3991 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3992 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3993 
  3994 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3995 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3996 
  3997 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3998 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3999 referred to by its qualified name.
  4000 
  4001   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  4002   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  4003   product ~>  Enum.product
  4004 
  4005 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  4006 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  4007 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4008 
  4009 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  4010 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  4011 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  4012 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4013 
  4014 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  4015 sort_key.
  4016 
  4017 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  4018 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4019 
  4020 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  4021 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  4022 instead of finite cartesian products.
  4023 
  4024   types
  4025     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  4026               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  4027               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  4028         (depends on your needs)
  4029 
  4030   constants
  4031      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  4032      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  4033      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  4034 
  4035 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  4036 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  4037 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  4038 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4039 
  4040 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  4041 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  4042 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  4043 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  4044 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4045 
  4046 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  4047 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4048 
  4049 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  4050 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  4051 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  4052 
  4053 
  4054 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4055 
  4056 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  4057 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  4058 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  4059 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  4060 compatibility.
  4061 
  4062 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  4063 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  4064 
  4065 
  4066 *** HOLCF ***
  4067 
  4068 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  4069 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  4070 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  4071 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4072 
  4073 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  4074 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  4075 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4076 
  4077   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  4078   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  4079   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  4080 
  4081 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  4082 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  4083 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4084 
  4085 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  4086 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  4087 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  4088 domain definition now works:
  4089 
  4090   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  4091 
  4092 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  4093 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  4094 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  4095 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  4096 
  4097   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  4098     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  4099 
  4100   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  4101 
  4102 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  4103 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  4104 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4105 
  4106 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  4107 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4108 
  4109 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  4110 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  4111 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  4112 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  4113 
  4114 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  4115 
  4116 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4117 
  4118 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4119 
  4120 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  4121 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4122 
  4123 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  4124 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  4125 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  4126 
  4127 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  4128 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  4129 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4130 
  4131 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  4132 still supported as an input translation.
  4133 
  4134 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  4135 
  4136   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  4137   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  4138   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  4139   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  4140   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  4141   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  4142   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  4143 
  4144 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  4145 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4146 
  4147   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  4148   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  4149   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  4150   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  4151   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  4152   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  4153 
  4154 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  4155 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4156 
  4157 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  4158 
  4159   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  4160   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  4161   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  4162   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  4163 
  4164 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4165 
  4166 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  4167 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4168 
  4169 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  4170 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4171 
  4172   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  4173   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  4174   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  4175   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  4176   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  4177   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  4178   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  4179   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  4180   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  4181   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  4182   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  4183   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  4184   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  4185   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  4186   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  4187   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  4188   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  4189   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  4190   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  4191   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  4192 
  4193 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4194 
  4195   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  4196   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  4197   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  4198   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  4199   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  4200   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  4201   box_less             ~> box_below
  4202   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  4203   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  4204   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  4205   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  4206   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  4207   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  4208   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  4209   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  4210   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  4211   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  4212   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  4213   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  4214   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  4215   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  4216   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  4217   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  4218   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  4219   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  4220   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  4221   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  4222   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  4223   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  4224   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  4225   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  4226   up_less              ~> up_below
  4227   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  4228   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  4229   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  4230   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  4231   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  4232   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  4233   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  4234   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  4235   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  4236   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  4237   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  4238   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  4239   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  4240 
  4241 
  4242 *** FOL and ZF ***
  4243 
  4244 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  4245 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4246 
  4247 
  4248 *** ML ***
  4249 
  4250 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  4251 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  4252 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  4253 
  4254 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  4255 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  4256 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  4257 
  4258 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  4259 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  4260 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  4261 
  4262 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  4263 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  4264 
  4265 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  4266 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  4267 
  4268 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  4269 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  4270 
  4271 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  4272 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  4273 
  4274 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  4275 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  4276 almost all situations.
  4277 
  4278 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  4279 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  4280 Isabelle/ML.
  4281 
  4282 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  4283 meaning.
  4284 
  4285 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  4286 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  4287 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  4288 
  4289 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  4290 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  4291 
  4292 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  4293 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  4294 
  4295 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  4296 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  4297 @{thms} for most purposes.
  4298 
  4299 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  4300 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  4301 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  4302 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  4303 configuration options.
