NEWS
author blanchet
Tue Dec 07 11:56:53 2010 +0100 (2010-12-07)
changeset 41052 3db267a01c1d
parent 41035 22a57175df20
child 41079 a0d9258e2091
permissions -rw-r--r--
remove the "fin_fun" optimization in Nitpick -- it was always a hack and didn't help much
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
    10 
    11 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
    12 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
    13 the following package declarations:
    14 
    15   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
    16   \usepackage{textcomp}
    17 
    18 * Explicit treatment of UTF8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
    19 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
    20 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
    21 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
    22 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
    23 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
    24 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
    25 
    26 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
    27 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/IsabelleXXXX),
    28 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
    29 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
    30 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
    31 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
    32 
    33 * Theory loading: only the master source file is looked-up in the
    34 implicit load path, all other files are addressed relatively to its
    35 directory.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
    36 
    37 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
    38 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
    39 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
    40 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
    41 
    42 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
    43 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
    44 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
    45 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
    46 
    47   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
    48 
    49   eta_contract                  eta_contract
    50   show_brackets                 show_brackets
    51   show_sorts                    show_sorts
    52   show_types                    show_types
    53   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
    54   show_consts                   show_consts
    55   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
    56 
    57   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
    58 
    59   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
    60   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
    61 
    62   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
    63   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
    64   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
    65   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
    66   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
    67 
    68 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may be only
    69 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
    70 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
    71 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
    72 
    73 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
    74 INCOMPATIBILTY.
    75 
    76   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
    77   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
    78 
    79 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
    80 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
    81 float_token.
    82 
    83 
    84 *** Pure ***
    85 
    86 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
    87 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    88 
    89 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type).
    90 
    91 * Interpretation command 'interpret' accepts a list of equations like
    92 'interpretation' does.
    93 
    94 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
    95 in addition to interpretations in theories.
    96 
    97 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
    98 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
    99 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
   100 feature is still required for historical reasons.
   101 
   102 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
   103 'definition' instead.
   104 
   105 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
   106 constructors.
   107 
   108 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
   109 the local file system.
   110 
   111 
   112 *** HOL ***
   113 
   114 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
   115 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by quickcheck[random],
   116 exhaustive testing by quickcheck[exhaustive].
   117 
   118 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
   119 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
   120 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
   121 
   122 * Functions can be declared as coercions and type inference will add
   123 them as necessary upon input of a term. In theory Complex_Main,
   124 real :: nat => real and real :: int => real are declared as
   125 coercions. A new coercion function f is declared like this:
   126 
   127   declare [[coercion f]]
   128 
   129 To lift coercions through type constructors (eg from nat => real to
   130 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
   131 
   132   declare [[coercion_map map]]
   133 
   134 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
   135 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
   136 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
   137 other theories like this:
   138 
   139   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
   140 
   141 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
   142 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
   143 for congruent(2)).
   144 
   145 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
   146 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
   147 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   148 
   149 * Theory Enum (for explicit enumerations of finite types) is now part
   150 of the HOL-Main image. INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum
   151 theory now have to be referred to by its qualified name.
   152 
   153   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
   154   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
   155   product ~>  Enum.product
   156 
   157 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
   158 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   159 
   160 * Quickcheck's generator for random generation is renamed from "code"
   161 to "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   162 
   163 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
   164 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
   165 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
   166 independently.
   167 
   168 * Theory Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
   169 sort_key.
   170 
   171 * New command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
   172 function definitions over complete partial orders. Concrete instances
   173 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
   174 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL. See
   175 HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy for
   176 examples.
   177 
   178 * Predicates "distinct" and "sorted" now defined inductively, with
   179 nice induction rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former distinct.simps and
   180 sorted.simps now named distinct_simps and sorted_simps.
   181 
   182 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
   183 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   184 
   185 * Dropped syntax for old primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   186 
   187 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
   188 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
   189 
   190 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   191 
   192 * Renamed facts:
   193   expand_fun_eq  ~>  fun_eq_iff
   194   expand_set_eq  ~>  set_eq_iff
   195   set_ext        ~>  set_eqI
   196   nat_number     ~>  eval_nat_numeral
   197 
   198 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
   199 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
   200 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   201 
   202 * Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target languages of the
   203 code generator.
