NEWS
author blanchet
Sun May 04 18:57:45 2014 +0200 (2014-05-04)
changeset 56851 35ff4ede3409
parent 56850 13a7bca533a3
child 56879 ee2b61f37ad9
permissions -rw-r--r--
renamed 'dpll_p' to 'cdclite', to avoid confusion with the old 'dpll' and to reflect the idea that the new prover implements some ideas from CDCL not in DPLL -- this follows its author's, Sascha B.'s, wish
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
    25 supports input via ` (backquote).
    26 
    27 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
    28 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
    29 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
    30 
    31 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
    32 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
    33 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
    34 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
    35 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
    36 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
    37 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
    38 proof tools.
    39 
    40 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
    41 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
    42 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
    43 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
    44 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
    45 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
    46 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
    47 some examples.
    48 
    49 
    50 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    51 
    52 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism:
    53 
    54   - No completion for Isar keywords that have already been recognized
    55     by the prover, e.g. ":" within accepted Isar syntax looses its
    56     meaning as abbreviation for symbol "\<in>".
    57 
    58   - Completion context provides information about embedded languages
    59     of Isabelle: keywords are only completed for outer syntax, symbols
    60     or antiquotations for languages that support them.  E.g. no symbol
    61     completion for ML source, but within ML strings, comments,
    62     antiquotations.
    63 
    64   - Support for semantic completion based on failed name space lookup.
    65     The error produced by the prover contains information about
    66     alternative names that are accessible in a particular position.
    67     This may be used with explicit completion (C+b) or implicit
    68     completion after some delay.
    69 
    70   - Semantic completions may get extended by appending a suffix of
    71     underscores to an already recognized name, e.g. "foo_" to complete
    72     "foo" or "foobar" if these are known in the context.  The special
    73     identifier "__" serves as a wild-card in this respect: it
    74     completes to the full collection of names from the name space
    75     (truncated according to the system option "completion_limit").
    76 
    77   - Syntax completion of the editor and semantic completion of the
    78     prover are merged.  Since the latter requires a full round-trip of
    79     document update to arrive, the default for option
    80     jedit_completion_delay has been changed to 0.5s to improve the
    81     user experience.
    82 
    83   - Option jedit_completion_immediate may now get used with
    84     jedit_completion_delay > 0, to complete symbol abbreviations
    85     aggressively while benefiting from combined syntactic and semantic
    86     completion.
    87 
    88   - Support for simple completion templates (with single
    89     place-holder), e.g. "`" for text cartouche, or "@{" for
    90     antiquotation.
    91 
    92   - Support for path completion within the formal text, based on
    93     file-system content.
    94 
    95   - Improved treatment of completion vs. various forms of jEdit text
    96     selection (multiple selections, rectangular selections,
    97     rectangular selection as "tall caret").
    98 
    99   - More reliable treatment of GUI events vs. completion popups: avoid
   100     loosing keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
   101 
   102 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
   103 completion popup and context-menu.  See also "Plugin Options /
   104 Isabelle / General / Spell Checker" for some system options.
   105 
   106 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
   107 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
   108 
   109 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
   110 auxiliary ML files.
   111 
   112 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
   113 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
   114 
   115 * Find panel: support for 'find_consts' in addition to
   116 'find_theorems'.
   117 
   118 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
   119 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
   120 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
   121 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
   122 
   123 * New panel: Simplifier trace.  Provides an interactive view of the
   124 simplification process, enabled by the newly-introduced
   125 "simplifier_trace" declaration.
   126 
   127 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons).
   128 
   129 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
   130 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
   131 
   132 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
   133 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
   134 
   135 
   136 *** Pure ***
   137 
   138 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
   139 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
   140 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
   141 renaming needs to be applied:
   142 
   143   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
   144   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
   145   all            ~>  Pure.all
   146   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
   147   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
   148 
   149 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
   150 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
   151 old constants:
   152 
   153 setup {*
   154   fn thy => thy
   155     |> Sign.root_path
   156     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
   157     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
   158     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
   159     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
   160 *}
   161 
   162 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
   163 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
   164 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
   165 
   166 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
   167 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
   168 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
   169 'instance' with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem might be
   170 postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof finished
   171 trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous (without
   172 any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
   173 Axclass.axiomatize_class, Axclass.axiomatize_classrel,
   174 Axclass.axiomatize_arity.
   175 
   176 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
   177 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
   178 instantiated theorem.
   179 
   180 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
   181 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
   182 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
   183 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
   184 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
   185 
   186   attribute_setup standard =
   187     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
   188 
   189 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
   190 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
   191 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
   192 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
   193 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
   194 
   195 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
   196 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
   197 differently).
   198 
   199 
   200 *** HOL ***
   201 
   202 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
   203   * Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
   204   * Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF
   205   and SUP instead uniformly.
   206   * More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
   207   or SUP and Sup.
   208   * INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
   209   * Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
   210   * Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong,
   211   with simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace
   212   former INT_cong, SUP_cong
   213 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   214 
   215 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
   216   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   217   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   218   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   219   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   220   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   221 
   222 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules
   223   can now deal with conjunctions.
   224   For help with converting proofs, the old behaviour of the simplifier
   225   can be restored like this:  declare/using [[simp_legacy_precond]]
   226   This configuration option will disappear again in the future.
   227 
   228 * HOL-Word:
   229   * Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a
   230   duplicate of "word_arith_wis".
   231   * Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
   232   "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
   233   "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
   234 
   235 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict
   236 target language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   237 
   238 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   239 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   240 
   241 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.
   242 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   243 
   244 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures" option.
   245 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   246 
   247 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   248 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   249 
   250 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
   251   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
   252   "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" commands are now part of "Main".
   253   Theory renamings:
   254     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   255     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   256     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   257     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   258     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   259     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   260     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   261     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   262     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   263     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   264     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   265     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   266     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   267     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   268     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   269     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   270     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   271     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   272     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   273     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   274     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   275     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   276   New theories:
   277     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   278     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   279     Library/BNF_Decl.thy
   280     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   281     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   282   Discontinued theories:
   283     BNF/BNF.thy
   284     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   285   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   286 
   287 * New (co)datatype package:
   288   * "primcorec" is fully implemented.
   289   * "datatype_new" generates size functions ("size_xxx" and "size") as
   290     required by "fun".
   291   * BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style (co)datatypes
   292     with Transfer.
   293   * Renamed commands:
   294       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   295       primrec_new ~> primrec
   296       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   297     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   298   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   299     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   300     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   301   * The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer generated.
   302     Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually using "prim(co)rec".
   303     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   304 
   305 * Old datatype package:
   306   * The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been renamed
   307     "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" -> "sum.case").
   308     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   309   * The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have been
   310     renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~>
   311     "case_prod").
   312     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   313 
   314 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions, their
   315   relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new BNF-based
   316   datatype package.
   317   Renamed constants:
   318     Option.set ~> set_option
   319     Option.map ~> map_option
   320     option_rel ~> rel_option
   321   Renamed theorems:
   322     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   323     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   324     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   325     option.recs ~> option.rec
   326     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   327     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   328     map.simps ~> list.map
   329     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   330     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   331     the.simps ~> option.sel
   332   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   333 
   334 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   335     sum_map ~> map_sum
   336     map_pair ~> map_prod
   337     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   338     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   339     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   340     set_rel ~> rel_set
   341     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   342     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "Library/FSet.thy")
   343     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   344     vset ~> rel_vset (in "Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   345 
   346 * New theory:
   347     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   348 
   349 * Theory reorganizations:
   350   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   351 
   352 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof traces.
   353   This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and "dpll".
   354   Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT solvers should
   355   use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now the default SAT
   356   solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and corresponding tactics;
   357   the old default can be restored using
   358   "declare [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   359 
   360 * SMT module:
   361   * A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2
   362     and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g., 4.3). The new proof method is
   363     called "smt2", and the new Z3 is called "z3_new" in Sledgehammer and
   364     elsewhere.
   365 
   366 * Sledgehammer:
   367   - New prover "z3_new" with support for Isar proofs
   368   - New option:
   369       smt_proofs
   370   - Renamed options:
   371       isar_compress ~> compress_isar
   372       isar_try0 ~> try0_isar
   373     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   374 
   375 * Metis:
   376   - Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis (full_types)' instead.
   377     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   378 
   379 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   380 
   381 * Command renaming: enriched_type ~> functor. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   382 
   383 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   384 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   385 
   386 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   387 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   388 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   389 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   390 
   391 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   392 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   393 
   394 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   395 with the given constants.
   396 
   397 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   398 
   399 Fact consolidations:
   400     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   401     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   402     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   403     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   404     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   405     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   406     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   407     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   408     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   409     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   410     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   411     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   412     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   413     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   414     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   415     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   416     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   417     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   418     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   419     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   420     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   421     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   422     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   423     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   424     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   425     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   426     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   427     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   428     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   429     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   430     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   431     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   432     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   433     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   434     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   435     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   436     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   437     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   438     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   439     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   440 
   441 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   442 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   443 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   444 
   445 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   446 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   447 
   448 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
   449 
   450 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   451 
   452 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   453 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   454 
   455 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   456 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   457 
   458 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   459 operations on records.
   460 
   461 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   462 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   463 
   464 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   465     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   466 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   467 
   468 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   469     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   470     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   471 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   472 
   473 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   474   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   475   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   476   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   477     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   478   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   479     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   480   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   481 INCOMPATBILITY.
   482 
   483 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   484     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   485     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   486     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   487     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   488 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   489 
   490 * Fact name consolidation:
   491     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   492     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   493     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   494     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   495     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   496 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   497 
   498 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   499 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   500 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   501 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   502 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   503 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   504 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   505 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   506 
   507 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   508 
   509 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   510 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   511 
   512 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   513 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   514 
   515 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   516 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   517 or the brute way with
   518 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   519 
   520 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   521 
   522 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   523 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   524 
   525 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   526 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   527 
   528 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   529 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   530 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   531 INCOMPATIBILITY
   532 
   533 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
   534   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
   535   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
   536   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
   537   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
   538   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
   539   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
   540   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
   541   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
   542   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
   543   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
   544   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
   545 
   546   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
   547 
   548   removed auxiliary lemmas:
   549     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
   550     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr, real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded,
   551     summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2, sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom,
   552     sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero, summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
   553 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   554 
   555 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
   556   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
   557 
   558   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
   559 
   560   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
   561 
   562   - removed constant isDiff
   563 
   564   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as input
   565     syntax.
