NEWS
author boehmes
Tue Sep 06 18:07:44 2011 +0200 (2011-09-06)
changeset 44753 3c73f4068978
parent 44749 5b1e1432c320
child 44760 19e1c6e922b6
permissions -rw-r--r--
added some examples for pattern and weight annotations
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
    10 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
    11 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
    12 
    13 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
    14 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
    15 usedir option -Q.
    16 
    17 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
    18 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
    19 
    20 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
    21 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
    22 
    23 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
    24 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
    25 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
    26 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
    27 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
    28 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    29 
    30 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
    31 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
    32 
    33   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
    34   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
    35   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
    36   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
    37   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
    38 
    39 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
    40 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    41 
    42 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
    43 configuration options, with more conventional names:
    44 
    45   long_names   ~> names_long
    46   short_names  ~> names_short
    47   unique_names ~> names_unique
    48 
    49 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
    50 
    51   declare [[names_unique = false]]
    52 
    53 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
    54 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
    55 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
    56 
    57 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual provides more formal references in
    58 syntax diagrams.
    59 
    60 * Attribute case_names has been refined: the assumptions in each case can
    61 be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
    62 
    63 
    64 *** HOL ***
    65 
    66 * Classes bot and top require underlying partial order rather than preorder:
    67 uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    68 
    69 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
    70 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for complete
    71 boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas Inf_less_iff,
    72 less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in class complete_linorder.
    73 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def,
    74 Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
    75 Redundant lemmas Inf_singleton, Sup_singleton, Inf_binary, Sup_binary,
    76 INF_eq, SUP_eq, INF_UNIV_range, SUP_UNIV_range, Int_eq_Inter,
    77 INTER_eq_Inter_image, Inter_def, INT_eq, Un_eq_Union, UNION_eq_Union_image,
    78 Union_def, UN_singleton, UN_eq have been discarded.
    79 More consistent and less misunderstandable names:
    80   INFI_def ~> INF_def
    81   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
    82   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
    83   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
    84   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
    85   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
    86   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
    87   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
    88   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
    89   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
    90   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
    91   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
    92   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
    93   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
    94 
    95 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    96 
    97 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems referring
    98 to UNION any longer;  these have been moved to collection UN_ball_bex_simps.
    99 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   100 
   101 * Archimedean_Field.thy:
   102     floor now is defined as parameter of a separate type class floor_ceiling.
   103  
   104 * Finite_Set.thy: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
   105 
   106     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
   107     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
   108     
   109 Both use point-free characterisation; interpretation proofs may need adjustment.
   110 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   111 
   112 * Code generation:
   113   - theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of characters
   114     in the target language.
   115   - commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code instead. 
   116   - method evaluation is legacy, use method eval instead.
   117   - legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default. To activate it, add the following
   118     line in your theory:
   119       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
   120  
   121 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   122 
   123 * Nitpick:
   124   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
   125   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
   126   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
   127     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   128 
   129 * Sledgehammer:
   130   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
   131     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   132   - Added support for SNARK and ToFoF-E on SystemOnTPTP and for simply typed
   133     TPTP problems (TFF).
   134   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound", "max_mono_iters",
   135     and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
   136   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full Types"
   137     Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   138 
   139 * Metis:
   140   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   141   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   142 
   143 * "try":
   144   - Renamed "try_methods" and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and "elim:"
   145     options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   146   - Introduced "try" that not only runs "try_methods" but also "solve_direct",
   147     "sledgehammer", "quickcheck", and "nitpick".
   148 
   149 * Quickcheck:
   150   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
   151     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester)
   152   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
   153     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester)
   154   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
   155     narrowing-based testing.
   156     It requires that the Glasgow Haskell compiler is installed and
   157     its location is known to Isabelle with the environment variable
   158     ISABELLE_GHC.
   159   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
   160     from HOL-Library
   161 
   162 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".
   163 INCOMPATIBILITY. Use partial_function instead.
   164 
   165 * HOL-Probability:
   166   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
   167   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
   168   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended reals.
   169     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   170 
   171 * Old recdef package has been moved to Library/Old_Recdef.thy, where it
   172 must be loaded explicitly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   173 
   174 * Well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has been moved to
   175 Library/Wfrec.thy. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   176 
   177 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to Library/Extended_Nat.
   178 The names of the following types and constants have changed:
   179   inat (type) ~> enat
   180   Fin         ~> enat
   181   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
   182   iSuc        ~> eSuc
   183   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
   184 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
   185 been renamed accordingly.
   186 
   187 * Limits.thy: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
   188 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   189 
   190 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
   191 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
   192 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
   193 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
   194 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
   195 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
   196 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
   197 
   198   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
   199   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
   200   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
   201   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
   202 
   203 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
   204 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
   205 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   206 
   207   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
   208   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
   209   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
   210   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
   211   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
   212   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
   213   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
   214   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
   215   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
   216   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
   217   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
   218   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
   219   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
   220   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
   221   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   222   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
   223   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
   224   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
   225   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
   226   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
   227   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
   228   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
   229   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
   230   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
   231   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
   232   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
   233   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
   234   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
   235   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
   236   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
   237   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
   238   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
   239   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
   240   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
   241   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
   242   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
   243   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
   244   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
   245   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
   246   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
   247   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
   248   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
   249   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
   250   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
   251   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
   252   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
   253   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
   254   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
   255   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
   256   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
   257 
   258 * Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the bounded_linear and
   259 bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in order to reduce the
   260 number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the original names for
   261 distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   262 
   263   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
   264   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
   265   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
   266   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
   267   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
   268   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
   269   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
   270 
   271 * Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
   272 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   273 
   274   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
   275   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
   276   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
   277   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
   278   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
   279   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
   280   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
   281   expi_add ~> exp_add
   282   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
   283   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
   284   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
   285   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
   286   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
   287   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
   288   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
   289   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
   290   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
   291   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   292   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
   293   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
   294   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
   295   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
   296   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
   297   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
   298   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
   299   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
   300   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
   301   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
   302   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
   303   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
   304   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
   305   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
   306   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
   307   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
   308   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
   309   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
   310   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
   311   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
   312   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
   313   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
   314   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
   315   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
   316   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
   317   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
   318   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
   319   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
   320   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
   321   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
   322   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
   323   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
   324   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
   325   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
   326   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
   327   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
   328   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   329   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
   330   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
   331   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
   332   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
   333   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
   334   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
   335 
   336 
   337 *** Document preparation ***
   338 
   339 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators, which are better
   340 avoided in the first place.  Implicit tab-width is 1.
   341 
   342 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
   343 isar-ref manual.
   344 
   345 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its result.
   346 
   347 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
   348 like this:
   349 
   350   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
   351   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
   352 
   353 * New term style "isub" as ad-hoc conversion of variables x1, y23 into
   354 subscripted form x\<^isub>1, y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
   355 
   356 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
   357 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
   358 
   359 
   360 *** ML ***
   361 
   362 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
   363 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
   364 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
   365 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
   366 under external program control.
   367 
   368 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
   369 data, which requires explicit setup.
   370 
   371 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
   372 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
   373 (better known as Proof General).
   374 
   375 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
   376 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
   377 
   378 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
   379 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
   380 
   381 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
   382 (including quotes etc.).
   383 
   384 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
   385 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
   386 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
   387 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
   388 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
   389 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
   390 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
   391 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
   392 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
   393 
   394 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
   395 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
   396 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
   397 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
   398 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
   399 
   400 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
   401 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
   402 
   403 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
   404 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
   405 
   406 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
   407 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
   408 
   409 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
   410 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
   411 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
   412 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
   413 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
   414 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
   415 proper Proof.context.
   416 
   417 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
   418 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.
   419 For example:
   420 
   421   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
   422 
   423 
   424 
   425 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
   426 ----------------------------------
   427 
   428 *** General ***
   429 
   430 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
   431 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
   432 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
   433 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
   434 like this:
   435 
   436   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
   437 
   438 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
   439 
   440 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
   441 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
   442 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
   443 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
   444 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
   445 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
   446 
   447 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
   448 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
   449 the following package declarations:
   450 
   451   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
   452   \usepackage{textcomp}
   453 
   454 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
   455 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
   456 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
   457 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
   458 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
   459 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
   460 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
   461 
   462 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
   463 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
   464 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
   465 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
   466 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
   467 
   468 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
   469 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
   470 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
   471 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
   472 
   473 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
   474 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
   475 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
   476 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
   477 
   478   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
   479 
   480   eta_contract                  eta_contract
   481   show_brackets                 show_brackets
   482   show_sorts                    show_sorts
   483   show_types                    show_types
   484   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
   485   show_consts                   show_consts
   486   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
   487 
   488   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
   489   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
   490   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
   491 
   492   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
   493   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
   494 
   495   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
   496 
   497   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
   498   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
   499   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
   500   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
   501   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
   502 
   503 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
   504 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
   505 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
   506 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
   507 
   508 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
   509 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   510 
   511   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
   512   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
   513 
   514 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
   515 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
   516 float_token.
   517 
   518 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
   519 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
   520 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   521 
   522 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
   523 DejaVu Sans.
   524 
   525 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
   526 
   527 
   528 *** Pure ***
   529 
   530 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
   531 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
   532 time.
   533 
   534 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
   535 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   536 
   537 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
   538 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   539 
   540 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
   541 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
   542 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
   543 command already provided this functionality.
   544 
   545 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
   546 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
   547 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
   548 without interpretations.
   549 
   550 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
   551 in addition to interpretations in theories.
   552 
   553 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
   554 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
   555 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
   556 feature is still required for historical reasons.
   557 
   558 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
   559 'definition' instead.
   560 
   561 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
   562 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
   563 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
   564 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
   565 
   566 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
   567 constructors.
   568 
   569 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
   570 the local file system.
   571 
   572 
   573 *** HOL ***
   574 
   575 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
   576 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
   577 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
   578 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
   579 
   580   declare [[coercion f]]
   581 
   582 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
   583 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
   584 
   585   declare [[coercion_map map]]
   586 
   587 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
   588 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
   589 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
   590 other theories like this:
   591 
   592   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
   593 
   594 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
   595 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
   596 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
   597 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
   598 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
   599 for examples.
   600 
   601 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
   602 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   603 
   604 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
   605 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
   606 
   607 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
   608 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
   609 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
   610 
   611 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
   612 functorial structure of types.
   613 
   614 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
   615 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
   616 
   617 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
   618 languages.
   619 
   620 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
   621 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
   622 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   623 
   624 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
   625 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   626 
   627 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
   628 combinators any longer.
   629 
   630 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
   631 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
   632 
   633 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
   634 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
   635 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
   636 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
   637 
   638   record 'a foo = ...
   639   ...
   640   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
   641 
   642 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
   643 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
   644 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   645 
   646 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
   647 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
   648 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
   649 
   650 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
   651 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
   652 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
   653 
   654 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
   655 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   656 
   657 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
   658 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
   659 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
   660 independently.
   661 
   662 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
   663 counter example search.
   664 
   665 * Sledgehammer:
   666   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
   667     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
   668     sledgehammer").
   669   - Renamed commands:
   670     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
   671     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
   672     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
   673     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   674   - Renamed options:
   675     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
   676     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
   677     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
   678     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
   679     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   680 
   681 * Nitpick:
   682   - Renamed options:
   683     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
   684     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
   685     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   686   - Added support for partial quotient types.
   687   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
   688   - Added "whack" option.
   689   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
   690   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
   691   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
   692   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
   693     higher cardinalities.
   694   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
   695 
   696 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
   697 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
   698 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
   699 
   700     using [[metis_trace = true]]
   701 
   702 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
   703 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
   704 
   705 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
   706 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
   707 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
   708 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
   709 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
   710 "smt_solver".
   711 
   712 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
   713 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
   714 
   715 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
   716 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
   717 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
   718 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   719 
   720 * Changed SMT configuration options:
   721   - Renamed:
   722     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
   723     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
   724     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   725   - Added:
   726     smt_verbose
   727     smt_random_seed
   728     smt_datatypes
   729     smt_infer_triggers
   730     smt_monomorph_limit
   731     cvc3_options
   732     remote_cvc3_options
   733     remote_z3_options
   734     yices_options
   735 
   736 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
   737 header.
   738 
   739 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
   740 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
   741 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
   742 
   743   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
   744 
   745 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   746 
   747 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
   748 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   749 
   750 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   751 
   752 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
   753 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   754 
   755 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
   756 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
   757 
   758 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
   759 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   760 
   761 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
   762 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
   763 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   764 
   765 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   766 
   767 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
   768 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   769 
   770 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
   771 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   772 
   773 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
   774 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
   775 for congruent(2)).
   776 
   777 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
   778 
   779   types
   780     bool ~> HOL.bool
   781     nat ~> Nat.nat
   782 
   783   constants
   784     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
   785     True ~> HOL.True
   786     False ~> HOL.False
   787     op & ~> HOL.conj
   788     op | ~> HOL.disj
   789     op --> ~> HOL.implies
   790     op = ~> HOL.eq
   791     Not ~> HOL.Not
   792     The ~> HOL.The
   793     All ~> HOL.All
   794     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
   795     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
   796     Let ~> HOL.Let
   797     If ~> HOL.If
   798     Ball ~> Set.Ball
   799     Bex ~> Set.Bex
   800     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
   801     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
   802     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
   803     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
   804     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
   805     op : ~> Set.member
   806     Collect ~> Set.Collect
   807 
   808 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   809 
   810 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
   811 
   812     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
   813     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
   814     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
   815     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
   816     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
   817     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
   818     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
   819     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
   820 
   821 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   822 
   823 * More stylized fact names:
   824 
   825   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
   826   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
   827   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
   828   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
   829 
   830 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   831 
   832 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
   833 
   834   constants
   835     null ~> List.null
   836 
   837   facts
   838     mem_iff ~> member_def
   839     null_empty ~> null_def
   840 
   841 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
   842 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
   843 generation.
   844 
   845 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
   846 Haskell code.
   847 
   848 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
   849 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
   850 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   851 
   852 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
   853 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   854 
   855 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
   856 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
   857 
   858 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
   859 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
   860 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   861 
   862 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
   863 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   864 
   865 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
   866 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   867 
   868 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
   869 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
   870 referred to by its qualified name.
   871 
   872   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
   873   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
   874   product ~>  Enum.product
   875 
   876 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
   877 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
   878 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   879 
   880 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
   881 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
   882 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
   883 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   884 
   885 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
   886 sort_key.
   887 
   888 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
   889 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   890 
   891 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
   892 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
   893 instead of finite cartesian products.
