NEWS
author huffman
Sun Dec 19 05:15:31 2010 -0800 (2010-12-19)
changeset 41286 3d7685a4a5ff
parent 41249 26f12f98f50a
child 41287 029a6fc1bfb8
permissions -rw-r--r--
reintroduce 'bifinite' class, now with existentially-quantified approx function (cf. b525988432e9)
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
    10 
    11 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
    12 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
    13 the following package declarations:
    14 
    15   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
    16   \usepackage{textcomp}
    17 
    18 * Explicit treatment of UTF8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
    19 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
    20 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
    21 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
    22 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
    23 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
    24 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
    25 
    26 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
    27 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/IsabelleXXXX),
    28 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
    29 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
    30 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
    31 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
    32 
    33 * Theory loading: only the master source file is looked-up in the
    34 implicit load path, all other files are addressed relatively to its
    35 directory.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
    36 
    37 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
    38 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
    39 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
    40 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
    41 
    42 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
    43 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
    44 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
    45 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
    46 
    47   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
    48 
    49   eta_contract                  eta_contract
    50   show_brackets                 show_brackets
    51   show_sorts                    show_sorts
    52   show_types                    show_types
    53   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
    54   show_consts                   show_consts
    55   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
    56 
    57   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
    58 
    59   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
    60   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
    61 
    62   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
    63   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
    64   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
    65   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
    66   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
    67 
    68 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may be only
    69 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
    70 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
    71 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
    72 
    73 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
    74 INCOMPATIBILTY.
    75 
    76   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
    77   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
    78 
    79 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
    80 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
    81 float_token.
    82 
    83 
    84 *** Pure ***
    85 
    86 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
    87 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
    88 time.
    89 
    90 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
    91 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    92 
    93 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
    94 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    95 
    96 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type).
    97 
    98 * Interpretation command 'interpret' accepts a list of equations like
    99 'interpretation' does.
   100 
   101 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
   102 in addition to interpretations in theories.
   103 
   104 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
   105 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
   106 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
   107 feature is still required for historical reasons.
   108 
   109 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
   110 'definition' instead.
   111 
   112 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
   113 constructors.
   114 
   115 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
   116 the local file system.
   117 
   118 
   119 *** HOL ***
   120 
   121 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
   122 
   123     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
   124     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
   125     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
   126     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
   127     bot_fun_eq ~> bot_fun_def
   128     top_fun_eq ~> top_fun_def
   129     inf_fun_eq ~> inf_fun_def
   130     sup_fun_eq ~> sup_fun_def
   131 
   132 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
   133 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by quickcheck[random],
   134 exhaustive testing by quickcheck[exhaustive].
   135 
   136 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
   137 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
   138 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
   139 
   140 * Functions can be declared as coercions and type inference will add
   141 them as necessary upon input of a term. In theory Complex_Main,
   142 real :: nat => real and real :: int => real are declared as
   143 coercions. A new coercion function f is declared like this:
   144 
   145   declare [[coercion f]]
   146 
   147 To lift coercions through type constructors (eg from nat => real to
   148 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
   149 
   150   declare [[coercion_map map]]
   151 
   152 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
   153 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
   154 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
   155 other theories like this:
   156 
   157   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
   158 
   159 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
   160 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
   161 for congruent(2)).
   162 
   163 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
   164 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
   165 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   166 
   167 * Theory Enum (for explicit enumerations of finite types) is now part
   168 of the HOL-Main image. INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum
   169 theory now have to be referred to by its qualified name.
   170 
   171   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
   172   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
   173   product ~>  Enum.product
   174 
   175 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
   176 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   177 
   178 * Quickcheck's generator for random generation is renamed from "code"
   179 to "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   180 
   181 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
   182 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
   183 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
   184 independently.
   185 
   186 * Theory Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
   187 sort_key.
   188 
   189 * New command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
   190 function definitions over complete partial orders. Concrete instances
   191 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
   192 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL. See
   193 HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy for
   194 examples.
   195 
   196 * Predicates "distinct" and "sorted" now defined inductively, with
   197 nice induction rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former distinct.simps and
   198 sorted.simps now named distinct_simps and sorted_simps.
   199 
   200 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
   201 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   202 
   203 * Dropped syntax for old primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   204 
   205 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
   206 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
   207 
   208 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   209 
   210 * Renamed facts:
   211   expand_fun_eq  ~>  fun_eq_iff
   212   expand_set_eq  ~>  set_eq_iff
   213   set_ext        ~>  set_eqI
   214   nat_number     ~>  eval_nat_numeral
   215 
   216 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
   217 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
   218 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   219 
   220 * Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target languages of the
   221 code generator.
   222 
   223 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   224 
   225 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   226 
   227 * Theory SetsAndFunctions has been split into Function_Algebras and
   228 Set_Algebras; canonical names for instance definitions for functions;
   229 various improvements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   230 
   231 * Records: logical foundation type for records do not carry a '_type'
   232 suffix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   233 
   234 * Code generation for records: more idiomatic representation of record
   235 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
   236 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
   237 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
   238 
   239   record 'a foo = ...
   240   ...
   241   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
   242 
   243 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
   244 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   245 
   246 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
   247 counter example search.
   248 
   249 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
   250 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
   251 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   252 
   253 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
   254 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   255 
   256 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
   257 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   258 
   259 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
   260 Sum_Type.Plus.
   261 
   262 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
   263 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
   264 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   265 
   266 * Dropped old infix syntax "mem" for List.member; use "in set"
   267 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   268 
   269 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in List.thy
   270 
   271   constants
   272     null ~> List.null
   273 
   274   facts
   275     mem_iff ~> member_def
   276     null_empty ~> null_def
   277 
   278 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not suppossed to be used
   279 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
   280 generation.
   281 
   282 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
   283 
   284   types
   285     bool ~> HOL.bool
   286     nat ~> Nat.nat
   287 
   288   constants
   289     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
   290     True ~> HOL.True
   291     False ~> HOL.False
   292     op & ~> HOL.conj
   293     op | ~> HOL.disj
   294     op --> ~> HOL.implies
   295     op = ~> HOL.eq
   296     Not ~> HOL.Not
   297     The ~> HOL.The
   298     All ~> HOL.All
   299     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
   300     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
   301     Let ~> HOL.Let
   302     If ~> HOL.If
   303     Ball ~> Set.Ball
   304     Bex ~> Set.Bex
   305     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
   306     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
   307     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
   308     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
   309     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
   310     op : ~> Set.member
   311     Collect ~> Set.Collect
   312 
   313 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   314 
   315 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
   316 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   317 
   318 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
   319 eq) carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
   320 
   321 * Removed lemma Option.is_none_none (Duplicate of is_none_def).
   322 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   323 
   324 * List.thy: use various operations from the Haskell prelude when
   325 generating Haskell code.
   326 
   327 * Multiset.thy: renamed empty_idemp -> empty_neutral
   328 
   329 * code_simp.ML and method code_simp: simplification with rules
   330 determined by code generator.
   331 
   332 * code generator: do not print function definitions for case
   333 combinators any longer.
   334 
   335 * Multivariate Analysis: Introduced a type class for euclidean
   336 space. Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
   337 instead of finite cartesian products.
   338 
   339   types
   340     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
   341               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
   342               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
   343         (depends on your needs)
   344 
   345   constants
   346      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
   347      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
   348      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
   349 
   350 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
   351 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
   352 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
   353 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   354 
   355 * Probability: Introduced pextreal as positive extended real numbers.
   356 Use pextreal as value for measures. Introduce the Radon-Nikodym
   357 derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for arbitrary sigma
   358 finite measures. Introduces Lebesgue measure based on the integral in
   359 Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   360 
   361 * Inductive package: offers new command 'inductive_simps' to
   362 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
   363 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
   364 
   365 * "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV". "surj f"
   366 is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV". The theorems bij_def and
   367 surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   368 
   369 * Function package: .psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
   370 [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   371 
   372 * Weaker versions of the "meson" and "metis" proof methods are now
   373 available in "HOL-Plain", without dependency on "Hilbert_Choice". The
   374 proof methods become more powerful after "Hilbert_Choice" is loaded in
   375 "HOL-Main".
   376 
   377 * MESON: Renamed lemmas:
   378   meson_not_conjD ~> Meson.not_conjD
   379   meson_not_disjD ~> Meson.not_disjD
   380   meson_not_notD ~> Meson.not_notD
   381   meson_not_allD ~> Meson.not_allD
   382   meson_not_exD ~> Meson.not_exD
   383   meson_imp_to_disjD ~> Meson.imp_to_disjD
   384   meson_not_impD ~> Meson.not_impD
   385   meson_iff_to_disjD ~> Meson.iff_to_disjD
   386   meson_not_iffD ~> Meson.not_iffD
   387   meson_not_refl_disj_D ~> Meson.not_refl_disj_D
   388   meson_conj_exD1 ~> Meson.conj_exD1
   389   meson_conj_exD2 ~> Meson.conj_exD2
   390   meson_disj_exD ~> Meson.disj_exD
   391   meson_disj_exD1 ~> Meson.disj_exD1
   392   meson_disj_exD2 ~> Meson.disj_exD2
   393   meson_disj_assoc ~> Meson.disj_assoc
   394   meson_disj_comm ~> Meson.disj_comm
   395   meson_disj_FalseD1 ~> Meson.disj_FalseD1
   396   meson_disj_FalseD2 ~> Meson.disj_FalseD2
   397 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   398 
   399 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
   400 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
   401 
   402 * Sledgehammer:
   403   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof method. See
   404     the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
   405   - Renamed lemmas:
   406     COMBI_def ~> Meson.COMBI_def
   407     COMBK_def ~> Meson.COMBK_def
   408     COMBB_def ~> Meson.COMBB_def
   409     COMBC_def ~> Meson.COMBC_def
   410     COMBS_def ~> Meson.COMBS_def
   411     abs_I ~> Meson.abs_I
   412     abs_K ~> Meson.abs_K
   413     abs_B ~> Meson.abs_B
   414     abs_C ~> Meson.abs_C
   415     abs_S ~> Meson.abs_S
   416     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   417   - Renamed commands:
   418     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
   419     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
   420     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
   421     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   422   - Renamed options:
   423     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
   424     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
   425     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
   426     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
   427     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   428 
   429 * Metis and Meson now have configuration options "meson_trace",
   430 "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled to diagnose
   431 these tools. E.g.
   432 
   433     using [[metis_trace = true]]
   434 
   435 * Nitpick:
   436   - Renamed options:
   437     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
   438     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
   439     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   440   - Now requires Kodkodi 1.2.9. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   441   - Added support for partial quotient types.
   442   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
   443   - Added "whack" option.
   444   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
   445   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
   446   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
   447   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
   448     higher cardinalities.
   449   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
   450 
   451 * Changed SMT configuration options:
   452   - Renamed:
   453     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with swapped semantics)
   454     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
   455     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   456   - Added:
   457     smt_verbose
   458     smt_datatypes
   459     cvc3_options
   460     yices_options
   461 
   462 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
   463 header.
   464 
   465 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
   466 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   467 
   468 
   469 *** HOLCF ***
   470 
   471 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
   472 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'. To use the domain
   473 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
   474 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   475 
   476 * The new class 'domain' is now the default sort; the definitional
   477 domain package and the powerdomain theories both require this class.
   478 The new class 'predomain' is an unpointed version of 'domain'.
   479 Theories can be updated by replacing sort annotations as shown below.
   480 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   481 
   482   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
   483   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
   484   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
   485 
   486 * The old type class 'rep' has been superseded by class 'domain'.
   487 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
   488 'default_sort rep' declarations. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   489 
   490 * The 'bifinite' class no longer fixes a constant 'approx'; the class
   491 now just asserts that such a function exists. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   492 
   493 * The type 'udom alg_defl' has been replaced by the non-parameterized
   494 type 'defl'. HOLCF no longer defines an embedding of type defl into
   495 udom by default; the instance proof defl :: domain is now available in
   496 HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
   497 
   498 * The syntax 'REP('a)' has been replaced with 'DEFL('a)'.
   499 
   500 * The predicate 'directed' has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   501 
   502 * The type class 'finite_po' has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   503 
   504 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
   505   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
   506   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
   507   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
   508   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
   509   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
   510   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
   511   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
   512 
   513 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
   514 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   515   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
   516   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
   517   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
   518   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
   519   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
   520   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
   521 
   522 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
   523 been renamed to *_bottom_iff. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   524 
   525 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
   526   - Definitions of 'bisim' constants no longer mention definedness.
   527   - With mutual recursion, 'bisim' predicate is now curried.
   528   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
   529   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
   530 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   531 
   532 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type 'foo' are
   533 now named 'foo_case' instead of 'foo_when'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   534 
   535 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
   536 names of constants and types involved. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   537   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
   538   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
   539   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
   540   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
   541   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
   542   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
   543   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
   544   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
   545   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
   546   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
   547   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
   548   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
   549   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
   550   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
   551   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
   552   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
   553 
   554 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   555   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
   556   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
   557   refl_less            ~> below_refl
   558   trans_less           ~> below_trans
   559   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
   560   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
   561   box_less             ~> box_below
   562   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
   563   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
   564   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
   565   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
   566   adm_less             ~> adm_below
   567   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
   568   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
   569   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
   570   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
   571   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
   572   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
   573   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
   574   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
   575   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
   576   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
   577   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
   578   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
   579   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
   580   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
   581   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
   582   injection_less       ~> injection_below
   583   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
   584   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
   585   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
   586   up_less              ~> up_below
   587   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
   588   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
   589   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
   590   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
   591   spair_less           ~> spair_below
   592   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
   593   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
   594   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
   595   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
   596   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
   597   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
   598   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
   599   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
   600 
   601 
   602 *** FOL and ZF ***
   603 
   604 * All constant names are now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   605 
   606 
   607 *** ML ***
   608 
   609 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
   610 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
   611 
   612 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
   613 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
   614 
   615 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
   616 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
   617 
   618 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
   619 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
   620 
   621 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
   622 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
   623 almost all situations.
   624 
   625 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
   626 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
   627 Isabelle/ML.
   628 
   629 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
   630 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
   631 failed assertions is included in the error output.
   632 
   633 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
   634 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
   635 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
   636 
   637 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
   638 meaning.
   639 
   640 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
   641 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
   642 rarely-used global-only stuff.
   643 
   644 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
   645 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
   646 
   647 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
   648 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
   649 
   650 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
   651 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
   652 @{thms} for most purposes.
   653 
   654 * ML structure Unsynchronized never opened, not even in Isar
   655 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
   656 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
   657 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
   658 configuration options.
   659 
   660 * ML antiquotations @{theory} and @{theory_ref} refer to named
   661 theories from the ancestry of the current context, not any accidental
   662 theory loader state as before.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle
   663 change in semantics.
   664 
   665 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
   666 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
   667 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
   668 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
   669 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
   670 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
   671 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
   672 
   673 
   674 *** System ***
   675 
   676 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
   677 DajaVu Sans.
   678 
   679 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
   680 
   681 
   682 
   683 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
   684 ---------------------------------
   685 
   686 *** General ***
   687 
   688 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
   689 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
   690 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
   691 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
   692 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
   693 their full internal name.
   694 
   695 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
   696 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
   697 Some hints on upgrading:
   698 
   699   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
   700     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
   701     which are independent of this issue.
   702 
   703   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
   704     provides the following special forms:
   705 
   706       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
   707       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
   708       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
   709 
   710     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
   711     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
   712     extra variables".
   713 
   714     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
   715     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
   716     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
   717     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
   718     "logic".
   719 
   720   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
   721     antiquotations:
   722 
   723       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
   724       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
   725       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
   726       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
   727 
   728   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
   729     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
   730     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
   731     antiquotations.
   732 
   733 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
   734 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
   735 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
   736 diagnose syntax problems.
   737 
   738 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
   739 
   740 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
   741 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
   742 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
   743 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
   744 
   745 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
   746 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
   747 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
   748 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   749 
   750 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
   751 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
   752 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
   753 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
   754 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   755 
   756 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
   757 discontinued (old legacy feature).
   758 
   759 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
   760 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
   761 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
   762 
   763   using [[trace_simp = true]]
   764 
   765 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
   766 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
   767 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
   768 
   769 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
   770 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
   771 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   772 
   773 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
   774 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
   775 
   776 
   777 *** Pure ***
   778 
   779 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
   780 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
   781 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
   782 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
   783 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
   784 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
   785 inspect proof terms.
   786 
   787 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
   788 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
   789 are added internally.  For example:
   790 
   791   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
   792 
   793 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
   794 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   795 
   796 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   797 
   798 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
   799 'class' instead.
   800 
   801 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
   802 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
   803 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   804 
   805 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
   806 invariants.
   807 
   808 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
   809 user space functionality any longer.
   810 
   811 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
   812 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
   813 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   814 
   815 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
   816 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
   817 
   818 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
   819 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
   820 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
   821 
   822 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
   823 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
   824 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
   825 
   826 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
   827 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   828 
   829 
   830 *** HOL ***
   831 
   832 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
   833 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
   834 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
   835 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
   836 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
   837 
   838 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
   839 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
   840 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
   841 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
   842 
   843   fun
   844     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
   845   where
   846     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
   847 
   848   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
   849     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
   850 
   851   quotient_definition
   852     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
   853 
   854 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
   855 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
   856 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
   857 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
   858 
   859 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
   860 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
   861 
   862 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
   863 separate HOL-SMT session.