   566 
   567   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed
   568 
   569   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
   570 
   571   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
   572 
   573   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
   574 
   575   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which includes now rules for
   576     DERIV, has_derivative and has_vector_derivative.
   577 
   578   - Other renamings:
   579     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
   580     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
   581     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
   582     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
   583     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
   584     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
   585     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
   586 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   587 
   588 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the continuous_on_intros,
   589   isCont_intros collections, these facts are now in continuous_intros.
   590 
   591 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   592 
   593 * Nitpick:
   594   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   595     infinite values.
   596   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as "Abs_Integ" and
   597     "Rep_Integ".
   598   - Removed "std" option.
   599   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   600     "hide_types".
   601 
   602 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   603   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   604   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   605     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   606     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   607     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   608     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   609     intervals.
   610 
   611   - renamed theorems:
   612     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
   613     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
   614     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
   615 
   616 
   617 *** Scala ***
   618 
   619 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
   620 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
   621 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
   622 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
   623 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   624 
   625 
   626 *** ML ***
   627 
   628 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
   629 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   630 
   631 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
   632 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context via
   633 "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   634 
   635 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
   636 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   637 
   638 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
   639 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
   640 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
   641 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   642 
   643 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   644 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   645 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   646 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   647 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   648 of schematic variables.
   649 
   650 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   651 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   652 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   653 formal context.
   654 
   655 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   656 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   657 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   658 actually belongs to it).
   659 
   660 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
   661 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
   662 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
   663 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
   664 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
   665 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
   666 
   667 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
   668 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   669 
   670 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
   671 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
   672 
   673 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
   674 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
   675 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
   676 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
   677 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
   678 
   679 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
   680 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
   681 purposes.
   682 
   683 
   684 *** System ***
   685 
   686 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
   687 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
   688 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
   689 processing is started.
   690 
   691 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   692 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   693 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   694 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   695 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   696 
   697 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   698 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   699 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   700 
   701 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
   702 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
   703 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
   704 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
   705 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the $ISABELLE_PROCESS
   706 settings variable yet.
   707 
   708 * Retired the now unused Isabelle tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality
   709 may be integrated into PIDE/jEdit at a later point.
   710 
   711 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   712 -------------------------------------
   713 
   714 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   715 
   716 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   717 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   718 
   719 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   720 after edits surrounding the command location.
   721 
   722 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   723 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   724 e.g. out-of-memory).
   725 
   726 
   727 *** System ***
   728 
   729 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   730 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   731 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   732 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   733 
   734 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   735 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   736 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   737 
   738 
   739 
   740 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   741 -------------------------------------
   742 
   743 *** General ***
   744 
   745 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   746 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   747 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   748 
   749 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   750 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   751 
   752 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   753 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   754 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   755 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   756 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   757 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   758 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   759 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   760 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   761 syntax.
   762 
   763 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   764 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   765 
   766 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   767 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   768 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   769 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   770 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   771 
   772 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   773 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   774 
   775 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   776 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   777 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   778 
   779 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   780 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   781 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   782 
   783 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   784 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   785 
   786 
   787 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   788 
   789 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   790 Documentation panel.
   791 
   792 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   793 documentation.
   794 
   795 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   796 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   797 
   798 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   799 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   800 normal editing and checking process.
   801 
   802 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   803 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   804 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   805 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   806 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   807 
   808 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   809 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   810 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   811 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   812 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   813 
   814 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   815 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   816 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   817 
   818 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   819 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   820 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   821 to resolve conflict.
   822 
   823 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   824 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   825 
   826 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   827 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   828 such command executions while editing.
   829 
   830 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   831 document content.
   832 
   833 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   834 toplevel theorem statements.
   835 
   836 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   837 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   838 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   839 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   840 
   841 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   842 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   843 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   844 
   845 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   846 / Global Options / Appearance".
   847 
   848 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   849 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   850 
   851 
   852 *** Pure ***
   853 
   854 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   855 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   856 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   857 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   858 details.
   859 
   860 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   861 
   862 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   863 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   864 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   865 
   866 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   867 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   868 
   869 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   870 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   871 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   872 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   873 
   874 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   875 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   876 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   877 
   878 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   879 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   880 
   881 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   882 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   883 situations.
   884 
   885 
   886 *** HOL ***
   887 
   888 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   889 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   890 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   891 
   892 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   893 
   894 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   895 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   896 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   897 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   898 
   899   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   900 
   901 * Code generator:
   902   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   903     'code_instance'.
   904   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   905     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   906 
   907 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   908 examples.
   909 
   910 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   911 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   912 to distinguish both when desired.
   913 
   914 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   915 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   916 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   917 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   918 
   919 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   920 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   921 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   922 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   923 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   924 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   925 
   926 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   927 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   928 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   929 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   930 
   931 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   932 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   933 
   934 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   935 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   936 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   937 
   938 * Lifting:
   939   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   940     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   941       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   942       transfer rules
   943     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   944       correspondence relation can be generated
   945     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   946       parametricity
   947     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   948   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   949   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   950     copies
   951   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   952     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   953     anonymous context)
   954   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   955     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   956   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   957     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   958   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   959     INCOMPATIBILITY
   960 
   961 * Transfer:
   962   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   963     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   964   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   965   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   966     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   967   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   968 
   969 * Reification and reflection:
   970   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   971     "Reification".
   972   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   973   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   974 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   975 
   976 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   977   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   978     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   979     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   980   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   981     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   982   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   983     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   984     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   985     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   986     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   987     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   988     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   989     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   990   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   991     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   992   - Fact renames:
   993       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   994       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   995 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   996 
   997 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   998 
   999 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  1000 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  1001 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  1002 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1003 
  1004 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  1005 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  1006 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  1007 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  1008 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  1009 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  1010 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  1011 lemmas.
  1012 
  1013 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  1014 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  1015 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1016 
  1017 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  1018 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  1019 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  1020 
  1021 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  1022 top and bottom elements.
  1023 
  1024 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  1025 
  1026 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  1027 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  1028 
  1029  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  1030    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  1031    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  1032 
  1033  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  1034    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  1035    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  1036 
  1037    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  1038    arbitrary filter.
  1039 
  1040  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  1041    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  1042    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  1043    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  1044    on a compact set.
  1045 
  1046  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  1047    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  1048    linear_continuum_topology).
  1049 
  1050  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  1051    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  1052    on all sequences converging to x.
  1053 
  1054  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  1055    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  1056    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  1057    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  1058    left or right.
  1059 
  1060  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  1061 
  1062      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  1063 
  1064  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  1065    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  1066 
  1067  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  1068    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  1069    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  1070    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  1071    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  1072    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  1073 
  1074  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  1075 
  1076    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  1077 
  1078    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  1079      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  1080 
  1081    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  1082 
  1083    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  1084      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  1085 
  1086    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  1087 
  1088    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  1089 
  1090  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  1091 
  1092 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1093 
  1094 * Nitpick:
  1095   - Added option "spy".
  1096   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  1097 
  1098 * Sledgehammer:
  1099   - Renamed option:
  1100       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  1101     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1102   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  1103   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  1104   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  1105 
  1106 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  1107 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  1108 
  1109 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  1110   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  1111   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  1112     generated code.
  1113   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  1114   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  1115   - Fact renames:
  1116     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  1117     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  1118     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  1119 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1120 
  1121 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  1122 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  1123 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  1124 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  1125 
  1126 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  1127 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  1128 
  1129 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1130 
  1131 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  1132 
  1133     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  1134     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  1135 
  1136 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1137 
  1138 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  1139 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  1140 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  1141 
  1142 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  1143 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  1144 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  1145 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1146 
  1147 * HOL-BNF:
  1148   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  1149     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  1150     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  1151     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  1152   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  1153     coinduct).
  1154   - Renamed keywords:
  1155     data ~> datatype_new
  1156     codata ~> codatatype
  1157     bnf_def ~> bnf
  1158   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  1159     discs ~> disc
  1160     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  1161     map_id' ~> map_id
  1162     sels ~> sel
  1163     set_map' ~> set_map
  1164     sets ~> set
  1165 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1166 
  1167 
  1168 *** ML ***
  1169 
  1170 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  1171 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  1172 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  1173 Examples.thy in particular.
  1174 
  1175 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  1176 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  1177 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  1178 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  1179 
  1180 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  1181 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  1182 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  1183 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  1184 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1185 
  1186 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  1187 
  1188     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  1189     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  1190 
  1191 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1192 
  1193 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  1194 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  1195 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  1196 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  1197 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  1198 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  1199 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  1200 
  1201 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  1202 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  1203 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  1204 clasets separately from the context.
  1205 
  1206 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  1207 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  1208 
  1209 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  1210 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  1211 
  1212 
  1213 *** System ***
  1214 
  1215 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  1216 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1217 
  1218 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  1219 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1220 
  1221 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  1222 settings variable.
  1223 
  1224 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  1225 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  1226 always pdf.
  1227 
  1228 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  1229 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  1230 
  1231 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  1232 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  1233 
  1234 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  1235 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  1236 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  1237 
  1238 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  1239 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  1240 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  1241 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  1242 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1243 for HTML presentation of theories.
  1244 
  1245 
  1246 
  1247 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  1248 -----------------------------------
  1249 
  1250 *** General ***
  1251 
  1252 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  1253 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  1254 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  1255 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  1256 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  1257 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  1258 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  1259 
  1260 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  1261 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  1262 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  1263 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  1264 
  1265 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  1266 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  1267 
  1268 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  1269 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  1270 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  1271 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  1272 dependencies properly.
  1273 
  1274 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  1275 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  1276 
  1277 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  1278 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  1279 
  1280 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  1281 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  1282 and "class ... context ...".
  1283 
  1284 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  1285 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  1286 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  1287 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  1288 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  1289 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  1290 
  1291 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  1292 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  1293 
  1294 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  1295 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  1296 
  1297 
  1298 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1299 
  1300 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  1301 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  1302 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  1303 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  1304 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  1305 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  1306 
  1307 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  1308 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  1309 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  1310 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  1311 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  1312 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  1313 
  1314 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  1315 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  1316 browser on demand.
  1317 
  1318 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  1319 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  1320 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  1321 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  1322 
  1323 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  1324 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  1325 
  1326 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  1327 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  1328 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  1329 potentially infinite message streams.