  4304 
  4305 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  4306 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  4307 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  4308 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  4309 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  4310 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  4311 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  4312 
  4313 
  4314 
  4315 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  4316 ---------------------------------
  4317 
  4318 *** General ***
  4319 
  4320 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  4321 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  4322 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  4323 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  4324 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  4325 their full internal name.
  4326 
  4327 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  4328 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  4329 Some hints on upgrading:
  4330 
  4331   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  4332     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  4333     which are independent of this issue.
  4334 
  4335   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  4336     provides the following special forms:
  4337 
  4338       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  4339       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  4340       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  4341 
  4342     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  4343     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  4344     extra variables".
  4345 
  4346     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  4347     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  4348     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  4349     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  4350     "logic".
  4351 
  4352   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  4353     antiquotations:
  4354 
  4355       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  4356       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  4357       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  4358       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  4359 
  4360   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  4361     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  4362     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  4363     antiquotations.
  4364 
  4365 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  4366 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  4367 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  4368 diagnose syntax problems.
  4369 
  4370 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  4371 
  4372 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  4373 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  4374 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  4375 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  4376 
  4377 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  4378 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  4379 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  4380 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4381 
  4382 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  4383 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  4384 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  4385 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  4386 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4387 
  4388 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  4389 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  4390 
  4391 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  4392 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  4393 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  4394 
  4395   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  4396 
  4397 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  4398 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  4399 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  4400 
  4401 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  4402 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  4403 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4404 
  4405 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  4406 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  4407 
  4408 
  4409 *** Pure ***
  4410 
  4411 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  4412 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  4413 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  4414 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  4415 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  4416 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  4417 inspect proof terms.
  4418 
  4419 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  4420 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  4421 are added internally.  For example:
  4422 
  4423   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  4424 
  4425 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  4426 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4427 
  4428 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4429 
  4430 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4431 'class' instead.
  4432 
  4433 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  4434 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  4435 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4436 
  4437 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  4438 invariants.
  4439 
  4440 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  4441 user space functionality any longer.
  4442 
  4443 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  4444 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  4445 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4446 
  4447 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  4448 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  4449 
  4450 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  4451 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  4452 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  4453 
  4454 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  4455 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  4456 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  4457 
  4458 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  4459 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4460 
  4461 
  4462 *** HOL ***
  4463 
  4464 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  4465 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  4466 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  4467 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  4468 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  4469 
  4470 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  4471 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  4472 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  4473 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4474 
  4475   fun
  4476     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4477   where
  4478     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4479 
  4480   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4481     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4482 
  4483   quotient_definition
  4484     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4485 
  4486 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4487 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4488 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4489 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4490 
  4491 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4492 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4493 
  4494 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4495 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4496 
  4497 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4498 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4499 
  4500 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4501 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4502 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4503 
  4504 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4505 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4506 
  4507 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4508 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4509 
  4510 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4511 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4512 
  4513 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4514 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4515 
  4516 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4517 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4518 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4519 
  4520   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4521   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4522   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4523   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4524   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4525   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4526   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4527   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4528   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4529   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4530   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4531   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4532   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4533   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4534   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4535   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4536   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4537   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4538   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4539   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4540   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4541   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4542   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4543   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4544   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4545   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4546   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4547   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4548   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4549   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4550 
  4551 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4552 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4553 
  4554 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4555 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4556 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4557 
  4558 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4559 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4560 
  4561 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4562 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4563 
  4564 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4565 
  4566 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4567 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4568 
  4569 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4570 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4571 
  4572 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4573 
  4574 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4575 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4576 
  4577 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4578 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4579 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4580 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4581 
  4582 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4583   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4584   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4585   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4586 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4587 
  4588 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4589 lattices):
  4590 
  4591     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4592     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4593 
  4594     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4595 
  4596     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4597     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4598     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4599     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4600     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4601     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4602     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4603     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4604     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4605     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4606     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4607     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4608     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4609 
  4610     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4611     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4612     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4613     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4614     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4615     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4616     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4617     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4618     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4619     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4620     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4621     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4622     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4623     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4624     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4625     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4626     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4627     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4628 
  4629   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4630   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4631 
  4632     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4633     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4634     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4635     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4636     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4637 
  4638 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4639 
  4640 * Refined field classes:
  4641   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4642     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4643     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4644   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4645 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4646 
  4647 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4648   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4649   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4650   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4651     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4652   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4653     equal_neg_zero.