   204 
   205 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   206 
   207 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   208 
   209 * Theory SetsAndFunctions has been split into Function_Algebras and
   210 Set_Algebras; canonical names for instance definitions for functions;
   211 various improvements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   212 
   213 * Records: logical foundation type for records do not carry a '_type'
   214 suffix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   215 
   216 * Code generation for records: more idiomatic representation of record
   217 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
   218 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
   219 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
   220 
   221   record 'a foo = ...
   222   ...
   223   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
   224 
   225 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
   226 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   227 
   228 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
   229 counter example search.
   230 
   231 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
   232 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
   233 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   234 
   235 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
   236 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   237 
   238 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
   239 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   240 
   241 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
   242 Sum_Type.Plus.
   243 
   244 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
   245 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
   246 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   247 
   248 * Dropped old infix syntax "mem" for List.member; use "in set"
   249 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   250 
   251 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in List.thy
   252 
   253   constants
   254     null ~> List.null
   255 
   256   facts
   257     mem_iff ~> member_def
   258     null_empty ~> null_def
   259 
   260 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not suppossed to be used
   261 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
   262 generation.
   263 
   264 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
   265 
   266   types
   267     bool ~> HOL.bool
   268     nat ~> Nat.nat
   269 
   270   constants
   271     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
   272     True ~> HOL.True
   273     False ~> HOL.False
   274     op & ~> HOL.conj
   275     op | ~> HOL.disj
   276     op --> ~> HOL.implies
   277     op = ~> HOL.eq
   278     Not ~> HOL.Not
   279     The ~> HOL.The
   280     All ~> HOL.All
   281     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
   282     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
   283     Let ~> HOL.Let
   284     If ~> HOL.If
   285     Ball ~> Set.Ball
   286     Bex ~> Set.Bex
   287     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
   288     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
   289     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
   290     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
   291     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
   292     op : ~> Set.member
   293     Collect ~> Set.Collect
   294 
   295 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   296 
   297 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
   298 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   299 
   300 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
   301 eq) carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
   302 
   303 * Removed lemma Option.is_none_none (Duplicate of is_none_def).
   304 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   305 
   306 * List.thy: use various operations from the Haskell prelude when
   307 generating Haskell code.
   308 
   309 * Multiset.thy: renamed empty_idemp -> empty_neutral
   310 
   311 * code_simp.ML and method code_simp: simplification with rules
   312 determined by code generator.
   313 
   314 * code generator: do not print function definitions for case
   315 combinators any longer.
   316 
   317 * Multivariate Analysis: Introduced a type class for euclidean
   318 space. Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
   319 instead of finite cartesian products.
   320 
   321   types
   322     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
   323               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
   324               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
   325         (depends on your needs)
   326 
   327   constants
   328      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
   329      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
   330      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
   331 
   332 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
   333 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
   334 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
   335 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   336 
   337 * Probability: Introduced pextreal as positive extended real numbers.
   338 Use pextreal as value for measures. Introduce the Radon-Nikodym
   339 derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for arbitrary sigma
   340 finite measures. Introduces Lebesgue measure based on the integral in
   341 Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   342 
   343 * Inductive package: offers new command 'inductive_simps' to
   344 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
   345 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
   346 
   347 * "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV". "surj f"
   348 is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV". The theorems bij_def and
   349 surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   350 
   351 * Function package: .psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
   352 [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   353 
   354 * Weaker versions of the "meson" and "metis" proof methods are now
   355 available in "HOL-Plain", without dependency on "Hilbert_Choice". The
   356 proof methods become more powerful after "Hilbert_Choice" is loaded in
   357 "HOL-Main".