  1330 
  1331 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  1332 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  1333 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  1334 schemes.
  1335 
  1336 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1337 symbols.
  1338 
  1339 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1340 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1341 
  1342 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1343 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1344 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1345 
  1346 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1347 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1348 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1349 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1350 
  1351 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1352 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1353 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1354 
  1355 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1356 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1357 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1358 Isabelle distribution.
  1359 
  1360 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1361 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1362 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1363 
  1364 
  1365 *** Pure ***
  1366 
  1367 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1368 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1369 
  1370 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1371 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1372 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1373 
  1374 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1375 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1376 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1377 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1378 with some care where this is really required.
  1379 
  1380 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1381 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1382 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1383 
  1384   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1385 
  1386 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1387 a Hasse diagram.
  1388 
  1389 
  1390 *** HOL ***
  1391 
  1392 * Sledgehammer:
  1393 
  1394   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1395     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1396   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1397   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1398   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1399   - Renamed options:
  1400       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1401       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1402       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1403       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1404 
  1405 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1406 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1407 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1408 
  1409 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1410 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1411 
  1412 * Lifting:
  1413   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1414   - quot_del attribute
  1415   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1416 
  1417 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1418 expressions.
  1419 
  1420 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1421 pointfree expressions.
  1422 
  1423 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1424 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1425 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1426 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1427 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1428 
  1429 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1430 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1431 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1432 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1433 accordingly.
  1434 
  1435 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1436 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1437 
  1438 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1439 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1440 
  1441 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1442 
  1443 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1444 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1445 
  1446 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1447 
  1448 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1449 
  1450   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1451   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1452 
  1453 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1454 
  1455 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1456 
  1457   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1458   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1459 
  1460 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1461 
  1462 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1463 
  1464   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1465     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1466     output f x converges to G.
  1467 
  1468   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1469     infinity (at_bot).
  1470 
  1471   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1472     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1473 
  1474   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1475     at_top".
  1476 
  1477 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1478 
  1479 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1480 lattice type classes.
  1481 
  1482 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1483 
  1484     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1485     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1486 
  1487 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1488 
  1489 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1490 changes as follows.
  1491 
  1492   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1493 
  1494       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1495       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1496 
  1497   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1498     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1499     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1500     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1501 
  1502   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1503     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1504     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1505 
  1506   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1507     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1508     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1509     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1510 
  1511   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1512     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1513 
  1514       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1515       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1516       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1517       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1518       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1519       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1520       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1521       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1522       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1523       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1524       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1525       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1526       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1527       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1528       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1529       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1530 
  1531 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1532 
  1533 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1534 
  1535 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1536 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1537 
  1538 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1539 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1540 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1541 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1542 
  1543   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1544   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1545   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1546   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1547   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1548   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1549   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1550   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1551   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1552   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1553 
  1554 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1555 
  1556 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1557 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1558 Data").
  1559 
  1560 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1561 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1562 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1563 code.
  1564 
  1565 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1566 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1567 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1568 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1569 
  1570 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1571 
  1572 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1573 
  1574 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1575 
  1576   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1577   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1578 
  1579 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1580 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1581 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1582 
  1583   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1584 
  1585     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1586     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1587     cart_base i  removed
  1588     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1589 
  1590   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1591 
  1592   Renamed lemmas:
  1593 
  1594     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1595     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1596     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1597     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1598     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1599     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1600     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1601     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1602     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1603     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1604 
  1605 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1606 
  1607 * HOL/Probability:
  1608 
  1609   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1610 
  1611   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1612     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1613     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1614 
  1615   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1616     projective family).
  1617 
  1618 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1619 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1620 
  1621 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1622 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1623 datatypes.
  1624 
  1625 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1626 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1627 
  1628 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1629 trees for the code generator.
  1630 
  1631 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1632 Lifting/Transfer.
  1633 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1634 
  1635 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1636 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1637 
  1638 
  1639 *** Document preparation ***
  1640 
  1641 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1642 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1643 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1644 
  1645 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1646 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1647 
  1648 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1649 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1650 document/root.tex.
  1651 
  1652 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1653 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1654 
  1655 
  1656 *** ML ***
  1657 
  1658 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1659 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1660 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1661 
  1662 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1663 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1664 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1665 
  1666 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1667 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1668 necessarily printing visible text.
  1669 
  1670 
  1671 *** System ***
  1672 
  1673 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1674 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1675 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1676 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1677 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1678 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1679 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1680 
  1681 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1682 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1683 
  1684   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1685 
  1686 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1687 
  1688 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1689 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1690 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1691 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1692 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1693 
  1694 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1695 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1696 
  1697 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1698 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1699 
  1700 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1701 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1702 
  1703 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1704 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1705 version of Isabelle.
  1706 
  1707 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1708 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1709 
  1710 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1711 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1712 for home-made settings.
  1713 
  1714 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1715 
  1716 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1717 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1718 configuration.
  1719 
  1720 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1721 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1722 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1723 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1724 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1725 
  1726 
  1727 
  1728 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1729 ------------------------------
  1730 
  1731 *** General ***
  1732 
  1733 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1734 
  1735   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1736     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1737   - markup for bound variables
  1738   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1739   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1740   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1741     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1742 
  1743 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1744 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1745 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1746 
  1747 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1748 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1749 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1750 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1751 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1752 
  1753   context
  1754     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1755     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1756   begin
  1757 
  1758   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1759 
  1760   end
  1761 
  1762   thm my_trans
  1763 
  1764 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1765 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1766 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1767 
  1768 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1769 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1770 
  1771 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1772 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1773 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1774 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1775 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1776 
  1777 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1778 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1779 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1780 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1781 indices of schematic variables.
  1782 
  1783 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1784 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1785 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1786 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1787 etc. was exploited.
  1788 
  1789 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1790 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1791 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1792 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1793 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1794 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1795 
  1796 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1797 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1798 manual.
  1799 
  1800 
  1801 *** Pure ***
  1802 
  1803 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1804 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1805 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1806 
  1807 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1808 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1809 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1810 undocumented feature.)
  1811 
  1812 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1813 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1814 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1815 
  1816   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1817 
  1818   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1819     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1820 
  1821 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1822 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1823 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1824 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1825 
  1826 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1827 
  1828     num ~> num_token
  1829     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1830     xstr ~> str_token
  1831 
  1832 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1833 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1834 position information via constraints).
  1835 
  1836 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1837 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1838 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1839 
  1840 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1841 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1842 
  1843 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1844 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1845 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1846 
  1847 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1848 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1849 
  1850 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1851 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1852 
  1853   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1854 
  1855 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1856 
  1857 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1858 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1859 
  1860 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1861 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1862 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1863 
  1864 
  1865 *** HOL ***
  1866 
  1867 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1868 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1869 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1870 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1871 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1872 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1873 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1874 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1875 possible.
  1876 
  1877 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1878 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1879 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1880 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1881 
  1882 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1883 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1884 
  1885 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1886 
  1887 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1888 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1889 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1890 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1891 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1892 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1893 
  1894   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1895     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1896 
  1897   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1898     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1899     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1900 
  1901   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1902     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1903 
  1904   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1905     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1906     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1907 
  1908   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1909     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1910 
  1911 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1912 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1913 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1914 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1915 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1916 
  1917   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1918     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1919     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1920     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1921     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1922 
  1923     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1924     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1925 
  1926   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1927     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1928     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1929     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1930     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1931     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1932     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1933     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1934 
  1935   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1936     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1937     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1938     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1939 
  1940   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1941     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1942     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1943     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1944 
  1945   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1946     from type nat to type int.
  1947 
  1948 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1949 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1950 
  1951   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1952     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1953     type.  Example syntax:
  1954 
  1955     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1956       is List.insert
  1957 
  1958     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1959     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1960     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1961     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1962     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1963     by the package.
  1964 
  1965   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1966     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1967     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1968     code generation for each constant.
  1969 
  1970   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1971     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1972     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1973     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1974     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1975 
  1976   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1977     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1978     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1979 
  1980 * Quotient package:
  1981 
  1982   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1983     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1984 
  1985   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1986     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1987 
  1988   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1989     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1990     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1991 
  1992   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1993     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1994 
  1995 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1996 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1997 
  1998 * Quickcheck:
  1999 
  2000   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  2001     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  2002     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  2003     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  2004     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  2005 
  2006     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  2007     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  2008     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  2009 
  2010     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  2011     continues searching for genuine ones.
  2012 
  2013     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  2014     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  2015     show genuine counterexamples.
  2016 
  2017   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  2018     value generators for a given type and operations.
  2019 
  2020     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  2021     constructors of that type.
  2022 
  2023   - Support for multisets.
  2024 
  2025   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  2026 
  2027   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  2028     conjectures in a locale context.
  2029 
  2030 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  2031 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  2032 
  2033 * Sledgehammer:
  2034   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  2035     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  2036   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  2037   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  2038     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  2039   - Sped up the minimizer.
  2040   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  2041   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  2042   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  2043 
  2044 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  2045 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  2046 
  2047 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  2048 
  2049 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2050 
  2051 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  2052 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  2053 
  2054   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  2055 
  2056 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  2057 a list and a nat.
  2058 
  2059 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  2060 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  2061 
  2062 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  2063 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  2064 default.
  2065 
  2066 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  2067 
  2068   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  2069 
  2070 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  2071 
  2072 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  2073 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  2074 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  2075 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  2076 one_case.
  2077 
  2078 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  2079 the result of the fact expression.