   864 
   865 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
   866 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   867 
   868 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
   869 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
   870 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
   871 
   872 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
   873 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   874 
   875 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
   876 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   877 
   878 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
   879 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   880 
   881 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
   882 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   883 
   884 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
   885 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
   886 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   887 
   888   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
   889   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
   890   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
   891   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
   892   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
   893   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
   894   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
   895   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
   896   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
   897   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
   898   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
   899   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
   900   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
   901   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
   902   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
   903   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
   904   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
   905   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
   906   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
   907   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
   908   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
   909   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
   910   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
   911   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
   912   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
   913   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
   914   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
   915   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
   916   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
   917   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
   918 
   919 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
   920 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
   921 
   922 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
   923 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
   924 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
   925 
   926 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
   927 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
   928 
   929 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
   930 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   931 
   932 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
   933 
   934 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
   935 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   936 
   937 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
   938 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   939 
   940 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   941 
   942 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
   943 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
   944 
   945 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
   946 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
   947 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
   948 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   949 
   950 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
   951   - less_eq, less: Orderings
   952   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
   953   - inverse, divide: Rings
   954 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   955 
   956 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
   957 lattices):
   958 
   959     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
   960     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
   961 
   962     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
   963 
   964     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
   965     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
   966     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
   967     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
   968     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
   969     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
   970     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
   971     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
   972     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
   973     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
   974     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
   975     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
   976     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
   977 
   978     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
   979     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
   980     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
   981     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
   982     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
   983     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
   984     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
   985     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
   986     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
   987     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
   988     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
   989     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
   990     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
   991     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
   992     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
   993     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
   994     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
   995     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
   996 
   997   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
   998   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
   999 
  1000     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  1001     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  1002     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  1003     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  1004     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  1005 
  1006 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1007 
  1008 * Refined field classes:
  1009   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  1010     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  1011     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  1012   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  1013 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1014 
  1015 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  1016   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  1017   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  1018   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  1019     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  1020   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  1021     equal_neg_zero.
  1022 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1023 
  1024 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  1025 sets to lattices:
  1026 
  1027   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  1028   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  1029   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  1030   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  1031   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  1032   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  1033   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  1034   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  1035   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  1036   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  1037 
  1038 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  1039 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  1040 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  1041 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  1042 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  1043 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1044 
  1045 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  1046 multiset order:
  1047 
  1048   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  1049     <= and <;
  1050   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  1051     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  1052     multiset_order;
  1053   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  1054     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  1055     generation;
  1056   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  1057     if needed.
  1058 
  1059 Renamed:
  1060 
  1061   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  1062   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  1063   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  1064 
  1065 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1066 
  1067 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  1068 
  1069 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  1070 
  1071 * Theory List: added transpose.
  1072 
  1073 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  1074 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  1075 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1076 
  1077   Constants:
  1078   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  1079   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  1080   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  1081   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  1082   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  1083   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  1084   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  1085   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  1086   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  1087   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  1088   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  1089   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  1090   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  1091 
  1092   Lemmas:
  1093   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  1094   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  1095   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  1096   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  1097   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  1098   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  1099   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  1100   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  1101   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  1102   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  1103   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  1104   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  1105   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  1106 
  1107 * Sledgehammer:
  1108   - Renamed ATP commands:
  1109     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  1110     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  1111     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  1112     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  1113     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  1114     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1115   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  1116   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  1117     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  1118   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  1119     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  1120     is still experimental.)
  1121   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  1122     full-typed mode.
  1123   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  1124 
  1125 * Nitpick:
  1126   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  1127   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  1128   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  1129     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  1130   - Added support for quotient types.
  1131   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  1132     constructs.
  1133   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  1134     "termination" proofs).
  1135   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  1136   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  1137   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  1138   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  1139     record getters.
  1140   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  1141   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  1142   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  1143   - Added "atoms" option.
  1144   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  1145     problems.
  1146   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  1147     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  1148     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1149   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  1150     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1151   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1152 
  1153 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  1154   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  1155   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  1156   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  1157   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  1158   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  1159   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  1160   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  1161   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  1162   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1163 
  1164 
  1165 *** HOLCF ***
  1166 
  1167 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  1168 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  1169 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1170 
  1171 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  1172 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  1173 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  1174 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1175 
  1176 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  1177 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  1178 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  1179 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  1180 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1181 
  1182 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  1183 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  1184 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1185 
  1186 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  1187 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1188 
  1189   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  1190   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  1191 
  1192 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  1193 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1194 
  1195   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  1196   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  1197   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  1198   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  1199   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  1200 
  1201 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  1202 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1203 
  1204   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  1205   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  1206   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  1207 
  1208 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  1209 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  1210 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1211 
  1212 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  1213 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1214 
  1215 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1216 
  1217 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  1218 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1219 
  1220 
  1221 *** ML ***
  1222 
  1223 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  1224 
  1225     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  1226     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  1227 
  1228     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  1229     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  1230     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  1231     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  1232 
  1233     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  1234     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  1235     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  1236 
  1237 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  1238 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  1239 
  1240 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  1241 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  1242 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  1243 
  1244 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  1245 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  1246 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  1247 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  1248 
  1249 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  1250 the context or even global references.
  1251 
  1252 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  1253 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  1254 
  1255 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  1256 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  1257 
  1258   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  1259   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  1260   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  1261   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  1262   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  1263   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  1264   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  1265   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  1266   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  1267   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  1268 
  1269 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  1270 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  1271 
  1272 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  1273 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  1274 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  1275 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  1276 pass the proper local context through the code!
  1277 
  1278 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  1279 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  1280 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  1281 Theory_Data version.
  1282 
  1283 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  1284 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  1285 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  1286 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  1287 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  1288 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  1289 explicitly in rare situations.
  1290 
  1291 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  1292 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  1293 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1294 
  1295 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  1296 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1297 
  1298 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  1299 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  1300 quite rare).
  1301 
  1302 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  1303 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1304 
  1305 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  1306 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  1307 terms.
  1308 
  1309 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  1310 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  1311 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  1312 
  1313 
  1314 *** System ***
  1315 
  1316 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  1317 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  1318 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  1319 
  1320 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  1321 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  1322 respectively.
  1323 
  1324 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  1325 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  1326 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  1327 prefers 64 bit if available:
  1328 
  1329   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  1330 
  1331 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  1332 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  1333 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  1334 component.
  1335 
  1336 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  1337 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  1338 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  1339 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  1340 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  1341 the user for manual installation.
  1342 
  1343 
  1344 
  1345 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  1346 -------------------------------------
  1347 
  1348 *** General ***
  1349 
  1350 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  1351 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  1352 
  1353 
  1354 *** Pure ***
  1355 
  1356 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  1357 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  1358 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  1359 
  1360 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  1361 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  1362 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  1363 
  1364 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  1365 interpretation.
  1366 
  1367 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  1368 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1369 
  1370 
  1371 *** Document preparation ***
  1372 
  1373 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  1374 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  1375 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  1376 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  1377 
  1378 
  1379 *** HOL ***
  1380 
  1381 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  1382 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  1383 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  1384 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  1385 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  1386 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  1387 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  1388 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  1389 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  1390 
  1391 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  1392 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  1393 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  1394 
  1395 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  1396 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  1397 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  1398 
  1399 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  1400 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  1401 
  1402 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  1403 
  1404 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  1405 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  1406 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  1407 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  1408 
  1409 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  1410 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  1411 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  1412 "mirabelle" utility.
  1413 
  1414 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  1415 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  1416 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  1417 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  1418 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  1419 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  1420 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  1421 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  1422 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  1423 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  1424 
  1425 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  1426 procedure only.
  1427 
  1428 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  1429 
  1430 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  1431 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  1432 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  1433 that fail later.
  1434 
  1435 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  1436 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  1437 
  1438 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  1439 the same method as the approximation method.
  1440 
  1441 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  1442 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  1443 series expansion.
  1444 
  1445 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  1446 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  1447 
  1448 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  1449 reals.
  1450 
  1451 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  1452 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  1453 
  1454 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  1455 fixpoint theorem.
  1456 
  1457 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  1458   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  1459     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  1460   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  1461     accordingly
  1462   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  1463     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  1464   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  1465     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  1466 
  1467 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  1468 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  1469 lattice.
  1470 
  1471 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  1472 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  1473 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  1474 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  1475 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  1476 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  1477 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1478 
  1479 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  1480   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  1481     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  1482   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  1483     le_inf_iff
  1484   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  1485     sup_aci)
  1486   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  1487   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  1488   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  1489     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  1490     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  1491     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  1492     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  1493     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  1494     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  1495     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  1496     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  1497     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  1498     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  1499   - authentic syntax for
  1500     Set.Pow
  1501     Set.image
  1502   - mere abbreviations:
  1503     Set.empty               (for bot)
  1504     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  1505     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  1506     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  1507     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  1508     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  1509     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  1510     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  1511   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  1512 
  1513 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  1514 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  1515 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  1516 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  1517 
  1518 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  1519 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  1520 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1521 
  1522 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  1523 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1524 
  1525 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  1526 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  1527 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  1528 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1529 
  1530 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  1531 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1532 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  1533 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  1534 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  1535 
  1536 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  1537 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  1538 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1539 
  1540 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  1541 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1542 
  1543 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  1544 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  1545 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  1546 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  1547 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  1548 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  1549 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  1550 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1551 
  1552 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  1553     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  1554     code_post       replaces    code post
  1555     etc.
  1556   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1557 
  1558 * Renamed methods:
  1559     sizechange -> size_change
  1560     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  1561   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1562 
  1563 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  1564 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  1565 
  1566 * Renamed theorems:
  1567     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  1568     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  1569     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  1570     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  1571     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  1572   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1573 
  1574 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  1575 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1576 
  1577 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  1578 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1579 
  1580 
  1581 *** HOLCF ***
  1582 
  1583 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  1584 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  1585 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  1586 
  1587 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  1588 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  1589 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  1590 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  1591 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  1592 
  1593 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  1594 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  1595 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  1596 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  1597 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  1598 
  1599 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  1600 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  1601 constructor are pre-configured.
  1602 
  1603 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  1604 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  1605 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  1606 
  1607 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  1608 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  1609 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  1610 as well.)
  1611 
  1612 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  1613 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  1614 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  1615 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  1616 examples.
  1617 
  1618 
  1619 *** ML ***
  1620 
  1621 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  1622 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  1623 
  1624 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  1625 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  1626 position, logical grouping etc.
  1627 
  1628 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  1629 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  1630 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  1631 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  1632 
  1633 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  1634 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  1635 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  1636 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  1637 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  1638 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  1639 
  1640 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  1641 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  1642 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  1643 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  1644 experiments with references.
  1645 
  1646 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  1647 parallel tactical reasoning.
  1648 
  1649 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  1650 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  1651 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  1652 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  1653 
  1654 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  1655 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  1656 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  1657 
  1658 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  1659 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  1660 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1661 
  1662 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1663 
  1664 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  1665 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1666 
  1667 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  1668 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  1669 
  1670 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  1671 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  1672 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  1673 
  1674 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  1675 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  1676 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1677 
  1678 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  1679 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  1680 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  1681 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1682 
  1683 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  1684 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  1685 instead of global theory.
  1686 
  1687 
  1688 *** System ***
  1689 
  1690 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  1691 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  1692 usedir option -q.
  1693 
  1694 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  1695 also the system manual.
  1696 
  1697 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  1698 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  1699 
  1700 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  1701 this is always enabled.
  1702 
  1703 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  1704 
  1705 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  1706 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  1707 currently supported on Linux only.
  1708 
  1709 
  1710 
  1711 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  1712 --------------------------------
  1713 
  1714 *** General ***
  1715 
  1716 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  1717 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  1718 
  1719   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  1720     "isatool."
  1721 
  1722   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  1723     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  1724 
  1725   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  1726     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  1727 
  1728 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  1729 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  1730 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  1731 
  1732 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  1733 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  1734 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  1735 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  1736 via "isabelle emacs".
  1737 
  1738 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  1739 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  1740 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  1741 
  1742 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  1743 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  1744 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  1745 
  1746 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  1747 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  1748 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  1749 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  1750 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  1751 
  1752 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  1753 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  1754 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  1755 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  1756 
  1757 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  1758 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  1759 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  1760 
  1761 
  1762 *** Pure ***
  1763 
  1764 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  1765 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  1766 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  1767 
  1768 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  1769 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  1770 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  1771 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  1772 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  1773 
  1774 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  1775 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  1776 useful in locale declarations.
  1777 
  1778 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  1779 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  1780 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  1781 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  1782 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  1783 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  1784 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  1785 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  1786 no longer generated.
  1787 
  1788 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  1789 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  1790 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  1791 
  1792 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  1793 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  1794 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  1795 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  1796 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  1797 
  1798 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1799 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  1800 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  1801 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  1802 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  1803 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  1804 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  1805 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  1806 
  1807 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  1808 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  1809 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  1810 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  1811 
  1812 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1813 
  1814 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  1815 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  1816 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  1817 
  1818 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  1819 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1820 
  1821 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  1822 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  1823 in HOL, write
  1824 
  1825     class foo = ...
  1826 
  1827 instead of
  1828 
  1829     class foo = type + ...
  1830 
  1831 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  1832 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1833 
  1834 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  1835 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  1836 
  1837 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  1838 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  1839 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  1840 
  1841 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  1842 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  1843 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  1844 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  1845 directly in regular applications.
  1846 
  1847 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  1848 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  1849 
  1850 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  1851 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  1852 
  1853 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  1854 theory context.
  1855 
  1856 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  1857 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1858 
  1859 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  1860 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  1861 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  1862 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  1863 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  1864 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  1865 
  1866   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  1867 
  1868 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  1869 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  1870 normalization.
  1871 
  1872 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  1873 addressing etc.
  1874 
  1875 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  1876 
  1877   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  1878   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  1879 
  1880 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1881 
  1882   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  1883      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  1884      parts of the code generator framework).
  1885 
  1886   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  1887      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  1888      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  1889 
  1890 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1891 
  1892 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  1893 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1894 
  1895 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  1896 patterns, e.g.
  1897 
  1898     find_consts "_ => bool"
  1899 
  1900 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  1901 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  1902 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  1903 hyphen:
  1904 
  1905     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  1906 
  1907 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  1908 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  1909 
  1910 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  1911 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  1912 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  1913 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  1914 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  1915 higher-order unification.
  1916 
  1917 
  1918 *** Document preparation ***
  1919 
  1920 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  1921 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  1922 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  1923 
  1924 
  1925 *** HOL ***
  1926 
  1927 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  1928 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  1929 
  1930 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  1931 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  1932 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  1933 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  1934 Main, as before.
  1935 
  1936 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  1937 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  1938 
  1939 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  1940 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  1941 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  1942 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  1943 
  1944 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  1945 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  1946 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  1947 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  1948 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  1949 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  1950 
  1951 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  1952 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  1953 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  1954 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  1955 
  1956 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  1957 menu.
  1958 
  1959 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  1960 (contains the empty clause).
  1961 
  1962 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  1963 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  1964 
  1965 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  1966 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  1967 
  1968 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  1969 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  1970 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1971 
  1972 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  1973 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  1974 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  1975 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  1976 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  1977 
  1978 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  1979 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  1980 
  1981 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  1982 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  1983 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  1984 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  1985 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  1986 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  1987 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  1988 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  1989 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  1990 
  1991 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  1992 
  1993 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  1994 
  1995 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  1996 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1997 
  1998 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  1999 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  2000 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  2001 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  2002 
  2003 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  2004 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  2005 
  2006     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  2007     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  2008     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  2009     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  2010     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  2011     Union ~>    Set.Union
  2012     {} ~>       Set.empty
  2013     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  2014 
  2015 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  2016 theory Set.
  2017 
  2018 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  2019 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  2020 
  2021 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  2022 
  2023 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  2024 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  2025 
  2026 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  2027 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  2028 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  2029 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  2030 allowed. For examples see
  2031 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  2032 
  2033 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  2034 
  2035 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  2036 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2037 
  2038 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  2039 structure:
  2040 
  2041     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  2042     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2043     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2044     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2045     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2046     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2047     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2048     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2049     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2050     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2051     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2052     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2053     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2054     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2055     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2056     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2057     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2058     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2059     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2060     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2061     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2062     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2063     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2064     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2065     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2066     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2067     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2068     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2069     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2070     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2071     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2072     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  2073     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2074 
  2075     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2076     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2077     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2078     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  2079     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2080     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2081     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2082     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2083     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2084     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2085 
  2086     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2087     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2088     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2089     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2090     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2091     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2092 
  2093 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  2094 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  2095 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  2096 
  2097 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  2098 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  2099 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  2100 
  2101 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  2102 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2103 
  2104 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  2105 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  2106 
  2107 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  2108 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  2109 proofs, e.g.
  2110 
  2111   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  2112 
  2113 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  2114 
  2115 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  2116 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  2117 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2118 
  2119 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  2120 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  2121 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2122 
  2123 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  2124 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  2125 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  2126 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2127 
  2128 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  2129 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  2130 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  2131 preorder_class.*.