   358 
   359 * MESON: Renamed lemmas:
   360   meson_not_conjD ~> Meson.not_conjD
   361   meson_not_disjD ~> Meson.not_disjD
   362   meson_not_notD ~> Meson.not_notD
   363   meson_not_allD ~> Meson.not_allD
   364   meson_not_exD ~> Meson.not_exD
   365   meson_imp_to_disjD ~> Meson.imp_to_disjD
   366   meson_not_impD ~> Meson.not_impD
   367   meson_iff_to_disjD ~> Meson.iff_to_disjD
   368   meson_not_iffD ~> Meson.not_iffD
   369   meson_not_refl_disj_D ~> Meson.not_refl_disj_D
   370   meson_conj_exD1 ~> Meson.conj_exD1
   371   meson_conj_exD2 ~> Meson.conj_exD2
   372   meson_disj_exD ~> Meson.disj_exD
   373   meson_disj_exD1 ~> Meson.disj_exD1
   374   meson_disj_exD2 ~> Meson.disj_exD2
   375   meson_disj_assoc ~> Meson.disj_assoc
   376   meson_disj_comm ~> Meson.disj_comm
   377   meson_disj_FalseD1 ~> Meson.disj_FalseD1
   378   meson_disj_FalseD2 ~> Meson.disj_FalseD2
   379 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   380 
   381 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
   382 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
   383 
   384 * Sledgehammer:
   385   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof method. See
   386     the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
   387   - Renamed lemmas:
   388     COMBI_def ~> Meson.COMBI_def
   389     COMBK_def ~> Meson.COMBK_def
   390     COMBB_def ~> Meson.COMBB_def
   391     COMBC_def ~> Meson.COMBC_def
   392     COMBS_def ~> Meson.COMBS_def
   393     abs_I ~> Meson.abs_I
   394     abs_K ~> Meson.abs_K
   395     abs_B ~> Meson.abs_B
   396     abs_C ~> Meson.abs_C
   397     abs_S ~> Meson.abs_S
   398     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   399   - Renamed commands:
   400     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
   401     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
   402     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
   403     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   404   - Renamed options:
   405     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
   406     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
   407     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
   408     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
   409     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   410 
   411 * Metis and Meson now have configuration options "meson_trace",
   412 "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled to diagnose
   413 these tools. E.g.
   414 
   415     using [[metis_trace = true]]
   416 
   417 * Nitpick:
   418   - Renamed options:
   419     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
   420     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
   421     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   422   - Now requires Kodkodi 1.2.9. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   423   - Added support for partial quotient types.
   424   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
   425   - Added "whack" option.
   426   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
   427   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
   428   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
   429   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
   430     higher cardinalities.
   431   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
   432 
   433 * Changed SMT configuration options:
   434   - Renamed:
   435     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with swapped semantics)
   436     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
   437     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   438   - Added:
   439     smt_verbose
   440     smt_datatypes
   441     cvc3_options
   442     yices_options
   443 
   444 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
   445 header.
   446 
   447 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
   448 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   449 
   450 
   451 *** HOLCF ***
   452 
   453 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
   454 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'. To use the domain
   455 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
   456 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   457 
   458 * The new class 'domain' is now the default sort; the definitional
   459 domain package and the powerdomain theories both require this class.
   460 The new class 'predomain' is an unpointed version of 'domain'.
   461 Theories can be updated by replacing sort annotations as shown below.
   462 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   463 
   464   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
   465   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
   466   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
   467 
   468 * The old type class 'rep' has been superseded by class 'domain'.
   469 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
   470 'default_sort rep' declarations. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   471 
   472 * The old type classes 'profinite' and 'bifinite', along with the
   473 overloaded constant 'approx' have been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   474 
   475 * The type 'udom alg_defl' has been replaced by the non-parameterized
   476 type 'defl'. HOLCF no longer defines an embedding of type defl into
   477 udom by default; the instance proof defl :: domain is now available in
   478 HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
   479 
   480 * The syntax 'REP('a)' has been replaced with 'DEFL('a)'.
   481 
   482 * The predicate 'directed' has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   483 
   484 * The type class 'finite_po' has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   485 
   486 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
   487   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
   488   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
   489   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
   490   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
   491   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
   492   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
   493   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
   494 
   495 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
   496 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   497   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
   498   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
   499   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
   500   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
   501   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
   502   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
   503 
   504 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
   505 been renamed to *_bottom_iff. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   506 
   507 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
   508   - Definitions of 'bisim' constants no longer mention definedness.
   509   - With mutual recursion, 'bisim' predicate is now curried.