  2080 
  2081 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  2082 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  2083 of some relation theorems:
  2084 
  2085   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  2086   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2087   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  2088   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  2089   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  2090   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  2091 
  2092 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  2093 
  2094 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  2095 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  2096 
  2097 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2098 
  2099 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  2100 to match the constant's name:
  2101 
  2102   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  2103   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  2104   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  2105   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  2106   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  2107   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  2108   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  2109   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  2110   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  2111   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  2112   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  2113   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  2114   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  2115   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  2116   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  2117   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  2118   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  2119   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  2120   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  2121   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  2122   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  2123   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2124   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2125   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  2126 
  2127 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2128 
  2129 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  2130 and corresponding theorem names:
  2131 
  2132   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  2133 
  2134   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  2135 
  2136   - Renamed theorems:
  2137 
  2138     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  2139     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  2140     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  2141     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  2142     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  2143     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  2144     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  2145     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  2146     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  2147     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  2148     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  2149     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  2150     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2151     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  2152     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  2153     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  2154     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  2155     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  2156     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  2157     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  2158     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  2159     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  2160     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  2161 
  2162     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  2163 
  2164     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  2165 
  2166 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2167 
  2168 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  2169 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2170 
  2171   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  2172   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  2173   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  2174   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  2175   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  2176   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  2177   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  2178   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  2179   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  2180   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  2181   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  2182   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  2183   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  2184   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  2185   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  2186   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  2187   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  2188   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  2189   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  2190   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  2191   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  2192 
  2193 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  2194 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2195 
  2196 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2197 
  2198 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  2199 
  2200   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  2201   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  2202   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  2203   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  2204   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  2205   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  2206   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  2207   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  2208   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  2209   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  2210   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  2211   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  2212   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  2213   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  2214   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  2215   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  2216   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  2217   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  2218 
  2219 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2220 
  2221 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  2222 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  2223 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  2224 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  2225 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  2226 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  2227 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  2228 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  2229 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  2230 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  2231 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  2232 
  2233 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  2234 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  2235 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  2236 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  2237 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  2238 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  2239 
  2240 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  2241 through option types.
  2242 
  2243 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  2244 relations.
  2245 
  2246 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2247 
  2248 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  2249 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2250 
  2251   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  2252   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  2253   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  2254   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  2255   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2256   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2257   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  2258   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2259   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  2260   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2261   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  2262   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  2263   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2264   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2265   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2266   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  2267   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  2268   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  2269   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2270   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2271   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  2272   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  2273   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2274   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2275   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  2276   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2277   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  2278   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  2279   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  2280   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  2281   zless_le ~> less_le
  2282   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  2283   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  2284   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  2285 
  2286 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  2287 
  2288   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  2289 
  2290 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  2291 
  2292 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  2293 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  2294 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  2295 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  2296 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2297 
  2298 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2299 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  2300 
  2301 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  2302 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  2303 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  2304 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  2305 follows:
  2306 
  2307   Operations:
  2308   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  2309   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  2310   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  2311   del -> rbt_del
  2312   delete -> rbt_delete
  2313   ins -> rbt_ins
  2314   insert -> rbt_insert
  2315   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  2316   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  2317   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  2318   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  2319   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  2320   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  2321   tree_less -> rbt_less
  2322   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  2323   union -> rbt_union
  2324   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  2325   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  2326 
  2327   Lemmas:
  2328   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  2329   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  2330   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  2331   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  2332   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  2333   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  2334   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2335   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2336   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2337   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2338   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2339   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2340   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2341   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2342   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2343   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2344   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2345   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2346   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2347   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2348   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2349   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2350   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2351   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2352   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2353   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2354   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2355   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2356   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2357   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2358   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2359   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2360   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2361   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2362   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2363   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2364   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2365   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2366   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2367   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2368   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2369   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2370   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2371   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2372   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2373   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2374   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2375   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2376   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2377   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2378   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2379   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2380   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2381   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2382   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2383   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2384   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2385   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2386   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2387   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2388   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2389   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2390   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2391   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2392   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2393   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2394   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2395   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2396   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2397   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2398   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2399   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2400   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2401   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2402   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2403   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2404   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2405   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2406   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2407   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2408   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2409   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2410   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2411 
  2412 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2413 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2414 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2415 
  2416   Changed Operations:
  2417   float_abs -> abs
  2418   float_nprt -> nprt
  2419   float_pprt -> pprt
  2420   pow2 -> use powr
  2421   round_down -> float_round_down
  2422   round_up -> float_round_up
  2423   scale -> exponent
  2424 
  2425   Removed Operations:
  2426   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2427 
  2428   Renamed Lemmas:
  2429   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2430   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2431   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2432   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2433   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2434   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2435   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2436   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2437   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2438   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2439   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2440   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2441   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2442   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2443   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2444   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2445   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2446   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2447   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2448   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2449   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2450   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2451   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2452   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2453   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2454   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2455   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2456   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2457   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2458   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2459   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2460   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2461   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2462   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2463   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2464   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2465 
  2466   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2467   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2468   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2469   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2470   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2471   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2472   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2473   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2474   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2475   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2476 
  2477 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2478 association lists with distinct keys.
  2479 
  2480 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2481 annotated commands.
  2482 
  2483 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2484 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2485 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2486 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2487 
  2488 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2489 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2490 instead.
  2491 
  2492   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2493   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2494   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2495   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2496   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2497   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2498   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2499   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2500   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2501   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2502   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2503   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2504   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2505   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2506   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2507   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2508   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2509   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2510   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2511   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2512   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2513   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2514   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2515   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2516   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2517   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2518   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2519   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2520   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2521   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2522   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2523   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2524   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2525   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2526   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2527   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2528   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2529   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2530   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2531   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2532   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2533 
  2534 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2535 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2536 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2537 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2538 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2539 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2540 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2541 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2542 
  2543 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2544 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2545 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2546 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2547 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2548 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2549 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2550 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2551 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2552 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2553 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2554 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2555 
  2556   Renamed constants:
  2557   measure -> emeasure
  2558   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2559   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2560   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2561   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2562 
  2563   Removed locales:
  2564   completeable_measure_space
  2565   finite_measure_space
  2566   finite_prob_space
  2567   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2568   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2569   finite_sigma_algebra
  2570   measure_space
  2571   pair_finite_prob_space
  2572   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2573   pair_finite_space
  2574   pair_sigma_algebra
  2575   product_sigma_algebra
  2576 
  2577   Removed constants:
  2578   conditional_space
  2579   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2580   image_space
  2581   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2582   pair_measure_generator
  2583   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2584   subvimage
  2585 
  2586   Replacement theorems:
  2587   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2588   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2589   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2590   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2591   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2592   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2593   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2594   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2595   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2596   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2597   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2598   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2599   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2600   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2601   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2602   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2603   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2604   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2605   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2606   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2607   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2608   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2609   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2610   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2611   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2612   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2613   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2614   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2615   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2616   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2617   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2618   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2619   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2620   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2621   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2622   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2623   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2624   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2625   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2626   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2627   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2628   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2629   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2630   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2631   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2632   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2633   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2634   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2635   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2636   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2637   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2638   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2639   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2640   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2641   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2642   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2643   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2644   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2645   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2646   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2647   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2648   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2649   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2650   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2651   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2652   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2653   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2654   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2655   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2656   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2657   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2658   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2659   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2660   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2661   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2662   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2663   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2664   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2665   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2666   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2667   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2668   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2669   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2670   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2671   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2672   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2673   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2674   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2675   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2676   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2677   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2678   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2679   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2680   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2681   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2682   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2683   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2684   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2685   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2686   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2687   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2688   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2689   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2690   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2691   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2692   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2693   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2694   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2695   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2696   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2697   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2698   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2699   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2700   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2701   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2702   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2703   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2704   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2705   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2706   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2707   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2708   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2709   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2710   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2711   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2712   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2713   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2714   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2715 
  2716 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2717 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2718 
  2719 
  2720 *** FOL ***
  2721 
  2722 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2723 
  2724 
  2725 *** ZF ***
  2726 
  2727 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2728 analysis.
  2729 
  2730 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2731 
  2732 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2733 
  2734 
  2735 *** ML ***
  2736 
  2737 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2738 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2739 
  2740 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2741 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2742 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2743 
  2744 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2745 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2746 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2747 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2748 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2749 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2750 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2751 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2752 
  2753 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2754 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2755 
  2756 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2757 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2758 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2759 
  2760 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2761 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2762 
  2763 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2764 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2765 context as well.
  2766 
  2767 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2768 
  2769   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2770   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2771   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2772   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2773   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2774   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2775   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2776   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2777   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2778   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2779   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2780   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2781 
  2782 
  2783 *** System ***
  2784 
  2785 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2786 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2787 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2788 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2789 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2790 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2791 the generic user home was intended.
  2792 
  2793 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2794 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2795 
  2796 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2797 (not just JRE).
  2798 
  2799 
  2800 
  2801 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2802 ------------------------------------
  2803 
  2804 *** General ***
  2805 
  2806 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2807 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2808 
  2809   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2810     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2811     files for checking).
  2812 
  2813   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2814     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2815     positions.
  2816 
  2817   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2818     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2819     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2820 
  2821   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2822     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2823     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2824 
  2825   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2826     cores.
  2827 
  2828   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2829     versions (garbage collection).
  2830 
  2831 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2832 including some remaining limitations.
  2833 
  2834 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2835 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2836 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2837 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2838 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2839 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2840 
  2841 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2842 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2843 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2844 
  2845 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2846 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2847 usedir option -Q.
  2848 
  2849 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2850 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2851 
  2852   long_names   ~> names_long
  2853   short_names  ~> names_short
  2854   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2855 
  2856 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2857 
  2858   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2859 
  2860 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2861 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2862 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2863 
  2864 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2865 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2866 
  2867 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2868   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2869   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2870   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2871     "Classical Reasoner".
  2872 
  2873 
  2874 *** HOL ***
  2875 
  2876 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2877 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2878 
  2879 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2880 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2881 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2882 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2883 class complete_linorder.
  2884 
  2885 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2886 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2887 
  2888 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2889 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2890 
  2891   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2892   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2893   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2894   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2895   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2896   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2897   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2898   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2899   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2900   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2901   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2902 
  2903 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2904 
  2905   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2906   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2907   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2908   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2909   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2910   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2911   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2912   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2913   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2914   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2915   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2916   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2917   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2918   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2919   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2920   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2921 
  2922 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2923 
  2924 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2925 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2926 
  2927 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2928 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2929 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2930 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2931 
  2932 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2933 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2934 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2935 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2936 
  2937 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2938 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2939 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2940 
  2941 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2942 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2943 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2944 
  2945 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2946 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2947 
  2948 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2949 
  2950     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2951     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2952 
  2953 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2954 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2955 
  2956 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2957 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2958 
  2959 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2960 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2961 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2962 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2963 
  2964   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2965   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2966   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2967   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2968   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2969   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2970   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2971 
  2972 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2973 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2974 
  2975   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2976   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2977   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2978   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2979   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2980   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2981   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2982   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2983   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2984   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2985   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2986   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2987   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2988   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2989   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2990   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2991   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2992   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2993   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2994   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2995   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2996   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2997   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2998   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2999   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  3000   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  3001   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  3002   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  3003   expi_add ~> exp_add
  3004   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  3005   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  3006   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  3007   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  3008   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3009   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  3010   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3011   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  3012   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3013   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3014   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3015   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3016   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3017   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  3018   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  3019   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  3020   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  3021   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3022   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3023   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3024   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  3025   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3026   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3027   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  3028   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  3029   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  3030   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  3031   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  3032   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3033   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3034   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3035   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  3036   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  3037   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3038   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3039   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  3040   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  3041   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3042   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  3043   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3044   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3045   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  3046   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  3047   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3048   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  3049   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  3050   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3051   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  3052   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3053   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  3054   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  3055   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  3056   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  3057 
  3058 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  3059 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  3060 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  3061 
  3062 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  3063 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  3064 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  3065 
  3066 * Code generation:
  3067 
  3068   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  3069     characters in the target language.