  4654 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4655 
  4656 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4657 sets to lattices:
  4658 
  4659   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4660   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4661   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4662   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4663   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4664   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4665   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4666   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4667   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4668   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4669 
  4670 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4671 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4672 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4673 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4674 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4675 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4676 
  4677 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4678 multiset order:
  4679 
  4680   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4681     <= and <;
  4682   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4683     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4684     multiset_order;
  4685   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4686     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4687     generation;
  4688   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4689     if needed.
  4690 
  4691 Renamed:
  4692 
  4693   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4694   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4695   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4696 
  4697 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4698 
  4699 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4700 
  4701 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4702 
  4703 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4704 
  4705 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4706 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4707 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4708 
  4709   Constants:
  4710   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4711   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4712   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4713   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4714   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4715   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4716   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4717   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4718   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4719   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4720   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4721   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4722   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4723 
  4724   Lemmas:
  4725   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4726   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4727   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4728   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4729   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4730   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4731   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4732   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4733   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4734   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4735   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4736   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4737   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4738 
  4739 * Sledgehammer:
  4740   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4741     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4742     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4743     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4744     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4745     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4746     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4747   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4748   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4749     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4750   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4751     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4752     is still experimental.)
  4753   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4754     full-typed mode.
  4755   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4756 
  4757 * Nitpick:
  4758   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4759   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4760   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4761     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4762   - Added support for quotient types.
  4763   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4764     constructs.
  4765   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4766     "termination" proofs).
  4767   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4768   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4769   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4770   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4771     record getters.
  4772   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4773   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4774   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4775   - Added "atoms" option.
  4776   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4777     problems.
  4778   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4779     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4780     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4781   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4782     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4783   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4784 
  4785 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4786   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4787   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4788   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4789   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4790   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4791   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4792   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4793   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4794   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4795 
  4796 
  4797 *** HOLCF ***
  4798 
  4799 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4800 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4801 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4802 
  4803 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4804 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4805 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4806 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4807 
  4808 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4809 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4810 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4811 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4812 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4813 
  4814 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4815 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4816 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4817 
  4818 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4819 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4820 
  4821   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4822   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4823 
  4824 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4825 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4826 
  4827   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4828   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4829   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4830   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4831   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4832 
  4833 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4834 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4835 
  4836   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4837   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4838   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4839 
  4840 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4841 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4842 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4843 
  4844 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4845 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4846 
  4847 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4848 
  4849 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4850 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4851 
  4852 
  4853 *** ML ***
  4854 
  4855 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4856 
  4857     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4858     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4859 
  4860     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4861     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4862     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4863     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4864 
  4865     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4866     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4867     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4868 
  4869 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4870 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4871 
  4872 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4873 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4874 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4875 
  4876 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4877 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4878 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4879 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4880 
  4881 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4882 the context or even global references.
  4883 
  4884 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4885 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4886 
  4887 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4888 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4889 
  4890   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4891   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4892   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4893   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4894   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4895   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4896   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4897   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4898   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4899   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4900 
  4901 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4902 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4903 
  4904 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4905 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4906 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4907 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4908 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4909 
  4910 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4911 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4912 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4913 Theory_Data version.
  4914 
  4915 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4916 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4917 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4918 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4919 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4920 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4921 explicitly in rare situations.
  4922 
  4923 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4924 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4925 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4926 
  4927 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4928 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4929 
  4930 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4931 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4932 quite rare).
  4933 
  4934 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4935 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4936 
  4937 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4938 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4939 terms.
  4940 
  4941 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4942 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4943 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4944 
  4945 
  4946 *** System ***
  4947 
  4948 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4949 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4950 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4951 
  4952 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4953 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4954 respectively.
  4955 
  4956 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4957 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4958 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4959 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4960 
  4961   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4962 
  4963 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4964 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4965 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4966 component.
  4967 
  4968 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4969 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4970 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4971 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4972 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4973 the user for manual installation.