   510   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
   511   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
   512 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   513 
   514 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type 'foo' are
   515 now named 'foo_case' instead of 'foo_when'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   516 
   517 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
   518 names of constants and types involved. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   519   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
   520   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
   521   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
   522   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
   523   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
   524   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
   525   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
   526   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
   527   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
   528   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
   529   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
   530   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
   531   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
   532   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
   533   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
   534   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
   535 
   536 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   537   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
   538   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
   539   refl_less            ~> below_refl
   540   trans_less           ~> below_trans
   541   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
   542   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
   543   box_less             ~> box_below
   544   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
   545   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
   546   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
   547   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
   548   adm_less             ~> adm_below
   549   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
   550   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
   551   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
   552   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
   553   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
   554   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
   555   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
   556   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
   557   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
   558   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
   559   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
   560   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
   561   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
   562   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
   563   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
   564   injection_less       ~> injection_below
   565   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
   566   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
   567   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
   568   up_less              ~> up_below
   569   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
   570   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
   571   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
   572   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
   573   spair_less           ~> spair_below
   574   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
   575   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
   576   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
   577   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
   578   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
   579   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
   580   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
   581   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
   582 
   583 
   584 *** FOL and ZF ***
   585 
   586 * All constant names are now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   587 
   588 
   589 *** ML ***
   590 
   591 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
   592 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
   593 
   594 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
   595 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
   596 
   597 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
   598 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
   599 
   600 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
   601 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
   602 almost all situations.
   603 
   604 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
   605 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
   606 Isabelle/ML.
   607 
   608 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
   609 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
   610 failed assertions is included in the error output.
   611 
   612 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
   613 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
   614 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
   615 
   616 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
   617 meaning.
   618 
   619 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
   620 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
   621 rarely-used global-only stuff.
   622 
   623 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
   624 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
   625 
   626 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
   627 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
   628 
   629 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
   630 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
   631 @{thms} for most purposes.
   632 
   633 * ML structure Unsynchronized never opened, not even in Isar
   634 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
   635 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
   636 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
   637 configuration options.
   638 
   639 * ML antiquotations @{theory} and @{theory_ref} refer to named
   640 theories from the ancestry of the current context, not any accidental
   641 theory loader state as before.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle
   642 change in semantics.
   643 
   644 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
   645 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
   646 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
   647 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
   648 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
   649 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
   650 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
   651 
   652 
   653 *** System ***
   654 
   655 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
   656 DajaVu Sans.
   657 
   658 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
   659 
   660 
   661 
   662 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
   663 ---------------------------------
   664 
   665 *** General ***
   666 
   667 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
   668 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
   669 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
   670 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
   671 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
   672 their full internal name.
   673 
   674 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
   675 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
   676 Some hints on upgrading:
   677 
   678   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
   679     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
   680     which are independent of this issue.
   681 
   682   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
   683     provides the following special forms:
   684 
   685       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
   686       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
   687       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
   688 
   689     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
   690     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
   691     extra variables".
   692 
   693     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
   694     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
   695     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
   696     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
   697     "logic".
   698 
   699   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
   700     antiquotations:
   701 
   702       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
   703       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
   704       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
   705       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
   706 
   707   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
   708     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
   709     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
   710     antiquotations.
   711 
   712 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
   713 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
   714 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
   715 diagnose syntax problems.
   716 
   717 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
   718 
   719 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
   720 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
   721 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
   722 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
   723 
   724 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
   725 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
   726 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
   727 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   728 
   729 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
   730 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
   731 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
   732 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
   733 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   734 
   735 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
   736 discontinued (old legacy feature).
   737 
   738 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
   739 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
   740 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
   741 
   742   using [[trace_simp = true]]
   743 
   744 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
   745 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
   746 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
   747 
   748 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
   749 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
   750 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   751 
   752 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
   753 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
   754 
   755 
   756 *** Pure ***
   757 
   758 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
   759 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
   760 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
   761 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
   762 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
   763 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
   764 inspect proof terms.
   765 
   766 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
   767 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
   768 are added internally.  For example:
   769 
   770   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
   771 
   772 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
   773 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   774 
   775 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   776 
   777 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
   778 'class' instead.
   779 
   780 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
   781 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
   782 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   783 
   784 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
   785 invariants.
   786 
   787 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
   788 user space functionality any longer.