   894 
   895   types
   896     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
   897               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
   898               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
   899         (depends on your needs)
   900 
   901   constants
   902      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
   903      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
   904      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
   905 
   906 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
   907 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
   908 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
   909 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   910 
   911 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
   912 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
   913 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
   914 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
   915 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   916 
   917 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
   918 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   919 
   920 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
   921 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
   922 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
   923 
   924 
   925 *** HOL-Algebra ***
   926 
   927 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
   928 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
   929 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
   930 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
   931 compatibility.
   932 
   933 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
   934 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
   935 
   936 
   937 *** HOLCF ***
   938 
   939 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
   940 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
   941 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
   942 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   943 
   944 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
   945 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
   946 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   947 
   948   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
   949   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
   950   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
   951 
   952 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
   953 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
   954 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   955 
   956 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
   957 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
   958 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
   959 domain definition now works:
   960 
   961   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
   962 
   963 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
   964 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
   965 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
   966 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
   967 
   968   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
   969     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
   970 
   971   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
   972 
   973 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
   974 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
   975 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   976 
   977 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
   978 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   979 
   980 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
   981 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
   982 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
   983 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
   984 
   985 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
   986 
   987 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   988 
   989 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   990 
   991 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
   992 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   993 
   994 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
   995 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
   996 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
   997 
   998 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
   999 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  1000 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1001 
  1002 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  1003 still supported as an input translation.
  1004 
  1005 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  1006 
  1007   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  1008   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  1009   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1010   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  1011   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  1012   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  1013   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1014 
  1015 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  1016 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1017 
  1018   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  1019   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  1020   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  1021   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  1022   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  1023   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  1024 
  1025 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  1026 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1027 
  1028 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  1029 
  1030   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  1031   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  1032   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  1033   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  1034 
  1035 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1036 
  1037 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  1038 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1039 
  1040 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  1041 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1042 
  1043   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  1044   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  1045   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  1046   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  1047   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  1048   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  1049   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  1050   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  1051   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  1052   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  1053   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  1054   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  1055   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  1056   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  1057   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  1058   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  1059   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  1060   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  1061   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  1062   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  1063 
  1064 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1065 
  1066   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  1067   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  1068   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  1069   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  1070   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  1071   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  1072   box_less             ~> box_below
  1073   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  1074   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  1075   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  1076   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  1077   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  1078   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  1079   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  1080   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  1081   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  1082   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  1083   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  1084   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  1085   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  1086   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  1087   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  1088   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  1089   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  1090   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  1091   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  1092   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  1093   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  1094   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  1095   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  1096   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  1097   up_less              ~> up_below
  1098   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  1099   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  1100   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  1101   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  1102   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  1103   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  1104   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  1105   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  1106   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  1107   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  1108   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  1109   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  1110   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  1111 
  1112 
  1113 *** FOL and ZF ***
  1114 
  1115 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  1116 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1117 
  1118 
  1119 *** ML ***
  1120 
  1121 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  1122 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  1123 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  1124 
  1125 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  1126 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  1127 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  1128 
  1129 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  1130 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  1131 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  1132 
  1133 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  1134 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  1135 
  1136 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  1137 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  1138 
  1139 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  1140 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  1141 
  1142 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  1143 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  1144 
  1145 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  1146 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  1147 almost all situations.
  1148 
  1149 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  1150 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  1151 Isabelle/ML.
  1152 
  1153 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  1154 meaning.
  1155 
  1156 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  1157 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  1158 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  1159 
  1160 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  1161 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  1162 
  1163 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  1164 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  1165 
  1166 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  1167 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  1168 @{thms} for most purposes.
  1169 
  1170 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  1171 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  1172 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  1173 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  1174 configuration options.
  1175 
  1176 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  1177 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  1178 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  1179 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  1180 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  1181 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  1182 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  1183 
  1184 
  1185 
  1186 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  1187 ---------------------------------
  1188 
  1189 *** General ***
  1190 
  1191 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  1192 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  1193 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  1194 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  1195 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  1196 their full internal name.
  1197 
  1198 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  1199 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  1200 Some hints on upgrading:
  1201 
  1202   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  1203     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  1204     which are independent of this issue.
  1205 
  1206   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  1207     provides the following special forms:
  1208 
  1209       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  1210       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  1211       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  1212 
  1213     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  1214     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  1215     extra variables".
  1216 
  1217     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  1218     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  1219     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  1220     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  1221     "logic".
  1222 
  1223   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  1224     antiquotations:
  1225 
  1226       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  1227       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  1228       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  1229       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  1230 
  1231   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  1232     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  1233     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  1234     antiquotations.
  1235 
  1236 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  1237 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  1238 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  1239 diagnose syntax problems.
  1240 
  1241 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  1242 
  1243 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  1244 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  1245 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  1246 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  1247 
  1248 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  1249 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  1250 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  1251 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1252 
  1253 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  1254 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  1255 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  1256 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  1257 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1258 
  1259 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  1260 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  1261 
  1262 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  1263 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  1264 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  1265 
  1266   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  1267 
  1268 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  1269 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  1270 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  1271 
  1272 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  1273 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  1274 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1275 
  1276 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  1277 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  1278 
  1279 
  1280 *** Pure ***
  1281 
  1282 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  1283 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  1284 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  1285 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  1286 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  1287 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  1288 inspect proof terms.
  1289 
  1290 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  1291 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  1292 are added internally.  For example:
  1293 
  1294   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  1295 
  1296 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  1297 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1298 
  1299 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1300 
  1301 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  1302 'class' instead.
  1303 
  1304 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  1305 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  1306 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1307 
  1308 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  1309 invariants.
  1310 
  1311 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  1312 user space functionality any longer.
  1313 
  1314 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  1315 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  1316 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1317 
  1318 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  1319 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  1320 
  1321 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  1322 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  1323 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  1324 
  1325 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  1326 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  1327 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  1328 
  1329 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  1330 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1331 
  1332 
  1333 *** HOL ***
  1334 
  1335 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  1336 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  1337 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  1338 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  1339 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  1340 
  1341 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  1342 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  1343 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  1344 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  1345 
  1346   fun
  1347     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  1348   where
  1349     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  1350 
  1351   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  1352     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  1353 
  1354   quotient_definition
  1355     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  1356 
  1357 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  1358 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  1359 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  1360 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  1361 
  1362 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  1363 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  1364 
  1365 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  1366 separate HOL-SMT session.
  1367 
  1368 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  1369 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1370 
  1371 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  1372 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  1373 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  1374 
  1375 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  1376 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1377 
  1378 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  1379 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1380 
  1381 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  1382 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1383 
  1384 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  1385 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1386 
  1387 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  1388 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  1389 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1390 
  1391   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  1392   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  1393   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  1394   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  1395   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  1396   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  1397   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  1398   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  1399   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  1400   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  1401   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  1402   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  1403   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  1404   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  1405   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  1406   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  1407   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  1408   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  1409   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  1410   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  1411   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  1412   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  1413   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  1414   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  1415   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  1416   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  1417   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  1418   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  1419   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  1420   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  1421 
  1422 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  1423 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  1424 
  1425 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  1426 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  1427 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  1428 
  1429 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  1430 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  1431 
  1432 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  1433 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1434 
  1435 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  1436 
  1437 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  1438 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1439 
  1440 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  1441 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1442 
  1443 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1444 
  1445 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  1446 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  1447 
  1448 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  1449 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  1450 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  1451 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1452 
  1453 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  1454   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  1455   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  1456   - inverse, divide: Rings
  1457 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1458 
  1459 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  1460 lattices):
  1461 
  1462     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  1463     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  1464 
  1465     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  1466 
  1467     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  1468     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  1469     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  1470     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  1471     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  1472     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  1473     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  1474     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  1475     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  1476     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  1477     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  1478     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  1479     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  1480 
  1481     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  1482     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  1483     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  1484     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  1485     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  1486     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  1487     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  1488     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  1489     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  1490     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  1491     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  1492     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  1493     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  1494     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  1495     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  1496     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  1497     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  1498     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  1499 
  1500   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  1501   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  1502 
  1503     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  1504     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  1505     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  1506     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  1507     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  1508 
  1509 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1510 
  1511 * Refined field classes:
  1512   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  1513     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  1514     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  1515   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  1516 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1517 
  1518 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  1519   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  1520   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  1521   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  1522     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  1523   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  1524     equal_neg_zero.
  1525 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1526 
  1527 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  1528 sets to lattices:
  1529 
  1530   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  1531   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  1532   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  1533   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  1534   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  1535   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  1536   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  1537   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  1538   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  1539   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  1540 
  1541 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  1542 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  1543 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  1544 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  1545 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  1546 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1547 
  1548 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  1549 multiset order:
  1550 
  1551   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  1552     <= and <;
  1553   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  1554     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  1555     multiset_order;
  1556   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  1557     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  1558     generation;
  1559   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  1560     if needed.
  1561 
  1562 Renamed:
  1563 
  1564   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  1565   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  1566   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  1567 
  1568 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1569 
  1570 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  1571 
  1572 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  1573 
  1574 * Theory List: added transpose.
  1575 
  1576 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  1577 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  1578 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1579 
  1580   Constants:
  1581   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  1582   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  1583   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  1584   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  1585   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  1586   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  1587   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  1588   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  1589   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  1590   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  1591   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  1592   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  1593   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  1594 
  1595   Lemmas:
  1596   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  1597   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  1598   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  1599   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  1600   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  1601   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  1602   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  1603   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  1604   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  1605   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  1606   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  1607   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  1608   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  1609 
  1610 * Sledgehammer:
  1611   - Renamed ATP commands:
  1612     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  1613     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  1614     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  1615     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  1616     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  1617     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1618   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  1619   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  1620     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  1621   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  1622     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  1623     is still experimental.)
  1624   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  1625     full-typed mode.
  1626   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  1627 
  1628 * Nitpick:
  1629   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  1630   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  1631   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  1632     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  1633   - Added support for quotient types.
  1634   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  1635     constructs.
  1636   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  1637     "termination" proofs).
  1638   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  1639   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  1640   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  1641   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  1642     record getters.
  1643   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  1644   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  1645   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  1646   - Added "atoms" option.
  1647   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  1648     problems.
  1649   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  1650     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  1651     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1652   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  1653     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1654   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1655 
  1656 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  1657   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  1658   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  1659   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  1660   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  1661   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  1662   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  1663   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  1664   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  1665   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1666 
  1667 
  1668 *** HOLCF ***
  1669 
  1670 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  1671 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  1672 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1673 
  1674 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  1675 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  1676 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  1677 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1678 
  1679 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  1680 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  1681 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  1682 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  1683 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1684 
  1685 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  1686 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  1687 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1688 
  1689 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  1690 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1691 
  1692   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  1693   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  1694 
  1695 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  1696 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1697 
  1698   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  1699   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  1700   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  1701   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  1702   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  1703 
  1704 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  1705 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1706 
  1707   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  1708   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  1709   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  1710 
  1711 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  1712 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  1713 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1714 
  1715 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  1716 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1717 
  1718 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1719 
  1720 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  1721 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1722 
  1723 
  1724 *** ML ***
  1725 
  1726 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  1727 
  1728     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  1729     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  1730 
  1731     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  1732     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  1733     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  1734     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  1735 
  1736     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  1737     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  1738     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  1739 
  1740 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  1741 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  1742 
  1743 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  1744 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  1745 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  1746 
  1747 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  1748 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  1749 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  1750 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  1751 
  1752 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  1753 the context or even global references.
  1754 
  1755 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  1756 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  1757 
  1758 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  1759 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  1760 
  1761   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  1762   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  1763   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  1764   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  1765   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  1766   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  1767   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  1768   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  1769   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  1770   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  1771 
  1772 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  1773 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  1774 
  1775 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  1776 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  1777 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  1778 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  1779 pass the proper local context through the code!
  1780 
  1781 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  1782 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  1783 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  1784 Theory_Data version.
  1785 
  1786 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  1787 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  1788 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  1789 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  1790 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  1791 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  1792 explicitly in rare situations.
  1793 
  1794 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  1795 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  1796 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1797 
  1798 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  1799 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1800 
  1801 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  1802 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  1803 quite rare).
  1804 
  1805 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  1806 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1807 
  1808 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  1809 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  1810 terms.
  1811 
  1812 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  1813 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  1814 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  1815 
  1816 
  1817 *** System ***
  1818 
  1819 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  1820 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  1821 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  1822 
  1823 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  1824 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  1825 respectively.
  1826 
  1827 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  1828 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  1829 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  1830 prefers 64 bit if available:
  1831 
  1832   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  1833 
  1834 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  1835 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  1836 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  1837 component.
  1838 
  1839 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  1840 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  1841 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  1842 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  1843 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  1844 the user for manual installation.
  1845 
  1846 
  1847 
  1848 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  1849 -------------------------------------
  1850 
  1851 *** General ***
  1852 
  1853 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  1854 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  1855 
  1856 
  1857 *** Pure ***
  1858 
  1859 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  1860 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  1861 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  1862 
  1863 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  1864 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  1865 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  1866 
  1867 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  1868 interpretation.
  1869 
  1870 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  1871 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1872 
  1873 
  1874 *** Document preparation ***
  1875 
  1876 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  1877 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  1878 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  1879 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  1880 
  1881 
  1882 *** HOL ***
  1883 
  1884 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  1885 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  1886 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  1887 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  1888 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  1889 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  1890 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  1891 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  1892 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  1893 
  1894 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  1895 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  1896 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  1897 
  1898 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  1899 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  1900 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  1901 
  1902 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  1903 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  1904 
  1905 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  1906 
  1907 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  1908 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  1909 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  1910 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  1911 
  1912 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  1913 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  1914 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  1915 "mirabelle" utility.
  1916 
  1917 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  1918 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  1919 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  1920 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  1921 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  1922 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  1923 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  1924 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  1925 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  1926 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  1927 
  1928 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  1929 procedure only.
  1930 
  1931 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  1932 
  1933 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  1934 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  1935 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  1936 that fail later.
  1937 
  1938 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  1939 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  1940 
  1941 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  1942 the same method as the approximation method.
  1943 
  1944 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  1945 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  1946 series expansion.
  1947 
  1948 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  1949 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  1950 
  1951 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  1952 reals.
  1953 
  1954 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  1955 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  1956 
  1957 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  1958 fixpoint theorem.
  1959 
  1960 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  1961   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  1962     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  1963   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  1964     accordingly
  1965   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  1966     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  1967   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  1968     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  1969 
  1970 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  1971 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  1972 lattice.