  4974 
  4975 
  4976 
  4977 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4978 -------------------------------------
  4979 
  4980 *** General ***
  4981 
  4982 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4983 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4984 
  4985 
  4986 *** Pure ***
  4987 
  4988 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4989 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4990 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4991 
  4992 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4993 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4994 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4995 
  4996 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4997 interpretation.
  4998 
  4999 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  5000 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5001 
  5002 
  5003 *** Document preparation ***
  5004 
  5005 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  5006 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  5007 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  5008 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  5009 
  5010 
  5011 *** HOL ***
  5012 
  5013 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  5014 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  5015 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  5016 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  5017 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  5018 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  5019 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  5020 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  5021 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  5022 
  5023 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  5024 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  5025 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  5026 
  5027 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  5028 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  5029 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  5030 
  5031 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  5032 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  5033 
  5034 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  5035 
  5036 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  5037 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  5038 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  5039 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  5040 
  5041 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  5042 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  5043 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  5044 "mirabelle" utility.
  5045 
  5046 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  5047 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  5048 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  5049 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  5050 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  5051 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  5052 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  5053 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  5054 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  5055 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  5056 
  5057 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  5058 procedure only.
  5059 
  5060 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  5061 
  5062 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  5063 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  5064 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  5065 that fail later.
  5066 
  5067 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  5068 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  5069 
  5070 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  5071 the same method as the approximation method.
  5072 
  5073 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  5074 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  5075 series expansion.
  5076 
  5077 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  5078 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  5079 
  5080 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  5081 reals.
  5082 
  5083 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  5084 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  5085 
  5086 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  5087 fixpoint theorem.
  5088 
  5089 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5090   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  5091     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  5092   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  5093     accordingly
  5094   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  5095     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  5096   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  5097     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  5098 
  5099 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  5100 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  5101 lattice.
  5102 
  5103 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  5104 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  5105 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  5106 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  5107 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  5108 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  5109 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5110 
  5111 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  5112   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  5113     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  5114   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  5115     le_inf_iff
  5116   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  5117     sup_aci)
  5118   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  5119   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  5120   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  5121     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  5122     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  5123     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  5124     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  5125     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  5126     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  5127     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  5128     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  5129     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  5130     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  5131   - authentic syntax for
  5132     Set.Pow
  5133     Set.image
  5134   - mere abbreviations:
  5135     Set.empty               (for bot)
  5136     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  5137     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  5138     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  5139     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  5140     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  5141     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  5142     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  5143   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  5144 
  5145 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  5146 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  5147 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  5148 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  5149 
  5150 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  5151 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  5152 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5153 
  5154 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  5155 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5156 
  5157 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  5158 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  5159 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  5160 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5161 
  5162 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  5163 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5164 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  5165 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  5166 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  5167 
  5168 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  5169 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  5170 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5171 
  5172 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  5173 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5174 
  5175 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  5176 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  5177 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  5178 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  5179 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  5180 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  5181 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  5182 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5183 
  5184 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  5185     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  5186     code_post       replaces    code post
  5187     etc.
  5188   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5189 
  5190 * Renamed methods:
  5191     sizechange -> size_change
  5192     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  5193   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5194 
  5195 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  5196 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  5197 
  5198 * Renamed theorems:
  5199     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5200     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  5201     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5202     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  5203     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  5204   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5205 
  5206 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  5207 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5208 
  5209 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  5210 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5211 
  5212 
  5213 *** HOLCF ***
  5214 
  5215 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  5216 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  5217 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  5218 
  5219 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  5220 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  5221 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  5222 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  5223 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  5224 
  5225 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  5226 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  5227 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  5228 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  5229 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  5230 
  5231 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  5232 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  5233 constructor are pre-configured.
  5234 
  5235 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  5236 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  5237 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  5238 
  5239 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  5240 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  5241 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  5242 as well.)
  5243 
  5244 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  5245 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  5246 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  5247 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5248 examples.
  5249 
  5250 
  5251 *** ML ***
  5252 
  5253 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  5254 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  5255 
  5256 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  5257 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  5258 position, logical grouping etc.
  5259 
  5260 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  5261 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  5262 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  5263 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  5264 
  5265 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  5266 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  5267 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  5268 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  5269 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  5270 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  5271 
  5272 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  5273 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  5274 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  5275 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  5276 experiments with references.