  3070 
  3071   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  3072     instead.
  3073 
  3074   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  3075 
  3076   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  3077     reactivated by the following theory command:
  3078 
  3079       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  3080 
  3081 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3082 
  3083 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  3084 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  3085 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  3086 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  3087 syntax.
  3088 
  3089 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  3090 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  3091 
  3092 * Nitpick:
  3093   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  3094   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  3095   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  3096     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3097 
  3098 * Sledgehammer:
  3099   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  3100   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  3101     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  3102   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  3103     this can be done within reasonable time.
  3104   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  3105     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3106   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  3107     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  3108   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  3109     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3110 
  3111 * Metis:
  3112   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3113   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  3114     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3115 
  3116 * Command 'try':
  3117   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  3118     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3119   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  3120     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  3121 
  3122 * Quickcheck:
  3123   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  3124     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3125   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  3126     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3127   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  3128     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  3129     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  3130     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  3131   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  3132     (formly in HOL/Library).
  3133 
  3134 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3135 use 'partial_function' instead.
  3136 
  3137 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  3138 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  3139 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  3140 
  3141 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  3142 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  3143 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3144 
  3145 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  3146 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3147 
  3148 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  3149 arithmetic.
  3150 
  3151 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  3152 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  3153 and lattice type classes.
  3154 
  3155 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  3156 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  3157 
  3158 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  3159 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  3160 
  3161 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  3162 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  3163 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3164 
  3165   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  3166   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  3167   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  3168   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  3169 
  3170 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  3171 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  3172 constants:
  3173 
  3174   type inat   ~> type enat
  3175   Fin         ~> enat
  3176   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  3177   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  3178   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  3179 
  3180 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  3181 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3182 
  3183 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  3184 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  3185 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  3186 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  3187 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  3188 
  3189 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  3190 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  3191 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  3192 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  3193 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  3194 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  3195 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3196 
  3197   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  3198   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  3199   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  3200   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  3201 
  3202 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  3203 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  3204 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3205 
  3206   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  3207   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  3208   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  3209   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  3210   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  3211   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  3212   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  3213   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  3214   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  3215   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  3216   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  3217   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  3218   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3219   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3220   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  3221   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3222   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  3223   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  3224   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  3225   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  3226   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  3227   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  3228   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  3229   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  3230   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  3231   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  3232   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  3233   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  3234   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  3235   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3236   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3237   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  3238   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  3239   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  3240   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  3241   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  3242   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  3243   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  3244   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  3245   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  3246   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  3247   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  3248   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  3249   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  3250   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  3251   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  3252   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  3253   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  3254   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  3255   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  3256   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  3257 
  3258 * Session HOL-Probability:
  3259   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  3260   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  3261   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  3262   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  3263     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3264 
  3265 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3266 
  3267   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  3268   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  3269   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3270   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  3271   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  3272   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  3273   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  3274   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  3275   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  3276   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  3277   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3278   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  3279   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  3280   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  3281   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  3282   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  3283   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  3284   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  3285   UU_I ~> bottomI
  3286   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  3287   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3288   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3289   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  3290   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  3291   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  3292 
  3293 
  3294 *** Document preparation ***
  3295 
  3296 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  3297 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  3298 same.
  3299 
  3300 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  3301 result.
  3302 
  3303 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  3304 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  3305 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  3306 
  3307 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  3308 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  3309 
  3310 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  3311 like this:
  3312 
  3313   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  3314   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  3315 
  3316 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  3317 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  3318 layouts.
  3319 
  3320 
  3321 *** ML ***
  3322 
  3323 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  3324 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  3325 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  3326 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  3327 under external program control.
  3328 
  3329 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  3330 data, which requires explicit setup.
  3331 
  3332 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  3333 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  3334 (better known as Proof General).
  3335 
  3336 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3337 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3338 
  3339 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3340 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3341 
  3342 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3343 (including quotes etc.).
  3344 
  3345 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3346 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3347 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3348 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3349 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3350 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3351 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3352 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3353 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3354 
  3355 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3356 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3357 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3358 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3359 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3360 
  3361 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3362 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3363 
  3364 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3365 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3366 
  3367 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3368 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3369 
  3370 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3371 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3372 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3373 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3374 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3375 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3376 proper Proof.context.
  3377 
  3378 
  3379 *** System ***
  3380 
  3381 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3382 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3383 
  3384 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3385 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3386 
  3387 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3388 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3389 
  3390   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3391   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3392   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3393   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3394   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3395 
  3396 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3397 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3398 
  3399 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3400 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3401 example:
  3402 
  3403   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3404 
  3405 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3406 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3407 
  3408 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3409 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3410 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3411 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3412 
  3413 
  3414 
  3415 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3416 ----------------------------------
  3417 
  3418 *** General ***
  3419 
  3420 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3421 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3422 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3423 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3424 like this:
  3425 
  3426   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3427 
  3428 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3429 
  3430 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3431 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3432 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3433 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3434 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3435 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3436 
  3437 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3438 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3439 the following package declarations:
  3440 
  3441   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3442   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3443 
  3444 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3445 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3446 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3447 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3448 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3449 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3450 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3451 
  3452 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3453 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3454 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3455 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3456 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3457 
  3458 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3459 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3460 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3461 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3462 
  3463 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3464 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3465 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3466 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3467 
  3468   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3469 
  3470   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3471   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3472   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3473   show_types                    show_types
  3474   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3475   show_consts                   show_consts
  3476   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3477 
  3478   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3479   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3480   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3481 
  3482   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3483   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3484 
  3485   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3486 
  3487   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3488   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3489   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3490   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3491   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3492 
  3493 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3494 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3495 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3496 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3497 
  3498 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3499 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3500 
  3501   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3502   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3503 
  3504 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3505 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3506 float_token.
  3507 
  3508 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3509 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3510 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3511 
  3512 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3513 DejaVu Sans.
  3514 
  3515 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3516 
  3517 
  3518 *** Pure ***
  3519 
  3520 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3521 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3522 time.
  3523 
  3524 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3525 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3526 
  3527 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3528 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3529 
  3530 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3531 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3532 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3533 command already provided this functionality.
  3534 
  3535 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3536 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3537 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3538 without interpretations.
  3539 
  3540 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3541 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3542 
  3543 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3544 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3545 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3546 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3547 
  3548 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3549 'definition' instead.
  3550 
  3551 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3552 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3553 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3554 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3555 
  3556 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3557 constructors.
  3558 
  3559 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3560 the local file system.
  3561 
  3562 
  3563 *** HOL ***
  3564 
  3565 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3566 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3567 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3568 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3569 
  3570   declare [[coercion f]]
  3571 
  3572 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3573 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3574 
  3575   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3576 
  3577 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3578 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3579 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3580 other theories like this:
  3581 
  3582   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3583 
  3584 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3585 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3586 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3587 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3588 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3589 for examples.
  3590 
  3591 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3592 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3593 
  3594 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3595 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3596 
  3597 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3598 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3599 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3600 
  3601 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3602 functorial structure of types.
  3603 
  3604 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3605 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3606 
  3607 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3608 languages.
  3609 
  3610 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3611 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3612 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3613 
  3614 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3615 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3616 
  3617 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3618 combinators any longer.
  3619 
  3620 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3621 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3622 
  3623 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3624 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3625 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3626 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3627 
  3628   record 'a foo = ...
  3629   ...
  3630   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3631 
  3632 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3633 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3634 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3635 
  3636 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3637 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3638 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3639 
  3640 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3641 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3642 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3643 
  3644 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3645 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3646 
  3647 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3648 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3649 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3650 independently.
  3651 
  3652 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3653 counter example search.
  3654 
  3655 * Sledgehammer:
  3656   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3657     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3658     sledgehammer").
  3659   - Renamed commands:
  3660     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3661     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3662     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3663     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3664   - Renamed options:
  3665     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3666     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3667     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3668     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3669     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3670 
  3671 * Nitpick:
  3672   - Renamed options:
  3673     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3674     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3675     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3676   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3677   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3678   - Added "whack" option.
  3679   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3680   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3681   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3682   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3683     higher cardinalities.
  3684   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3685 
  3686 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3687 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3688 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3689 
  3690     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3691 
  3692 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3693 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3694 
  3695 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3696 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3697 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3698 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3699 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3700 "smt_solver".
  3701 
  3702 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3703 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3704 
  3705 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3706 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3707 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3708 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3709 
  3710 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3711   - Renamed:
  3712     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3713     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3714     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3715   - Added:
  3716     smt_verbose
  3717     smt_random_seed
  3718     smt_datatypes
  3719     smt_infer_triggers
  3720     smt_monomorph_limit
  3721     cvc3_options
  3722     remote_cvc3_options
  3723     remote_z3_options
  3724     yices_options
  3725 
  3726 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3727 header.
  3728 
  3729 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3730 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3731 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3732 
  3733   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3734 
  3735 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3736 
  3737 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3738 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3739 
  3740 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3741 
  3742 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3743 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3744 
  3745 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3746 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3747 
  3748 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3749 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3750 
  3751 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3752 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3753 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3754 
  3755 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3756 
  3757 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3758 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3759 
  3760 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3761 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3762 
  3763 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3764 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3765 for congruent(2)).
  3766 
  3767 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3768 
  3769   types
  3770     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3771     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3772 
  3773   constants
  3774     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3775     True ~> HOL.True
  3776     False ~> HOL.False
  3777     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3778     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3779     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3780     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3781     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3782     The ~> HOL.The
  3783     All ~> HOL.All
  3784     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3785     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3786     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3787     If ~> HOL.If
  3788     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3789     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3790     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3791     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3792     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3793     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3794     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3795     op : ~> Set.member
  3796     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3797 
  3798 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3799 
  3800 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3801 
  3802     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3803     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3804     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3805     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3806     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3807     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3808     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3809     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3810 
  3811 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3812 
  3813 * More stylized fact names:
  3814 
  3815   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3816   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3817   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3818   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3819 
  3820 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3821 
  3822 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3823 
  3824   constants
  3825     null ~> List.null
  3826 
  3827   facts
  3828     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3829     null_empty ~> null_def
  3830 
  3831 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3832 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3833 generation.