  2132 
  2133 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  2134 "diag" to "Id_on".
  2135 
  2136 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  2137 
  2138   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  2139 
  2140 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  2141 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  2142 fold_image.
  2143 
  2144 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  2145 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  2146 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  2147 the former will disappear at some point.
  2148 
  2149 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  2150 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  2151 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  2152 
  2153 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  2154 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  2155 realpow_0      -> power_0
  2156 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  2157 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  2158 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  2159 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  2160 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  2161 
  2162 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  2163 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  2164 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  2165 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  2166 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  2167 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  2168 
  2169     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  2170     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  2171     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  2172     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  2173     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  2174     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  2175     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  2176 
  2177 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  2178 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2179 rename old lemmas as follows:
  2180 
  2181 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  2182 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  2183 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  2184 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  2185 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  2186 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  2187 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  2188 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  2189 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  2190 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  2191 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  2192 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  2193 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  2194 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  2195 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  2196 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  2197 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  2198 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  2199 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  2200 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  2201 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  2202 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  2203 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  2204 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  2205 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  2206 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  2207 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  2208 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  2209 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  2210 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  2211 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  2212 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  2213 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  2214 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  2215 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  2216 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  2217 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  2218 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  2219 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  2220 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  2221 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  2222 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  2223 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  2224 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  2225 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  2226 
  2227 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2228 
  2229 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  2230 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  2231 
  2232 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  2233 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  2234 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  2235 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  2236 
  2237 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  2238 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  2239 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  2240 theory RealVector.
  2241 
  2242 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  2243 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  2244 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  2245 and inner products are included.
  2246 
  2247 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  2248 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  2249 supported.
  2250 
  2251 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  2252 first diagonalization argument.
  2253 
  2254 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  2255 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  2256 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  2257 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2258 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  2259 
  2260     hide (open) const gcd
  2261     abbreviation gcd where
  2262       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  2263     notation (output)
  2264       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  2265 
  2266 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  2267 
  2268 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  2269 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  2270 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2271 
  2272 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  2273 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  2274 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  2275 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  2276 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  2277 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  2278 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  2279 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  2280 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  2281 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  2282 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  2283 cases.
  2284 
  2285 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  2286 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  2287 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  2288 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  2289 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  2290 
  2291     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  2292     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  2293     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  2294     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  2295     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  2296 
  2297 
  2298 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2299 
  2300 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  2301 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  2302 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  2303 
  2304 * New theory of factorial domains.
  2305 
  2306 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  2307 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  2308 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  2309 
  2310 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  2311 
  2312 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  2313 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  2314 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  2315 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  2316 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  2317 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  2318 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  2319 
  2320 
  2321 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  2322 
  2323 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  2324 
  2325 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  2326 theory targets.
  2327 
  2328 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  2329 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  2330 'inductive' etc.
  2331 
  2332 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  2333 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  2334 
  2335 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  2336 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  2337 
  2338 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  2339 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  2340 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  2341 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  2342 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  2343 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  2344 the algorithm W:
  2345 
  2346  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  2347  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  2348          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  2349 
  2350 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  2351 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  2352 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  2353 
  2354 
  2355 *** HOLCF ***
  2356 
  2357 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  2358 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  2359 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  2360 
  2361 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  2362 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  2363 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  2364 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  2365 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2366 
  2367 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  2368 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  2369 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2370 
  2371 
  2372 *** ZF ***
  2373 
  2374 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  2375 
  2376 
  2377 *** ML ***
  2378 
  2379 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  2380 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  2381 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  2382 5.2.1!
  2383 
  2384 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  2385 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  2386 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  2387 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  2388 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  2389 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  2390 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  2391 
  2392 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  2393 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  2394 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  2395 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  2396 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  2397 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  2398 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  2399 
  2400 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  2401 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  2402 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  2403 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  2404 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  2405 
  2406 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  2407 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  2408 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  2409 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  2410 Method.add_method.
  2411 
  2412 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  2413 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  2414 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  2415 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  2416 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  2417 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  2418 
  2419 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  2420 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  2421 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  2422 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  2423 examples.
  2424 
  2425 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  2426 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  2427 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  2428 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  2429 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  2430 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  2431 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  2432 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  2433 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  2434 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  2435 
  2436 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  2437 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  2438 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  2439 
  2440 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  2441 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  2442 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  2443 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  2444 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  2445 resort for legacy applications.
  2446 
  2447 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  2448 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  2449 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  2450 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  2451 explicit runtime argument.
  2452 
  2453 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  2454 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  2455 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  2456 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  2457 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2458 
  2459 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  2460 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  2461 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  2462 theory state.
  2463 
  2464 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  2465 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  2466 
  2467   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  2468   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  2469   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  2470   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  2471   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  2472   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  2473   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  2474   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  2475   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  2476   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  2477 
  2478 
  2479 *** System ***
  2480 
  2481 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  2482 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  2483 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  2484 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  2485 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  2486 
  2487 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  2488 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  2489 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  2490 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  2491 
  2492 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  2493 
  2494 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  2495 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  2496 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  2497 prover operations.
  2498 
  2499 
  2500 
  2501 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  2502 -------------------------------
  2503 
  2504 *** General ***
  2505 
  2506 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  2507 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  2508 
  2509 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  2510 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  2511 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  2512 provides a proper context already.
  2513 
  2514 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  2515 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  2516 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  2517 
  2518 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  2519 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  2520 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  2521 swap theory imports.
  2522 
  2523 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  2524 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  2525 
  2526 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  2527 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2528 white space without escapes.
  2529 
  2530 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  2531 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  2532 "foo_bar".
  2533 
  2534 
  2535 *** Pure ***
  2536 
  2537 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  2538 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  2539 
  2540 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  2541 There are three ways of invoking it:
  2542 
  2543 (1) unused_thms
  2544      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  2545 
  2546 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  2547      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  2548      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  2549 
  2550 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  2551      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  2552      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  2553      their ancestors.
  2554 
  2555 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  2556 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  2557 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  2558 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  2559 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  2560 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  2561 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  2562 
  2563 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  2564 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  2565 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  2566 
  2567 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  2568 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  2569 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  2570 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  2571 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  2572 
  2573 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  2574 
  2575 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  2576 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  2577 update of theories within ML code.
  2578 
  2579 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  2580 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  2581 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  2582 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  2583 
  2584 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  2585 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  2586 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  2587 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2588 
  2589 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  2590 
  2591 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  2592 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  2593 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  2594 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  2595 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  2596 
  2597 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  2598 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  2599 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  2600 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  2601 situations.
  2602 
  2603 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  2604 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  2605 proof text.
  2606 
  2607 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  2608 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  2609 
  2610 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  2611 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  2612 predicates.
  2613 
  2614 
  2615 *** Document preparation ***
  2616 
  2617 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  2618 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  2619 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  2620 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  2621 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  2622 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  2623 
  2624 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  2625 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  2626 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  2627 
  2628 
  2629 *** HOL ***
  2630 
  2631 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  2632 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  2633 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  2634 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  2635 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  2636 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  2637 
  2638 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  2639 with multithreading.
  2640 
  2641 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  2642 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  2643 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  2644 
  2645 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  2646 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  2647 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  2648 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2649 
  2650 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  2651 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  2652 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  2653 and makes them available separately.  See
  2654 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  2655 
  2656 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  2657 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  2658 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  2659 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  2660 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  2661 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  2662 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  2663 the declared rules.
  2664 
  2665 This setup also deals with rules like 
  2666 
  2667   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  2668 
  2669 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  2670 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  2671 
  2672 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  2673 
  2674   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  2675 
  2676   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  2677     definitions on => and bool.
  2678 
  2679   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  2680     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  2681     the following theorems have been renamed:
  2682 
  2683       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  2684       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  2685       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  2686       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  2687       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  2688       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  2689       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  2690       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  2691 
  2692   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  2693     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  2694     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  2695 
  2696   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  2697     The proof pattern
  2698 
  2699       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  2700       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  2701 
  2702     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  2703     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  2704 
  2705       have "EX S. P S"
  2706       proof
  2707         show "P S" <...>
  2708       qed
  2709 
  2710   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  2711     The proof pattern
  2712 
  2713       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  2714       also have "S = T" <...>
  2715       finally have "P T" .
  2716 
  2717     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  2718     must be replaced by something like
  2719 
  2720       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  2721       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  2722       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  2723 
  2724   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  2725     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  2726 
  2727       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  2728 
  2729     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  2730     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  2731     type of the form
  2732 
  2733       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  2734 
  2735     rather than
  2736 
  2737       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  2738 
  2739 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  2740 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  2741 
  2742 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2743 
  2744 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  2745 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  2746 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2747 
  2748 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  2749 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2750 
  2751 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  2752 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2753 
  2754 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  2755 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  2756 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2757 
  2758 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  2759 the same name in theory Orderings:
  2760 
  2761   less_trans
  2762   less_linear
  2763   le_imp_less_or_eq
  2764   le_less_trans
  2765   less_le_trans
  2766   less_not_sym
  2767   less_asym
  2768 
  2769 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  2770 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  2771 and different variable names.
  2772 
  2773 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  2774 
  2775 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  2776 finite maps.
  2777 
  2778 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  2779 
  2780 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  2781 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  2782 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  2783 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  2784 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  2785 accordingly.
  2786 
  2787 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  2788 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  2789 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  2790 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  2791 
  2792 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  2793 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  2794 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  2795 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  2796 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  2797 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2798 
  2799 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  2800 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2801 
  2802 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  2803 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  2804 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  2805 
  2806 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  2807 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2808 
  2809 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  2810 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  2811 
  2812 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  2813 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2814 
  2815 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  2816 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2817 
  2818 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  2819 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  2820 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2821 
  2822 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  2823 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2824 
  2825 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  2826 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  2827 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  2828 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  2829 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  2830 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2831 
  2832 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  2833 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  2834 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  2835 
  2836 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  2837 
  2838 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  2839 
  2840 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  2841 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  2842 well-orders on sets and on types.
  2843 
  2844 
  2845 *** ZF ***
  2846 
  2847 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  2848 same session:
  2849 
  2850   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  2851   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  2852   Int       -> Int_ZF
  2853   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  2854   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  2855   List      -> List_ZF
  2856   Main      -> Main_ZF
  2857 
  2858 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  2859 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  2860 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  2861 
  2862 
  2863 *** ML ***
  2864 
  2865 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  2866 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  2867 
  2868 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  2869 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  2870 
  2871 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  2872 
  2873 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  2874 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  2875 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  2876 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  2877 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2878 
  2879 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  2880 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  2881 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  2882 
  2883 
  2884 *** System ***
  2885 
  2886 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  2887 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  2888 
  2889 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  2890 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  2891 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  2892 
  2893 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  2894 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  2895 
  2896 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  2897 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  2898 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  2899 
  2900 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  2901 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  2902 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  2903 
  2904 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  2905 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  2906 
  2907 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  2908 way of changing the user's settings is via
  2909 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  2910 script.
  2911 
  2912 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  2913 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  2914 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  2915 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  2916 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  2917 
  2918 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  2919 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  2920 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  2921 
  2922 
  2923 
  2924 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  2925 -----------------------------------
  2926 
  2927 *** General ***
  2928 
  2929 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  2930 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  2931 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  2932 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  2933 
  2934 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  2935 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  2936 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2937 
  2938 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  2939 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  2940 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  2941 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2942 
  2943 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  2944 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  2945 quotes.
  2946 
  2947 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  2948 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  2949 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  2950 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  2951 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  2952 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  2953 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  2954 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  2955 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  2956 
  2957 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  2958 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  2959 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  2960 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  2961 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  2962 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  2963 
  2964 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  2965 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  2966 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  2967 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  2968 
  2969 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  2970 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  2971 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  2972 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  2973 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  2974 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  2975 
  2976 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  2977 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  2978 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  2979 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  2980 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  2981 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  2982 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  2983 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  2984 
  2985 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  2986 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  2987 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  2988 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  2989 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  2990 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  2991 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  2992 
  2993 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  2994 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  2995 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  2996 
  2997 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  2998 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  2999 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  3000 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  3001 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  3002 limit is imposed.
  3003 
  3004 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  3005 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  3006 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  3007 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  3008 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  3009 and scalability.
  3010 
  3011 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  3012 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  3013 
  3014 
  3015 *** Document preparation ***
  3016 
  3017 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  3018 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  3019 current context.
  3020 
  3021 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  3022 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  3023 
  3024 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  3025 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  3026 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  3027 
  3028 
  3029 *** Pure ***
  3030 
  3031 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  3032 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  3033 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  3034 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  3035 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  3036 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  3037 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  3038 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  3039 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  3040 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  3041 
  3042 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  3043 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  3044 sketch:
  3045 
  3046     internal compilation:
  3047         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  3048     writing SML code to a file:
  3049         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  3050     writing OCaml code to a file:
  3051         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  3052     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  3053         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  3054 
  3055     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  3056         method ``eval''
  3057 
  3058 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  3059 
  3060 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  3061 
  3062     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  3063     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  3064     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  3065     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  3066 
  3067 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  3068 
  3069     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  3070       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  3071 
  3072     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  3073       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  3074 
  3075     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  3076       {(target)}+
  3077         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  3078 
  3079     code_class <and_list of classes>
  3080       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  3081         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  3082 
  3083 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  3084 
  3085 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  3086 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  3087 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  3088 codegen".
  3089 
  3090 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  3091 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  3092 annotations).
  3093 
  3094 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  3095 syntax.
  3096 
  3097 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  3098 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  3099 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  3100 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  3101 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  3102 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  3103 
  3104 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  3105 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  3106 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  3107 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  3108 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  3109 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  3110 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  3111 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  3112 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  3113 equations, see section "definitions".
  3114 
  3115 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  3116 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  3117 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  3118 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  3119 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  3120 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  3121 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  3122 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  3123 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  3124 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  3125 
  3126 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  3127 configuration options:
  3128 
  3129   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  3130   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  3131   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  3132   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  3133   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  3134   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  3135   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  3136   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  3137   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  3138 
  3139 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  3140 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  3141 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  3142 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  3143 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  3144 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  3145 order.
  3146 
  3147 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  3148 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  3149 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  3150 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  3151 context encountered later on.
  3152 
  3153 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  3154 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  3155 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  3156 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  3157 
  3158 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  3159 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  3160 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  3161 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  3162 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  3163 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  3164 
  3165 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  3166 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  3167 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  3168 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  3169 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  3170 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  3171 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  3172 more permissive.
  3173 
  3174 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  3175 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  3176 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  3177 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  3178 maintainability of proof texts.
  3179 
  3180 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  3181 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  3182 
  3183   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  3184   then guess x and y by clarify
  3185 
  3186 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  3187 proof tools being involved here.
  3188 
  3189 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  3190 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  3191 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  3192 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  3193 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  3194 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  3195 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  3196 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  3197 
  3198 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  3199 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  3200 certain special cases of literal facts:
  3201 
  3202   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  3203   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  3204   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  3205   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  3206 
  3207 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  3208 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  3209 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  3210 
  3211 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  3212 both named and unnamed ones.
  3213 
  3214 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  3215 
  3216   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  3217 
  3218 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  3219 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  3220 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  3221 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  3222 
  3223 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  3224 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  3225 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  3226 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  3227 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  3228 
  3229 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  3230 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  3231 
  3232 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  3233 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  3234 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  3235 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  3236 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  3237 originally first one.
  3238 
  3239 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  3240 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  3241 expected.
  3242 
  3243 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  3244 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  3245 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  3246 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  3247 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  3248 
  3249   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3250     assumes "EX x. P x"
  3251     obtains x where "P x"
  3252 
  3253   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3254     assumes "A & B"
  3255     obtains A and B
  3256 
  3257   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3258     assumes "A | B"
  3259     obtains
  3260       A
  3261     | B
  3262 
  3263 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  3264 explicitly:
  3265 
  3266   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3267     obtains "~ thesis"
  3268 
  3269   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3270     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  3271 
  3272 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  3273 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  3274 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  3275 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  3276 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  3277 case_names).
  3278 
  3279 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  3280 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  3281 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  3282 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  3283 
  3284 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  3285 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  3286 top-level lemma.
  3287 
  3288 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  3289 introduction rule (default "that").
  3290 
  3291 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3292 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  3293 to occur.
  3294 
  3295 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  3296 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  3297 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  3298 representations independently of name spaces.
  3299 
  3300 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  3301 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  3302 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3303 
  3304 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  3305 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  3306 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  3307 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  3308 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  3309 current context.
  3310 
  3311 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  3312 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  3313 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  3314 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  3315 
  3316   axiomatization
  3317     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  3318     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  3319 
  3320   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  3321   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  3322 
  3323   abbreviation
  3324     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  3325     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  3326 
  3327 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  3328 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  3329 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  3330 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  3331 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  3332 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  3333 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  3334 
  3335 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  3336 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  3337 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  3338 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  3339 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  3340 
  3341 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  3342 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  3343 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  3344 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  3345 
  3346 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  3347 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  3348 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  3349 
  3350   definition "K x _ = x"
  3351 
  3352   inductive conj for A B
  3353   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  3354 
  3355 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  3356 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  3357 abbreviations on output.