   789 
   790 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
   791 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
   792 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   793 
   794 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
   795 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
   796 
   797 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
   798 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
   799 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
   800 
   801 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
   802 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
   803 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
   804 
   805 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
   806 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   807 
   808 
   809 *** HOL ***
   810 
   811 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
   812 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
   813 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
   814 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
   815 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
   816 
   817 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
   818 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
   819 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
   820 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
   821 
   822   fun
   823     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
   824   where
   825     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
   826 
   827   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
   828     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
   829 
   830   quotient_definition
   831     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
   832 
   833 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
   834 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
   835 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
   836 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
   837 
   838 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
   839 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
   840 
   841 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
   842 separate HOL-SMT session.
   843 
   844 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
   845 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   846 
   847 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
   848 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
   849 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
   850 
   851 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
   852 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   853 
   854 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
   855 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   856 
   857 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
   858 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   859 
   860 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
   861 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   862 
   863 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
   864 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
   865 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   866 
   867   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
   868   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
   869   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
   870   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
   871   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
   872   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
   873   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
   874   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
   875   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
   876   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
   877   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
   878   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
   879   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
   880   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
   881   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
   882   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
   883   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
   884   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
   885   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
   886   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
   887   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
   888   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
   889   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
   890   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
   891   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
   892   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
   893   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
   894   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
   895   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
   896   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
   897 
   898 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
   899 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
   900 
   901 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
   902 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
   903 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
   904 
   905 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
   906 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
   907 
   908 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
   909 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   910 
   911 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
   912 
   913 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
   914 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   915 
   916 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
   917 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   918 
   919 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   920 
   921 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
   922 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
   923 
   924 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
   925 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
   926 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
   927 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   928 
   929 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
   930   - less_eq, less: Orderings
   931   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
   932   - inverse, divide: Rings
   933 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   934 
   935 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
   936 lattices):
   937 
   938     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
   939     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
   940 
   941     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
   942 
   943     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
   944     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
   945     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
   946     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
   947     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
   948     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
   949     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
   950     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
   951     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
   952     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
   953     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
   954     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
   955     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
   956 
   957     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
   958     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
   959     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
   960     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
   961     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
   962     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
   963     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
   964     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
   965     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
   966     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
   967     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
   968     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
   969     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
   970     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
   971     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
   972     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
   973     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
   974     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
   975 
   976   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
   977   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
   978 
   979     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
   980     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
   981     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
   982     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
   983     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
   984 
   985 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   986 
   987 * Refined field classes:
   988   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
   989     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
   990     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
   991   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
   992 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   993 
   994 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
   995   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
   996   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
   997   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
   998     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
   999   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  1000     equal_neg_zero.
  1001 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1002 
  1003 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  1004 sets to lattices:
  1005 
  1006   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  1007   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  1008   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  1009   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  1010   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  1011   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  1012   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  1013   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  1014   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  1015   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  1016 
  1017 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  1018 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  1019 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  1020 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  1021 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  1022 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1023 
  1024 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  1025 multiset order:
  1026 
  1027   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  1028     <= and <;
  1029   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  1030     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  1031     multiset_order;
  1032   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  1033     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  1034     generation;
  1035   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  1036     if needed.
  1037 
  1038 Renamed:
  1039 
  1040   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  1041   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  1042   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  1043 
  1044 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1045 
  1046 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  1047 
  1048 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  1049 
  1050 * Theory List: added transpose.
  1051 
  1052 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  1053 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  1054 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1055 
  1056   Constants:
  1057   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  1058   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  1059   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  1060   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  1061   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  1062   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  1063   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  1064   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  1065   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  1066   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  1067   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  1068   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  1069   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  1070 
  1071   Lemmas:
  1072   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  1073   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  1074   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  1075   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  1076   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  1077   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  1078   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  1079   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  1080   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  1081   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  1082   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  1083   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  1084   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  1085 
  1086 * Sledgehammer:
  1087   - Renamed ATP commands:
  1088     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  1089     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  1090     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  1091     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  1092     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  1093     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1094   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  1095   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  1096     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  1097   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  1098     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  1099     is still experimental.)
  1100   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  1101     full-typed mode.