  1973 
  1974 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  1975 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  1976 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  1977 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  1978 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  1979 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  1980 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1981 
  1982 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  1983   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  1984     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  1985   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  1986     le_inf_iff
  1987   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  1988     sup_aci)
  1989   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  1990   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  1991   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  1992     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  1993     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  1994     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  1995     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  1996     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  1997     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  1998     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  1999     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  2000     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  2001     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  2002   - authentic syntax for
  2003     Set.Pow
  2004     Set.image
  2005   - mere abbreviations:
  2006     Set.empty               (for bot)
  2007     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  2008     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  2009     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  2010     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  2011     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  2012     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  2013     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  2014   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  2015 
  2016 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  2017 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  2018 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  2019 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  2020 
  2021 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  2022 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  2023 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2024 
  2025 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  2026 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2027 
  2028 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  2029 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  2030 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  2031 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2032 
  2033 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  2034 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2035 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  2036 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  2037 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  2038 
  2039 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  2040 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  2041 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2042 
  2043 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  2044 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2045 
  2046 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  2047 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  2048 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  2049 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  2050 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  2051 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  2052 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  2053 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2054 
  2055 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  2056     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  2057     code_post       replaces    code post
  2058     etc.
  2059   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2060 
  2061 * Renamed methods:
  2062     sizechange -> size_change
  2063     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  2064   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2065 
  2066 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  2067 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  2068 
  2069 * Renamed theorems:
  2070     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  2071     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  2072     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  2073     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  2074     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  2075   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2076 
  2077 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  2078 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2079 
  2080 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  2081 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2082 
  2083 
  2084 *** HOLCF ***
  2085 
  2086 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  2087 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  2088 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  2089 
  2090 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  2091 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  2092 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  2093 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  2094 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  2095 
  2096 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  2097 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  2098 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  2099 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  2100 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  2101 
  2102 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  2103 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  2104 constructor are pre-configured.
  2105 
  2106 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  2107 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  2108 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  2109 
  2110 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  2111 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  2112 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  2113 as well.)
  2114 
  2115 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  2116 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  2117 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  2118 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  2119 examples.
  2120 
  2121 
  2122 *** ML ***
  2123 
  2124 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  2125 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  2126 
  2127 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  2128 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  2129 position, logical grouping etc.
  2130 
  2131 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  2132 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  2133 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  2134 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  2135 
  2136 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  2137 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  2138 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  2139 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  2140 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  2141 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  2142 
  2143 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  2144 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  2145 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  2146 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  2147 experiments with references.
  2148 
  2149 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  2150 parallel tactical reasoning.
  2151 
  2152 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  2153 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  2154 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  2155 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  2156 
  2157 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  2158 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  2159 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  2160 
  2161 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  2162 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  2163 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2164 
  2165 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2166 
  2167 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  2168 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2169 
  2170 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  2171 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  2172 
  2173 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  2174 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  2175 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  2176 
  2177 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  2178 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  2179 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2180 
  2181 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  2182 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  2183 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  2184 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2185 
  2186 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2187 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  2188 instead of global theory.
  2189 
  2190 
  2191 *** System ***
  2192 
  2193 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  2194 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  2195 usedir option -q.
  2196 
  2197 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  2198 also the system manual.
  2199 
  2200 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  2201 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  2202 
  2203 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  2204 this is always enabled.
  2205 
  2206 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  2207 
  2208 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  2209 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  2210 currently supported on Linux only.
  2211 
  2212 
  2213 
  2214 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  2215 --------------------------------
  2216 
  2217 *** General ***
  2218 
  2219 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  2220 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  2221 
  2222   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  2223     "isatool."
  2224 
  2225   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  2226     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  2227 
  2228   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  2229     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  2230 
  2231 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  2232 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  2233 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  2234 
  2235 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  2236 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  2237 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  2238 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  2239 via "isabelle emacs".
  2240 
  2241 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  2242 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  2243 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  2244 
  2245 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  2246 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  2247 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  2248 
  2249 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  2250 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  2251 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  2252 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  2253 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  2254 
  2255 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  2256 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  2257 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  2258 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  2259 
  2260 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  2261 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  2262 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  2263 
  2264 
  2265 *** Pure ***
  2266 
  2267 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  2268 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  2269 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  2270 
  2271 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  2272 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  2273 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  2274 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  2275 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  2276 
  2277 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  2278 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  2279 useful in locale declarations.
  2280 
  2281 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  2282 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  2283 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  2284 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  2285 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  2286 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  2287 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  2288 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  2289 no longer generated.
  2290 
  2291 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  2292 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  2293 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  2294 
  2295 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  2296 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  2297 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  2298 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  2299 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  2300 
  2301 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2302 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  2303 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  2304 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  2305 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  2306 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  2307 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  2308 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  2309 
  2310 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  2311 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  2312 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  2313 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  2314 
  2315 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2316 
  2317 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  2318 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  2319 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  2320 
  2321 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  2322 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2323 
  2324 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  2325 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  2326 in HOL, write
  2327 
  2328     class foo = ...
  2329 
  2330 instead of
  2331 
  2332     class foo = type + ...
  2333 
  2334 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  2335 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2336 
  2337 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  2338 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  2339 
  2340 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  2341 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  2342 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  2343 
  2344 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  2345 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  2346 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  2347 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  2348 directly in regular applications.
  2349 
  2350 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  2351 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  2352 
  2353 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  2354 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  2355 
  2356 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  2357 theory context.
  2358 
  2359 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  2360 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2361 
  2362 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  2363 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  2364 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  2365 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  2366 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  2367 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  2368 
  2369   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  2370 
  2371 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  2372 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  2373 normalization.
  2374 
  2375 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  2376 addressing etc.
  2377 
  2378 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  2379 
  2380   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  2381   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  2382 
  2383 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2384 
  2385   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  2386      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  2387      parts of the code generator framework).
  2388 
  2389   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  2390      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  2391      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  2392 
  2393 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2394 
  2395 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  2396 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2397 
  2398 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  2399 patterns, e.g.
  2400 
  2401     find_consts "_ => bool"
  2402 
  2403 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  2404 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  2405 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  2406 hyphen:
  2407 
  2408     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  2409 
  2410 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  2411 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  2412 
  2413 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  2414 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  2415 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  2416 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  2417 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  2418 higher-order unification.
  2419 
  2420 
  2421 *** Document preparation ***
  2422 
  2423 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  2424 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  2425 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  2426 
  2427 
  2428 *** HOL ***
  2429 
  2430 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  2431 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  2432 
  2433 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  2434 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  2435 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  2436 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  2437 Main, as before.
  2438 
  2439 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  2440 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  2441 
  2442 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  2443 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  2444 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  2445 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  2446 
  2447 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  2448 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  2449 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  2450 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  2451 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  2452 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  2453 
  2454 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  2455 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  2456 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  2457 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  2458 
  2459 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  2460 menu.
  2461 
  2462 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  2463 (contains the empty clause).
  2464 
  2465 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  2466 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  2467 
  2468 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  2469 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  2470 
  2471 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  2472 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  2473 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2474 
  2475 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  2476 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  2477 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  2478 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  2479 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  2480 
  2481 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  2482 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  2483 
  2484 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  2485 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  2486 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  2487 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  2488 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  2489 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  2490 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  2491 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  2492 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  2493 
  2494 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  2495 
  2496 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  2497 
  2498 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  2499 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2500 
  2501 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  2502 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  2503 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  2504 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  2505 
  2506 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  2507 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  2508 
  2509     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  2510     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  2511     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  2512     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  2513     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  2514     Union ~>    Set.Union
  2515     {} ~>       Set.empty
  2516     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  2517 
  2518 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  2519 theory Set.
  2520 
  2521 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  2522 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  2523 
  2524 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  2525 
  2526 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  2527 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  2528 
  2529 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  2530 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  2531 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  2532 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  2533 allowed. For examples see
  2534 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  2535 
  2536 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  2537 
  2538 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  2539 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2540 
  2541 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  2542 structure:
  2543 
  2544     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  2545     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2546     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2547     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2548     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2549     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2550     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2551     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2552     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2553     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2554     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2555     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2556     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2557     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2558     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2559     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2560     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2561     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2562     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2563     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2564     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2565     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2566     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2567     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2568     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2569     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2570     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2571     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2572     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2573     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2574     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2575     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  2576     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2577 
  2578     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2579     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2580     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2581     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  2582     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2583     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2584     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2585     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2586     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2587     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2588 
  2589     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2590     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2591     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2592     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2593     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2594     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2595 
  2596 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  2597 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  2598 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  2599 
  2600 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  2601 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  2602 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  2603 
  2604 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  2605 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2606 
  2607 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  2608 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  2609 
  2610 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  2611 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  2612 proofs, e.g.
  2613 
  2614   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  2615 
  2616 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  2617 
  2618 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  2619 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  2620 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2621 
  2622 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  2623 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  2624 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2625 
  2626 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  2627 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  2628 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  2629 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2630 
  2631 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  2632 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  2633 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  2634 preorder_class.*.
  2635 
  2636 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  2637 "diag" to "Id_on".
  2638 
  2639 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  2640 
  2641   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  2642 
  2643 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  2644 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  2645 fold_image.
  2646 
  2647 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  2648 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  2649 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  2650 the former will disappear at some point.
  2651 
  2652 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  2653 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  2654 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  2655 
  2656 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  2657 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  2658 realpow_0      -> power_0
  2659 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  2660 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  2661 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  2662 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  2663 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  2664 
  2665 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  2666 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  2667 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  2668 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  2669 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  2670 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  2671 
  2672     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  2673     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  2674     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  2675     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  2676     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  2677     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  2678     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  2679 
  2680 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  2681 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2682 rename old lemmas as follows:
  2683 
  2684 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  2685 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  2686 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  2687 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  2688 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  2689 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  2690 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  2691 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  2692 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  2693 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  2694 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  2695 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  2696 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  2697 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  2698 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  2699 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  2700 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  2701 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  2702 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  2703 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  2704 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  2705 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  2706 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  2707 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  2708 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  2709 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  2710 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  2711 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  2712 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  2713 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  2714 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  2715 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  2716 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  2717 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  2718 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  2719 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  2720 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  2721 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  2722 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  2723 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  2724 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  2725 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  2726 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  2727 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  2728 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  2729 
  2730 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2731 
  2732 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  2733 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  2734 
  2735 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  2736 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  2737 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  2738 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  2739 
  2740 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  2741 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  2742 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  2743 theory RealVector.
  2744 
  2745 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  2746 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  2747 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  2748 and inner products are included.
  2749 
  2750 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  2751 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  2752 supported.
  2753 
  2754 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  2755 first diagonalization argument.
  2756 
  2757 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  2758 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  2759 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  2760 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2761 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  2762 
  2763     hide (open) const gcd
  2764     abbreviation gcd where
  2765       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  2766     notation (output)
  2767       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  2768 
  2769 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  2770 
  2771 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  2772 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  2773 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2774 
  2775 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  2776 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  2777 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  2778 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  2779 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  2780 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  2781 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  2782 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  2783 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  2784 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  2785 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  2786 cases.
  2787 
  2788 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  2789 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  2790 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  2791 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  2792 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  2793 
  2794     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  2795     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  2796     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  2797     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  2798     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  2799 
  2800 
  2801 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2802 
  2803 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  2804 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  2805 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  2806 
  2807 * New theory of factorial domains.
  2808 
  2809 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  2810 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  2811 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  2812 
  2813 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  2814 
  2815 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  2816 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  2817 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  2818 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  2819 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  2820 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  2821 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  2822 
  2823 
  2824 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  2825 
  2826 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  2827 
  2828 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  2829 theory targets.
  2830 
  2831 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  2832 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  2833 'inductive' etc.
  2834 
  2835 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  2836 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  2837 
  2838 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  2839 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  2840 
  2841 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  2842 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  2843 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  2844 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  2845 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  2846 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  2847 the algorithm W:
  2848 
  2849  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  2850  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  2851          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  2852 
  2853 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  2854 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  2855 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  2856 
  2857 
  2858 *** HOLCF ***
  2859 
  2860 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  2861 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  2862 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  2863 
  2864 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  2865 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  2866 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  2867 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  2868 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2869 
  2870 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  2871 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  2872 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2873 
  2874 
  2875 *** ZF ***
  2876 
  2877 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  2878 
  2879 
  2880 *** ML ***
  2881 
  2882 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  2883 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  2884 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  2885 5.2.1!
  2886 
  2887 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  2888 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  2889 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  2890 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  2891 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  2892 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  2893 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  2894 
  2895 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  2896 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  2897 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  2898 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  2899 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  2900 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  2901 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  2902 
  2903 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  2904 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  2905 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  2906 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  2907 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  2908 
  2909 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  2910 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  2911 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  2912 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  2913 Method.add_method.
  2914 
  2915 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  2916 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  2917 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  2918 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  2919 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  2920 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  2921 
  2922 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  2923 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  2924 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  2925 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  2926 examples.
  2927 
  2928 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  2929 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  2930 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  2931 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  2932 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  2933 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  2934 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  2935 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  2936 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  2937 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  2938 
  2939 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  2940 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  2941 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  2942 
  2943 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  2944 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  2945 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  2946 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  2947 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  2948 resort for legacy applications.
  2949 
  2950 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  2951 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  2952 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  2953 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  2954 explicit runtime argument.
  2955 
  2956 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  2957 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  2958 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  2959 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  2960 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2961 
  2962 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  2963 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  2964 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  2965 theory state.
  2966 
  2967 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  2968 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  2969 
  2970   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  2971   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  2972   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  2973   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  2974   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  2975   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  2976   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  2977   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  2978   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  2979   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  2980 
  2981 
  2982 *** System ***
  2983 
  2984 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  2985 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  2986 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  2987 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  2988 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  2989 
  2990 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  2991 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  2992 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  2993 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  2994 
  2995 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  2996 
  2997 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  2998 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  2999 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  3000 prover operations.
  3001 
  3002 
  3003 
  3004 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  3005 -------------------------------
  3006 
  3007 *** General ***
  3008 
  3009 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  3010 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  3011 
  3012 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  3013 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  3014 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  3015 provides a proper context already.
  3016 
  3017 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  3018 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  3019 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  3020 
  3021 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  3022 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  3023 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  3024 swap theory imports.
  3025 
  3026 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  3027 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  3028 
  3029 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  3030 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3031 white space without escapes.
  3032 
  3033 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  3034 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  3035 "foo_bar".
  3036 
  3037 
  3038 *** Pure ***
  3039 
  3040 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  3041 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  3042 
  3043 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  3044 There are three ways of invoking it:
  3045 
  3046 (1) unused_thms
  3047      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  3048 
  3049 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  3050      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  3051      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  3052 
  3053 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  3054      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  3055      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  3056      their ancestors.
  3057 
  3058 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  3059 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  3060 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  3061 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  3062 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  3063 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  3064 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  3065 
  3066 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  3067 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  3068 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  3069 
  3070 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  3071 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  3072 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  3073 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  3074 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  3075 
  3076 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  3077 
  3078 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  3079 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  3080 update of theories within ML code.