  5277 
  5278 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  5279 parallel tactical reasoning.
  5280 
  5281 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  5282 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  5283 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  5284 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  5285 
  5286 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  5287 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  5288 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  5289 
  5290 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  5291 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  5292 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5293 
  5294 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5295 
  5296 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  5297 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5298 
  5299 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  5300 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  5301 
  5302 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  5303 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  5304 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  5305 
  5306 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  5307 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  5308 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5309 
  5310 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  5311 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  5312 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  5313 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5314 
  5315 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5316 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  5317 instead of global theory.
  5318 
  5319 
  5320 *** System ***
  5321 
  5322 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  5323 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  5324 usedir option -q.
  5325 
  5326 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  5327 also the system manual.
  5328 
  5329 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  5330 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  5331 
  5332 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  5333 this is always enabled.
  5334 
  5335 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  5336 
  5337 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  5338 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  5339 currently supported on Linux only.
  5340 
  5341 
  5342 
  5343 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  5344 --------------------------------
  5345 
  5346 *** General ***
  5347 
  5348 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  5349 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5350 
  5351   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  5352     "isatool."
  5353 
  5354   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  5355     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  5356 
  5357   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  5358     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  5359 
  5360 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  5361 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  5362 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  5363 
  5364 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  5365 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  5366 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  5367 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  5368 via "isabelle emacs".
  5369 
  5370 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  5371 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  5372 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  5373 
  5374 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  5375 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  5376 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5377 
  5378 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  5379 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  5380 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  5381 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  5382 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  5383 
  5384 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  5385 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  5386 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  5387 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5388 
  5389 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  5390 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  5391 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  5392 
  5393 
  5394 *** Pure ***
  5395 
  5396 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  5397 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  5398 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  5399 
  5400 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  5401 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  5402 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  5403 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  5404 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  5405 
  5406 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  5407 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  5408 useful in locale declarations.
  5409 
  5410 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  5411 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  5412 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  5413 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  5414 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  5415 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  5416 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  5417 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  5418 no longer generated.
  5419 
  5420 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  5421 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  5422 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  5423 
  5424 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  5425 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  5426 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  5427 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  5428 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  5429 
  5430 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5431 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  5432 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  5433 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  5434 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  5435 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  5436 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  5437 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  5438 
  5439 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  5440 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  5441 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  5442 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  5443 
  5444 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5445 
  5446 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  5447 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  5448 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  5449 
  5450 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  5451 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5452 
  5453 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  5454 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  5455 in HOL, write
  5456 
  5457     class foo = ...
  5458 
  5459 instead of
  5460 
  5461     class foo = type + ...
  5462 
  5463 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  5464 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5465 
  5466 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  5467 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  5468 
  5469 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  5470 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  5471 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  5472 
  5473 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5474 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5475 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5476 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5477 directly in regular applications.
  5478 
  5479 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5480 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5481 
  5482 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5483 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5484 
  5485 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5486 theory context.
  5487 
  5488 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5489 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5490 
  5491 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5492 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5493 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5494 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5495 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5496 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5497 
  5498   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5499 
  5500 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5501 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5502 normalization.
  5503 
  5504 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5505 addressing etc.
  5506 
  5507 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5508 
  5509   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5510   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5511 
  5512 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5513 
  5514   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5515      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5516      parts of the code generator framework).
  5517 
  5518   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5519      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5520      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5521 
  5522 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5523 
  5524 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5525 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5526 
  5527 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5528 patterns, e.g.
  5529 
  5530     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5531 
  5532 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5533 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5534 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5535 hyphen:
  5536 
  5537     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5538 
  5539 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5540 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5541 
  5542 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5543 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5544 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5545 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5546 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5547 higher-order unification.
  5548 
  5549 
  5550 *** Document preparation ***
  5551 
  5552 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5553 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5554 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5555 
  5556 
  5557 *** HOL ***
  5558 
  5559 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5560 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5561 
  5562 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5563 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5564 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5565 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5566 Main, as before.
  5567 
  5568 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5569 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5570 
  5571 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5572 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5573 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5574 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5575 
  5576 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5577 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5578 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5579 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5580 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5581 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5582 
  5583 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5584 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5585 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5586 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5587 
  5588 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5589 menu.