  1102   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  1103 
  1104 * Nitpick:
  1105   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  1106   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  1107   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  1108     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  1109   - Added support for quotient types.
  1110   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  1111     constructs.
  1112   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  1113     "termination" proofs).
  1114   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  1115   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  1116   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  1117   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  1118     record getters.
  1119   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  1120   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  1121   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  1122   - Added "atoms" option.
  1123   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  1124     problems.
  1125   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  1126     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  1127     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1128   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  1129     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1130   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1131 
  1132 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  1133   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  1134   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  1135   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  1136   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  1137   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  1138   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  1139   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  1140   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  1141   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1142 
  1143 
  1144 *** HOLCF ***
  1145 
  1146 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  1147 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  1148 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1149 
  1150 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  1151 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  1152 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  1153 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1154 
  1155 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  1156 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  1157 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  1158 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  1159 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1160 
  1161 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  1162 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  1163 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1164 
  1165 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  1166 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1167 
  1168   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  1169   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  1170 
  1171 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  1172 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1173 
  1174   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  1175   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  1176   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  1177   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  1178   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  1179 
  1180 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  1181 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1182 
  1183   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  1184   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  1185   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  1186 
  1187 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  1188 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  1189 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1190 
  1191 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  1192 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1193 
  1194 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1195 
  1196 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  1197 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1198 
  1199 
  1200 *** ML ***
  1201 
  1202 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  1203 
  1204     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  1205     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  1206 
  1207     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  1208     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  1209     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  1210     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  1211 
  1212     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  1213     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  1214     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  1215 
  1216 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  1217 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  1218 
  1219 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  1220 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  1221 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  1222 
  1223 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  1224 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  1225 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  1226 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  1227 
  1228 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  1229 the context or even global references.
  1230 
  1231 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  1232 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  1233 
  1234 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  1235 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  1236 
  1237   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  1238   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  1239   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  1240   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  1241   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  1242   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  1243   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  1244   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  1245   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  1246   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  1247 
  1248 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  1249 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  1250 
  1251 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  1252 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  1253 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  1254 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  1255 pass the proper local context through the code!
  1256 
  1257 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  1258 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  1259 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  1260 Theory_Data version.
  1261 
  1262 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  1263 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  1264 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  1265 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  1266 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  1267 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  1268 explicitly in rare situations.
  1269 
  1270 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  1271 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  1272 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1273 
  1274 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  1275 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1276 
  1277 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  1278 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  1279 quite rare).
  1280 
  1281 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  1282 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1283 
  1284 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  1285 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  1286 terms.
  1287 
  1288 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  1289 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  1290 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  1291 
  1292 
  1293 *** System ***
  1294 
  1295 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  1296 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  1297 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  1298 
  1299 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  1300 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  1301 respectively.
  1302 
  1303 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  1304 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  1305 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  1306 prefers 64 bit if available:
  1307 
  1308   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  1309 
  1310 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  1311 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  1312 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  1313 component.
  1314 
  1315 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  1316 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  1317 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  1318 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  1319 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  1320 the user for manual installation.
  1321 
  1322 
  1323 
  1324 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  1325 -------------------------------------
  1326 
  1327 *** General ***
  1328 
  1329 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  1330 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  1331 
  1332 
  1333 *** Pure ***
  1334 
  1335 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  1336 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  1337 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  1338 
  1339 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  1340 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  1341 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  1342 
  1343 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  1344 interpretation.
  1345 
  1346 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  1347 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1348 
  1349 
  1350 *** Document preparation ***
  1351 
  1352 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  1353 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  1354 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  1355 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  1356 
  1357 
  1358 *** HOL ***
  1359 
  1360 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  1361 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  1362 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  1363 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  1364 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  1365 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  1366 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  1367 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  1368 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  1369 
  1370 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  1371 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  1372 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  1373 
  1374 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  1375 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  1376 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  1377 
  1378 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  1379 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  1380 
  1381 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  1382 
  1383 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  1384 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  1385 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  1386 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  1387 
  1388 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  1389 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  1390 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  1391 "mirabelle" utility.
  1392 
  1393 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  1394 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  1395 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  1396 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  1397 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  1398 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  1399 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  1400 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  1401 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  1402 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  1403 
  1404 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  1405 procedure only.