  3081 
  3082 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  3083 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  3084 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  3085 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  3086 
  3087 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  3088 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  3089 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  3090 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3091 
  3092 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  3093 
  3094 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  3095 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  3096 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  3097 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  3098 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  3099 
  3100 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  3101 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  3102 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  3103 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  3104 situations.
  3105 
  3106 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  3107 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  3108 proof text.
  3109 
  3110 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  3111 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  3112 
  3113 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  3114 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  3115 predicates.
  3116 
  3117 
  3118 *** Document preparation ***
  3119 
  3120 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  3121 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  3122 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  3123 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  3124 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  3125 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  3126 
  3127 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  3128 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  3129 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  3130 
  3131 
  3132 *** HOL ***
  3133 
  3134 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  3135 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  3136 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  3137 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  3138 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  3139 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  3140 
  3141 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  3142 with multithreading.
  3143 
  3144 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  3145 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  3146 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  3147 
  3148 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  3149 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  3150 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  3151 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3152 
  3153 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  3154 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  3155 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  3156 and makes them available separately.  See
  3157 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  3158 
  3159 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  3160 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  3161 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  3162 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  3163 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  3164 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  3165 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  3166 the declared rules.
  3167 
  3168 This setup also deals with rules like 
  3169 
  3170   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  3171 
  3172 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  3173 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  3174 
  3175 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  3176 
  3177   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  3178 
  3179   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  3180     definitions on => and bool.
  3181 
  3182   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  3183     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  3184     the following theorems have been renamed:
  3185 
  3186       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  3187       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  3188       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  3189       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  3190       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  3191       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  3192       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  3193       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  3194 
  3195   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  3196     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  3197     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  3198 
  3199   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  3200     The proof pattern
  3201 
  3202       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  3203       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  3204 
  3205     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  3206     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  3207 
  3208       have "EX S. P S"
  3209       proof
  3210         show "P S" <...>
  3211       qed
  3212 
  3213   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  3214     The proof pattern
  3215 
  3216       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  3217       also have "S = T" <...>
  3218       finally have "P T" .
  3219 
  3220     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  3221     must be replaced by something like
  3222 
  3223       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  3224       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  3225       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  3226 
  3227   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  3228     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  3229 
  3230       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  3231 
  3232     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  3233     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  3234     type of the form
  3235 
  3236       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  3237 
  3238     rather than
  3239 
  3240       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  3241 
  3242 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  3243 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  3244 
  3245 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3246 
  3247 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  3248 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  3249 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3250 
  3251 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  3252 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3253 
  3254 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  3255 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3256 
  3257 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  3258 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  3259 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3260 
  3261 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  3262 the same name in theory Orderings:
  3263 
  3264   less_trans
  3265   less_linear
  3266   le_imp_less_or_eq
  3267   le_less_trans
  3268   less_le_trans
  3269   less_not_sym
  3270   less_asym
  3271 
  3272 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  3273 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  3274 and different variable names.
  3275 
  3276 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  3277 
  3278 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  3279 finite maps.
  3280 
  3281 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  3282 
  3283 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  3284 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  3285 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  3286 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  3287 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  3288 accordingly.
  3289 
  3290 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  3291 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  3292 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  3293 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  3294 
  3295 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  3296 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  3297 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  3298 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  3299 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  3300 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3301 
  3302 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  3303 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3304 
  3305 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  3306 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  3307 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  3308 
  3309 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  3310 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3311 
  3312 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  3313 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  3314 
  3315 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  3316 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3317 
  3318 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  3319 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3320 
  3321 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  3322 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  3323 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3324 
  3325 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  3326 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3327 
  3328 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  3329 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  3330 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  3331 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  3332 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  3333 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3334 
  3335 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  3336 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  3337 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  3338 
  3339 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  3340 
  3341 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  3342 
  3343 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  3344 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  3345 well-orders on sets and on types.
  3346 
  3347 
  3348 *** ZF ***
  3349 
  3350 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  3351 same session:
  3352 
  3353   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  3354   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  3355   Int       -> Int_ZF
  3356   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  3357   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  3358   List      -> List_ZF
  3359   Main      -> Main_ZF
  3360 
  3361 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  3362 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  3363 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  3364 
  3365 
  3366 *** ML ***
  3367 
  3368 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  3369 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  3370 
  3371 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  3372 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  3373 
  3374 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  3375 
  3376 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  3377 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  3378 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  3379 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  3380 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3381 
  3382 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  3383 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  3384 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  3385 
  3386 
  3387 *** System ***
  3388 
  3389 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  3390 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  3391 
  3392 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  3393 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  3394 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  3395 
  3396 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  3397 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  3398 
  3399 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  3400 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  3401 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  3402 
  3403 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  3404 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  3405 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  3406 
  3407 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  3408 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  3409 
  3410 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  3411 way of changing the user's settings is via
  3412 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  3413 script.
  3414 
  3415 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  3416 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  3417 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  3418 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  3419 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  3420 
  3421 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  3422 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  3423 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  3424 
  3425 
  3426 
  3427 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  3428 -----------------------------------
  3429 
  3430 *** General ***
  3431 
  3432 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  3433 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  3434 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3435 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  3436 
  3437 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  3438 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  3439 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3440 
  3441 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  3442 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  3443 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  3444 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3445 
  3446 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  3447 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  3448 quotes.
  3449 
  3450 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  3451 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  3452 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  3453 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  3454 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  3455 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  3456 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  3457 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  3458 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  3459 
  3460 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  3461 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  3462 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  3463 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  3464 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  3465 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  3466 
  3467 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  3468 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  3469 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  3470 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  3471 
  3472 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  3473 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  3474 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  3475 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  3476 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  3477 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  3478 
  3479 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  3480 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  3481 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  3482 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  3483 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  3484 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  3485 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  3486 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  3487 
  3488 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  3489 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  3490 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  3491 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  3492 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  3493 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  3494 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  3495 
  3496 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  3497 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  3498 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  3499 
  3500 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  3501 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  3502 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  3503 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  3504 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  3505 limit is imposed.
  3506 
  3507 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  3508 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  3509 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  3510 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  3511 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  3512 and scalability.
  3513 
  3514 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  3515 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  3516 
  3517 
  3518 *** Document preparation ***
  3519 
  3520 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  3521 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  3522 current context.
  3523 
  3524 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  3525 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  3526 
  3527 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  3528 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  3529 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  3530 
  3531 
  3532 *** Pure ***
  3533 
  3534 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  3535 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  3536 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  3537 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  3538 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  3539 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  3540 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  3541 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  3542 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  3543 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  3544 
  3545 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  3546 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  3547 sketch:
  3548 
  3549     internal compilation:
  3550         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  3551     writing SML code to a file:
  3552         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  3553     writing OCaml code to a file:
  3554         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  3555     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  3556         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  3557 
  3558     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  3559         method ``eval''
  3560 
  3561 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  3562 
  3563 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  3564 
  3565     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  3566     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  3567     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  3568     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  3569 
  3570 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  3571 
  3572     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  3573       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  3574 
  3575     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  3576       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  3577 
  3578     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  3579       {(target)}+
  3580         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  3581 
  3582     code_class <and_list of classes>
  3583       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  3584         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  3585 
  3586 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  3587 
  3588 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  3589 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  3590 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  3591 codegen".
  3592 
  3593 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  3594 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  3595 annotations).
  3596 
  3597 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  3598 syntax.
  3599 
  3600 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  3601 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  3602 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  3603 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  3604 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  3605 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  3606 
  3607 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  3608 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  3609 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  3610 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  3611 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  3612 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  3613 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  3614 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  3615 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  3616 equations, see section "definitions".
  3617 
  3618 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  3619 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  3620 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  3621 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  3622 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  3623 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  3624 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  3625 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  3626 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  3627 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  3628 
  3629 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  3630 configuration options:
  3631 
  3632   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  3633   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  3634   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  3635   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  3636   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  3637   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  3638   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  3639   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  3640   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  3641 
  3642 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  3643 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  3644 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  3645 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  3646 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  3647 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  3648 order.
  3649 
  3650 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  3651 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  3652 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  3653 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  3654 context encountered later on.
  3655 
  3656 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  3657 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  3658 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  3659 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  3660 
  3661 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  3662 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  3663 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  3664 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  3665 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  3666 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  3667 
  3668 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  3669 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  3670 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  3671 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  3672 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  3673 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  3674 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  3675 more permissive.
  3676 
  3677 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  3678 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  3679 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  3680 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  3681 maintainability of proof texts.
  3682 
  3683 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  3684 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  3685 
  3686   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  3687   then guess x and y by clarify
  3688 
  3689 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  3690 proof tools being involved here.
  3691 
  3692 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  3693 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  3694 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  3695 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  3696 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  3697 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  3698 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  3699 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  3700 
  3701 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  3702 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  3703 certain special cases of literal facts:
  3704 
  3705   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  3706   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  3707   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  3708   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  3709 
  3710 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  3711 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  3712 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  3713 
  3714 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  3715 both named and unnamed ones.
  3716 
  3717 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  3718 
  3719   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  3720 
  3721 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  3722 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  3723 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  3724 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  3725 
  3726 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  3727 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  3728 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  3729 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  3730 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  3731 
  3732 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  3733 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  3734 
  3735 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  3736 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  3737 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  3738 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  3739 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  3740 originally first one.
  3741 
  3742 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  3743 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  3744 expected.
  3745 
  3746 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  3747 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  3748 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  3749 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  3750 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  3751 
  3752   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3753     assumes "EX x. P x"
  3754     obtains x where "P x"
  3755 
  3756   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3757     assumes "A & B"
  3758     obtains A and B
  3759 
  3760   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3761     assumes "A | B"
  3762     obtains
  3763       A
  3764     | B
  3765 
  3766 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  3767 explicitly:
  3768 
  3769   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3770     obtains "~ thesis"
  3771 
  3772   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3773     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  3774 
  3775 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  3776 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  3777 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  3778 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  3779 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  3780 case_names).
  3781 
  3782 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  3783 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  3784 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  3785 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  3786 
  3787 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  3788 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  3789 top-level lemma.
  3790 
  3791 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  3792 introduction rule (default "that").
  3793 
  3794 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3795 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  3796 to occur.
  3797 
  3798 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  3799 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  3800 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  3801 representations independently of name spaces.
  3802 
  3803 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  3804 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  3805 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3806 
  3807 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  3808 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  3809 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  3810 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  3811 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  3812 current context.
  3813 
  3814 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  3815 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  3816 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  3817 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  3818 
  3819   axiomatization
  3820     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  3821     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  3822 
  3823   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  3824   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  3825 
  3826   abbreviation
  3827     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  3828     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  3829 
  3830 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  3831 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  3832 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  3833 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  3834 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  3835 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  3836 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  3837 
  3838 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  3839 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  3840 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  3841 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  3842 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  3843 
  3844 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  3845 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  3846 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  3847 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  3848 
  3849 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  3850 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  3851 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  3852 
  3853   definition "K x _ = x"
  3854 
  3855   inductive conj for A B
  3856   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  3857 
  3858 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  3859 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  3860 abbreviations on output.
  3861 
  3862 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  3863 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  3864 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  3865 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  3866 
  3867 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  3868 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  3869 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  3870 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  3871 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  3872 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  3873 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  3874 
  3875 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  3876 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  3877 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  3878 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  3879 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  3880 
  3881 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  3882 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  3883 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  3884 
  3885 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  3886 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  3887 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  3888 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  3889 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  3890 
  3891   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  3892     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  3893 
  3894 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  3895 definition specification element in the context of locale
  3896 partial_order.
  3897 
  3898 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  3899 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  3900 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  3901 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  3902 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  3903 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  3904 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  3905 examples.
  3906 
  3907 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  3908 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  3909 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  3910 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  3911 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  3912 
  3913 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  3914 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  3915 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  3916 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  3917 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  3918 
  3919   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  3920   (induct set: foo bar)
  3921   (induct pred: foo bar)
  3922   (induct type: foo bar)
  3923 
  3924 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  3925 new format.
  3926 
  3927 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  3928 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  3929 
  3930 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  3931 considered a legacy feature.
  3932 
  3933 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  3934 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3935 
  3936 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  3937 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  3938 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  3939 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  3940   
  3941 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  3942 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  3943 manipulating the claset.
  3944 
  3945 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  3946 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  3947 least one premise.
  3948 
  3949 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  3950 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  3951 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  3952 rule steps.
  3953 
  3954 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  3955 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  3956 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  3957 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  3958 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  3959 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  3960 
  3961 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  3962 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  3963 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  3964 
  3965 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  3966 the graph browser tool.
  3967 
  3968 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  3969 default; use '!' option for full details.
  3970 
  3971 
  3972 *** HOL ***
  3973 
  3974 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  3975 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  3976 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  3977 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  3978 multi-threading.
  3979   
  3980 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  3981 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  3982 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  3983 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  3984 work with multi-threading.
  3985 
  3986 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  3987 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  3988 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  3989 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  3990 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  3991 
  3992 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  3993 
  3994 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  3995 equality.
  3996 
  3997 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  3998 the new 'class' package:
  3999 
  4000     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  4001     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  4002     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  4003     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  4004     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  4005     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  4006     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  4007     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  4008     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  4009     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  4010     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  4011     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  4012     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  4013     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  4014     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  4015     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  4016     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  4017     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  4018     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  4019     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  4020 
  4021 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  4022 
  4023 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  4024 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  4025 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  4026 names.
  4027 
  4028 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  4029 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  4030 
  4031 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  4032 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  4033 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  4034 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  4035 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  4036 
  4037 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  4038 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  4039 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  4040 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  4041 
  4042 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  4043 
  4044 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  4045 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  4046 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  4047 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  4048 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4049 
  4050 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  4051 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4052 
  4053 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  4054 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  4055 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4056 
  4057 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  4058 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  4059 
  4060 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  4061 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  4062 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  4063 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  4064 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  4065 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  4066 in the current context.
  4067 
  4068 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  4069 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  4070 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4071 
  4072 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  4073 with new class dense_linear_order.