  3358 
  3359 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  3360 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  3361 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  3362 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  3363 
  3364 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  3365 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  3366 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  3367 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  3368 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  3369 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  3370 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  3371 
  3372 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  3373 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  3374 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  3375 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  3376 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  3377 
  3378 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  3379 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  3380 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  3381 
  3382 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  3383 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  3384 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  3385 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  3386 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  3387 
  3388   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  3389     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  3390 
  3391 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  3392 definition specification element in the context of locale
  3393 partial_order.
  3394 
  3395 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  3396 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  3397 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  3398 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  3399 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  3400 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  3401 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  3402 examples.
  3403 
  3404 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  3405 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  3406 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  3407 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  3408 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  3409 
  3410 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  3411 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  3412 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  3413 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  3414 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  3415 
  3416   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  3417   (induct set: foo bar)
  3418   (induct pred: foo bar)
  3419   (induct type: foo bar)
  3420 
  3421 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  3422 new format.
  3423 
  3424 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  3425 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  3426 
  3427 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  3428 considered a legacy feature.
  3429 
  3430 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  3431 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3432 
  3433 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  3434 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  3435 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  3436 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  3437   
  3438 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  3439 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  3440 manipulating the claset.
  3441 
  3442 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  3443 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  3444 least one premise.
  3445 
  3446 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  3447 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  3448 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  3449 rule steps.
  3450 
  3451 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  3452 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  3453 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  3454 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  3455 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  3456 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  3457 
  3458 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  3459 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  3460 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  3461 
  3462 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  3463 the graph browser tool.
  3464 
  3465 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  3466 default; use '!' option for full details.
  3467 
  3468 
  3469 *** HOL ***
  3470 
  3471 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  3472 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  3473 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  3474 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  3475 multi-threading.
  3476   
  3477 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  3478 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  3479 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  3480 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  3481 work with multi-threading.
  3482 
  3483 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  3484 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  3485 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  3486 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  3487 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  3488 
  3489 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  3490 
  3491 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  3492 equality.
  3493 
  3494 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  3495 the new 'class' package:
  3496 
  3497     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  3498     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  3499     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  3500     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  3501     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  3502     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  3503     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  3504     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  3505     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  3506     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  3507     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  3508     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  3509     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  3510     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  3511     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  3512     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  3513     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  3514     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  3515     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  3516     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  3517 
  3518 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  3519 
  3520 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  3521 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  3522 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  3523 names.
  3524 
  3525 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  3526 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  3527 
  3528 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  3529 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  3530 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  3531 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  3532 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  3533 
  3534 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  3535 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  3536 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  3537 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  3538 
  3539 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  3540 
  3541 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  3542 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  3543 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  3544 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  3545 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3546 
  3547 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  3548 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3549 
  3550 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  3551 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  3552 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3553 
  3554 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  3555 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  3556 
  3557 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  3558 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  3559 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  3560 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  3561 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  3562 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  3563 in the current context.
  3564 
  3565 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  3566 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  3567 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3568 
  3569 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  3570 with new class dense_linear_order.
  3571 
  3572 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  3573 
  3574     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  3575     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  3576 
  3577     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  3578       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  3579     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  3580     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  3581 
  3582     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  3583     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  3584 
  3585   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  3586 
  3587     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  3588     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  3589     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  3590     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  3591     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  3592     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  3593     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  3594     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  3595     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  3596     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  3597     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  3598     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  3599     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  3600     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  3601     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  3602     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  3603     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  3604     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  3605     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  3606     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  3607     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  3608     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  3609     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  3610     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  3611     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  3612     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  3613     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  3614     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  3615     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  3616     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  3617     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  3618     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  3619     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  3620     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  3621     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  3622 
  3623     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  3624     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  3625     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  3626     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  3627     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  3628     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  3629     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  3630     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  3631     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  3632     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  3633     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  3634     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  3635     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  3636     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  3637     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  3638     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  3639     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  3640 
  3641     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  3642     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  3643     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  3644     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  3645     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  3646     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  3647     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  3648     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  3649     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  3650     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  3651     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  3652     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  3653     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  3654     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  3655     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  3656     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  3657     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  3658     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  3659     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  3660     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  3661     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  3662     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  3663     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  3664     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  3665     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  3666     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  3667     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  3668     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  3669 
  3670     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  3671     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  3672     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  3673     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  3674     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  3675     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  3676 
  3677     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  3678     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  3679     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  3680     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  3681 
  3682     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  3683     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  3684 
  3685     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  3686     join_max                ~> sup_max
  3687 
  3688 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  3689 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  3690 
  3691 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  3692 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  3693 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  3694 "*.size".
  3695 
  3696 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  3697 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3698 
  3699 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  3700 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  3701 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3702 
  3703 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3704 
  3705 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  3706 machine words, with arithemtic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  3707 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  3708 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  3709 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  3710 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  3711 numerals on all operations.
  3712 
  3713 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  3714 
  3715 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  3716 
  3717 * Code generator library theories:
  3718   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  3719     languages.
  3720   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  3721     languages.
  3722   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  3723     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  3724   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  3725   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  3726     denominator).
  3727   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  3728     representable by rational numbers.
  3729   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  3730     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  3731     includes Code_Integer.
  3732   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  3733     target-language built-in integers.
  3734   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  3735     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  3736 
  3737 * New package for inductive predicates
  3738 
  3739   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  3740 
  3741     inductive
  3742       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  3743       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  3744     where
  3745       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  3746     | ...
  3747 
  3748   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  3749 
  3750     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  3751 
  3752     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  3753     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  3754 
  3755     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  3756     intros
  3757       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  3758       ...
  3759 
  3760   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  3761   sets to be defined with the new package via
  3762 
  3763     inductive_set
  3764       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  3765       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  3766     where
  3767       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  3768     | ...
  3769 
  3770   or
  3771 
  3772     inductive_set
  3773       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  3774       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  3775       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  3776     where
  3777       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  3778     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  3779     | ...
  3780 
  3781   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  3782 
  3783   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  3784   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  3785 
  3786   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  3787 
  3788   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  3789     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  3790     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  3791     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  3792     than before the actual inductive definition.
  3793 
  3794   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  3795     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  3796     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  3797     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  3798     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  3799     statements of the form
  3800 
  3801       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  3802 
  3803     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  3804     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  3805 
  3806       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  3807 
  3808   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  3809 
  3810       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  3811         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  3812         ==> ... ==> P
  3813 
  3814     for predicates and
  3815 
  3816       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  3817         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  3818         ==> ... ==> P
  3819 
  3820     for sets rather than
  3821 
  3822       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  3823         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  3824         ==> ... ==> P
  3825 
  3826     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  3827     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  3828     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  3829 
  3830   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  3831     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  3832     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  3833 
  3834 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  3835 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  3836 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  3837 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  3838 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  3839 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  3840 
  3841 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  3842 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  3843 
  3844 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  3845 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  3846 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  3847 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  3848 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  3849 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  3850 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  3851 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  3852 variable.
  3853 
  3854 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  3855 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  3856 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  3857 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3858   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  3859   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  3860 
  3861 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  3862 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  3863 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  3864 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  3865 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  3866 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  3867 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  3868 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  3869 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  3870 
  3871 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  3872 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  3873 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  3874 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  3875 rat, etc.
  3876 
  3877 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  3878 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  3879 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  3880 
  3881 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  3882 
  3883 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  3884 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  3885 
  3886 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  3887 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  3888 
  3889 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  3890 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  3891 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3892 
  3893 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  3894 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  3895 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3896 
  3897 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  3898 
  3899 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  3900 
  3901 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  3902 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  3903 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  3904 positive/negative (in inequations).
  3905 
  3906 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  3907 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  3908 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  3909 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3910 
  3911 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  3912 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  3913 algebraic operations.
  3914 
  3915 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  3916 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3917 
  3918 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  3919 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3920 
  3921 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  3922 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  3923 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  3924 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  3925 adapted.
  3926  
  3927 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  3928 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  3929 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  3930 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  3931 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  3932 
  3933 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  3934 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  3935 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  3936 
  3937 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  3938 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  3939 better use 'abbreviation'.
  3940 
  3941 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3942 
  3943 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  3944 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  3945 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  3946   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  3947       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  3948   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  3949   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  3950   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  3951 
  3952 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  3953 
  3954 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  3955 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  3956 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  3957 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  3958 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  3959 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  3960 
  3961 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  3962 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  3963 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  3964 
  3965 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  3966 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  3967 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  3968 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3969 
  3970 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  3971 
  3972 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  3973 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3974 
  3975 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  3976 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  3977 
  3978 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  3979 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  3980 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  3981 
  3982 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  3983 True/False.
  3984 
  3985 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  3986 
  3987 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  3988 
  3989 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  3990 ``rule'' method.
  3991 
  3992 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  3993 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  3994 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  3995 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  3996 
  3997 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  3998 zChaff is still supported as well.
  3999 
  4000 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  4001 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  4002 
  4003 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  4004 Library.
  4005 
  4006 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  4007 
  4008 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  4009 as greatest fixed-point.
  4010 
  4011 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  4012 association lists.
  4013 
  4014 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  4015 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  4016 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  4017 
  4018 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  4019 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  4020 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4021 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  4022 behavior.
  4023 
  4024 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  4025 
  4026 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  4027 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  4028 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  4029 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  4030 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  4031 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  4032 
  4033 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  4034 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  4035 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  4036 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  4037 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  4038 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  4039 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  4040 
  4041 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  4042 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  4043 
  4044 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  4045 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  4046 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  4047 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  4048 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  4049 
  4050 
  4051 *** HOL-Complex ***
  4052 
  4053 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  4054 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  4055 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  4056 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  4057 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4058 
  4059 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  4060 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  4061 and norm :: 'a => real.
  4062 
  4063 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  4064 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  4065 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4066 
  4067 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  4068 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  4069 
  4070 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  4071 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  4072 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  4073 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4074 
  4075   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  4076   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  4077   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  4078   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  4079   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  4080   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  4081   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  4082   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  4083   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  4084   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  4085   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  4086   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  4087   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  4088   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  4089   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  4090 
  4091 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  4092 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  4093 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  4094 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4095 
  4096   approx        <-- capprox
  4097   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  4098   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  4099   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  4100   monad         <-- cmonad
  4101   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  4102   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  4103   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  4104   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  4105 
  4106 
  4107 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4108 
  4109 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  4110 
  4111 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  4112 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4113 
  4114 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  4115 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4116 
  4117 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  4118 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  4119 of algebraic structures.
  4120 
  4121 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  4122 
  4123 
  4124 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4125 
  4126 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  4127 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  4128 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  4129 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  4130 
  4131 
  4132 *** ML ***
  4133 
  4134 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  4135 (even on SML/NJ).
  4136 
  4137 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  4138 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  4139 compile-time.  For example:
  4140 
  4141 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  4142 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  4143 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  4144 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  4145 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  4146 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  4147 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  4148 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  4149 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  4150 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  4151 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  4152 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  4153 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  4154 ML {* @{context} *}
  4155 ML {* @{theory} *}
  4156 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  4157 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  4158 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  4159 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  4160 ML {* @{claset} *}
  4161 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  4162 
  4163 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  4164 
  4165 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  4166 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  4167 
  4168 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  4169 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  4170 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  4171 
  4172 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  4173 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  4174 
  4175 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  4176 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  4177 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  4178 
  4179 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  4180 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  4181 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  4182 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  4183 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  4184 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  4185 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  4186 declarations and definitions.
  4187 
  4188 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  4189 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  4190 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  4191 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  4192 
  4193 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  4194 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  4195 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  4196 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4197 
  4198 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  4199 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  4200 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  4201 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  4202 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  4203 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  4204 
  4205 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  4206 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  4207 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  4208 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  4209 attributes, methods, etc.
  4210 
  4211 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  4212 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  4213 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  4214 fold_map combinators.
  4215 
  4216 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  4217 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  4218 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  4219 derivation.
  4220 
  4221 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  4222 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  4223 achieve the old behaviour.
  4224 
  4225 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  4226 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  4227 statements.
  4228 
  4229 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
  4230 enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
  4231 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
  4232 
  4233 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
  4234 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
  4235 some popular functions from term.ML:
  4236 
  4237   Term.variant		->  Name.variant
  4238   Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
  4239   Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
  4240 
  4241 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
  4242 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
  4243 
  4244 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
  4245 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
  4246 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
  4247 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
  4248 various freeze_thaw operations.
  4249 
  4250 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
  4251 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
  4252 Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
  4253 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
  4254 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
  4255 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
  4256 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
  4257 in a locale context).
  4258 
  4259 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
  4260 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
  4261 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
  4262 which are considered legacy and await removal.
  4263 
  4264 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
  4265 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
  4266 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
  4267 etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still
  4268 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using
  4269 a mere theory instead of a full context.
  4270 
  4271 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
  4272 ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
  4273 without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
  4274 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
  4275 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
  4276 
  4277   ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
  4278 
  4279 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
  4280 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
  4281 this:
  4282 
  4283   Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
  4284 
  4285 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
  4286 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
  4287 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
  4288 -- use plain ERROR instead.
  4289 
  4290 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
  4291 list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
  4292 
  4293 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to
  4294 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
  4295 
  4296 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
  4297 theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
  4298 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
  4299 batch mode.
  4300 
  4301 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax.  Renamed
  4302 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords.  Removed
  4303 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in
  4304 OuterSyntax.command etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4305 
  4306 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
  4307 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
  4308 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
  4309 simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
  4310 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
  4311 
  4312 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
  4313 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
  4314 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
  4315 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
  4316 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
  4317 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
  4318 
  4319 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
  4320 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
  4321 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
  4322 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4323 
  4324 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
  4325 "Trueprop" etc.
  4326 
  4327 
  4328 *** System ***
  4329 
  4330 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now
  4331 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER.  This simplifies use of multiple
  4332 Isabelle installations.
  4333 
  4334 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical
  4335 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source
  4336 code.
  4337 
  4338 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.
  4339 
  4340 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of
  4341 Poly/ML 5.1.  The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing
  4342 independent theories, according to the given theory header
  4343 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via
  4344 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A
  4345 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up
  4346 to 6 on a 8-core machine.  User-code needs to observe certain
  4347 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar
  4348 Implementation manual.
  4349 
  4350 
  4351 
  4352 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
  4353 ----------------------------------
  4354 
  4355 *** General ***
  4356 
  4357 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
  4358 
  4359   theory <name>
  4360   imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
  4361   uses <file1> ... <fileM>
  4362   begin
  4363 
  4364 where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax
  4365 
  4366   theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:
  4367 
  4368 will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
  4369 existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
  4370 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.
  4371 
  4372 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via
  4373 relative and absolute paths.
  4374 
  4375 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a
  4376 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,
  4377 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select
  4378 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that
  4379 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified
  4380 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose
  4381 lhs match term.  Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects
  4382 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under
  4383 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f.  Example:
  4384 
  4385   C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."
  4386 
  4387 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",
  4388 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."
  4389 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).
  4390 
  4391 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of
  4392 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4393 
  4394 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that
  4395 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both
  4396 formal and informal parts).  Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof
  4397 General interface.  Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):
  4398 
  4399   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html
  4400   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html
  4401 
  4402 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the
  4403 Classical Reasoner.  Typical big applications run around 2 times
  4404 faster.
  4405 
  4406 
  4407 *** Document preparation ***
  4408 
  4409 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output
  4410 of raw sources.  Only those symbols that do not require additional
  4411 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are
  4412 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim.  isatool display
  4413 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the
  4414 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).
  4415 
  4416 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,
  4417 notably folding and hiding.  Predefined tags include "theory" (for
  4418 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for
  4419 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and
  4420 "invisible" are unused by default.  Users may give explicit tag
  4421 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''.  The
  4422 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document
  4423 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of
  4424 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,
  4425 \isadroptag.
  4426 
  4427 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool
  4428 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them).  Typical
  4429 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present
  4430 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold
  4431 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit
  4432 these parts without any formal replacement text.  The Isabelle site
  4433 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as
  4434 specified above.
  4435 
  4436 * Several new antiquotations:
  4437 
  4438   @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;
  4439 
  4440   @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;
  4441 
  4442   @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the
  4443   argument is a known logical constant;
  4444 
  4445   @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or
  4446   theorem applying a "style" to it
  4447 
  4448   @{ML text}
  4449 
  4450 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of
  4451 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the
  4452 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'
  4453 to print the specified premise.  TermStyle.add_style provides an ML
  4454 interface for introducing further styles.  See also the "LaTeX Sugar"
  4455 document practical applications.  The ML antiquotation prints
  4456 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.
  4457 
  4458 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',
  4459 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which
  4460 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations.  For
  4461 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.
  4462 
  4463 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative
  4464 context interpreting the subsequent argument.  For example: @{thm
  4465 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.
  4466 
  4467 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within
  4468 a proof context.
  4469 
  4470 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a
  4471 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').
  4472 
  4473 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX
  4474 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).
  4475 
  4476 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option
  4477 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false
  4478 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.
  4479 
  4480 
  4481 *** Pure ***
  4482 
  4483 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command.  Now performs
  4484 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for
  4485 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also
  4486 isar-ref manual.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly
  4487 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'
  4488 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier.  If
  4489 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.