  3834 
  3835 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3836 Haskell code.
  3837 
  3838 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3839 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3840 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3841 
  3842 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3843 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3844 
  3845 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3846 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3847 
  3848 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3849 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3850 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3851 
  3852 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3853 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3854 
  3855 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3856 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3857 
  3858 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3859 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3860 referred to by its qualified name.
  3861 
  3862   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3863   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3864   product ~>  Enum.product
  3865 
  3866 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3867 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3868 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3869 
  3870 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3871 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3872 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3873 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3874 
  3875 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3876 sort_key.
  3877 
  3878 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3879 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3880 
  3881 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3882 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3883 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3884 
  3885   types
  3886     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3887               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3888               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3889         (depends on your needs)
  3890 
  3891   constants
  3892      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3893      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3894      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3895 
  3896 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3897 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3898 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3899 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3900 
  3901 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3902 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3903 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3904 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3905 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3906 
  3907 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3908 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3909 
  3910 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3911 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3912 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3913 
  3914 
  3915 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3916 
  3917 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3918 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3919 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3920 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3921 compatibility.
  3922 
  3923 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3924 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3925 
  3926 
  3927 *** HOLCF ***
  3928 
  3929 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3930 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3931 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3932 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3933 
  3934 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3935 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3936 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3937 
  3938   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3939   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3940   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3941 
  3942 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3943 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3944 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3945 
  3946 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3947 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3948 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3949 domain definition now works:
  3950 
  3951   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3952 
  3953 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3954 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3955 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3956 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3957 
  3958   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3959     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3960 
  3961   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3962 
  3963 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3964 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3965 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3966 
  3967 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3968 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3969 
  3970 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3971 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3972 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3973 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3974 
  3975 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3976 
  3977 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3978 
  3979 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3980 
  3981 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3982 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3983 
  3984 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3985 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3986 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3987 
  3988 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3989 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3990 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3991 
  3992 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3993 still supported as an input translation.
  3994 
  3995 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3996 
  3997   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3998   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3999   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  4000   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  4001   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  4002   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  4003   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  4004 
  4005 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  4006 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4007 
  4008   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  4009   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  4010   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  4011   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  4012   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  4013   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  4014 
  4015 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  4016 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4017 
  4018 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  4019 
  4020   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  4021   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  4022   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  4023   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  4024 
  4025 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4026 
  4027 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  4028 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4029 
  4030 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  4031 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4032 
  4033   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  4034   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  4035   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  4036   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  4037   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  4038   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  4039   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  4040   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  4041   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  4042   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  4043   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  4044   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  4045   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  4046   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  4047   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  4048   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  4049   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  4050   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  4051   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  4052   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  4053 
  4054 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4055 
  4056   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  4057   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  4058   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  4059   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  4060   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  4061   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  4062   box_less             ~> box_below
  4063   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  4064   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  4065   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  4066   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  4067   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  4068   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  4069   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  4070   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  4071   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  4072   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  4073   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  4074   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  4075   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  4076   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  4077   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  4078   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  4079   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  4080   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  4081   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  4082   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  4083   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  4084   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  4085   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  4086   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  4087   up_less              ~> up_below
  4088   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  4089   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  4090   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  4091   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  4092   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  4093   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  4094   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  4095   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  4096   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  4097   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  4098   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  4099   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  4100   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  4101 
  4102 
  4103 *** FOL and ZF ***
  4104 
  4105 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  4106 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4107 
  4108 
  4109 *** ML ***
  4110 
  4111 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  4112 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  4113 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  4114 
  4115 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  4116 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  4117 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  4118 
  4119 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  4120 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  4121 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  4122 
  4123 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  4124 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  4125 
  4126 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  4127 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  4128 
  4129 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  4130 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  4131 
  4132 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  4133 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  4134 
  4135 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  4136 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  4137 almost all situations.
  4138 
  4139 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  4140 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  4141 Isabelle/ML.
  4142 
  4143 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  4144 meaning.
  4145 
  4146 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  4147 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  4148 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  4149 
  4150 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  4151 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  4152 
  4153 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  4154 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  4155 
  4156 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  4157 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  4158 @{thms} for most purposes.
  4159 
  4160 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  4161 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  4162 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  4163 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  4164 configuration options.
  4165 
  4166 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  4167 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  4168 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  4169 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  4170 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  4171 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  4172 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  4173 
  4174 
  4175 
  4176 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  4177 ---------------------------------
  4178 
  4179 *** General ***
  4180 
  4181 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  4182 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  4183 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  4184 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  4185 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  4186 their full internal name.
  4187 
  4188 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  4189 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  4190 Some hints on upgrading:
  4191 
  4192   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  4193     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  4194     which are independent of this issue.
  4195 
  4196   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  4197     provides the following special forms:
  4198 
  4199       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  4200       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  4201       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  4202 
  4203     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  4204     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  4205     extra variables".
  4206 
  4207     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  4208     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  4209     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  4210     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  4211     "logic".
  4212 
  4213   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  4214     antiquotations:
  4215 
  4216       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  4217       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  4218       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  4219       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  4220 
  4221   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  4222     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  4223     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  4224     antiquotations.
  4225 
  4226 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  4227 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  4228 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  4229 diagnose syntax problems.
  4230 
  4231 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  4232 
  4233 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  4234 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  4235 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  4236 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  4237 
  4238 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  4239 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  4240 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  4241 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4242 
  4243 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  4244 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  4245 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  4246 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  4247 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4248 
  4249 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  4250 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  4251 
  4252 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  4253 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  4254 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  4255 
  4256   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  4257 
  4258 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  4259 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  4260 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  4261 
  4262 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  4263 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  4264 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4265 
  4266 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  4267 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  4268 
  4269 
  4270 *** Pure ***
  4271 
  4272 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  4273 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  4274 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  4275 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  4276 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  4277 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  4278 inspect proof terms.
  4279 
  4280 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  4281 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  4282 are added internally.  For example:
  4283 
  4284   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  4285 
  4286 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  4287 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4288 
  4289 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4290 
  4291 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4292 'class' instead.
  4293 
  4294 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  4295 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  4296 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4297 
  4298 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  4299 invariants.
  4300 
  4301 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  4302 user space functionality any longer.
  4303 
  4304 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  4305 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  4306 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4307 
  4308 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  4309 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  4310 
  4311 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  4312 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  4313 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  4314 
  4315 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  4316 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  4317 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  4318 
  4319 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  4320 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4321 
  4322 
  4323 *** HOL ***
  4324 
  4325 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  4326 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  4327 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  4328 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  4329 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  4330 
  4331 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  4332 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  4333 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  4334 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4335 
  4336   fun
  4337     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4338   where
  4339     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4340 
  4341   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4342     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4343 
  4344   quotient_definition
  4345     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4346 
  4347 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4348 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4349 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4350 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4351 
  4352 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4353 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4354 
  4355 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4356 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4357 
  4358 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4359 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4360 
  4361 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4362 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4363 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4364 
  4365 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4366 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4367 
  4368 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4369 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4370 
  4371 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4372 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4373 
  4374 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4375 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4376 
  4377 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4378 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4379 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4380 
  4381   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4382   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4383   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4384   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4385   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4386   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4387   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4388   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4389   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4390   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4391   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4392   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4393   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4394   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4395   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4396   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4397   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4398   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4399   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4400   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4401   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4402   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4403   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4404   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4405   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4406   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4407   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4408   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4409   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4410   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4411 
  4412 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4413 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4414 
  4415 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4416 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4417 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4418 
  4419 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4420 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4421 
  4422 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4423 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4424 
  4425 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4426 
  4427 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4428 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4429 
  4430 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4431 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4432 
  4433 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4434 
  4435 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4436 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4437 
  4438 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4439 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4440 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4441 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4442 
  4443 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4444   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4445   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4446   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4447 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4448 
  4449 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4450 lattices):
  4451 
  4452     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4453     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4454 
  4455     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4456 
  4457     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4458     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4459     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4460     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4461     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4462     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4463     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4464     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4465     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4466     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4467     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4468     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4469     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4470 
  4471     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4472     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4473     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4474     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4475     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4476     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4477     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4478     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4479     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4480     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4481     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4482     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4483     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4484     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4485     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4486     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4487     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4488     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4489 
  4490   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4491   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4492 
  4493     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4494     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4495     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4496     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4497     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4498 
  4499 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4500 
  4501 * Refined field classes:
  4502   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4503     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4504     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4505   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4506 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4507 
  4508 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4509   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4510   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4511   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4512     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4513   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4514     equal_neg_zero.
  4515 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4516 
  4517 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4518 sets to lattices:
  4519 
  4520   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4521   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4522   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4523   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4524   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4525   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4526   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4527   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4528   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4529   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4530 
  4531 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4532 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4533 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4534 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4535 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4536 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4537 
  4538 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4539 multiset order:
  4540 
  4541   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4542     <= and <;
  4543   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4544     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4545     multiset_order;
  4546   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4547     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4548     generation;
  4549   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4550     if needed.
  4551 
  4552 Renamed:
  4553 
  4554   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4555   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4556   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4557 
  4558 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4559 
  4560 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4561 
  4562 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4563 
  4564 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4565 
  4566 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4567 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4568 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4569 
  4570   Constants:
  4571   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4572   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4573   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4574   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4575   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4576   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4577   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4578   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4579   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4580   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4581   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4582   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4583   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4584 
  4585   Lemmas:
  4586   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4587   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4588   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4589   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4590   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4591   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4592   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4593   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4594   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4595   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4596   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4597   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4598   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4599 
  4600 * Sledgehammer:
  4601   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4602     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4603     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4604     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4605     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4606     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4607     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4608   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4609   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4610     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4611   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4612     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4613     is still experimental.)
  4614   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4615     full-typed mode.
  4616   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4617 
  4618 * Nitpick:
  4619   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4620   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4621   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4622     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4623   - Added support for quotient types.
  4624   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4625     constructs.
  4626   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4627     "termination" proofs).