  4074 
  4075 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  4076 
  4077     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  4078     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  4079 
  4080     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  4081       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  4082     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  4083     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  4084 
  4085     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  4086     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  4087 
  4088   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  4089 
  4090     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  4091     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  4092     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  4093     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  4094     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  4095     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  4096     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  4097     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  4098     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  4099     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  4100     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  4101     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  4102     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  4103     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  4104     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  4105     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  4106     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  4107     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  4108     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  4109     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  4110     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  4111     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  4112     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  4113     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  4114     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  4115     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  4116     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  4117     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  4118     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  4119     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  4120     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  4121     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  4122     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  4123     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  4124     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  4125 
  4126     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  4127     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  4128     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  4129     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  4130     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  4131     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  4132     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  4133     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  4134     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  4135     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  4136     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  4137     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  4138     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  4139     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  4140     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  4141     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  4142     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  4143 
  4144     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  4145     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  4146     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  4147     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  4148     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  4149     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  4150     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  4151     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  4152     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  4153     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  4154     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  4155     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  4156     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  4157     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  4158     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  4159     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  4160     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  4161     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  4162     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  4163     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  4164     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  4165     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  4166     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  4167     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  4168     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  4169     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  4170     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  4171     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  4172 
  4173     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  4174     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  4175     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  4176     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  4177     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  4178     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  4179 
  4180     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  4181     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  4182     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  4183     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  4184 
  4185     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  4186     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  4187 
  4188     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  4189     join_max                ~> sup_max
  4190 
  4191 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  4192 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  4193 
  4194 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  4195 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  4196 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  4197 "*.size".
  4198 
  4199 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  4200 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4201 
  4202 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  4203 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  4204 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4205 
  4206 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4207 
  4208 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  4209 machine words, with arithemtic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  4210 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  4211 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  4212 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  4213 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  4214 numerals on all operations.
  4215 
  4216 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  4217 
  4218 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  4219 
  4220 * Code generator library theories:
  4221   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  4222     languages.
  4223   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  4224     languages.
  4225   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  4226     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  4227   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  4228   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  4229     denominator).
  4230   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  4231     representable by rational numbers.
  4232   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  4233     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  4234     includes Code_Integer.
  4235   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  4236     target-language built-in integers.
  4237   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  4238     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  4239 
  4240 * New package for inductive predicates
  4241 
  4242   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  4243 
  4244     inductive
  4245       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  4246       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  4247     where
  4248       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  4249     | ...
  4250 
  4251   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  4252 
  4253     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  4254 
  4255     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  4256     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4257 
  4258     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  4259     intros
  4260       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4261       ...
  4262 
  4263   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  4264   sets to be defined with the new package via
  4265 
  4266     inductive_set
  4267       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  4268       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  4269     where
  4270       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4271     | ...
  4272 
  4273   or
  4274 
  4275     inductive_set
  4276       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  4277       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  4278       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  4279     where
  4280       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  4281     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  4282     | ...
  4283 
  4284   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  4285 
  4286   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  4287   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  4288 
  4289   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4290 
  4291   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  4292     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  4293     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  4294     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  4295     than before the actual inductive definition.
  4296 
  4297   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  4298     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  4299     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  4300     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  4301     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  4302     statements of the form
  4303 
  4304       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  4305 
  4306     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  4307     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  4308 
  4309       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  4310 
  4311   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  4312 
  4313       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  4314         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  4315         ==> ... ==> P
  4316 
  4317     for predicates and
  4318 
  4319       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  4320         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  4321         ==> ... ==> P
  4322 
  4323     for sets rather than
  4324 
  4325       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  4326         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  4327         ==> ... ==> P
  4328 
  4329     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  4330     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  4331     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  4332 
  4333   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  4334     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  4335     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  4336 
  4337 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  4338 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  4339 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  4340 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  4341 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  4342 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  4343 
  4344 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  4345 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  4346 
  4347 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  4348 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  4349 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  4350 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  4351 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  4352 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  4353 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  4354 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  4355 variable.
  4356 
  4357 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  4358 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  4359 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  4360 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4361   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  4362   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  4363 
  4364 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  4365 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  4366 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  4367 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  4368 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  4369 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  4370 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  4371 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  4372 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  4373 
  4374 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  4375 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  4376 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  4377 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  4378 rat, etc.
  4379 
  4380 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  4381 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  4382 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  4383 
  4384 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  4385 
  4386 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  4387 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  4388 
  4389 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  4390 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  4391 
  4392 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  4393 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  4394 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4395 
  4396 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  4397 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  4398 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4399 
  4400 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  4401 
  4402 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  4403 
  4404 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  4405 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  4406 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  4407 positive/negative (in inequations).
  4408 
  4409 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  4410 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  4411 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  4412 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4413 
  4414 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  4415 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  4416 algebraic operations.
  4417 
  4418 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  4419 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4420 
  4421 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  4422 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4423 
  4424 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  4425 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  4426 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  4427 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  4428 adapted.
  4429  
  4430 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  4431 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  4432 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  4433 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  4434 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  4435 
  4436 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  4437 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  4438 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  4439 
  4440 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  4441 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  4442 better use 'abbreviation'.
  4443 
  4444 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4445 
  4446 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  4447 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  4448 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  4449   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  4450       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  4451   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  4452   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  4453   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  4454 
  4455 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  4456 
  4457 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  4458 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  4459 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  4460 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  4461 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  4462 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  4463 
  4464 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  4465 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  4466 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  4467 
  4468 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  4469 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  4470 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  4471 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4472 
  4473 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  4474 
  4475 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  4476 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4477 
  4478 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  4479 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  4480 
  4481 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  4482 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  4483 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  4484 
  4485 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  4486 True/False.
  4487 
  4488 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  4489 
  4490 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  4491 
  4492 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  4493 ``rule'' method.
  4494 
  4495 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  4496 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  4497 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  4498 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  4499 
  4500 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  4501 zChaff is still supported as well.
  4502 
  4503 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  4504 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  4505 
  4506 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  4507 Library.
  4508 
  4509 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  4510 
  4511 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  4512 as greatest fixed-point.
  4513 
  4514 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  4515 association lists.
  4516 
  4517 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  4518 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  4519 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  4520 
  4521 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  4522 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  4523 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4524 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  4525 behavior.
  4526 
  4527 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  4528 
  4529 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  4530 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  4531 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  4532 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  4533 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  4534 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  4535 
  4536 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  4537 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  4538 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  4539 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  4540 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  4541 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  4542 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  4543 
  4544 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  4545 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  4546 
  4547 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  4548 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  4549 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  4550 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  4551 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  4552 
  4553 
  4554 *** HOL-Complex ***
  4555 
  4556 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  4557 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  4558 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  4559 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  4560 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4561 
  4562 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  4563 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  4564 and norm :: 'a => real.
  4565 
  4566 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  4567 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  4568 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4569 
  4570 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  4571 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  4572 
  4573 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  4574 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  4575 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  4576 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4577 
  4578   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  4579   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  4580   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  4581   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  4582   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  4583   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  4584   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  4585   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  4586   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  4587   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  4588   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  4589   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  4590   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  4591   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  4592   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  4593 
  4594 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  4595 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  4596 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  4597 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4598 
  4599   approx        <-- capprox
  4600   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  4601   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  4602   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  4603   monad         <-- cmonad
  4604   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  4605   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  4606   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  4607   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  4608 
  4609 
  4610 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4611 
  4612 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  4613 
  4614 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  4615 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4616 
  4617 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  4618 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4619 
  4620 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  4621 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  4622 of algebraic structures.
  4623 
  4624 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  4625 
  4626 
  4627 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4628 
  4629 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  4630 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  4631 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  4632 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  4633 
  4634 
  4635 *** ML ***
  4636 
  4637 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  4638 (even on SML/NJ).
  4639 
  4640 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  4641 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  4642 compile-time.  For example:
  4643 
  4644 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  4645 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  4646 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  4647 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  4648 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  4649 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  4650 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  4651 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  4652 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  4653 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  4654 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  4655 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  4656 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  4657 ML {* @{context} *}
  4658 ML {* @{theory} *}
  4659 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  4660 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  4661 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  4662 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  4663 ML {* @{claset} *}
  4664 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  4665 
  4666 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  4667 
  4668 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  4669 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  4670 
  4671 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  4672 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  4673 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  4674 
  4675 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  4676 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  4677 
  4678 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  4679 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  4680 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  4681 
  4682 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  4683 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  4684 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  4685 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  4686 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  4687 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  4688 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  4689 declarations and definitions.
  4690 
  4691 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  4692 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  4693 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  4694 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  4695 
  4696 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  4697 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  4698 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  4699 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4700 
  4701 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  4702 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  4703 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  4704 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  4705 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  4706 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  4707 
  4708 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  4709 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  4710 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  4711 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  4712 attributes, methods, etc.
  4713 
  4714 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  4715 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  4716 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  4717 fold_map combinators.
  4718 
  4719 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  4720 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  4721 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  4722 derivation.
  4723 
  4724 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  4725 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  4726 achieve the old behaviour.
  4727 
  4728 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  4729 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  4730 statements.
  4731 
  4732 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
  4733 enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
  4734 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
  4735 
  4736 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
  4737 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
  4738 some popular functions from term.ML:
  4739 
  4740   Term.variant		->  Name.variant
  4741   Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
  4742   Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
  4743 
  4744 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
  4745 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
  4746 
  4747 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
  4748 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
  4749 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
  4750 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
  4751 various freeze_thaw operations.
  4752 
  4753 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
  4754 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
  4755 Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
  4756 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
  4757 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
  4758 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
  4759 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
  4760 in a locale context).
  4761 
  4762 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
  4763 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
  4764 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
  4765 which are considered legacy and await removal.
  4766 
  4767 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
  4768 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
  4769 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
  4770 etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still
  4771 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using
  4772 a mere theory instead of a full context.
  4773 
  4774 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
  4775 ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
  4776 without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
  4777 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
  4778 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
  4779 
  4780   ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
  4781 
  4782 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
  4783 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
  4784 this:
  4785 
  4786   Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
  4787 
  4788 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
  4789 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
  4790 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
  4791 -- use plain ERROR instead.
  4792 
  4793 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
  4794 list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
  4795 
  4796 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to
  4797 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
  4798 
  4799 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
  4800 theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
  4801 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
  4802 batch mode.
  4803 
  4804 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax.  Renamed
  4805 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords.  Removed
  4806 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in
  4807 OuterSyntax.command etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4808 
  4809 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
  4810 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
  4811 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
  4812 simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
  4813 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
  4814 
  4815 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
  4816 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
  4817 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
  4818 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
  4819 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
  4820 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
  4821 
  4822 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
  4823 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
  4824 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
  4825 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4826 
  4827 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
  4828 "Trueprop" etc.
  4829 
  4830 
  4831 *** System ***
  4832 
  4833 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now
  4834 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER.  This simplifies use of multiple
  4835 Isabelle installations.
  4836 
  4837 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical
  4838 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source
  4839 code.
  4840 
  4841 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.
  4842 
  4843 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of
  4844 Poly/ML 5.1.  The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing
  4845 independent theories, according to the given theory header
  4846 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via
  4847 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A
  4848 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up
  4849 to 6 on a 8-core machine.  User-code needs to observe certain
  4850 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar
  4851 Implementation manual.
  4852 
  4853 
  4854 
  4855 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
  4856 ----------------------------------
  4857 
  4858 *** General ***
  4859 
  4860 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
  4861 
  4862   theory <name>
  4863   imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
  4864   uses <file1> ... <fileM>
  4865   begin
  4866 
  4867 where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax
  4868 
  4869   theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:
  4870 
  4871 will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
  4872 existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
  4873 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.
  4874 
  4875 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via
  4876 relative and absolute paths.
  4877 
  4878 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a
  4879 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,
  4880 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select
  4881 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that
  4882 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified
  4883 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose
  4884 lhs match term.  Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects
  4885 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under
  4886 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f.  Example:
  4887 
  4888   C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."
  4889 
  4890 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",
  4891 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."
  4892 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).
  4893 
  4894 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of
  4895 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4896 
  4897 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that
  4898 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both
  4899 formal and informal parts).  Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof
  4900 General interface.  Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):
  4901 
  4902   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html
  4903   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html
  4904 
  4905 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the
  4906 Classical Reasoner.  Typical big applications run around 2 times
  4907 faster.
  4908 
  4909 
  4910 *** Document preparation ***
  4911 
  4912 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output
  4913 of raw sources.  Only those symbols that do not require additional
  4914 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are
  4915 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim.  isatool display
  4916 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the
  4917 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).
  4918 
  4919 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,
  4920 notably folding and hiding.  Predefined tags include "theory" (for
  4921 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for
  4922 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and
  4923 "invisible" are unused by default.  Users may give explicit tag
  4924 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''.  The
  4925 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document
  4926 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of
  4927 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,
  4928 \isadroptag.
  4929 
  4930 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool
  4931 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them).  Typical
  4932 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present
  4933 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold
  4934 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit
  4935 these parts without any formal replacement text.  The Isabelle site
  4936 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as
  4937 specified above.
  4938 
  4939 * Several new antiquotations:
  4940 
  4941   @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;
  4942 
  4943   @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;
  4944 
  4945   @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the
  4946   argument is a known logical constant;
  4947 
  4948   @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or
  4949   theorem applying a "style" to it
  4950 
  4951   @{ML text}
  4952 
  4953 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of
  4954 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the
  4955 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'
  4956 to print the specified premise.  TermStyle.add_style provides an ML
  4957 interface for introducing further styles.  See also the "LaTeX Sugar"
  4958 document practical applications.  The ML antiquotation prints
  4959 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.
  4960 
  4961 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',
  4962 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which
  4963 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations.  For
  4964 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.
  4965 
  4966 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative
  4967 context interpreting the subsequent argument.  For example: @{thm
  4968 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.
  4969 
  4970 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within
  4971 a proof context.
  4972 
  4973 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a
  4974 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').
  4975 
  4976 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX
  4977 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).
  4978 
  4979 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option
  4980 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false
  4981 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.
  4982 
  4983 
  4984 *** Pure ***
  4985 
  4986 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command.  Now performs
  4987 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for
  4988 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also
  4989 isar-ref manual.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly
  4990 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'
  4991 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier.  If
  4992 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.
  4993 
  4994 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures.  First of all,
  4995 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted
  4996 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary
  4997 expressions.  Secondly, in a local context with structure
  4998 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default
  4999 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option
  5000 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures.  Typical
  5001 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.
  5002 
  5003 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and
  5004 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is
  5005 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.
  5006 
  5007 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend
  5008 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for
  5009 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.
  5010 
  5011 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an
  5012 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of
  5013 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle
  5014 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;
  5015 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5016 
  5017 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"
  5018 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.
  5019 INCOMPATIBILITY.  This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for
  5020 axclasses vs. locales.
  5021 
  5022 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes
  5023 instead of base 26 numbers.
  5024 
  5025 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question
  5026 marks in schematic variable names.
  5027 
  5028 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or
  5029 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name.  For example, the
  5030 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:
  5031 
  5032   lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"
  5033     by simp
  5034 
  5035 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).
  5036 
  5037 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix
  5038 annotations as "(00...)".
  5039 
  5040 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter
  5041 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.