  4490 
  4491 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures.  First of all,
  4492 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted
  4493 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary
  4494 expressions.  Secondly, in a local context with structure
  4495 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default
  4496 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option
  4497 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures.  Typical
  4498 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.
  4499 
  4500 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and
  4501 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is
  4502 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.
  4503 
  4504 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend
  4505 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for
  4506 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.
  4507 
  4508 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an
  4509 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of
  4510 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle
  4511 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;
  4512 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4513 
  4514 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"
  4515 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.
  4516 INCOMPATIBILITY.  This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for
  4517 axclasses vs. locales.
  4518 
  4519 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes
  4520 instead of base 26 numbers.
  4521 
  4522 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question
  4523 marks in schematic variable names.
  4524 
  4525 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or
  4526 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name.  For example, the
  4527 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:
  4528 
  4529   lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"
  4530     by simp
  4531 
  4532 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).
  4533 
  4534 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix
  4535 annotations as "(00...)".
  4536 
  4537 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter
  4538 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.
  4539 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class
  4540 "logic" vs. "{}".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper
  4541 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'.  Some very
  4542 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption
  4543 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).
  4544 
  4545 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.
  4546 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'
  4547 rather than 'types'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic
  4548 specifications.
  4549 
  4550 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be
  4551 locally fixed variables as well.
  4552 
  4553 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting
  4554 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth
  4555 Limit.
  4556 
  4557 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current
  4558 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc
  4559 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier
  4560 recursively.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs
  4561 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead.  Moreover, the
  4562 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to
  4563 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.
  4564 
  4565 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!
  4566 or ==>.  More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of
  4567 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.
  4568 
  4569 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4570 
  4571 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived
  4572 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already.  Both
  4573 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.
  4574 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /
  4575 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;
  4576 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.
  4577 
  4578 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific
  4579 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.
  4580 
  4581 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference
  4582 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),
  4583 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');
  4584 
  4585 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.
  4586 
  4587 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive
  4588 theory development.
  4589 
  4590 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code
  4591 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures
  4592 for each theory).  INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'
  4593 must be quoted when used as identifiers.
  4594 
  4595 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using
  4596 the code generator.  INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be
  4597 quoted when used as identifier.
  4598 
  4599 
  4600 *** Locales ***
  4601 
  4602 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in
  4603 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3).  These generate
  4604 proof obligations from the expression specification.  After the
  4605 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added
  4606 to the theory, target locale or proof context.  The synopsis of the
  4607 commands is a follows:
  4608 
  4609   (1) interpretation expr inst
  4610   (2) interpretation target < expr
  4611   (3) interpret expr inst
  4612 
  4613 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter
  4614 instantiation of terms from the current context.  This is applied to
  4615 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.
  4616 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the
  4617 locale expression.  Interpretation is smart in that interpretations
  4618 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are
  4619 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate.  Use 'print_interps' to
  4620 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale.  For details,
  4621 see the Isar Reference manual.  Examples can be found in
  4622 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.
  4623 
  4624 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use
  4625 'interpret' instead.
  4626 
  4627 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to
  4628 parameters.
  4629 
  4630 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax
  4631 redeclaration.
  4632 
  4633 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.
  4634 
  4635 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /
  4636 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition
  4637 context, independently of the context of later invocations.  Moreover,
  4638 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied
  4639 to attribute arguments as expected.
  4640 
  4641 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of
  4642 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to
  4643 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.
  4644 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static
  4645 binding mechanism.  Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and
  4646 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further
  4647 intervention.  Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"
  4648 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both
  4649 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed
  4650 values to argument tokens explicitly.
  4651 
  4652 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal
  4653 statements with 'includes'.  INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different
  4654 theorem statement in rare situations.
  4655 
  4656 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements.  Use
  4657 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.
  4658 
  4659 
  4660 *** Provers ***
  4661 
  4662 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for
  4663 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is
  4664 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may
  4665 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is
  4666 still available as 'simplesubst'.
  4667 
  4668 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only
  4669 and quasi orders.
  4670 
  4671 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and
  4672 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.
  4673 
  4674 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth
  4675 limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.
  4676 
  4677 * Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup
  4678 is peformed already.  Object-logics merely need to finish their
  4679 initial simpset configuration as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4680 
  4681 
  4682 *** HOL ***
  4683 
  4684 * Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:
  4685 
  4686   syntax (epsilon)
  4687     "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a"    ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)
  4688 
  4689 The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX
  4690 and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.
  4691 Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>
  4692 becomes available as variable, constant etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4693 
  4694 * "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".
  4695 Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc.  The x-symbol for >=
  4696 is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to
  4697 support corresponding Isar calculations.
  4698 
  4699 * "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"
  4700 instead of ":".
  4701 
  4702 * theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:
  4703 
  4704   Old       New
  4705   {..n(}    {..<n}
  4706   {)n..}    {n<..}
  4707   {m..n(}   {m..<n}
  4708   {)m..n}   {m<..n}
  4709   {)m..n(}  {m<..<n}
  4710 
  4711 The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next
  4712 release.  For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace
  4713 patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):
  4714 
  4715   {)\([^\.]*\)\.\.  ->  {\1<\.\.}
  4716   \.\.\([^(}]*\)(}  ->  \.\.<\1}
  4717 
  4718 * Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving
  4719 equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic
  4720 interface.
  4721 
  4722 * Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over
  4723 finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is
  4724 now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can
  4725 be a tuple pattern.
  4726 
  4727 Some new syntax forms are available:
  4728 
  4729   "\<Sum>x | P. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"
  4730   "\<Sum>x = a..b. e"   for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"
  4731   "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e"  for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"
  4732   "\<Sum>x < k. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"
  4733 
  4734 The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate
  4735 function "Summation", which has been discontinued.
  4736 
  4737 * theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case
  4738 is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case
  4739 (insert F x)'.
  4740 
  4741 * The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger
  4742 fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and
  4743 typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.
  4744 
  4745 * New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.
  4746 Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed.  See
  4747 HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.
  4748 
  4749 * Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the
  4750 induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by
  4751 induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather
  4752 than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  4753 in unstructured proof scripts.
  4754 
  4755 * Reworked implementation of records.  Improved scalability for
  4756 records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type
  4757 inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but
  4758 of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear
  4759 in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields.  The
  4760 top-level (users) view on records is preserved.  Potential
  4761 INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the
  4762 old record representation. The type generated for a record is called
  4763 <record_name>_ext_type.
  4764 
  4765 Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the
  4766 proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if
  4767 quick_and_dirty is enabled).  Definitions of large records can take
  4768 quite long.
  4769 
  4770 New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record
  4771 updates enabled by default.  Moreover, trivial updates are also
  4772 removed: r(|x := x r|) = r.  INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break
  4773 occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.
  4774 
  4775 * typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra
  4776 type-variables in the term.
  4777 
  4778 * Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains
  4779 involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics
  4780 provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4781 old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more
  4782 goals than previously.
  4783 
  4784 * Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is
  4785 present.  Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular
  4786 numbers and sets.  For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y
  4787 just like y <= x.
  4788 
  4789 * Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x".  If a is a free or
  4790 bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded.  Otherwise
  4791 first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If
  4792 possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",
  4793 otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g.  The simproc can be
  4794 enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc.  Potential
  4795 INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.
  4796 
  4797 * Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.
  4798 
  4799 * Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background
  4800 jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.
  4801 
  4802 * Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and
  4803 improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and
  4804 inequalities.
  4805 
  4806 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  4807 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4808 
  4809   abs_eq             now named abs_of_nonneg
  4810   abs_of_ge_0        now named abs_of_nonneg
  4811   abs_minus_eq       now named abs_of_nonpos
  4812   imp_abs_id         now named abs_of_nonneg
  4813   imp_abs_neg_id     now named abs_of_nonpos
  4814   mult_pos           now named mult_pos_pos
  4815   mult_pos_le        now named mult_nonneg_nonneg
  4816   mult_pos_neg_le    now named mult_nonneg_nonpos
  4817   mult_pos_neg2_le   now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2
  4818   mult_neg           now named mult_neg_neg
  4819   mult_neg_le        now named mult_nonpos_nonpos
  4820 
  4821 * The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:
  4822      
  4823      zero_le_square
  4824      not_square_less_zero 
  4825 
  4826   The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:
  4827   
  4828      realpow_zero_zero
  4829      realpow_two
  4830      realpow_less
  4831      zero_le_power
  4832      realpow_two_le
  4833      abs_realpow_two
  4834      realpow_two_abs     
  4835 
  4836 * Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.
  4837 
  4838 * Theory List:
  4839 
  4840 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  4841 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4842 
  4843   list_all_Nil       now named list_all.simps(1)
  4844   list_all_Cons      now named list_all.simps(2)
  4845   list_all_conv      now named list_all_iff
  4846   set_mem_eq         now named mem_iff
  4847 
  4848 * Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support
  4849 asymptotic "big O" calculations.  See the notes in BigO.thy.
  4850 
  4851 
  4852 *** HOL-Complex ***
  4853 
  4854 * Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and
  4855 integers in the reals.
  4856 
  4857 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  4858 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4859 
  4860   exp_ge_add_one_self  now requires no hypotheses
  4861   real_of_int_add      reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  4862   real_of_int_minus    reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  4863   real_of_int_diff     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  4864   real_of_int_mult     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  4865 
  4866 * Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.
  4867 
  4868 * Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm
  4869 
  4870 * Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making
  4871 nonstandard types.  The old type names are now type synonyms:
  4872 
  4873   hypreal = real star
  4874   hypnat = nat star
  4875   hcomplex = complex star
  4876 
  4877 * Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been
  4878 replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4879 
  4880   star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex
  4881 
  4882   starset      <-- starsetNat, starsetC
  4883   *s*          <-- *sNat*, *sc*
  4884   starset_n    <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n
  4885   *sn*         <-- *sNatn*, *scn*
  4886   InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets
  4887 
  4888   starfun      <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  4889   *f*          <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*
  4890   starfun_n    <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n
  4891   *fn*         <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*
  4892   InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs
  4893 
  4894 * Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of
  4895 theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4896 
  4897   add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute
  4898   add_assoc   <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs
  4899   OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left
  4900   OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right
  4901   right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus
  4902   left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left
  4903   mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute
  4904   mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc
  4905   mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left
  4906   mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right
  4907   mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left
  4908   left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib
  4909   right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2
  4910   zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one
  4911   right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse
  4912   left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left
  4913   order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl
  4914   order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans
  4915   order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym
  4916   order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le
  4917   linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear
  4918   add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono
  4919   mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2
  4920   add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order
  4921 
  4922 * Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific
  4923 versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the
  4924 new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4925 
  4926   STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set
  4927   STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set
  4928   STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un
  4929   STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int
  4930   STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl
  4931   STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset
  4932   STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem
  4933   STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl
  4934   STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff
  4935   STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,
  4936     STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset
  4937   starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un
  4938   starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int
  4939   starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl
  4940   starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff
  4941   InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un
  4942   InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int
  4943   InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl
  4944   InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff
  4945   InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff
  4946   InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n
  4947   starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq
  4948   starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}
  4949   starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  4950   starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  4951   starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult
  4952   starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add
  4953   starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus
  4954   starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff
  4955   starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o
  4956   starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2
  4957   starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun
  4958   starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse
  4959   starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq
  4960   starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff
  4961   starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id
  4962   starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx
  4963   starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox
  4964   starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs
  4965   starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel
  4966   starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2
  4967   starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox
  4968   starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox
  4969   starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox
  4970   starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx
  4971   starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse
  4972   starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide
  4973   starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n
  4974   starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult
  4975   starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add
  4976   starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus
  4977   starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun
  4978   starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus
  4979   starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq
  4980 
  4981   star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add
  4982   star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus
  4983   star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff
  4984   star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult
  4985   star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse
  4986   star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le
  4987   star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less
  4988   star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num
  4989   star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num
  4990   star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs
  4991   star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide
  4992 
  4993   star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add
  4994   star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus
  4995   star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff
  4996   star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult
  4997   star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one
  4998   star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero
  4999   star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff
  5000   star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff
  5001   star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff
  5002   star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse
  5003   star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide
  5004   star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat
  5005   star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int
  5006   star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of
  5007   star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff
  5008   star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff
  5009   star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff
  5010   star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff
  5011   star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff
  5012   star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power
  5013   star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff
  5014 
  5015 * Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer
  5016 principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions
  5017 nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"
  5018 replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.
  5019 To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-
  5020 standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.
  5021 
  5022 * Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.
  5023 
  5024 
  5025 *** HOLCF ***
  5026 
  5027 * Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support
  5028 continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full
  5029 type-inference.
  5030 
  5031 * New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it
  5032 is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic
  5033 instead of exponential time).
  5034 
  5035 * New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.
  5036 Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:
  5037 
  5038   domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")
  5039 
  5040 * New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern
  5041 matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also
  5042 supported.  Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,
  5043 sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given
  5044 equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5045 syntax and examples.
  5046 
  5047 * New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes
  5048 of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,
  5049 but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility
  5050 requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,
  5051 with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.
  5052 
  5053 * HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming
  5054 scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5055 
  5056   foo_inject:  "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"
  5057   foo_eq:      "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"
  5058   foo_less:    "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"
  5059   foo_strict:  "foo$UU = UU"
  5060   foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"
  5061   foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"
  5062 
  5063 
  5064 *** ZF ***
  5065 
  5066 * ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,
  5067 including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel
  5068 of a homomorphism).
  5069 
  5070 * ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually
  5071 makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);
  5072 the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.
  5073 
  5074 
  5075 *** Cube ***
  5076 
  5077 * Converted to Isar theory format; use locales instead of axiomatic
  5078 theories.
  5079 
  5080 
  5081 *** ML ***
  5082 
  5083 * Pure/library.ML: added ##>, ##>>, #>> -- higher-order counterparts
  5084 for ||>, ||>>, |>>,
  5085 
  5086 * Pure/library.ML no longer defines its own option datatype, but uses
  5087 that of the SML basis, which has constructors NONE and SOME instead of
  5088 None and Some, as well as exception Option.Option instead of OPTION.
  5089 The functions the, if_none, is_some, is_none have been adapted
  5090 accordingly, while Option.map replaces apsome.
  5091 
  5092 * Pure/library.ML: the exception LIST has been given up in favour of
  5093 the standard exceptions Empty and Subscript, as well as
  5094 Library.UnequalLengths.  Function like Library.hd and Library.tl are
  5095 superceded by the standard hd and tl functions etc.
  5096 
  5097 A number of basic list functions are no longer exported to the ML
  5098 toplevel, as they are variants of predefined functions.  The following
  5099 suggests how one can translate existing code:
  5100 
  5101     rev_append xs ys = List.revAppend (xs, ys)
  5102     nth_elem (i, xs) = List.nth (xs, i)
  5103     last_elem xs = List.last xs
  5104     flat xss = List.concat xss
  5105     seq fs = List.app fs
  5106     partition P xs = List.partition P xs
  5107     mapfilter f xs = List.mapPartial f xs
  5108 
  5109 * Pure/library.ML: several combinators for linear functional
  5110 transformations, notably reverse application and composition:
  5111 
  5112   x |> f                f #> g
  5113   (x, y) |-> f          f #-> g
  5114 
  5115 * Pure/library.ML: introduced/changed precedence of infix operators:
  5116 
  5117   infix 1 |> |-> ||> ||>> |>> |>>> #> #->;
  5118   infix 2 ?;
  5119   infix 3 o oo ooo oooo;
  5120   infix 4 ~~ upto downto;
  5121 
  5122 Maybe INCOMPATIBILITY when any of those is used in conjunction with other
  5123 infix operators.
  5124 
  5125 * Pure/library.ML: natural list combinators fold, fold_rev, and
  5126 fold_map support linear functional transformations and nesting.  For
  5127 example:
  5128 
  5129   fold f [x1, ..., xN] y =
  5130     y |> f x1 |> ... |> f xN
  5131 
  5132   (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] y =
  5133     y |> fold f xs1 |> ... |> fold f xsN
  5134 
  5135   fold f [x1, ..., xN] =
  5136     f x1 #> ... #> f xN
  5137 
  5138   (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] =
  5139     fold f xs1 #> ... #> fold f xsN
  5140 
  5141 * Pure/library.ML: the following selectors on type 'a option are
  5142 available:
  5143 
  5144   the:               'a option -> 'a  (*partial*)
  5145   these:             'a option -> 'a  where 'a = 'b list
  5146   the_default: 'a -> 'a option -> 'a
  5147   the_list:          'a option -> 'a list
  5148 
  5149 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides
  5150 basic operations for association lists, following natural argument
  5151 order; moreover the explicit equality predicate passed here avoids
  5152 potentially expensive polymorphic runtime equality checks.