  4628   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4629   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4630   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4631   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4632     record getters.
  4633   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4634   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4635   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4636   - Added "atoms" option.
  4637   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4638     problems.
  4639   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4640     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4641     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4642   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4643     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4644   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4645 
  4646 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4647   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4648   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4649   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4650   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4651   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4652   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4653   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4654   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4655   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4656 
  4657 
  4658 *** HOLCF ***
  4659 
  4660 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4661 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4662 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4663 
  4664 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4665 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4666 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4667 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4668 
  4669 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4670 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4671 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4672 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4673 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4674 
  4675 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4676 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4677 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4678 
  4679 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4680 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4681 
  4682   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4683   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4684 
  4685 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4686 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4687 
  4688   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4689   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4690   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4691   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4692   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4693 
  4694 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4695 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4696 
  4697   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4698   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4699   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4700 
  4701 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4702 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4703 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4704 
  4705 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4706 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4707 
  4708 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4709 
  4710 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4711 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4712 
  4713 
  4714 *** ML ***
  4715 
  4716 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4717 
  4718     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4719     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4720 
  4721     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4722     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4723     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4724     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4725 
  4726     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4727     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4728     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4729 
  4730 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4731 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4732 
  4733 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4734 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4735 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4736 
  4737 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4738 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4739 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4740 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4741 
  4742 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4743 the context or even global references.
  4744 
  4745 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4746 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4747 
  4748 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4749 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4750 
  4751   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4752   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4753   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4754   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4755   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4756   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4757   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4758   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4759   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4760   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4761 
  4762 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4763 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4764 
  4765 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4766 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4767 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4768 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4769 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4770 
  4771 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4772 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4773 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4774 Theory_Data version.
  4775 
  4776 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4777 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4778 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4779 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4780 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4781 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4782 explicitly in rare situations.
  4783 
  4784 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4785 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4786 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4787 
  4788 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4789 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4790 
  4791 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4792 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4793 quite rare).
  4794 
  4795 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4796 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4797 
  4798 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4799 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4800 terms.
  4801 
  4802 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4803 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4804 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4805 
  4806 
  4807 *** System ***
  4808 
  4809 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4810 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4811 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4812 
  4813 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4814 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4815 respectively.
  4816 
  4817 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4818 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4819 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4820 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4821 
  4822   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4823 
  4824 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4825 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4826 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4827 component.
  4828 
  4829 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4830 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4831 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4832 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4833 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4834 the user for manual installation.
  4835 
  4836 
  4837 
  4838 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4839 -------------------------------------
  4840 
  4841 *** General ***
  4842 
  4843 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4844 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4845 
  4846 
  4847 *** Pure ***
  4848 
  4849 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4850 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4851 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4852 
  4853 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4854 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4855 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4856 
  4857 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4858 interpretation.
  4859 
  4860 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4861 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4862 
  4863 
  4864 *** Document preparation ***
  4865 
  4866 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4867 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4868 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4869 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4870 
  4871 
  4872 *** HOL ***
  4873 
  4874 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4875 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4876 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4877 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4878 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4879 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4880 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4881 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4882 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4883 
  4884 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4885 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4886 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4887 
  4888 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4889 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4890 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4891 
  4892 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4893 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4894 
  4895 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4896 
  4897 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4898 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4899 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4900 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4901 
  4902 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4903 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4904 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4905 "mirabelle" utility.
  4906 
  4907 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4908 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4909 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4910 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4911 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4912 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4913 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4914 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4915 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4916 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4917 
  4918 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4919 procedure only.
  4920 
  4921 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4922 
  4923 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4924 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4925 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4926 that fail later.
  4927 
  4928 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4929 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4930 
  4931 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4932 the same method as the approximation method.
  4933 
  4934 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4935 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4936 series expansion.
  4937 
  4938 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4939 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4940 
  4941 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4942 reals.
  4943 
  4944 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4945 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4946 
  4947 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4948 fixpoint theorem.
  4949 
  4950 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4951   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4952     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4953   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4954     accordingly
  4955   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4956     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4957   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4958     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4959 
  4960 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4961 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4962 lattice.
  4963 
  4964 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4965 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4966 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4967 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4968 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4969 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4970 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4971 
  4972 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4973   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4974     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4975   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4976     le_inf_iff
  4977   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4978     sup_aci)
  4979   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4980   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4981   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4982     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4983     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4984     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4985     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4986     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4987     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4988     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4989     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4990     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4991     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4992   - authentic syntax for
  4993     Set.Pow
  4994     Set.image
  4995   - mere abbreviations:
  4996     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4997     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4998     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4999     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  5000     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  5001     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  5002     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  5003     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  5004   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  5005 
  5006 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  5007 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  5008 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  5009 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  5010 
  5011 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  5012 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  5013 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5014 
  5015 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  5016 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5017 
  5018 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  5019 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  5020 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  5021 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5022 
  5023 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  5024 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5025 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  5026 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  5027 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  5028 
  5029 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  5030 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  5031 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5032 
  5033 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  5034 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5035 
  5036 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  5037 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  5038 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  5039 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  5040 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  5041 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  5042 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  5043 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5044 
  5045 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  5046     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  5047     code_post       replaces    code post
  5048     etc.
  5049   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5050 
  5051 * Renamed methods:
  5052     sizechange -> size_change
  5053     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  5054   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5055 
  5056 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  5057 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  5058 
  5059 * Renamed theorems:
  5060     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5061     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  5062     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5063     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  5064     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  5065   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5066 
  5067 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  5068 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5069 
  5070 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  5071 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5072 
  5073 
  5074 *** HOLCF ***
  5075 
  5076 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  5077 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  5078 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  5079 
  5080 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  5081 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  5082 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  5083 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  5084 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  5085 
  5086 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  5087 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  5088 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  5089 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  5090 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  5091 
  5092 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  5093 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  5094 constructor are pre-configured.
  5095 
  5096 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  5097 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  5098 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  5099 
  5100 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  5101 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  5102 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  5103 as well.)
  5104 
  5105 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  5106 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  5107 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  5108 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5109 examples.
  5110 
  5111 
  5112 *** ML ***
  5113 
  5114 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  5115 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  5116 
  5117 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  5118 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  5119 position, logical grouping etc.
  5120 
  5121 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  5122 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  5123 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  5124 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  5125 
  5126 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  5127 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  5128 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  5129 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  5130 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  5131 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  5132 
  5133 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  5134 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  5135 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  5136 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  5137 experiments with references.
  5138 
  5139 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  5140 parallel tactical reasoning.
  5141 
  5142 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  5143 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  5144 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  5145 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  5146 
  5147 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  5148 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  5149 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  5150 
  5151 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  5152 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  5153 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5154 
  5155 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5156 
  5157 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  5158 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5159 
  5160 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  5161 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  5162 
  5163 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  5164 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  5165 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  5166 
  5167 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  5168 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  5169 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5170 
  5171 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  5172 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  5173 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  5174 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5175 
  5176 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5177 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  5178 instead of global theory.
  5179 
  5180 
  5181 *** System ***
  5182 
  5183 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  5184 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  5185 usedir option -q.
  5186 
  5187 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  5188 also the system manual.
  5189 
  5190 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  5191 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  5192 
  5193 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  5194 this is always enabled.
  5195 
  5196 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  5197 
  5198 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  5199 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  5200 currently supported on Linux only.
  5201 
  5202 
  5203 
  5204 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  5205 --------------------------------
  5206 
  5207 *** General ***
  5208 
  5209 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  5210 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5211 
  5212   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  5213     "isatool."
  5214 
  5215   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  5216     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  5217 
  5218   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  5219     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  5220 
  5221 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  5222 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  5223 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  5224 
  5225 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  5226 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  5227 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  5228 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  5229 via "isabelle emacs".
  5230 
  5231 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  5232 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  5233 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  5234 
  5235 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  5236 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  5237 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5238 
  5239 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  5240 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  5241 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  5242 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  5243 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  5244 
  5245 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  5246 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  5247 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  5248 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5249 
  5250 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  5251 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  5252 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  5253 
  5254 
  5255 *** Pure ***
  5256 
  5257 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  5258 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  5259 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  5260 
  5261 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  5262 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  5263 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  5264 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  5265 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  5266 
  5267 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  5268 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  5269 useful in locale declarations.
  5270 
  5271 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  5272 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  5273 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  5274 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  5275 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  5276 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  5277 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  5278 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  5279 no longer generated.
  5280 
  5281 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  5282 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  5283 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  5284 
  5285 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  5286 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  5287 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  5288 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  5289 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  5290 
  5291 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5292 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  5293 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  5294 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  5295 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  5296 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  5297 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  5298 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  5299 
  5300 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  5301 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  5302 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  5303 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  5304 
  5305 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5306 
  5307 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  5308 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  5309 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  5310 
  5311 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  5312 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5313 
  5314 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  5315 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  5316 in HOL, write
  5317 
  5318     class foo = ...
  5319 
  5320 instead of
  5321 
  5322     class foo = type + ...
  5323 
  5324 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  5325 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5326 
  5327 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  5328 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  5329 
  5330 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  5331 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  5332 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  5333 
  5334 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5335 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5336 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5337 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5338 directly in regular applications.
  5339 
  5340 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5341 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5342 
  5343 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5344 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5345 
  5346 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5347 theory context.
  5348 
  5349 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5350 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5351 
  5352 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5353 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5354 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5355 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5356 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5357 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5358 
  5359   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5360 
  5361 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5362 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5363 normalization.
  5364 
  5365 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5366 addressing etc.
  5367 
  5368 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5369 
  5370   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5371   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5372 
  5373 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5374 
  5375   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5376      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5377      parts of the code generator framework).
  5378 
  5379   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5380      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5381      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5382 
  5383 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5384 
  5385 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5386 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5387 
  5388 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5389 patterns, e.g.
  5390 
  5391     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5392 
  5393 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5394 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5395 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5396 hyphen:
  5397 
  5398     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5399 
  5400 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5401 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5402 
  5403 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5404 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5405 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5406 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5407 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5408 higher-order unification.
  5409 
  5410 
  5411 *** Document preparation ***
  5412 
  5413 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5414 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5415 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5416 
  5417 
  5418 *** HOL ***
  5419 
  5420 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5421 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5422 
  5423 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5424 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5425 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5426 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5427 Main, as before.