  5590 
  5591 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5592 (contains the empty clause).
  5593 
  5594 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5595 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5596 
  5597 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5598 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5599 
  5600 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5601 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5602 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5603 
  5604 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5605 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5606 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5607 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5608 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5609 
  5610 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5611 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5612 
  5613 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5614 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5615 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5616 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5617 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5618 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5619 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5620 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5621 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5622 
  5623 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5624 
  5625 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5626 
  5627 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5628 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5629 
  5630 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5631 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5632 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5633 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5634 
  5635 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5636 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5637 
  5638     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5639     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5640     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5641     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5642     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5643     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5644     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5645     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5646 
  5647 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5648 theory Set.
  5649 
  5650 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5651 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5652 
  5653 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5654 
  5655 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5656 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5657 
  5658 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5659 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5660 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5661 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5662 allowed. For examples see
  5663 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5664 
  5665 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5666 
  5667 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5668 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5669 
  5670 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5671 structure:
  5672 
  5673     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5674     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5675     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5676     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5677     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5678     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5679     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5680     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5681     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5682     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5683     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5684     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5685     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5686     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5687     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5688     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5689     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5690     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5691     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5692     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5693     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5694     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5695     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5696     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5697     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5698     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5699     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5700     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5701     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5702     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5703     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5704     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5705     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5706 
  5707     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5708     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5709     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5710     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5711     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5712     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5713     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5714     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5715     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5716     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5717 
  5718     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5719     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5720     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5721     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5722     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5723     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5724 
  5725 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5726 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5727 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5728 
  5729 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5730 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5731 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5732 
  5733 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5734 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5735 
  5736 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5737 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5738 
  5739 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5740 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5741 proofs, e.g.
  5742 
  5743   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5744 
  5745 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5746 
  5747 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5748 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5749 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5750 
  5751 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5752 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5753 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5754 
  5755 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5756 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5757 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5758 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5759 
  5760 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5761 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5762 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5763 preorder_class.*.
  5764 
  5765 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5766 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5767 
  5768 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5769 
  5770   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5771 
  5772 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5773 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5774 fold_image.
  5775 
  5776 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5777 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5778 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5779 the former will disappear at some point.
  5780 
  5781 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5782 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5783 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5784 
  5785 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5786 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5787 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5788 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5789 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5790 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5791 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5792 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5793 
  5794 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5795 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5796 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5797 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5798 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5799 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5800 
  5801     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5802     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5803     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5804     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5805     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5806     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5807     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5808 
  5809 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5810 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5811 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5812 
  5813 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5814 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5815 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5816 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5817 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5818 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5819 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5820 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5821 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5822 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5823 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5824 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5825 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5826 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5827 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5828 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5829 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5830 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5831 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5832 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5833 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5834 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5835 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5836 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5837 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5838 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5839 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5840 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5841 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5842 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5843 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5844 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5845 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5846 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5847 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5848 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5849 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5850 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5851 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5852 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5853 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5854 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5855 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5856 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5857 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5858 
  5859 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5860 
  5861 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5862 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5863 
  5864 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5865 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5866 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5867 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5868 
  5869 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5870 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5871 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5872 theory RealVector.
  5873 
  5874 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5875 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5876 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5877 and inner products are included.
  5878 
  5879 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5880 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5881 supported.
  5882 
  5883 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5884 first diagonalization argument.
  5885 
  5886 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5887 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5888 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5889 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5890 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5891 
  5892     hide (open) const gcd
  5893     abbreviation gcd where
  5894       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5895     notation (output)
  5896       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5897 
  5898 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5899 
  5900 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5901 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5902 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5903 
  5904 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5905 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5906 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5907 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5908 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5909 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5910 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5911 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5912 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5913 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5914 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5915 cases.
  5916 
  5917 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5918 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5919 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5920 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5921 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5922 
  5923     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5924     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5925     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5926     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5927     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5928 
  5929 
  5930 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5931 
  5932 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5933 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5934 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5935 
  5936 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5937 
  5938 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5939 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5940 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5941 
  5942 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5943 
  5944 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5945 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5946 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5947 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5948 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5949 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5950 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5951 
  5952 
  5953 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5954 
  5955 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5956 
  5957 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5958 theory targets.