  5153 The old functions may be expressed as follows:
  5154 
  5155   assoc = uncurry (AList.lookup (op =))
  5156   assocs = these oo AList.lookup (op =)
  5157   overwrite = uncurry (AList.update (op =)) o swap
  5158 
  5159 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides
  5160 
  5161   val make: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> ('a * 'b) list
  5162   val find: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> ('c * 'b) list -> 'a -> 'c list
  5163 
  5164 replacing make_keylist and keyfilter (occassionally used)
  5165 Naive rewrites:
  5166 
  5167   make_keylist = AList.make
  5168   keyfilter = AList.find (op =)
  5169 
  5170 * eq_fst and eq_snd now take explicit equality parameter, thus
  5171   avoiding eqtypes. Naive rewrites:
  5172 
  5173     eq_fst = eq_fst (op =)
  5174     eq_snd = eq_snd (op =)
  5175 
  5176 * Removed deprecated apl and apr (rarely used).
  5177   Naive rewrites:
  5178 
  5179     apl (n, op) =>>= curry op n
  5180     apr (op, m) =>>= fn n => op (n, m)
  5181 
  5182 * Pure/General: structure OrdList (cf. Pure/General/ord_list.ML)
  5183 provides a reasonably efficient light-weight implementation of sets as
  5184 lists.
  5185 
  5186 * Pure/General: generic tables (cf. Pure/General/table.ML) provide a
  5187 few new operations; existing lookup and update are now curried to
  5188 follow natural argument order (for use with fold etc.);
  5189 INCOMPATIBILITY, use (uncurry Symtab.lookup) etc. as last resort.
  5190 
  5191 * Pure/General: output via the Isabelle channels of
  5192 writeln/warning/error etc. is now passed through Output.output, with a
  5193 hook for arbitrary transformations depending on the print_mode
  5194 (cf. Output.add_mode -- the first active mode that provides a output
  5195 function wins).  Already formatted output may be embedded into further
  5196 text via Output.raw; the result of Pretty.string_of/str_of and derived
  5197 functions (string_of_term/cterm/thm etc.) is already marked raw to
  5198 accommodate easy composition of diagnostic messages etc.  Programmers
  5199 rarely need to care about Output.output or Output.raw at all, with
  5200 some notable exceptions: Output.output is required when bypassing the
  5201 standard channels (writeln etc.), or in token translations to produce
  5202 properly formatted results; Output.raw is required when capturing
  5203 already output material that will eventually be presented to the user
  5204 a second time.  For the default print mode, both Output.output and
  5205 Output.raw have no effect.
  5206 
  5207 * Pure/General: Output.time_accumulator NAME creates an operator ('a
  5208 -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b to measure runtime and count invocations; the
  5209 cumulative results are displayed at the end of a batch session.
  5210 
  5211 * Pure/General: File.sysify_path and File.quote_sysify path have been
  5212 replaced by File.platform_path and File.shell_path (with appropriate
  5213 hooks).  This provides a clean interface for unusual systems where the
  5214 internal and external process view of file names are different.
  5215 
  5216 * Pure: more efficient orders for basic syntactic entities: added
  5217 fast_string_ord, fast_indexname_ord, fast_term_ord; changed sort_ord
  5218 and typ_ord to use fast_string_ord and fast_indexname_ord (term_ord is
  5219 NOT affected); structures Symtab, Vartab, Typtab, Termtab use the fast
  5220 orders now -- potential INCOMPATIBILITY for code that depends on a
  5221 particular order for Symtab.keys, Symtab.dest, etc. (consider using
  5222 Library.sort_strings on result).
  5223 
  5224 * Pure/term.ML: combinators fold_atyps, fold_aterms, fold_term_types,
  5225 fold_types traverse types/terms from left to right, observing natural
  5226 argument order.  Supercedes previous foldl_XXX versions, add_frees,
  5227 add_vars etc. have been adapted as well: INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5228 
  5229 * Pure: name spaces have been refined, with significant changes of the
  5230 internal interfaces -- INCOMPATIBILITY.  Renamed cond_extern(_table)
  5231 to extern(_table).  The plain name entry path is superceded by a
  5232 general 'naming' context, which also includes the 'policy' to produce
  5233 a fully qualified name and external accesses of a fully qualified
  5234 name; NameSpace.extend is superceded by context dependent
  5235 Sign.declare_name.  Several theory and proof context operations modify
  5236 the naming context.  Especially note Theory.restore_naming and
  5237 ProofContext.restore_naming to get back to a sane state; note that
  5238 Theory.add_path is no longer sufficient to recover from
  5239 Theory.absolute_path in particular.
  5240 
  5241 * Pure: new flags short_names (default false) and unique_names
  5242 (default true) for controlling output of qualified names.  If
  5243 short_names is set, names are printed unqualified.  If unique_names is
  5244 reset, the name prefix is reduced to the minimum required to achieve
  5245 the original result when interning again, even if there is an overlap
  5246 with earlier declarations.
  5247 
  5248 * Pure/TheoryDataFun: change of the argument structure; 'prep_ext' is
  5249 now 'extend', and 'merge' gets an additional Pretty.pp argument
  5250 (useful for printing error messages).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5251 
  5252 * Pure: major reorganization of the theory context.  Type Sign.sg and
  5253 Theory.theory are now identified, referring to the universal
  5254 Context.theory (see Pure/context.ML).  Actual signature and theory
  5255 content is managed as theory data.  The old code and interfaces were
  5256 spread over many files and structures; the new arrangement introduces
  5257 considerable INCOMPATIBILITY to gain more clarity:
  5258 
  5259   Context -- theory management operations (name, identity, inclusion,
  5260     parents, ancestors, merge, etc.), plus generic theory data;
  5261 
  5262   Sign -- logical signature and syntax operations (declaring consts,
  5263     types, etc.), plus certify/read for common entities;
  5264 
  5265   Theory -- logical theory operations (stating axioms, definitions,
  5266     oracles), plus a copy of logical signature operations (consts,
  5267     types, etc.); also a few basic management operations (Theory.copy,
  5268     Theory.merge, etc.)
  5269 
  5270 The most basic sign_of operations (Theory.sign_of, Thm.sign_of_thm
  5271 etc.) as well as the sign field in Thm.rep_thm etc. have been retained
  5272 for convenience -- they merely return the theory.
  5273 
  5274 * Pure: type Type.tsig is superceded by theory in most interfaces.
  5275 
  5276 * Pure: the Isar proof context type is already defined early in Pure
  5277 as Context.proof (note that ProofContext.context and Proof.context are
  5278 aliases, where the latter is the preferred name).  This enables other
  5279 Isabelle components to refer to that type even before Isar is present.
  5280 
  5281 * Pure/sign/theory: discontinued named name spaces (i.e. classK,
  5282 typeK, constK, axiomK, oracleK), but provide explicit operations for
  5283 any of these kinds.  For example, Sign.intern typeK is now
  5284 Sign.intern_type, Theory.hide_space Sign.typeK is now
  5285 Theory.hide_types.  Also note that former
  5286 Theory.hide_classes/types/consts are now
  5287 Theory.hide_classes_i/types_i/consts_i, while the non '_i' versions
  5288 internalize their arguments!  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5289 
  5290 * Pure: get_thm interface (of PureThy and ProofContext) expects
  5291 datatype thmref (with constructors Name and NameSelection) instead of
  5292 plain string -- INCOMPATIBILITY;
  5293 
  5294 * Pure: cases produced by proof methods specify options, where NONE
  5295 means to remove case bindings -- INCOMPATIBILITY in
  5296 (RAW_)METHOD_CASES.
  5297 
  5298 * Pure: the following operations retrieve axioms or theorems from a
  5299 theory node or theory hierarchy, respectively:
  5300 
  5301   Theory.axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list
  5302   Theory.all_axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list
  5303   PureThy.thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list
  5304   PureThy.all_thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list
  5305 
  5306 * Pure: print_tac now outputs the goal through the trace channel.
  5307 
  5308 * Isar toplevel: improved diagnostics, mostly for Poly/ML only.
  5309 Reference Toplevel.debug (default false) controls detailed printing
  5310 and tracing of low-level exceptions; Toplevel.profiling (default 0)
  5311 controls execution profiling -- set to 1 for time and 2 for space
  5312 (both increase the runtime).
  5313 
  5314 * Isar session: The initial use of ROOT.ML is now always timed,
  5315 i.e. the log will show the actual process times, in contrast to the
  5316 elapsed wall-clock time that the outer shell wrapper produces.
  5317 
  5318 * Simplifier: improved handling of bound variables (nameless
  5319 representation, avoid allocating new strings).  Simprocs that invoke
  5320 the Simplifier recursively should use Simplifier.inherit_bounds to
  5321 avoid local name clashes.  Failure to do so produces warnings
  5322 "Simplifier: renamed bound variable ..."; set Simplifier.debug_bounds
  5323 for further details.
  5324 
  5325 * ML functions legacy_bindings and use_legacy_bindings produce ML fact
  5326 bindings for all theorems stored within a given theory; this may help
  5327 in porting non-Isar theories to Isar ones, while keeping ML proof
  5328 scripts for the time being.
  5329 
  5330 * ML operator HTML.with_charset specifies the charset begin used for
  5331 generated HTML files.  For example:
  5332 
  5333   HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Hebrew";
  5334   HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Chinese";
  5335 
  5336 
  5337 *** System ***
  5338 
  5339 * Allow symlinks to all proper Isabelle executables (Isabelle,
  5340 isabelle, isatool etc.).
  5341 
  5342 * ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT setting specifies preferred document format (for
  5343 isatool doc, isatool mkdir, display_drafts etc.).
  5344 
  5345 * isatool usedir: option -f allows specification of the ML file to be
  5346 used by Isabelle; default is ROOT.ML.
  5347 
  5348 * New isatool version outputs the version identifier of the Isabelle
  5349 distribution being used.
  5350 
  5351 * HOL: new isatool dimacs2hol converts files in DIMACS CNF format
  5352 (containing Boolean satisfiability problems) into Isabelle/HOL
  5353 theories.
  5354 
  5355 
  5356 
  5357 New in Isabelle2004 (April 2004)
  5358 --------------------------------
  5359 
  5360 *** General ***
  5361 
  5362 * Provers/order.ML:  new efficient reasoner for partial and linear orders.
  5363   Replaces linorder.ML.
  5364 
  5365 * Pure: Greek letters (except small lambda, \<lambda>), as well as Gothic
  5366   (\<aa>...\<zz>\<AA>...\<ZZ>), calligraphic (\<A>...\<Z>), and Euler
  5367   (\<a>...\<z>), are now considered normal letters, and can therefore
  5368   be used anywhere where an ASCII letter (a...zA...Z) has until
  5369   now. COMPATIBILITY: This obviously changes the parsing of some
  5370   terms, especially where a symbol has been used as a binder, say
  5371   '\<Pi>x. ...', which is now a type error since \<Pi>x will be parsed
  5372   as an identifier.  Fix it by inserting a space around former
  5373   symbols.  Call 'isatool fixgreek' to try to fix parsing errors in
  5374   existing theory and ML files.
  5375 
  5376 * Pure: Macintosh and Windows line-breaks are now allowed in theory files.
  5377 
  5378 * Pure: single letter sub/superscripts (\<^isub> and \<^isup>) are now
  5379   allowed in identifiers. Similar to Greek letters \<^isub> is now considered
  5380   a normal (but invisible) letter. For multiple letter subscripts repeat
  5381   \<^isub> like this: x\<^isub>1\<^isub>2.
  5382 
  5383 * Pure: There are now sub-/superscripts that can span more than one
  5384   character. Text between \<^bsub> and \<^esub> is set in subscript in
  5385   ProofGeneral and LaTeX, text between \<^bsup> and \<^esup> in
  5386   superscript. The new control characters are not identifier parts.
  5387 
  5388 * Pure: Control-symbols of the form \<^raw:...> will literally print the
  5389   content of "..." to the latex file instead of \isacntrl... . The "..."
  5390   may consist of any printable characters excluding the end bracket >.
  5391 
  5392 * Pure: Using new Isar command "finalconsts" (or the ML functions
  5393   Theory.add_finals or Theory.add_finals_i) it is now possible to
  5394   declare constants "final", which prevents their being given a definition
  5395   later.  It is useful for constants whose behaviour is fixed axiomatically
  5396   rather than definitionally, such as the meta-logic connectives.
  5397 
  5398 * Pure: 'instance' now handles general arities with general sorts
  5399   (i.e. intersections of classes),
  5400 
  5401 * Presentation: generated HTML now uses a CSS style sheet to make layout
  5402   (somewhat) independent of content. It is copied from lib/html/isabelle.css.
  5403   It can be changed to alter the colors/layout of generated pages.
  5404 
  5405 
  5406 *** Isar ***
  5407 
  5408 * Tactic emulation methods rule_tac, erule_tac, drule_tac, frule_tac,
  5409   cut_tac, subgoal_tac and thin_tac:
  5410   - Now understand static (Isar) contexts.  As a consequence, users of Isar
  5411     locales are no longer forced to write Isar proof scripts.
  5412     For details see Isar Reference Manual, paragraph 4.3.2: Further tactic
  5413     emulations.
  5414   - INCOMPATIBILITY: names of variables to be instantiated may no
  5415     longer be enclosed in quotes.  Instead, precede variable name with `?'.
  5416     This is consistent with the instantiation attribute "where".
  5417 
  5418 * Attributes "where" and "of":
  5419   - Now take type variables of instantiated theorem into account when reading
  5420     the instantiation string.  This fixes a bug that caused instantiated
  5421     theorems to have too special types in some circumstances.
  5422   - "where" permits explicit instantiations of type variables.
  5423 
  5424 * Calculation commands "moreover" and "also" no longer interfere with
  5425   current facts ("this"), admitting arbitrary combinations with "then"
  5426   and derived forms.
  5427 
  5428 * Locales:
  5429   - Goal statements involving the context element "includes" no longer
  5430     generate theorems with internal delta predicates (those ending on
  5431     "_axioms") in the premise.
  5432     Resolve particular premise with <locale>.intro to obtain old form.
  5433   - Fixed bug in type inference ("unify_frozen") that prevented mix of target
  5434     specification and "includes" elements in goal statement.
  5435   - Rule sets <locale>.intro and <locale>.axioms no longer declared as
  5436     [intro?] and [elim?] (respectively) by default.
  5437   - Experimental command for instantiation of locales in proof contexts:
  5438         instantiate <label>[<attrs>]: <loc>
  5439     Instantiates locale <loc> and adds all its theorems to the current context
  5440     taking into account their attributes.  Label and attrs are optional
  5441     modifiers, like in theorem declarations.  If present, names of
  5442     instantiated theorems are qualified with <label>, and the attributes
  5443     <attrs> are applied after any attributes these theorems might have already.
  5444       If the locale has assumptions, a chained fact of the form
  5445     "<loc> t1 ... tn" is expected from which instantiations of the parameters
  5446     are derived.  The command does not support old-style locales declared
  5447     with "locale (open)".
  5448       A few (very simple) examples can be found in FOL/ex/LocaleInst.thy.
  5449 
  5450 * HOL: Tactic emulation methods induct_tac and case_tac understand static
  5451   (Isar) contexts.
  5452 
  5453 
  5454 *** HOL ***
  5455 
  5456 * Proof import: new image HOL4 contains the imported library from
  5457   the HOL4 system with about 2500 theorems. It is imported by
  5458   replaying proof terms produced by HOL4 in Isabelle. The HOL4 image
  5459   can be used like any other Isabelle image.  See
  5460   HOL/Import/HOL/README for more information.
  5461 
  5462 * Simplifier:
  5463   - Much improved handling of linear and partial orders.
  5464     Reasoners for linear and partial orders are set up for type classes
  5465     "linorder" and "order" respectively, and are added to the default simpset
  5466     as solvers.  This means that the simplifier can build transitivity chains
  5467     to solve goals from the assumptions.
  5468   - INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break occasionally.  Typically, applications
  5469     of blast or auto after simplification become unnecessary because the goal
  5470     is solved by simplification already.
  5471 
  5472 * Numerics: new theory Ring_and_Field contains over 250 basic numerical laws,
  5473     all proved in axiomatic type classes for semirings, rings and fields.
  5474 
  5475 * Numerics:
  5476   - Numeric types (nat, int, and in HOL-Complex rat, real, complex, etc.) are
  5477     now formalized using the Ring_and_Field theory mentioned above.
  5478   - INCOMPATIBILITY: simplification and arithmetic behaves somewhat differently
  5479     than before, because now they are set up once in a generic manner.
  5480   - INCOMPATIBILITY: many type-specific arithmetic laws have gone.
  5481     Look for the general versions in Ring_and_Field (and Power if they concern
  5482     exponentiation).
  5483 
  5484 * Type "rat" of the rational numbers is now available in HOL-Complex.
  5485 
  5486 * Records:
  5487   - Record types are now by default printed with their type abbreviation
  5488     instead of the list of all field types. This can be configured via
  5489     the reference "print_record_type_abbr".
  5490   - Simproc "record_upd_simproc" for simplification of multiple updates added
  5491     (not enabled by default).
  5492   - Simproc "record_ex_sel_eq_simproc" to simplify EX x. sel r = x resp.