  5428 
  5429 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5430 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5431 
  5432 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5433 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5434 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5435 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5436 
  5437 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5438 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5439 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5440 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5441 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5442 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5443 
  5444 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5445 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5446 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5447 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5448 
  5449 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5450 menu.
  5451 
  5452 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5453 (contains the empty clause).
  5454 
  5455 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5456 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5457 
  5458 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5459 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5460 
  5461 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5462 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5463 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5464 
  5465 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5466 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5467 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5468 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5469 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5470 
  5471 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5472 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5473 
  5474 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5475 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5476 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5477 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5478 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5479 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5480 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5481 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5482 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5483 
  5484 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5485 
  5486 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5487 
  5488 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5489 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5490 
  5491 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5492 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5493 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5494 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5495 
  5496 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5497 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5498 
  5499     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5500     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5501     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5502     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5503     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5504     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5505     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5506     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5507 
  5508 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5509 theory Set.
  5510 
  5511 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5512 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5513 
  5514 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5515 
  5516 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5517 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5518 
  5519 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5520 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5521 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5522 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5523 allowed. For examples see
  5524 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5525 
  5526 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5527 
  5528 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5529 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5530 
  5531 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5532 structure:
  5533 
  5534     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5535     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5536     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5537     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5538     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5539     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5540     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5541     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5542     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5543     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5544     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5545     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5546     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5547     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5548     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5549     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5550     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5551     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5552     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5553     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5554     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5555     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5556     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5557     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5558     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5559     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5560     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5561     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5562     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5563     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5564     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5565     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5566     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5567 
  5568     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5569     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5570     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5571     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5572     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5573     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5574     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5575     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5576     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5577     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5578 
  5579     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5580     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5581     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5582     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5583     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5584     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5585 
  5586 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5587 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5588 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5589 
  5590 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5591 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5592 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5593 
  5594 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5595 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5596 
  5597 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5598 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5599 
  5600 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5601 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5602 proofs, e.g.
  5603 
  5604   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5605 
  5606 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5607 
  5608 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5609 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5610 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5611 
  5612 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5613 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5614 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5615 
  5616 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5617 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5618 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5619 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5620 
  5621 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5622 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5623 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5624 preorder_class.*.
  5625 
  5626 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5627 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5628 
  5629 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5630 
  5631   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5632 
  5633 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5634 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5635 fold_image.
  5636 
  5637 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5638 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5639 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5640 the former will disappear at some point.
  5641 
  5642 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5643 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5644 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5645 
  5646 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5647 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5648 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5649 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5650 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5651 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5652 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5653 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5654 
  5655 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5656 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5657 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5658 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5659 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5660 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5661 
  5662     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5663     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5664     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5665     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5666     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5667     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5668     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5669 
  5670 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5671 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5672 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5673 
  5674 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5675 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5676 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5677 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5678 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5679 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5680 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5681 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5682 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5683 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5684 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5685 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5686 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5687 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5688 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5689 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5690 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5691 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5692 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5693 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5694 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5695 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5696 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5697 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5698 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5699 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5700 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5701 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5702 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5703 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5704 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5705 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5706 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5707 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5708 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5709 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5710 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5711 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5712 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5713 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5714 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5715 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5716 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5717 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5718 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5719 
  5720 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5721 
  5722 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5723 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5724 
  5725 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5726 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5727 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5728 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5729 
  5730 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5731 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5732 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5733 theory RealVector.
  5734 
  5735 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5736 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5737 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5738 and inner products are included.
  5739 
  5740 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5741 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5742 supported.
  5743 
  5744 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5745 first diagonalization argument.
  5746 
  5747 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5748 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5749 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5750 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5751 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5752 
  5753     hide (open) const gcd
  5754     abbreviation gcd where
  5755       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5756     notation (output)
  5757       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5758 
  5759 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5760 
  5761 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5762 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5763 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5764 
  5765 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5766 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5767 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5768 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5769 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5770 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5771 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5772 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5773 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5774 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5775 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5776 cases.
  5777 
  5778 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5779 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5780 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5781 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5782 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5783 
  5784     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5785     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5786     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5787     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5788     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5789 
  5790 
  5791 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5792 
  5793 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5794 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5795 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5796 
  5797 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5798 
  5799 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5800 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5801 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5802 
  5803 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5804 
  5805 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5806 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5807 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5808 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5809 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5810 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5811 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5812 
  5813 
  5814 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5815 
  5816 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5817 
  5818 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5819 theory targets.
  5820 
  5821 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5822 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5823 'inductive' etc.
  5824 
  5825 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5826 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5827 
  5828 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5829 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5830 
  5831 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5832 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5833 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5834 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5835 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5836 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5837 the algorithm W:
  5838 
  5839  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5840  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5841          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5842 
  5843 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5844 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5845 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5846 
  5847 
  5848 *** HOLCF ***
  5849 
  5850 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5851 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5852 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5853 
  5854 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5855 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5856 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5857 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5858 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5859 
  5860 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5861 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5862 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5863 
  5864 
  5865 *** ZF ***
  5866 
  5867 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5868 
  5869 
  5870 *** ML ***
  5871 
  5872 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5873 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5874 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5875 5.2.1!
  5876 
  5877 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5878 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5879 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5880 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5881 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5882 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5883 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5884 
  5885 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5886 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5887 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5888 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5889 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5890 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5891 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5892 
  5893 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5894 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5895 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5896 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5897 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5898 
  5899 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5900 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5901 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5902 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5903 Method.add_method.
  5904 
  5905 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5906 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5907 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5908 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5909 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5910 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5911 
  5912 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5913 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5914 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5915 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5916 examples.
  5917 
  5918 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5919 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5920 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5921 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5922 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5923 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5924 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5925 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5926 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5927 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5928 
  5929 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5930 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5931 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5932 
  5933 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5934 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5935 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5936 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5937 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5938 resort for legacy applications.
  5939 
  5940 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5941 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5942 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5943 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5944 explicit runtime argument.
  5945 
  5946 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5947 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5948 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5949 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5950 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5951 
  5952 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5953 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5954 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5955 theory state.
  5956 
  5957 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5958 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5959 
  5960   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5961   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5962   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5963   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5964   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5965   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5966   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5967   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5968   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5969   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5970 
  5971 
  5972 *** System ***
  5973 
  5974 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5975 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5976 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5977 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5978 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5979 
  5980 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5981 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5982 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5983 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5984 
  5985 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5986 
  5987 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5988 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5989 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5990 prover operations.
  5991 
  5992 
  5993 
  5994 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5995 -------------------------------
  5996 
  5997 *** General ***
  5998 
  5999 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  6000 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  6001 
  6002 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  6003 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  6004 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  6005 provides a proper context already.
  6006 
  6007 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  6008 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  6009 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  6010 
  6011 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  6012 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  6013 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  6014 swap theory imports.
  6015 
  6016 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  6017 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  6018 
  6019 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  6020 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6021 white space without escapes.
  6022 
  6023 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  6024 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  6025 "foo_bar".
  6026 
  6027 
  6028 *** Pure ***
  6029 
  6030 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  6031 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  6032 
  6033 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  6034 There are three ways of invoking it:
  6035 
  6036 (1) unused_thms
  6037      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  6038 
  6039 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  6040      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  6041      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  6042 
  6043 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  6044      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  6045      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  6046      their ancestors.
  6047 
  6048 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  6049 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  6050 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  6051 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  6052 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  6053 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  6054 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  6055 
  6056 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  6057 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  6058 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  6059 
  6060 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  6061 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  6062 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  6063 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  6064 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  6065 
  6066 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  6067 
  6068 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  6069 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  6070 update of theories within ML code.
  6071 
  6072 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  6073 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  6074 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  6075 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  6076 
  6077 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  6078 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  6079 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  6080 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6081 
  6082 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  6083 
  6084 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  6085 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  6086 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  6087 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  6088 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  6089 
  6090 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  6091 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  6092 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  6093 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  6094 situations.
  6095 
  6096 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  6097 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  6098 proof text.
  6099 
  6100 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  6101 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  6102 
  6103 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  6104 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  6105 predicates.
  6106 
  6107 
  6108 *** Document preparation ***
  6109 
  6110 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  6111 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  6112 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  6113 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  6114 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  6115 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  6116 
  6117 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  6118 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  6119 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  6120 
  6121 
  6122 *** HOL ***
  6123 
  6124 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  6125 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  6126 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  6127 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  6128 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  6129 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  6130 
  6131 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  6132 with multithreading.
  6133 
  6134 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  6135 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  6136 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  6137 
  6138 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  6139 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  6140 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  6141 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6142 
  6143 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  6144 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  6145 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  6146 and makes them available separately.  See
  6147 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  6148 
  6149 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  6150 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  6151 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  6152 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  6153 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  6154 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  6155 type and generates all solutions by Prolog-style backward proof using
  6156 the declared rules.
  6157 
  6158 This setup also deals with rules like 
  6159 
  6160   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  6161 
  6162 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  6163 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  6164 
  6165 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  6166 
  6167   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  6168 
  6169   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  6170     definitions on => and bool.
  6171 
  6172   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  6173     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  6174     the following theorems have been renamed:
  6175 
  6176       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  6177       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  6178       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  6179       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  6180       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  6181       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  6182       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  6183       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  6184 
  6185   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  6186     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  6187     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  6188 
  6189   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  6190     The proof pattern
  6191 
  6192       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6193       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  6194 
  6195     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  6196     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  6197 
  6198       have "EX S. P S"
  6199       proof
  6200         show "P S" <...>
  6201       qed
  6202 
  6203   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  6204     The proof pattern
  6205 
  6206       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6207       also have "S = T" <...>
  6208       finally have "P T" .
  6209 
  6210     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  6211     must be replaced by something like
  6212 
  6213       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6214       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  6215       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  6216 
  6217   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  6218     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  6219 
  6220       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  6221 
  6222     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  6223     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  6224     type of the form
  6225 
  6226       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  6227 
  6228     rather than
  6229 
  6230       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  6231 
  6232 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  6233 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  6234 
  6235 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6236 
  6237 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  6238 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  6239 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6240 
  6241 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  6242 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6243 
  6244 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  6245 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6246 
  6247 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  6248 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  6249 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6250 
  6251 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  6252 the same name in theory Orderings:
  6253 
  6254   less_trans
  6255   less_linear
  6256   le_imp_less_or_eq
  6257   le_less_trans
  6258   less_le_trans
  6259   less_not_sym
  6260   less_asym
  6261 
  6262 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  6263 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  6264 and different variable names.