  5959 
  5960 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5961 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5962 'inductive' etc.
  5963 
  5964 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5965 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5966 
  5967 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5968 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5969 
  5970 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5971 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5972 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5973 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5974 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5975 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5976 the algorithm W:
  5977 
  5978  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5979  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5980          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5981 
  5982 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5983 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5984 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5985 
  5986 
  5987 *** HOLCF ***
  5988 
  5989 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5990 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5991 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5992 
  5993 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5994 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5995 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5996 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5997 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5998 
  5999 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  6000 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  6001 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6002 
  6003 
  6004 *** ZF ***
  6005 
  6006 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  6007 
  6008 
  6009 *** ML ***
  6010 
  6011 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  6012 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  6013 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  6014 5.2.1!
  6015 
  6016 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  6017 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  6018 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  6019 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  6020 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  6021 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  6022 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  6023 
  6024 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  6025 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  6026 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  6027 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  6028 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  6029 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  6030 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  6031 
  6032 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  6033 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  6034 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  6035 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  6036 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  6037 
  6038 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  6039 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  6040 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  6041 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  6042 Method.add_method.
  6043 
  6044 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  6045 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  6046 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  6047 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  6048 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  6049 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  6050 
  6051 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  6052 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  6053 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  6054 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  6055 examples.
  6056 
  6057 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  6058 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  6059 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  6060 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  6061 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  6062 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  6063 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  6064 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  6065 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  6066 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  6067 
  6068 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  6069 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  6070 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  6071 
  6072 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  6073 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  6074 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  6075 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  6076 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  6077 resort for legacy applications.
  6078 
  6079 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  6080 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  6081 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  6082 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  6083 explicit runtime argument.
  6084 
  6085 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  6086 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  6087 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  6088 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  6089 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6090 
  6091 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  6092 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  6093 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  6094 theory state.
  6095 
  6096 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  6097 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  6098 
  6099   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  6100   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  6101   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  6102   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  6103   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  6104   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  6105   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  6106   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  6107   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  6108   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  6109 
  6110 
  6111 *** System ***
  6112 
  6113 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  6114 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  6115 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  6116 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  6117 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  6118 
  6119 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  6120 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  6121 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  6122 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  6123 
  6124 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  6125 
  6126 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  6127 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  6128 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  6129 prover operations.
  6130 
  6131 
  6132 
  6133 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  6134 -------------------------------
  6135 
  6136 *** General ***
  6137 
  6138 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  6139 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  6140 
  6141 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  6142 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  6143 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  6144 provides a proper context already.
  6145 
  6146 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  6147 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  6148 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  6149 
  6150 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  6151 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  6152 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  6153 swap theory imports.
  6154 
  6155 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  6156 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  6157 
  6158 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  6159 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6160 white space without escapes.
  6161 
  6162 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  6163 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  6164 "foo_bar".
  6165 
  6166 
  6167 *** Pure ***
  6168 
  6169 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  6170 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  6171 
  6172 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  6173 There are three ways of invoking it:
  6174 
  6175 (1) unused_thms
  6176      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  6177 
  6178 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  6179      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  6180      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  6181 
  6182 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  6183      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  6184      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  6185      their ancestors.
  6186 
  6187 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  6188 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  6189 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  6190 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  6191 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  6192 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  6193 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  6194 
  6195 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  6196 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  6197 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  6198 
  6199 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  6200 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  6201 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  6202 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  6203 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  6204 
  6205 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  6206 
  6207 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  6208 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  6209 update of theories within ML code.
  6210 
  6211 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  6212 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  6213 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  6214 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  6215 
  6216 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  6217 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  6218 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  6219 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6220 
  6221 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  6222 
  6223 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  6224 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  6225 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  6226 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  6227 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  6228 
  6229 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  6230 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  6231 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  6232 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  6233 situations.
  6234 
  6235 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  6236 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  6237 proof text.
  6238 
  6239 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  6240 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  6241 
  6242 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  6243 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  6244 predicates.
  6245 
  6246 
  6247 *** Document preparation ***
  6248 
  6249 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  6250 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  6251 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  6252 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  6253 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  6254 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  6255 
  6256 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  6257 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  6258 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  6259 
  6260