  5493     EX x. x = sel r to True (not enabled by default).
  5494   - Tactic "record_split_simp_tac" to split and simplify records added.
  5495 
  5496 * 'specification' command added, allowing for definition by
  5497   specification.  There is also an 'ax_specification' command that
  5498   introduces the new constants axiomatically.
  5499 
  5500 * arith(_tac) is now able to generate counterexamples for reals as well.
  5501 
  5502 * HOL-Algebra: new locale "ring" for non-commutative rings.
  5503 
  5504 * HOL-ex: InductiveInvariant_examples illustrates advanced recursive function
  5505   definitions, thanks to Sava Krsti\'{c} and John Matthews.
  5506 
  5507 * HOL-Matrix: a first theory for matrices in HOL with an application of
  5508   matrix theory to linear programming.
  5509 
  5510 * Unions and Intersections:
  5511   The latex output syntax of UN and INT has been changed
  5512   from "\Union x \in A. B" to "\Union_{x \in A} B"
  5513   i.e. the index formulae has become a subscript.
  5514   Similarly for "\Union x. B", and for \Inter instead of \Union.
  5515 
  5516 * Unions and Intersections over Intervals:
  5517   There is new short syntax "UN i<=n. A" for "UN i:{0..n}. A". There is
  5518   also an x-symbol version with subscripts "\<Union>\<^bsub>i <= n\<^esub>. A"
  5519   like in normal math, and corresponding versions for < and for intersection.
  5520 
  5521 * HOL/List: Ordering "lexico" is renamed "lenlex" and the standard
  5522   lexicographic dictonary ordering has been added as "lexord".
  5523 
  5524 * ML: the legacy theory structures Int and List have been removed. They had
  5525   conflicted with ML Basis Library structures having the same names.
  5526 
  5527 * 'refute' command added to search for (finite) countermodels.  Only works
  5528   for a fragment of HOL.  The installation of an external SAT solver is
  5529   highly recommended.  See "HOL/Refute.thy" for details.
  5530 
  5531 * 'quickcheck' command: Allows to find counterexamples by evaluating
  5532   formulae under an assignment of free variables to random values.
  5533   In contrast to 'refute', it can deal with inductive datatypes,
  5534   but cannot handle quantifiers. See "HOL/ex/Quickcheck_Examples.thy"
  5535   for examples.
  5536 
  5537 
  5538 *** HOLCF ***
  5539 
  5540 * Streams now come with concatenation and are part of the HOLCF image
  5541 
  5542 
  5543 
  5544 New in Isabelle2003 (May 2003)
  5545 ------------------------------
  5546 
  5547 *** General ***
  5548 
  5549 * Provers/simplifier:
  5550 
  5551   - Completely reimplemented method simp (ML: Asm_full_simp_tac):
  5552     Assumptions are now subject to complete mutual simplification,
  5553     not just from left to right. The simplifier now preserves
  5554     the order of assumptions.
  5555 
  5556     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5557 
  5558     -- simp sometimes diverges where the old version did
  5559        not, e.g. invoking simp on the goal
  5560 
  5561         [| P (f x); y = x; f x = f y |] ==> Q
  5562 
  5563        now gives rise to the infinite reduction sequence
  5564 
  5565         P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> P(f y) --(y = x)--> P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> ...
  5566 
  5567        Using "simp (asm_lr)" (ML: Asm_lr_simp_tac) instead often solves this
  5568        kind of problem.
  5569 
  5570     -- Tactics combining classical reasoner and simplification (such as auto)
  5571        are also affected by this change, because many of them rely on
  5572        simp. They may sometimes diverge as well or yield a different numbers
  5573        of subgoals. Try to use e.g. force, fastsimp, or safe instead of auto
  5574        in case of problems. Sometimes subsequent calls to the classical
  5575        reasoner will fail because a preceeding call to the simplifier too
  5576        eagerly simplified the goal, e.g. deleted redundant premises.
  5577 
  5578   - The simplifier trace now shows the names of the applied rewrite rules
  5579 
  5580   - You can limit the number of recursive invocations of the simplifier
  5581     during conditional rewriting (where the simplifie tries to solve the
  5582     conditions before applying the rewrite rule):
  5583     ML "simp_depth_limit := n"
  5584     where n is an integer. Thus you can force termination where previously
  5585     the simplifier would diverge.
  5586 
  5587   - Accepts free variables as head terms in congruence rules.  Useful in Isar.
  5588 
  5589   - No longer aborts on failed congruence proof.  Instead, the
  5590     congruence is ignored.
  5591 
  5592 * Pure: New generic framework for extracting programs from constructive
  5593   proofs. See HOL/Extraction.thy for an example instantiation, as well
  5594   as HOL/Extraction for some case studies.
  5595 
  5596 * Pure: The main goal of the proof state is no longer shown by default, only
  5597 the subgoals. This behaviour is controlled by a new flag.
  5598    PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Settings -> Show Main Goal
  5599 (ML: Proof.show_main_goal).
  5600 
  5601 * Pure: You can find all matching introduction rules for subgoal 1, i.e. all
  5602 rules whose conclusion matches subgoal 1:
  5603       PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Show me -> matching rules
  5604 The rules are ordered by how closely they match the subgoal.
  5605 In particular, rules that solve a subgoal outright are displayed first
  5606 (or rather last, the way they are printed).
  5607 (ML: ProofGeneral.print_intros())
  5608 
  5609 * Pure: New flag trace_unify_fail causes unification to print
  5610 diagnostic information (PG: in trace buffer) when it fails. This is
  5611 useful for figuring out why single step proofs like rule, erule or
  5612 assumption failed.
  5613 
  5614 * Pure: Locale specifications now produce predicate definitions
  5615 according to the body of text (covering assumptions modulo local
  5616 definitions); predicate "loc_axioms" covers newly introduced text,
  5617 while "loc" is cumulative wrt. all included locale expressions; the
  5618 latter view is presented only on export into the global theory
  5619 context; potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use "(open)" option to fall back
  5620 on the old view without predicates;
  5621 
  5622 * Pure: predefined locales "var" and "struct" are useful for sharing
  5623 parameters (as in CASL, for example); just specify something like
  5624 ``var x + var y + struct M'' as import;
  5625 
  5626 * Pure: improved thms_containing: proper indexing of facts instead of
  5627 raw theorems; check validity of results wrt. current name space;
  5628 include local facts of proof configuration (also covers active
  5629 locales), cover fixed variables in index; may use "_" in term
  5630 specification; an optional limit for the number of printed facts may
  5631 be given (the default is 40);
  5632 
  5633 * Pure: disallow duplicate fact bindings within new-style theory files
  5634 (batch-mode only);
  5635 
  5636 * Provers: improved induct method: assumptions introduced by case
  5637 "foo" are split into "foo.hyps" (from the rule) and "foo.prems" (from
  5638 the goal statement); "foo" still refers to all facts collectively;
  5639 
  5640 * Provers: the function blast.overloaded has been removed: all constants
  5641 are regarded as potentially overloaded, which improves robustness in exchange
  5642 for slight decrease in efficiency;
  5643 
  5644 * Provers/linorder: New generic prover for transitivity reasoning over
  5645 linear orders.  Note: this prover is not efficient!
  5646 
  5647 * Isar: preview of problems to finish 'show' now produce an error
  5648 rather than just a warning (in interactive mode);
  5649 
  5650 
  5651 *** HOL ***
  5652 
  5653 * arith(_tac)
  5654 
  5655  - Produces a counter example if it cannot prove a goal.
  5656    Note that the counter example may be spurious if the goal is not a formula
  5657    of quantifier-free linear arithmetic.
  5658    In ProofGeneral the counter example appears in the trace buffer.
  5659 
  5660  - Knows about div k and mod k where k is a numeral of type nat or int.
  5661 
  5662  - Calls full Presburger arithmetic (by Amine Chaieb) if quantifier-free
  5663    linear arithmetic fails. This takes account of quantifiers and divisibility.
  5664    Presburger arithmetic can also be called explicitly via presburger(_tac).
  5665 
  5666 * simp's arithmetic capabilities have been enhanced a bit: it now
  5667 takes ~= in premises into account (by performing a case split);
  5668 
  5669 * simp reduces "m*(n div m) + n mod m" to n, even if the two summands
  5670 are distributed over a sum of terms;
  5671 
  5672 * New tactic "trans_tac" and method "trans" instantiate
  5673 Provers/linorder.ML for axclasses "order" and "linorder" (predicates
  5674 "<=", "<" and "=").
  5675 
  5676 * function INCOMPATIBILITIES: Pi-sets have been redefined and moved from main
  5677 HOL to Library/FuncSet; constant "Fun.op o" is now called "Fun.comp";
  5678 
  5679 * 'typedef' command has new option "open" to suppress the set
  5680 definition;
  5681 
  5682 * functions Min and Max on finite sets have been introduced (theory
  5683 Finite_Set);
  5684 
  5685 * attribute [symmetric] now works for relations as well; it turns
  5686 (x,y) : R^-1 into (y,x) : R, and vice versa;
  5687 
  5688 * induct over a !!-quantified statement (say !!x1..xn):
  5689   each "case" automatically performs "fix x1 .. xn" with exactly those names.
  5690 
  5691 * Map: `empty' is no longer a constant but a syntactic abbreviation for
  5692 %x. None. Warning: empty_def now refers to the previously hidden definition
  5693 of the empty set.
  5694 
  5695 * Algebra: formalization of classical algebra.  Intended as base for
  5696 any algebraic development in Isabelle.  Currently covers group theory
  5697 (up to Sylow's theorem) and ring theory (Universal Property of
  5698 Univariate Polynomials).  Contributions welcome;
  5699 
  5700 * GroupTheory: deleted, since its material has been moved to Algebra;
  5701 
  5702 * Complex: new directory of the complex numbers with numeric constants,
  5703 nonstandard complex numbers, and some complex analysis, standard and
  5704 nonstandard (Jacques Fleuriot);
  5705 
  5706 * HOL-Complex: new image for analysis, replacing HOL-Real and HOL-Hyperreal;
  5707 
  5708 * Hyperreal: introduced Gauge integration and hyperreal logarithms (Jacques
  5709 Fleuriot);
  5710 
  5711 * Real/HahnBanach: updated and adapted to locales;
  5712 
  5713 * NumberTheory: added Gauss's law of quadratic reciprocity (by Avigad,
  5714 Gray and Kramer);
  5715 
  5716 * UNITY: added the Meier-Sanders theory of progress sets;
  5717 
  5718 * MicroJava: bytecode verifier and lightweight bytecode verifier
  5719 as abstract algorithms, instantiated to the JVM;
  5720 
  5721 * Bali: Java source language formalization. Type system, operational
  5722 semantics, axiomatic semantics. Supported language features:
  5723 classes, interfaces, objects,virtual methods, static methods,
  5724 static/instance fields, arrays, access modifiers, definite
  5725 assignment, exceptions.
  5726 
  5727 
  5728 *** ZF ***
  5729 
  5730 * ZF/Constructible: consistency proof for AC (Gdel's constructible
  5731 universe, etc.);
  5732 
  5733 * Main ZF: virtually all theories converted to new-style format;
  5734 
  5735 
  5736 *** ML ***
  5737 
  5738 * Pure: Tactic.prove provides sane interface for internal proofs;
  5739 omits the infamous "standard" operation, so this is more appropriate
  5740 than prove_goalw_cterm in many situations (e.g. in simprocs);
  5741 
  5742 * Pure: improved error reporting of simprocs;
  5743 
  5744 * Provers: Simplifier.simproc(_i) provides sane interface for setting
  5745 up simprocs;
  5746 
  5747 
  5748 *** Document preparation ***
  5749 
  5750 * uses \par instead of \\ for line breaks in theory text. This may
  5751 shift some page breaks in large documents. To get the old behaviour
  5752 use \renewcommand{\isanewline}{\mbox{}\\\mbox{}} in root.tex.
  5753 
  5754 * minimized dependencies of isabelle.sty and isabellesym.sty on
  5755 other packages
  5756 
  5757 * \<euro> now needs package babel/greek instead of marvosym (which
  5758 broke \Rightarrow)
  5759 
  5760 * normal size for \<zero>...\<nine> (uses \mathbf instead of
  5761 textcomp package)
  5762 
  5763 
  5764 
  5765 New in Isabelle2002 (March 2002)
  5766 --------------------------------
  5767 
  5768 *** Document preparation ***
  5769 
  5770 * greatly simplified document preparation setup, including more
  5771 graceful interpretation of isatool usedir -i/-d/-D options, and more
  5772 instructive isatool mkdir; users should basically be able to get
  5773 started with "isatool mkdir HOL Test && isatool make"; alternatively,
  5774 users may run a separate document processing stage manually like this:
  5775 "isatool usedir -D output HOL Test && isatool document Test/output";
  5776 
  5777 * theory dependency graph may now be incorporated into documents;
  5778 isatool usedir -g true will produce session_graph.eps/.pdf for use
  5779 with \includegraphics of LaTeX;
  5780 
  5781 * proper spacing of consecutive markup elements, especially text
  5782 blocks after section headings;
  5783 
  5784 * support bold style (for single symbols only), input syntax is like
  5785 this: "\<^bold>\<alpha>" or "\<^bold>A";
  5786 
  5787 * \<bullet> is now output as bold \cdot by default, which looks much
  5788 better in printed text;
  5789 
  5790 * added default LaTeX bindings for \<tturnstile> and \<TTurnstile>;
  5791 note that these symbols are currently unavailable in Proof General /
  5792 X-Symbol; new symbols \<zero>, \<one>, ..., \<nine>, and \<euro>;
  5793 
  5794 * isatool latex no longer depends on changed TEXINPUTS, instead
  5795 isatool document copies the Isabelle style files to the target
  5796 location;
  5797 
  5798 
  5799 *** Isar ***
  5800 
  5801 * Pure/Provers: improved proof by cases and induction;
  5802   - 'case' command admits impromptu naming of parameters (such as
  5803     "case (Suc n)");
  5804   - 'induct' method divinates rule instantiation from the inductive
  5805     claim; no longer requires excessive ?P bindings for proper
  5806     instantiation of cases;
  5807   - 'induct' method properly enumerates all possibilities of set/type
  5808     rules; as a consequence facts may be also passed through *type*
  5809     rules without further ado;
  5810   - 'induct' method now derives symbolic cases from the *rulified*
  5811     rule (before it used to rulify cases stemming from the internal
  5812     atomized version); this means that the context of a non-atomic
  5813     statement becomes is included in the hypothesis, avoiding the
  5814     slightly cumbersome show "PROP ?case" form;
  5815   - 'induct' may now use elim-style induction rules without chaining
  5816     facts, using ``missing'' premises from the goal state; this allows
  5817     rules stemming from inductive sets to be applied in unstructured
  5818     scripts, while still benefitting from proper handling of non-atomic
  5819     statements; NB: major inductive premises need to be put first, all
  5820     the rest of the goal is passed through the induction;
  5821   - 'induct' proper support for mutual induction involving non-atomic
  5822     rule statements (uses the new concept of simultaneous goals, see
  5823     below);
  5824   - append all possible rule selections, but only use the first
  5825     success (no backtracking);
  5826   - removed obsolete "(simplified)" and "(stripped)" options of methods;
  5827   - undeclared rule case names default to numbers 1, 2, 3, ...;
  5828   - added 'print_induct_rules' (covered by help item in recent Proof
  5829     General versions);
  5830   - moved induct/cases attributes to Pure, methods to Provers;
  5831   - generic method setup instantiated for FOL and HOL;
  5832 
  5833 * Pure: support multiple simultaneous goal statements, for example
  5834 "have a: A and b: B" (same for 'theorem' etc.); being a pure
  5835 meta-level mechanism, this acts as if several individual goals had
  5836 been stated separately; in particular common proof methods need to be
  5837 repeated in order to cover all claims; note that a single elimination
  5838 step is *not* sufficient to establish the two conjunctions, so this
  5839 fails:
  5840 
  5841   assume "A & B" then have A and B ..   (*".." fails*)
  5842 
  5843 better use "obtain" in situations as above; alternative refer to
  5844 multi-step methods like 'auto', 'simp_all', 'blast+' etc.;
  5845 
  5846 * Pure: proper integration with ``locales''; unlike the original
  5847 version by Florian Kammller, Isar locales package high-level proof
  5848 contexts rather than raw logical ones (e.g. we admit to include
  5849 attributes everywhere); operations on locales include merge and
  5850 rename; support for implicit arguments (``structures''); simultaneous
  5851 type-inference over imports and text; see also HOL/ex/Locales.thy for
  5852 some examples;
  5853 
  5854 * Pure: the following commands have been ``localized'', supporting a
  5855 target locale specification "(in name)": 'lemma', 'theorem',
  5856 'corollary', 'lemmas', 'theorems', 'declare'; the results will be
  5857 stored both within the locale and at the theory level (exported and
  5858 qualified by the locale name);
  5859 
  5860 * Pure: theory goals may now be specified in ``long'' form, with
  5861 ad-hoc contexts consisting of arbitrary locale elements. for example
  5862 ``lemma foo: fixes x assumes "A x" shows "B x"'' (local syntax and
  5863 definitions may be given, too); the result is a meta-level rule with
  5864 the context elements being discharged in the obvious way;
  5865 
  5866 * Pure: new proof command 'using' allows to augment currently used
  5867 facts after a goal statement ('using' is syntactically analogous to
  5868 'apply', but acts on the goal's facts only); this allows chained facts
  5869 to be separated into parts given before and after a claim, as in
  5870 ``from a and b have C using d and e <proof>'';
  5871 
  5872 * Pure: renamed "antecedent" case to "rule_context";
  5873 
  5874 * Pure: new 'judgment' command records explicit information about the
  5875 object-logic embedding (used by several tools internally); no longer
  5876 use hard-wired "Trueprop";
  5877 
  5878 * Pure: added 'corollary' command;
  5879 
  5880 * Pure: fixed 'token_translation' command;
  5881 
  5882 * Pure: removed obsolete 'exported' attribute;
  5883 
  5884 * Pure: dummy pattern "_" in is/let is now automatically lifted over
  5885 bound variables: "ALL x. P x --> Q x" (is "ALL x. _ --> ?C x")
  5886 supersedes more cumbersome ... (is "ALL x. _ x --> ?C x");
  5887 
  5888 * Pure: method 'atomize' presents local goal premises as object-level
  5889 statements (atomic meta-level propositions); setup controlled via
  5890 rewrite rules declarations of 'atomize' attribute; example
  5891 application: 'induct' method with proper rule statements in improper
  5892 proof *scripts*;
  5893 
  5894 * Pure: emulation of instantiation tactics (rule_tac, cut_tac, etc.)