  5042 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class
  5043 "logic" vs. "{}".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper
  5044 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'.  Some very
  5045 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption
  5046 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).
  5047 
  5048 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.
  5049 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'
  5050 rather than 'types'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic
  5051 specifications.
  5052 
  5053 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be
  5054 locally fixed variables as well.
  5055 
  5056 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting
  5057 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth
  5058 Limit.
  5059 
  5060 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current
  5061 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc
  5062 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier
  5063 recursively.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs
  5064 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead.  Moreover, the
  5065 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to
  5066 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.
  5067 
  5068 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!
  5069 or ==>.  More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of
  5070 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.
  5071 
  5072 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5073 
  5074 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived
  5075 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already.  Both
  5076 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.
  5077 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /
  5078 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;
  5079 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.
  5080 
  5081 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific
  5082 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.
  5083 
  5084 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference
  5085 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),
  5086 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');
  5087 
  5088 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.
  5089 
  5090 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive
  5091 theory development.
  5092 
  5093 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code
  5094 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures
  5095 for each theory).  INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'
  5096 must be quoted when used as identifiers.
  5097 
  5098 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using
  5099 the code generator.  INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be
  5100 quoted when used as identifier.
  5101 
  5102 
  5103 *** Locales ***
  5104 
  5105 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in
  5106 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3).  These generate
  5107 proof obligations from the expression specification.  After the
  5108 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added
  5109 to the theory, target locale or proof context.  The synopsis of the
  5110 commands is a follows:
  5111 
  5112   (1) interpretation expr inst
  5113   (2) interpretation target < expr
  5114   (3) interpret expr inst
  5115 
  5116 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter
  5117 instantiation of terms from the current context.  This is applied to
  5118 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.
  5119 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the
  5120 locale expression.  Interpretation is smart in that interpretations
  5121 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are
  5122 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate.  Use 'print_interps' to
  5123 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale.  For details,
  5124 see the Isar Reference manual.  Examples can be found in
  5125 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.
  5126 
  5127 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use
  5128 'interpret' instead.
  5129 
  5130 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to
  5131 parameters.
  5132 
  5133 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax
  5134 redeclaration.
  5135 
  5136 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.
  5137 
  5138 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /
  5139 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition
  5140 context, independently of the context of later invocations.  Moreover,
  5141 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied
  5142 to attribute arguments as expected.
  5143 
  5144 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of
  5145 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to
  5146 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.
  5147 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static
  5148 binding mechanism.  Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and
  5149 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further
  5150 intervention.  Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"
  5151 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both
  5152 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed
  5153 values to argument tokens explicitly.
  5154 
  5155 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal
  5156 statements with 'includes'.  INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different
  5157 theorem statement in rare situations.
  5158 
  5159 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements.  Use
  5160 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.
  5161 
  5162 
  5163 *** Provers ***
  5164 
  5165 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for
  5166 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is
  5167 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may
  5168 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is
  5169 still available as 'simplesubst'.
  5170 
  5171 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only
  5172 and quasi orders.
  5173 
  5174 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and
  5175 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.
  5176 
  5177 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth
  5178 limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.
  5179 
  5180 * Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup
  5181 is peformed already.  Object-logics merely need to finish their
  5182 initial simpset configuration as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5183 
  5184 
  5185 *** HOL ***
  5186 
  5187 * Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:
  5188 
  5189   syntax (epsilon)
  5190     "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a"    ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)
  5191 
  5192 The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX
  5193 and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.
  5194 Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>
  5195 becomes available as variable, constant etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5196 
  5197 * "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".
  5198 Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc.  The x-symbol for >=
  5199 is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to
  5200 support corresponding Isar calculations.
  5201 
  5202 * "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"
  5203 instead of ":".
  5204 
  5205 * theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:
  5206 
  5207   Old       New
  5208   {..n(}    {..<n}
  5209   {)n..}    {n<..}
  5210   {m..n(}   {m..<n}
  5211   {)m..n}   {m<..n}
  5212   {)m..n(}  {m<..<n}
  5213 
  5214 The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next
  5215 release.  For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace
  5216 patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):
  5217 
  5218   {)\([^\.]*\)\.\.  ->  {\1<\.\.}
  5219   \.\.\([^(}]*\)(}  ->  \.\.<\1}
  5220 
  5221 * Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving
  5222 equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic
  5223 interface.
  5224 
  5225 * Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over
  5226 finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is
  5227 now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can
  5228 be a tuple pattern.
  5229 
  5230 Some new syntax forms are available:
  5231 
  5232   "\<Sum>x | P. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"
  5233   "\<Sum>x = a..b. e"   for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"
  5234   "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e"  for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"
  5235   "\<Sum>x < k. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"
  5236 
  5237 The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate
  5238 function "Summation", which has been discontinued.
  5239 
  5240 * theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case
  5241 is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case
  5242 (insert F x)'.
  5243 
  5244 * The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger
  5245 fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and
  5246 typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.
  5247 
  5248 * New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.
  5249 Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed.  See
  5250 HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.
  5251 
  5252 * Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the
  5253 induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by
  5254 induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather
  5255 than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5256 in unstructured proof scripts.
  5257 
  5258 * Reworked implementation of records.  Improved scalability for
  5259 records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type
  5260 inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but
  5261 of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear
  5262 in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields.  The
  5263 top-level (users) view on records is preserved.  Potential
  5264 INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the
  5265 old record representation. The type generated for a record is called
  5266 <record_name>_ext_type.
  5267 
  5268 Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the
  5269 proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if
  5270 quick_and_dirty is enabled).  Definitions of large records can take
  5271 quite long.
  5272 
  5273 New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record
  5274 updates enabled by default.  Moreover, trivial updates are also
  5275 removed: r(|x := x r|) = r.  INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break
  5276 occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.
  5277 
  5278 * typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra
  5279 type-variables in the term.
  5280 
  5281 * Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains
  5282 involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics
  5283 provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5284 old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more
  5285 goals than previously.
  5286 
  5287 * Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is
  5288 present.  Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular
  5289 numbers and sets.  For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y
  5290 just like y <= x.
  5291 
  5292 * Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x".  If a is a free or
  5293 bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded.  Otherwise
  5294 first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If
  5295 possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",
  5296 otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g.  The simproc can be
  5297 enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc.  Potential
  5298 INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.
  5299 
  5300 * Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.
  5301 
  5302 * Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background
  5303 jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.
  5304 
  5305 * Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and
  5306 improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and
  5307 inequalities.
  5308 
  5309 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  5310 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5311 
  5312   abs_eq             now named abs_of_nonneg
  5313   abs_of_ge_0        now named abs_of_nonneg
  5314   abs_minus_eq       now named abs_of_nonpos
  5315   imp_abs_id         now named abs_of_nonneg
  5316   imp_abs_neg_id     now named abs_of_nonpos
  5317   mult_pos           now named mult_pos_pos
  5318   mult_pos_le        now named mult_nonneg_nonneg
  5319   mult_pos_neg_le    now named mult_nonneg_nonpos
  5320   mult_pos_neg2_le   now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2
  5321   mult_neg           now named mult_neg_neg
  5322   mult_neg_le        now named mult_nonpos_nonpos
  5323 
  5324 * The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:
  5325      
  5326      zero_le_square
  5327      not_square_less_zero 
  5328 
  5329   The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:
  5330   
  5331      realpow_zero_zero
  5332      realpow_two
  5333      realpow_less
  5334      zero_le_power
  5335      realpow_two_le
  5336      abs_realpow_two
  5337      realpow_two_abs     
  5338 
  5339 * Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.
  5340 
  5341 * Theory List:
  5342 
  5343 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  5344 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5345 
  5346   list_all_Nil       now named list_all.simps(1)
  5347   list_all_Cons      now named list_all.simps(2)
  5348   list_all_conv      now named list_all_iff
  5349   set_mem_eq         now named mem_iff
  5350 
  5351 * Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support
  5352 asymptotic "big O" calculations.  See the notes in BigO.thy.
  5353 
  5354 
  5355 *** HOL-Complex ***
  5356 
  5357 * Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and
  5358 integers in the reals.
  5359 
  5360 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  5361 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5362 
  5363   exp_ge_add_one_self  now requires no hypotheses
  5364   real_of_int_add      reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  5365   real_of_int_minus    reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  5366   real_of_int_diff     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  5367   real_of_int_mult     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  5368 
  5369 * Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.
  5370 
  5371 * Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm
  5372 
  5373 * Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making
  5374 nonstandard types.  The old type names are now type synonyms:
  5375 
  5376   hypreal = real star
  5377   hypnat = nat star
  5378   hcomplex = complex star
  5379 
  5380 * Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been
  5381 replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5382 
  5383   star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex
  5384 
  5385   starset      <-- starsetNat, starsetC
  5386   *s*          <-- *sNat*, *sc*
  5387   starset_n    <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n
  5388   *sn*         <-- *sNatn*, *scn*
  5389   InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets
  5390 
  5391   starfun      <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  5392   *f*          <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*
  5393   starfun_n    <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n
  5394   *fn*         <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*
  5395   InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs
  5396 
  5397 * Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of
  5398 theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5399 
  5400   add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute
  5401   add_assoc   <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs
  5402   OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left
  5403   OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right
  5404   right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus
  5405   left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left
  5406   mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute
  5407   mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc
  5408   mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left
  5409   mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right
  5410   mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left
  5411   left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib
  5412   right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2
  5413   zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one
  5414   right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse
  5415   left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left
  5416   order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl
  5417   order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans
  5418   order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym
  5419   order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le
  5420   linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear
  5421   add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono
  5422   mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2
  5423   add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order
  5424 
  5425 * Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific
  5426 versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the
  5427 new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5428 
  5429   STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set
  5430   STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set
  5431   STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un
  5432   STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int
  5433   STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl
  5434   STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset
  5435   STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem
  5436   STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl
  5437   STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff
  5438   STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,
  5439     STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset
  5440   starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un
  5441   starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int
  5442   starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl
  5443   starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff
  5444   InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un
  5445   InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int
  5446   InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl
  5447   InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff
  5448   InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff
  5449   InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n
  5450   starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq
  5451   starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}
  5452   starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  5453   starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  5454   starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult
  5455   starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add
  5456   starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus
  5457   starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff
  5458   starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o
  5459   starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2
  5460   starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun
  5461   starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse
  5462   starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq
  5463   starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff
  5464   starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id
  5465   starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx
  5466   starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox
  5467   starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs
  5468   starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel
  5469   starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2
  5470   starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox
  5471   starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox
  5472   starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox
  5473   starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx
  5474   starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse
  5475   starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide
  5476   starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n
  5477   starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult
  5478   starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add
  5479   starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus
  5480   starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun
  5481   starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus
  5482   starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq
  5483 
  5484   star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add
  5485   star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus
  5486   star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff
  5487   star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult
  5488   star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse
  5489   star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le
  5490   star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less
  5491   star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num
  5492   star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num
  5493   star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs
  5494   star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide
  5495 
  5496   star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add
  5497   star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus
  5498   star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff
  5499   star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult
  5500   star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one
  5501   star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero
  5502   star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff
  5503   star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff
  5504   star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff
  5505   star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse
  5506   star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide
  5507   star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat
  5508   star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int
  5509   star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of
  5510   star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff
  5511   star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff
  5512   star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff
  5513   star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff
  5514   star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff
  5515   star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power
  5516   star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff
  5517 
  5518 * Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer
  5519 principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions
  5520 nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"
  5521 replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.
  5522 To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-
  5523 standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.
  5524 
  5525 * Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.
  5526 
  5527 
  5528 *** HOLCF ***
  5529 
  5530 * Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support
  5531 continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full
  5532 type-inference.
  5533 
  5534 * New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it
  5535 is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic
  5536 instead of exponential time).
  5537 
  5538 * New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.
  5539 Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:
  5540 
  5541   domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")
  5542 
  5543 * New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern
  5544 matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also
  5545 supported.  Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,
  5546 sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given
  5547 equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5548 syntax and examples.
  5549 
  5550 * New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes
  5551 of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,
  5552 but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility
  5553 requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,
  5554 with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.
  5555 
  5556 * HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming
  5557 scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5558 
  5559   foo_inject:  "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"
  5560   foo_eq:      "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"
  5561   foo_less:    "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"
  5562   foo_strict:  "foo$UU = UU"
  5563   foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"
  5564   foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"
  5565 
  5566 
  5567 *** ZF ***
  5568 
  5569 * ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,
  5570 including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel
  5571 of a homomorphism).
  5572 
  5573 * ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually
  5574 makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);
  5575 the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.
  5576 
  5577 
  5578 *** Cube ***
  5579 
  5580 * Converted to Isar theory format; use locales instead of axiomatic
  5581 theories.
  5582 
  5583 
  5584 *** ML ***
  5585 
  5586 * Pure/library.ML: added ##>, ##>>, #>> -- higher-order counterparts
  5587 for ||>, ||>>, |>>,
  5588 
  5589 * Pure/library.ML no longer defines its own option datatype, but uses
  5590 that of the SML basis, which has constructors NONE and SOME instead of
  5591 None and Some, as well as exception Option.Option instead of OPTION.
  5592 The functions the, if_none, is_some, is_none have been adapted
  5593 accordingly, while Option.map replaces apsome.
  5594 
  5595 * Pure/library.ML: the exception LIST has been given up in favour of
  5596 the standard exceptions Empty and Subscript, as well as
  5597 Library.UnequalLengths.  Function like Library.hd and Library.tl are
  5598 superceded by the standard hd and tl functions etc.
  5599 
  5600 A number of basic list functions are no longer exported to the ML
  5601 toplevel, as they are variants of predefined functions.  The following
  5602 suggests how one can translate existing code:
  5603 
  5604     rev_append xs ys = List.revAppend (xs, ys)
  5605     nth_elem (i, xs) = List.nth (xs, i)
  5606     last_elem xs = List.last xs
  5607     flat xss = List.concat xss
  5608     seq fs = List.app fs
  5609     partition P xs = List.partition P xs
  5610     mapfilter f xs = List.mapPartial f xs
  5611 
  5612 * Pure/library.ML: several combinators for linear functional
  5613 transformations, notably reverse application and composition:
  5614 
  5615   x |> f                f #> g
  5616   (x, y) |-> f          f #-> g
  5617 
  5618 * Pure/library.ML: introduced/changed precedence of infix operators:
  5619 
  5620   infix 1 |> |-> ||> ||>> |>> |>>> #> #->;
  5621   infix 2 ?;
  5622   infix 3 o oo ooo oooo;
  5623   infix 4 ~~ upto downto;
  5624 
  5625 Maybe INCOMPATIBILITY when any of those is used in conjunction with other
  5626 infix operators.