  5895 now consider the syntactic context of assumptions, giving a better
  5896 chance to get type-inference of the arguments right (this is
  5897 especially important for locales);
  5898 
  5899 * Pure: "sorry" no longer requires quick_and_dirty in interactive
  5900 mode;
  5901 
  5902 * Pure/obtain: the formal conclusion "thesis", being marked as
  5903 ``internal'', may no longer be reference directly in the text;
  5904 potential INCOMPATIBILITY, may need to use "?thesis" in rare
  5905 situations;
  5906 
  5907 * Pure: generic 'sym' attribute which declares a rule both as pure
  5908 'elim?' and for the 'symmetric' operation;
  5909 
  5910 * Pure: marginal comments ``--'' may now occur just anywhere in the
  5911 text; the fixed correlation with particular command syntax has been
  5912 discontinued;
  5913 
  5914 * Pure: new method 'rules' is particularly well-suited for proof
  5915 search in intuitionistic logic; a bit slower than 'blast' or 'fast',
  5916 but often produces more compact proof terms with less detours;
  5917 
  5918 * Pure/Provers/classical: simplified integration with pure rule
  5919 attributes and methods; the classical "intro?/elim?/dest?"
  5920 declarations coincide with the pure ones; the "rule" method no longer
  5921 includes classically swapped intros; "intro" and "elim" methods no
  5922 longer pick rules from the context; also got rid of ML declarations
  5923 AddXIs/AddXEs/AddXDs; all of this has some potential for
  5924 INCOMPATIBILITY;
  5925 
  5926 * Provers/classical: attribute 'swapped' produces classical inversions
  5927 of introduction rules;
  5928 
  5929 * Provers/simplifier: 'simplified' attribute may refer to explicit
  5930 rules instead of full simplifier context; 'iff' attribute handles
  5931 conditional rules;
  5932 
  5933 * HOL: 'typedef' now allows alternative names for Rep/Abs morphisms;
  5934 
  5935 * HOL: 'recdef' now fails on unfinished automated proofs, use
  5936 "(permissive)" option to recover old behavior;
  5937 
  5938 * HOL: 'inductive' no longer features separate (collective) attributes
  5939 for 'intros' (was found too confusing);
  5940 
  5941 * HOL: properly declared induction rules less_induct and
  5942 wf_induct_rule;
  5943 
  5944 
  5945 *** HOL ***
  5946 
  5947 * HOL: moved over to sane numeral syntax; the new policy is as
  5948 follows:
  5949 
  5950   - 0 and 1 are polymorphic constants, which are defined on any
  5951   numeric type (nat, int, real etc.);
  5952 
  5953   - 2, 3, 4, ... and -1, -2, -3, ... are polymorphic numerals, based
  5954   binary representation internally;
  5955 
  5956   - type nat has special constructor Suc, and generally prefers Suc 0
  5957   over 1::nat and Suc (Suc 0) over 2::nat;
  5958 
  5959 This change may cause significant problems of INCOMPATIBILITY; here
  5960 are some hints on converting existing sources:
  5961 
  5962   - due to the new "num" token, "-0" and "-1" etc. are now atomic
  5963   entities, so expressions involving "-" (unary or binary minus) need
  5964   to be spaced properly;
  5965 
  5966   - existing occurrences of "1" may need to be constraint "1::nat" or
  5967   even replaced by Suc 0; similar for old "2";
  5968 
  5969   - replace "#nnn" by "nnn", and "#-nnn" by "-nnn";
  5970 
  5971   - remove all special provisions on numerals in proofs;
  5972 
  5973 * HOL: simp rules nat_number expand numerals on nat to Suc/0
  5974 representation (depends on bin_arith_simps in the default context);
  5975 
  5976 * HOL: symbolic syntax for x^2 (numeral 2);
  5977 
  5978 * HOL: the class of all HOL types is now called "type" rather than
  5979 "term"; INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt references to this type class
  5980 in axclass/classes, instance/arities, and (usually rare) occurrences
  5981 in typings (of consts etc.); internally the class is called
  5982 "HOL.type", ML programs should refer to HOLogic.typeS;
  5983 
  5984 * HOL/record package improvements:
  5985   - new derived operations "fields" to build a partial record section,
  5986     "extend" to promote a fixed record to a record scheme, and
  5987     "truncate" for the reverse; cf. theorems "xxx.defs", which are *not*
  5988     declared as simp by default;
  5989   - shared operations ("more", "fields", etc.) now need to be always
  5990     qualified) --- potential INCOMPATIBILITY;
  5991   - removed "make_scheme" operations (use "make" with "extend") --
  5992     INCOMPATIBILITY;
  5993   - removed "more" class (simply use "term") -- INCOMPATIBILITY;
  5994   - provides cases/induct rules for use with corresponding Isar
  5995     methods (for concrete records, record schemes, concrete more
  5996     parts, and schematic more parts -- in that order);
  5997   - internal definitions directly based on a light-weight abstract
  5998     theory of product types over typedef rather than datatype;
  5999 
  6000 * HOL: generic code generator for generating executable ML code from
  6001 specifications; specific support for HOL constructs such as inductive
  6002 datatypes and sets, as well as recursive functions; can be invoked
  6003 via 'generate_code' theory section;
  6004 
  6005 * HOL: canonical cases/induct rules for n-tuples (n = 3..7);
  6006 
  6007 * HOL: consolidated and renamed several theories.  In particular:
  6008         Ord.thy has been absorbed into HOL.thy
  6009         String.thy has been absorbed into List.thy
  6010 
  6011 * HOL: concrete setsum syntax "\<Sum>i:A. b" == "setsum (%i. b) A"
  6012 (beware of argument permutation!);
  6013 
  6014 * HOL: linorder_less_split superseded by linorder_cases;
  6015 
  6016 * HOL/List: "nodups" renamed to "distinct";
  6017 
  6018 * HOL: added "The" definite description operator; move Hilbert's "Eps"
  6019 to peripheral theory "Hilbert_Choice"; some INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  6020   - Ex_def has changed, now need to use some_eq_ex
  6021 
  6022 * HOL: made split_all_tac safe; EXISTING PROOFS MAY FAIL OR LOOP, so
  6023 in this (rare) case use:
  6024 
  6025   delSWrapper "split_all_tac"
  6026   addSbefore ("unsafe_split_all_tac", unsafe_split_all_tac)
  6027 
  6028 * HOL: added safe wrapper "split_conv_tac" to claset; EXISTING PROOFS
  6029 MAY FAIL;
  6030 
  6031 * HOL: introduced f^n = f o ... o f; warning: due to the limits of
  6032 Isabelle's type classes, ^ on functions and relations has too general
  6033 a domain, namely ('a * 'b) set and 'a => 'b; this means that it may be
  6034 necessary to attach explicit type constraints;
  6035 
  6036 * HOL/Relation: the prefix name of the infix "O" has been changed from
  6037 "comp" to "rel_comp"; INCOMPATIBILITY: a few theorems have been
  6038 renamed accordingly (eg "compI" -> "rel_compI").
  6039 
  6040 * HOL: syntax translations now work properly with numerals and records
  6041 expressions;
  6042 
  6043 * HOL: bounded abstraction now uses syntax "%" / "\<lambda>" instead
  6044 of "lam" -- INCOMPATIBILITY;
  6045 
  6046 * HOL: got rid of some global declarations (potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  6047 for ML tools): const "()" renamed "Product_Type.Unity", type "unit"
  6048 renamed "Product_Type.unit";
  6049 
  6050 * HOL: renamed rtrancl_into_rtrancl2 to converse_rtrancl_into_rtrancl
  6051 
  6052 * HOL: removed obsolete theorem "optionE" (use "option.exhaust", or
  6053 the "cases" method);
  6054 
  6055 * HOL/GroupTheory: group theory examples including Sylow's theorem (by
  6056 Florian Kammller);
  6057 
  6058 * HOL/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory format; several
  6059 parts turned into readable document, with proper Isar proof texts and
  6060 some explanations (by Gerwin Klein);
  6061 
  6062 * HOL-Real: added Complex_Numbers (by Gertrud Bauer);
  6063 
  6064 * HOL-Hyperreal is now a logic image;
  6065 
  6066 
  6067 *** HOLCF ***
  6068 
  6069 * Isar: consts/constdefs supports mixfix syntax for continuous
  6070 operations;
  6071 
  6072 * Isar: domain package adapted to new-style theory format, e.g. see
  6073 HOLCF/ex/Dnat.thy;
  6074 
  6075 * theory Lift: proper use of rep_datatype lift instead of ML hacks --
  6076 potential INCOMPATIBILITY; now use plain induct_tac instead of former
  6077 lift.induct_tac, always use UU instead of Undef;
  6078 
  6079 * HOLCF/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory;
  6080 
  6081 
  6082 *** ZF ***
  6083 
  6084 * Isar: proper integration of logic-specific tools and packages,
  6085 including theory commands '(co)inductive', '(co)datatype',
  6086 'rep_datatype', 'inductive_cases', as well as methods 'ind_cases',
  6087 'induct_tac', 'case_tac', and 'typecheck' (with attribute 'TC');
  6088 
  6089 * theory Main no longer includes AC; for the Axiom of Choice, base
  6090 your theory on Main_ZFC;
  6091 
  6092 * the integer library now covers quotients and remainders, with many
  6093 laws relating division to addition, multiplication, etc.;
  6094 
  6095 * ZF/UNITY: Chandy and Misra's UNITY is now available in ZF, giving a
  6096 typeless version of the formalism;
  6097 
  6098 * ZF/AC, Coind, IMP, Resid: updated and converted to new-style theory
  6099 format;
  6100 
  6101 * ZF/Induct: new directory for examples of inductive definitions,
  6102 including theory Multiset for multiset orderings; converted to
  6103 new-style theory format;
  6104 
  6105 * ZF: many new theorems about lists, ordinals, etc.;
  6106 
  6107 
  6108 *** General ***
  6109 
  6110 * Pure/kernel: meta-level proof terms (by Stefan Berghofer); reference
  6111 variable proof controls level of detail: 0 = no proofs (only oracle
  6112 dependencies), 1 = lemma dependencies, 2 = compact proof terms; see
  6113 also ref manual for further ML interfaces;
  6114 
  6115 * Pure/axclass: removed obsolete ML interface
  6116 goal_subclass/goal_arity;
  6117 
  6118 * Pure/syntax: new token syntax "num" for plain numerals (without "#"
  6119 of "xnum"); potential INCOMPATIBILITY, since -0, -1 etc. are now
  6120 separate tokens, so expressions involving minus need to be spaced
  6121 properly;
  6122 
  6123 * Pure/syntax: support non-oriented infixes, using keyword "infix"
  6124 rather than "infixl" or "infixr";
  6125 
  6126 * Pure/syntax: concrete syntax for dummy type variables admits genuine
  6127 sort constraint specifications in type inference; e.g. "x::_::foo"
  6128 ensures that the type of "x" is of sort "foo" (but not necessarily a
  6129 type variable);
  6130 
  6131 * Pure/syntax: print modes "type_brackets" and "no_type_brackets"
  6132 control output of nested => (types); the default behavior is
  6133 "type_brackets";
  6134 
  6135 * Pure/syntax: builtin parse translation for "_constify" turns valued
  6136 tokens into AST constants;
  6137 
  6138 * Pure/syntax: prefer later declarations of translations and print
  6139 translation functions; potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to reverse
  6140 multiple declarations for same syntax element constant;
  6141 
  6142 * Pure/show_hyps reset by default (in accordance to existing Isar
  6143 practice);
  6144 
  6145 * Provers/classical: renamed addaltern to addafter, addSaltern to
  6146 addSafter;
  6147 
  6148 * Provers/clasimp: ``iff'' declarations now handle conditional rules
  6149 as well;
  6150 
  6151 * system: tested support for MacOS X; should be able to get Isabelle +
  6152 Proof General to work in a plain Terminal after installing Poly/ML
  6153 (e.g. from the Isabelle distribution area) and GNU bash alone
  6154 (e.g. from http://www.apple.com); full X11, XEmacs and X-Symbol
  6155 support requires further installations, e.g. from
  6156 http://fink.sourceforge.net/);
  6157 
  6158 * system: support Poly/ML 4.1.1 (able to manage larger heaps);
  6159 
  6160 * system: reduced base memory usage by Poly/ML (approx. 20 MB instead
  6161 of 40 MB), cf. ML_OPTIONS;
  6162 
  6163 * system: Proof General keywords specification is now part of the
  6164 Isabelle distribution (see etc/isar-keywords.el);
  6165 
  6166 * system: support for persistent Proof General sessions (refrain from
  6167 outdating all loaded theories on startup); user may create writable
  6168 logic images like this: ``isabelle -q HOL Test'';
  6169 
  6170 * system: smart selection of Isabelle process versus Isabelle
  6171 interface, accommodates case-insensitive file systems (e.g. HFS+); may
  6172 run both "isabelle" and "Isabelle" even if file names are badly
  6173 damaged (executable inspects the case of the first letter of its own
  6174 name); added separate "isabelle-process" and "isabelle-interface";
  6175 
  6176 * system: refrain from any attempt at filtering input streams; no
  6177 longer support ``8bit'' encoding of old isabelle font, instead proper
  6178 iso-latin characters may now be used; the related isatools
  6179 "symbolinput" and "nonascii" have disappeared as well;
  6180 
  6181 * system: removed old "xterm" interface (the print modes "xterm" and
  6182 "xterm_color" are still available for direct use in a suitable
  6183 terminal);
  6184 
  6185 
  6186 
  6187 New in Isabelle99-2 (February 2001)
  6188 -----------------------------------
  6189 
  6190 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES ***
  6191 
  6192 * HOL: please note that theories in the Library and elsewhere often use the
  6193 new-style (Isar) format; to refer to their theorems in an ML script you must
  6194 bind them to ML identifers by e.g.      val thm_name = thm "thm_name";
  6195 
  6196 * HOL: inductive package no longer splits induction rule aggressively,
  6197 but only as far as specified by the introductions given; the old
  6198 format may be recovered via ML function complete_split_rule or attribute
  6199 'split_rule (complete)';
  6200 
  6201 * HOL: induct renamed to lfp_induct, lfp_Tarski to lfp_unfold,
  6202 gfp_Tarski to gfp_unfold;
  6203 
  6204 * HOL: contrapos, contrapos2 renamed to contrapos_nn, contrapos_pp;
  6205 
  6206 * HOL: infix "dvd" now has priority 50 rather than 70 (because it is a
  6207 relation); infix "^^" has been renamed "``"; infix "``" has been
  6208 renamed "`"; "univalent" has been renamed "single_valued";
  6209 
  6210 * HOL/Real: "rinv" and "hrinv" replaced by overloaded "inverse"
  6211 operation;
  6212 
  6213 * HOLCF: infix "`" has been renamed "$"; the symbol syntax is \<cdot>;
  6214 
  6215 * Isar: 'obtain' no longer declares "that" fact as simp/intro;
  6216 
  6217 * Isar/HOL: method 'induct' now handles non-atomic goals; as a
  6218 consequence, it is no longer monotonic wrt. the local goal context
  6219 (which is now passed through the inductive cases);
  6220 
  6221 * Document preparation: renamed standard symbols \<ll> to \<lless> and
  6222 \<gg> to \<ggreater>;
  6223 
  6224 
  6225 *** Document preparation ***
  6226 
  6227 * \isabellestyle{NAME} selects version of Isabelle output (currently
  6228 available: are "it" for near math-mode best-style output, "sl" for
  6229 slanted text style, and "tt" for plain type-writer; if no
  6230 \isabellestyle command is given, output is according to slanted
  6231 type-writer);
  6232 
  6233 * support sub/super scripts (for single symbols only), input syntax is