  5627 
  5628 * Pure/library.ML: natural list combinators fold, fold_rev, and
  5629 fold_map support linear functional transformations and nesting.  For
  5630 example:
  5631 
  5632   fold f [x1, ..., xN] y =
  5633     y |> f x1 |> ... |> f xN
  5634 
  5635   (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] y =
  5636     y |> fold f xs1 |> ... |> fold f xsN
  5637 
  5638   fold f [x1, ..., xN] =
  5639     f x1 #> ... #> f xN
  5640 
  5641   (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] =
  5642     fold f xs1 #> ... #> fold f xsN
  5643 
  5644 * Pure/library.ML: the following selectors on type 'a option are
  5645 available:
  5646 
  5647   the:               'a option -> 'a  (*partial*)
  5648   these:             'a option -> 'a  where 'a = 'b list
  5649   the_default: 'a -> 'a option -> 'a
  5650   the_list:          'a option -> 'a list
  5651 
  5652 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides
  5653 basic operations for association lists, following natural argument
  5654 order; moreover the explicit equality predicate passed here avoids
  5655 potentially expensive polymorphic runtime equality checks.
  5656 The old functions may be expressed as follows:
  5657 
  5658   assoc = uncurry (AList.lookup (op =))
  5659   assocs = these oo AList.lookup (op =)
  5660   overwrite = uncurry (AList.update (op =)) o swap
  5661 
  5662 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides
  5663 
  5664   val make: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> ('a * 'b) list
  5665   val find: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> ('c * 'b) list -> 'a -> 'c list
  5666 
  5667 replacing make_keylist and keyfilter (occassionally used)
  5668 Naive rewrites:
  5669 
  5670   make_keylist = AList.make
  5671   keyfilter = AList.find (op =)
  5672 
  5673 * eq_fst and eq_snd now take explicit equality parameter, thus
  5674   avoiding eqtypes. Naive rewrites:
  5675 
  5676     eq_fst = eq_fst (op =)
  5677     eq_snd = eq_snd (op =)
  5678 
  5679 * Removed deprecated apl and apr (rarely used).
  5680   Naive rewrites:
  5681 
  5682     apl (n, op) =>>= curry op n
  5683     apr (op, m) =>>= fn n => op (n, m)
  5684 
  5685 * Pure/General: structure OrdList (cf. Pure/General/ord_list.ML)
  5686 provides a reasonably efficient light-weight implementation of sets as
  5687 lists.
  5688 
  5689 * Pure/General: generic tables (cf. Pure/General/table.ML) provide a
  5690 few new operations; existing lookup and update are now curried to
  5691 follow natural argument order (for use with fold etc.);
  5692 INCOMPATIBILITY, use (uncurry Symtab.lookup) etc. as last resort.
  5693 
  5694 * Pure/General: output via the Isabelle channels of
  5695 writeln/warning/error etc. is now passed through Output.output, with a
  5696 hook for arbitrary transformations depending on the print_mode
  5697 (cf. Output.add_mode -- the first active mode that provides a output
  5698 function wins).  Already formatted output may be embedded into further
  5699 text via Output.raw; the result of Pretty.string_of/str_of and derived
  5700 functions (string_of_term/cterm/thm etc.) is already marked raw to
  5701 accommodate easy composition of diagnostic messages etc.  Programmers
  5702 rarely need to care about Output.output or Output.raw at all, with
  5703 some notable exceptions: Output.output is required when bypassing the
  5704 standard channels (writeln etc.), or in token translations to produce
  5705 properly formatted results; Output.raw is required when capturing
  5706 already output material that will eventually be presented to the user
  5707 a second time.  For the default print mode, both Output.output and
  5708 Output.raw have no effect.
  5709 
  5710 * Pure/General: Output.time_accumulator NAME creates an operator ('a
  5711 -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b to measure runtime and count invocations; the
  5712 cumulative results are displayed at the end of a batch session.
  5713 
  5714 * Pure/General: File.sysify_path and File.quote_sysify path have been
  5715 replaced by File.platform_path and File.shell_path (with appropriate
  5716 hooks).  This provides a clean interface for unusual systems where the
  5717 internal and external process view of file names are different.
  5718 
  5719 * Pure: more efficient orders for basic syntactic entities: added
  5720 fast_string_ord, fast_indexname_ord, fast_term_ord; changed sort_ord
  5721 and typ_ord to use fast_string_ord and fast_indexname_ord (term_ord is
  5722 NOT affected); structures Symtab, Vartab, Typtab, Termtab use the fast
  5723 orders now -- potential INCOMPATIBILITY for code that depends on a
  5724 particular order for Symtab.keys, Symtab.dest, etc. (consider using
  5725 Library.sort_strings on result).
  5726 
  5727 * Pure/term.ML: combinators fold_atyps, fold_aterms, fold_term_types,
  5728 fold_types traverse types/terms from left to right, observing natural
  5729 argument order.  Supercedes previous foldl_XXX versions, add_frees,
  5730 add_vars etc. have been adapted as well: INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5731 
  5732 * Pure: name spaces have been refined, with significant changes of the
  5733 internal interfaces -- INCOMPATIBILITY.  Renamed cond_extern(_table)
  5734 to extern(_table).  The plain name entry path is superceded by a
  5735 general 'naming' context, which also includes the 'policy' to produce
  5736 a fully qualified name and external accesses of a fully qualified
  5737 name; NameSpace.extend is superceded by context dependent
  5738 Sign.declare_name.  Several theory and proof context operations modify
  5739 the naming context.  Especially note Theory.restore_naming and
  5740 ProofContext.restore_naming to get back to a sane state; note that
  5741 Theory.add_path is no longer sufficient to recover from
  5742 Theory.absolute_path in particular.
  5743 
  5744 * Pure: new flags short_names (default false) and unique_names
  5745 (default true) for controlling output of qualified names.  If
  5746 short_names is set, names are printed unqualified.  If unique_names is
  5747 reset, the name prefix is reduced to the minimum required to achieve
  5748 the original result when interning again, even if there is an overlap
  5749 with earlier declarations.
  5750 
  5751 * Pure/TheoryDataFun: change of the argument structure; 'prep_ext' is
  5752 now 'extend', and 'merge' gets an additional Pretty.pp argument
  5753 (useful for printing error messages).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5754 
  5755 * Pure: major reorganization of the theory context.  Type Sign.sg and
  5756 Theory.theory are now identified, referring to the universal
  5757 Context.theory (see Pure/context.ML).  Actual signature and theory
  5758 content is managed as theory data.  The old code and interfaces were
  5759 spread over many files and structures; the new arrangement introduces
  5760 considerable INCOMPATIBILITY to gain more clarity:
  5761 
  5762   Context -- theory management operations (name, identity, inclusion,
  5763     parents, ancestors, merge, etc.), plus generic theory data;
  5764 
  5765   Sign -- logical signature and syntax operations (declaring consts,
  5766     types, etc.), plus certify/read for common entities;
  5767 
  5768   Theory -- logical theory operations (stating axioms, definitions,
  5769     oracles), plus a copy of logical signature operations (consts,
  5770     types, etc.); also a few basic management operations (Theory.copy,
  5771     Theory.merge, etc.)
  5772 
  5773 The most basic sign_of operations (Theory.sign_of, Thm.sign_of_thm
  5774 etc.) as well as the sign field in Thm.rep_thm etc. have been retained
  5775 for convenience -- they merely return the theory.
  5776 
  5777 * Pure: type Type.tsig is superceded by theory in most interfaces.
  5778 
  5779 * Pure: the Isar proof context type is already defined early in Pure
  5780 as Context.proof (note that ProofContext.context and Proof.context are
  5781 aliases, where the latter is the preferred name).  This enables other
  5782 Isabelle components to refer to that type even before Isar is present.
  5783 
  5784 * Pure/sign/theory: discontinued named name spaces (i.e. classK,
  5785 typeK, constK, axiomK, oracleK), but provide explicit operations for
  5786 any of these kinds.  For example, Sign.intern typeK is now
  5787 Sign.intern_type, Theory.hide_space Sign.typeK is now
  5788 Theory.hide_types.  Also note that former
  5789 Theory.hide_classes/types/consts are now
  5790 Theory.hide_classes_i/types_i/consts_i, while the non '_i' versions
  5791 internalize their arguments!  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5792 
  5793 * Pure: get_thm interface (of PureThy and ProofContext) expects
  5794 datatype thmref (with constructors Name and NameSelection) instead of
  5795 plain string -- INCOMPATIBILITY;
  5796 
  5797 * Pure: cases produced by proof methods specify options, where NONE
  5798 means to remove case bindings -- INCOMPATIBILITY in
  5799 (RAW_)METHOD_CASES.
  5800 
  5801 * Pure: the following operations retrieve axioms or theorems from a
  5802 theory node or theory hierarchy, respectively:
  5803 
  5804   Theory.axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list
  5805   Theory.all_axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list
  5806   PureThy.thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list
  5807   PureThy.all_thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list
  5808 
  5809 * Pure: print_tac now outputs the goal through the trace channel.
  5810 
  5811 * Isar toplevel: improved diagnostics, mostly for Poly/ML only.
  5812 Reference Toplevel.debug (default false) controls detailed printing
  5813 and tracing of low-level exceptions; Toplevel.profiling (default 0)
  5814 controls execution profiling -- set to 1 for time and 2 for space
  5815 (both increase the runtime).
  5816 
  5817 * Isar session: The initial use of ROOT.ML is now always timed,
  5818 i.e. the log will show the actual process times, in contrast to the
  5819 elapsed wall-clock time that the outer shell wrapper produces.
  5820 
  5821 * Simplifier: improved handling of bound variables (nameless
  5822 representation, avoid allocating new strings).  Simprocs that invoke
  5823 the Simplifier recursively should use Simplifier.inherit_bounds to
  5824 avoid local name clashes.  Failure to do so produces warnings
  5825 "Simplifier: renamed bound variable ..."; set Simplifier.debug_bounds
  5826 for further details.
  5827 
  5828 * ML functions legacy_bindings and use_legacy_bindings produce ML fact
  5829 bindings for all theorems stored within a given theory; this may help
  5830 in porting non-Isar theories to Isar ones, while keeping ML proof
  5831 scripts for the time being.
  5832 
  5833 * ML operator HTML.with_charset specifies the charset begin used for
  5834 generated HTML files.  For example:
  5835 
  5836   HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Hebrew";
  5837   HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Chinese";
  5838 
  5839 
  5840 *** System ***
  5841 
  5842 * Allow symlinks to all proper Isabelle executables (Isabelle,
  5843 isabelle, isatool etc.).
  5844 
  5845 * ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT setting specifies preferred document format (for
  5846 isatool doc, isatool mkdir, display_drafts etc.).
  5847 
  5848 * isatool usedir: option -f allows specification of the ML file to be
  5849 used by Isabelle; default is ROOT.ML.
  5850 
  5851 * New isatool version outputs the version identifier of the Isabelle
  5852 distribution being used.
  5853 
  5854 * HOL: new isatool dimacs2hol converts files in DIMACS CNF format
  5855 (containing Boolean satisfiability problems) into Isabelle/HOL
  5856 theories.
  5857 
  5858 
  5859 
  5860 New in Isabelle2004 (April 2004)
  5861 --------------------------------
  5862 
  5863 *** General ***
  5864 
  5865 * Provers/order.ML:  new efficient reasoner for partial and linear orders.
  5866   Replaces linorder.ML.
  5867 
  5868 * Pure: Greek letters (except small lambda, \<lambda>), as well as Gothic
  5869   (\<aa>...\<zz>\<AA>...\<ZZ>), calligraphic (\<A>...\<Z>), and Euler
  5870   (\<a>...\<z>), are now considered normal letters, and can therefore
  5871   be used anywhere where an ASCII letter (a...zA...Z) has until
  5872   now. COMPATIBILITY: This obviously changes the parsing of some
  5873   terms, especially where a symbol has been used as a binder, say
  5874   '\<Pi>x. ...', which is now a type error since \<Pi>x will be parsed
  5875   as an identifier.  Fix it by inserting a space around former
  5876   symbols.  Call 'isatool fixgreek' to try to fix parsing errors in
  5877   existing theory and ML files.
  5878 
  5879 * Pure: Macintosh and Windows line-breaks are now allowed in theory files.
  5880 
  5881 * Pure: single letter sub/superscripts (\<^isub> and \<^isup>) are now
  5882   allowed in identifiers. Similar to Greek letters \<^isub> is now considered
  5883   a normal (but invisible) letter. For multiple letter subscripts repeat
  5884   \<^isub> like this: x\<^isub>1\<^isub>2.
  5885 
  5886 * Pure: There are now sub-/superscripts that can span more than one
  5887   character. Text between \<^bsub> and \<^esub> is set in subscript in
  5888   ProofGeneral and LaTeX, text between \<^bsup> and \<^esup> in
  5889   superscript. The new control characters are not identifier parts.
  5890 
  5891 * Pure: Control-symbols of the form \<^raw:...> will literally print the
  5892   content of "..." to the latex file instead of \isacntrl... . The "..."
  5893   may consist of any printable characters excluding the end bracket >.
  5894 
  5895 * Pure: Using new Isar command "finalconsts" (or the ML functions
  5896   Theory.add_finals or Theory.add_finals_i) it is now possible to
  5897   declare constants "final", which prevents their being given a definition
  5898   later.  It is useful for constants whose behaviour is fixed axiomatically
  5899   rather than definitionally, such as the meta-logic connectives.
  5900 
  5901 * Pure: 'instance' now handles general arities with general sorts
  5902   (i.e. intersections of classes),
  5903 
  5904 * Presentation: generated HTML now uses a CSS style sheet to make layout
  5905   (somewhat) independent of content. It is copied from lib/html/isabelle.css.
  5906   It can be changed to alter the colors/layout of generated pages.
  5907 
  5908 
  5909 *** Isar ***
  5910 
  5911 * Tactic emulation methods rule_tac, erule_tac, drule_tac, frule_tac,
  5912   cut_tac, subgoal_tac and thin_tac:
  5913   - Now understand static (Isar) contexts.  As a consequence, users of Isar
  5914     locales are no longer forced to write Isar proof scripts.
  5915     For details see Isar Reference Manual, paragraph 4.3.2: Further tactic
  5916     emulations.
  5917   - INCOMPATIBILITY: names of variables to be instantiated may no
  5918     longer be enclosed in quotes.  Instead, precede variable name with `?'.
  5919     This is consistent with the instantiation attribute "where".
  5920 
  5921 * Attributes "where" and "of":
  5922   - Now take type variables of instantiated theorem into account when reading
  5923     the instantiation string.  This fixes a bug that caused instantiated
  5924     theorems to have too special types in some circumstances.
  5925   - "where" permits explicit instantiations of type variables.
  5926 
  5927 * Calculation commands "moreover" and "also" no longer interfere with
  5928   current facts ("this"), admitting arbitrary combinations with "then"
  5929   and derived forms.
  5930 
  5931 * Locales:
  5932   - Goal statements involving the context element "includes" no longer
  5933     generate theorems with internal delta predicates (those ending on
  5934     "_axioms") in the premise.
  5935     Resolve particular premise with <locale>.intro to obtain old form.
  5936   - Fixed bug in type inference ("unify_frozen") that prevented mix of target
  5937     specification and "includes" elements in goal statement.
  5938   - Rule sets <locale>.intro and <locale>.axioms no longer declared as
  5939     [intro?] and [elim?] (respectively) by default.
  5940   - Experimental command for instantiation of locales in proof contexts:
  5941         instantiate <label>[<attrs>]: <loc>
  5942     Instantiates locale <loc> and adds all its theorems to the current context
  5943     taking into account their attributes.  Label and attrs are optional
  5944     modifiers, like in theorem declarations.  If present, names of
  5945     instantiated theorems are qualified with <label>, and the attributes
  5946     <attrs> are applied after any attributes these theorems might have already.
  5947       If the locale has assumptions, a chained fact of the form
  5948     "<loc> t1 ... tn" is expected from which instantiations of the parameters
  5949     are derived.  The command does not support old-style locales declared
  5950     with "locale (open)".
  5951       A few (very simple) examples can be found in FOL/ex/LocaleInst.thy.
  5952 
  5953 * HOL: Tactic emulation methods induct_tac and case_tac understand static
  5954   (Isar) contexts.
  5955 
  5956 
  5957 *** HOL ***
  5958 
  5959 * Proof import: new image HOL4 contains the imported library from
  5960   the HOL4 system with about 2500 theorems. It is imported by
  5961   replaying proof terms produced by HOL4 in Isabelle. The HOL4 image
  5962   can be used like any other Isabelle image.  See
  5963   HOL/Import/HOL/README for more information.
  5964 
  5965 * Simplifier:
  5966   - Much improved handling of linear and partial orders.
  5967     Reasoners for linear and partial orders are set up for type classes
  5968     "linorder" and "order" respectively, and are added to the default simpset
  5969     as solvers.  This means that the simplifier can build transitivity chains
  5970     to solve goals from the assumptions.
  5971   - INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break occasionally.  Typically, applications
  5972     of blast or auto after simplification become unnecessary because the goal
  5973     is solved by simplification already.
  5974 
  5975 * Numerics: new theory Ring_and_Field contains over 250 basic numerical laws,
  5976     all proved in axiomatic type classes for semirings, rings and fields.
  5977 
  5978 * Numerics:
  5979   - Numeric types (nat, int, and in HOL-Complex rat, real, complex, etc.) are
  5980     now formalized using the Ring_and_Field theory mentioned above.
  5981   - INCOMPATIBILITY: simplification and arithmetic behaves somewhat differently
  5982     than before, because now they are set up once in a generic manner.
  5983   - INCOMPATIBILITY: many type-specific arithmetic laws have gone.
  5984     Look for the general versions in Ring_and_Field (and Power if they concern
  5985     exponentiation).
  5986 
  5987 * Type "rat" of the rational numbers is now available in HOL-Complex.
  5988 
  5989 * Records:
  5990   - Record types are now by default printed with their type abbreviation
  5991     instead of the list of all field types. This can be configured via
  5992     the reference "print_record_type_abbr".
  5993   - Simproc "record_upd_simproc" for simplification of multiple updates added
  5994     (not enabled by default).
  5995   - Simproc "record_ex_sel_eq_simproc" to simplify EX x. sel r = x resp.
  5996     EX x. x = sel r to True (not enabled by default).
  5997   - Tactic "record_split_simp_tac" to split and simplify records added.
  5998 
  5999 * 'specification' command added, allowing for definition by
  6000   specification.  There is also an 'ax_specification' command that
  6001   introduces the new constants axiomatically.
  6002 
  6003 * arith(_tac) is now able to generate counterexamples for reals as well.
  6004 
  6005 * HOL-Algebra: new locale "ring" for non-commutative rings.
  6006 
  6007 * HOL-ex: InductiveInvariant_examples illustrates advanced recursive function
  6008   definitions, thanks to Sava Krsti\'{c} and John Matthews.
  6009 
  6010 * HOL-Matrix: a first theory for matrices in HOL with an application of
  6011   matrix theory to linear programming.
  6012 
  6013 * Unions and Intersections:
  6014   The latex output syntax of UN and INT has been changed
  6015   from "\Union x \in A. B" to "\Union_{x \in A} B"
  6016   i.e. the index formulae has become a subscript.
  6017   Similarly for "\Union x. B", and for \Inter instead of \Union.
  6018 
  6019 * Unions and Intersections over Intervals:
  6020   There is new short syntax "UN i<=n. A" for "UN i:{0..n}. A". There is
  6021   also an x-symbol version with subscripts "\<Union>\<^bsub>i <= n\<^esub>. A"
  6022   like in normal math, and corresponding versions for < and for intersection.
  6023 
  6024 * HOL/List: Ordering "lexico" is renamed "lenlex" and the standard
  6025   lexicographic dictonary ordering has been added as "lexord".
  6026 
  6027 * ML: the legacy theory structures Int and List have been removed. They had
  6028   conflicted with ML Basis Library structures having the same names.
  6029 
  6030 * 'refute' command added to search for (finite) countermodels.  Only works
  6031   for a fragment of HOL.  The installation of an external SAT solver is
  6032   highly recommended.  See "HOL/Refute.thy" for details.
  6033 
  6034 * 'quickcheck' command: Allows to find counterexamples by evaluating
  6035   formulae under an assignment of free variables to random values.
  6036   In contrast to 'refute', it can deal with inductive datatypes,
  6037   but cannot handle quantifiers. See "HOL/ex/Quickcheck_Examples.thy"
  6038   for examples.
  6039 
  6040 
  6041 *** HOLCF ***
  6042 
  6043 * Streams now come with concatenation and are part of the HOLCF image
  6044 
  6045 
  6046 
  6047 New in Isabelle2003 (May 2003)
  6048 ------------------------------
  6049 
  6050 *** General ***
  6051 
  6052 * Provers/simplifier:
  6053 
  6054   - Completely reimplemented method simp (ML: Asm_full_simp_tac):
  6055     Assumptions are now subject to complete mutual simplification,
  6056     not just from left to right. The simplifier now preserves
  6057     the order of assumptions.
  6058 
  6059     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6060 
  6061     -- simp sometimes diverges where the old version did
  6062        not, e.g. invoking simp on the goal
  6063 
  6064         [| P (f x); y = x; f x = f y |] ==> Q
  6065 
  6066        now gives rise to the infinite reduction sequence
  6067 
  6068         P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> P(f y) --(y = x)--> P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> ...
  6069 
  6070        Using "simp (asm_lr)" (ML: Asm_lr_simp_tac) instead often solves this
  6071        kind of problem.
  6072 
  6073     -- Tactics combining classical reasoner and simplification (such as auto)
  6074        are also affected by this change, because many of them rely on
  6075        simp. They may sometimes diverge as well or yield a different numbers
  6076        of subgoals. Try to use e.g. force, fastsimp, or safe instead of auto
  6077        in case of problems. Sometimes subsequent calls to the classical
  6078        reasoner will fail because a preceeding call to the simplifier too
  6079        eagerly simplified the goal, e.g. deleted redundant premises.
  6080 
  6081   - The simplifier trace now shows the names of the applied rewrite rules
  6082 
  6083   - You can limit the number of recursive invocations of the simplifier
  6084     during conditional rewriting (where the simplifie tries to solve the
  6085     conditions before applying the rewrite rule):
  6086     ML "simp_depth_limit := n"
  6087     where n is an integer. Thus you can force termination where previously
  6088     the simplifier would diverge.
  6089 
  6090   - Accepts free variables as head terms in congruence rules.  Useful in Isar.
  6091 
  6092   - No longer aborts on failed congruence proof.  Instead, the
  6093     congruence is ignored.
  6094 
  6095 * Pure: New generic framework for extracting programs from constructive
  6096   proofs. See HOL/Extraction.thy for an example instantiation, as well
  6097   as HOL/Extraction for some case studies.
  6098 
  6099 * Pure: The main goal of the proof state is no longer shown by default, only
  6100 the subgoals. This behaviour is controlled by a new flag.
  6101    PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Settings -> Show Main Goal
  6102 (ML: Proof.show_main_goal).
  6103 
  6104 * Pure: You can find all matching introduction rules for subgoal 1, i.e. all
  6105 rules whose conclusion matches subgoal 1:
  6106       PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Show me -> matching rules
  6107 The rules are ordered by how closely they match the subgoal.
  6108 In particular, rules that solve a subgoal outright are displayed first
  6109 (or rather last, the way they are printed).
  6110 (ML: ProofGeneral.print_intros())
  6111 
  6112 * Pure: New flag trace_unify_fail causes unification to print
  6113 diagnostic information (PG: in trace buffer) when it fails. This is
  6114 useful for figuring out why single step proofs like rule, erule or
  6115 assumption failed.
  6116 
  6117 * Pure: Locale specifications now produce predicate definitions
  6118 according to the body of text (covering assumptions modulo local
  6119 definitions); predicate "loc_axioms" covers newly introduced text,
  6120 while "loc" is cumulative wrt. all included locale expressions; the
  6121 latter view is presented only on export into the global theory
  6122 context; potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use "(open)" option to fall back
  6123 on the old view without predicates;
  6124 
  6125 * Pure: predefined locales "var" and "struct" are useful for sharing
  6126 parameters (as in CASL, for example); just specify something like
  6127 ``var x + var y + struct M'' as import;
  6128 
  6129 * Pure: improved thms_containing: proper indexing of facts instead of
  6130 raw theorems; check validity of results wrt. current name space;
  6131 include local facts of proof configuration (also covers active
  6132 locales), cover fixed variables in index; may use "_" in term
  6133 specification; an optional limit for the number of printed facts may
  6134 be given (the default is 40);
  6135 
  6136 * Pure: disallow duplicate fact bindings within new-style theory files
  6137 (batch-mode only);
  6138 
  6139 * Provers: improved induct method: assumptions introduced by case
  6140 "foo" are split into "foo.hyps" (from the rule) and "foo.prems" (from
  6141 the goal statement); "foo" still refers to all facts collectively;
  6142 
  6143 * Provers: the function blast.overloaded has been removed: all constants
  6144 are regarded as potentially overloaded, which improves robustness in exchange
  6145 for slight decrease in efficiency;
  6146 
  6147 * Provers/linorder: New generic prover for transitivity reasoning over
  6148 linear orders.  Note: this prover is not efficient!
  6149 
  6150 * Isar: preview of problems to finish 'show' now produce an error
  6151 rather than just a warning (in interactive mode);
  6152 
  6153 
  6154 *** HOL ***
  6155 
  6156 * arith(_tac)
  6157 
  6158  - Produces a counter example if it cannot prove a goal.
  6159    Note that the counter example may be spurious if the goal is not a formula
  6160    of quantifier-free linear arithmetic.
  6161    In ProofGeneral the counter example appears in the trace buffer.
  6162 
  6163  - Knows about div k and mod k where k is a numeral of type nat or int.
  6164 
  6165  - Calls full Presburger arithmetic (by Amine Chaieb) if quantifier-free
  6166    linear arithmetic fails. This takes account of quantifiers and divisibility.
  6167    Presburger arithmetic can also be called explicitly via presburger(_tac).
  6168 
  6169 * simp's arithmetic capabilities have been enhanced a bit: it now
  6170 takes ~= in premises into account (by performing a case split);
  6171 
  6172 * simp reduces "m*(n div m) + n mod m" to n, even if the two summands
  6173 are distributed over a sum of terms;
  6174 
  6175 * New tactic "trans_tac" and method "trans" instantiate
  6176 Provers/linorder.ML for axclasses "order" and "linorder" (predicates
  6177 "<=", "<" and "=").
  6178 
  6179 * function INCOMPATIBILITIES: Pi-sets have been redefined and moved from main
  6180 HOL to Library/FuncSet; constant "Fun.op o" is now called "Fun.comp";
  6181 
  6182 * 'typedef' command has new option "open" to suppress the set
  6183 definition;
  6184 
  6185 * functions Min and Max on finite sets have been introduced (theory
  6186 Finite_Set);
  6187 
  6188 * attribute [symmetric] now works for relations as well; it turns
  6189 (x,y) : R^-1 into (y,x) : R, and vice versa;
  6190 
  6191 * induct over a !!-quantified statement (say !!x1..xn):
  6192   each "case" automatically performs "fix x1 .. xn" with exactly those names.
  6193 
  6194 * Map: `empty' is no longer a constant but a syntactic abbreviation for
  6195 %x. None. Warning: empty_def now refers to the previously hidden definition
  6196 of the empty set.
  6197 
  6198 * Algebra: formalization of classical algebra.  Intended as base for
  6199 any algebraic development in Isabelle.  Currently covers group theory
  6200 (up to Sylow's theorem) and ring theory (Universal Property of
  6201 Univariate Polynomials).  Contributions welcome;
  6202 
  6203 * GroupTheory: deleted, since its material has been moved to Algebra;
  6204 
  6205 * Complex: new directory of the complex numbers with numeric constants,
  6206 nonstandard complex numbers, and some complex analysis, standard and
  6207 nonstandard (Jacques Fleuriot);
  6208 
  6209 * HOL-Complex: new image for analysis, replacing HOL-Real and HOL-Hyperreal;
  6210 
  6211 * Hyperreal: introduced Gauge integration and hyperreal logarithms (Jacques
  6212 Fleuriot);
  6213 
  6214 * Real/HahnBanach: updated and adapted to locales;
  6215 
  6216 * NumberTheory: added Gauss's law of quadratic reciprocity (by Avigad,
  6217 Gray and Kramer);
  6218 
  6219 * UNITY: added the Meier-Sanders theory of progress sets;
  6220 
  6221 * MicroJava: bytecode verifier and lightweight bytecode verifier
  6222 as abstract algorithms, instantiated to the JVM;
  6223 
  6224 * Bali: Java source language formalization. Type system, operational
  6225 semantics, axiomatic semantics. Supported language features:
  6226 classes, interfaces, objects,virtual methods, static methods,
  6227 static/instance fields, arrays, access modifiers, definite
  6228 assignment, exceptions.
  6229 
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