  1406 
  1407 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  1408 
  1409 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  1410 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  1411 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  1412 that fail later.
  1413 
  1414 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  1415 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  1416 
  1417 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  1418 the same method as the approximation method.
  1419 
  1420 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  1421 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  1422 series expansion.
  1423 
  1424 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  1425 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  1426 
  1427 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  1428 reals.
  1429 
  1430 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  1431 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  1432 
  1433 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  1434 fixpoint theorem.
  1435 
  1436 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  1437   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  1438     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  1439   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  1440     accordingly
  1441   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  1442     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  1443   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  1444     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  1445 
  1446 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  1447 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  1448 lattice.
  1449 
  1450 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  1451 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  1452 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  1453 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  1454 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  1455 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  1456 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1457 
  1458 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  1459   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  1460     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  1461   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  1462     le_inf_iff
  1463   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  1464     sup_aci)
  1465   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  1466   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  1467   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  1468     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  1469     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  1470     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  1471     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  1472     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  1473     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  1474     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  1475     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  1476     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  1477     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  1478   - authentic syntax for
  1479     Set.Pow
  1480     Set.image
  1481   - mere abbreviations:
  1482     Set.empty               (for bot)
  1483     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  1484     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  1485     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  1486     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  1487     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  1488     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  1489     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  1490   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  1491 
  1492 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  1493 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  1494 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  1495 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  1496 
  1497 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  1498 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  1499 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1500 
  1501 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  1502 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1503 
  1504 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  1505 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  1506 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  1507 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1508 
  1509 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  1510 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1511 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  1512 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  1513 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  1514 
  1515 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  1516 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  1517 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1518 
  1519 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  1520 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1521 
  1522 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  1523 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  1524 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  1525 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  1526 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  1527 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  1528 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  1529 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1530 
  1531 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  1532     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  1533     code_post       replaces    code post
  1534     etc.
  1535   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1536 
  1537 * Renamed methods:
  1538     sizechange -> size_change
  1539     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  1540   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1541 
  1542 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  1543 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  1544 
  1545 * Renamed theorems:
  1546     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  1547     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  1548     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  1549     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  1550     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  1551   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1552 
  1553 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  1554 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1555 
  1556 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  1557 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1558 
  1559 
  1560 *** HOLCF ***
  1561 
  1562 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  1563 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  1564 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  1565 
  1566 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  1567 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  1568 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  1569 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  1570 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  1571 
  1572 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  1573 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  1574 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  1575 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  1576 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  1577 
  1578 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  1579 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  1580 constructor are pre-configured.
  1581 
  1582 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  1583 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  1584 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  1585 
  1586 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  1587 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  1588 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  1589 as well.)
  1590 
  1591 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  1592 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  1593 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  1594 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  1595 examples.
  1596 
  1597 
  1598 *** ML ***
  1599 
  1600 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  1601 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  1602 
  1603 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  1604 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  1605 position, logical grouping etc.
  1606 
  1607 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  1608 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  1609 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  1610 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  1611 
  1612 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  1613 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  1614 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  1615 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  1616 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  1617 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  1618 
  1619 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  1620 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  1621 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  1622 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  1623 experiments with references.
  1624 
  1625 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  1626 parallel tactical reasoning.
  1627 
  1628 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  1629 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  1630 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  1631 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  1632 
  1633 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  1634 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  1635 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  1636 
  1637 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  1638 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  1639 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1640 
  1641 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1642 
  1643 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  1644 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1645 
  1646 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  1647 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  1648 
  1649 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  1650 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  1651 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  1652 
  1653 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  1654 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  1655 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1656 
  1657 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  1658 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  1659 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  1660 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1661 
  1662 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  1663 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  1664 instead of global theory.
  1665 
  1666 
  1667 *** System ***
  1668 
  1669 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  1670 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  1671 usedir option -q.
  1672 
  1673 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  1674 also the system manual.
  1675 
  1676 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  1677 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  1678 
  1679 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  1680 this is always enabled.
  1681 
  1682 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  1683 
  1684 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  1685 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  1686 currently supported on Linux only.
  1687 
  1688 
  1689 
  1690 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  1691 --------------------------------
  1692 
  1693 *** General ***
  1694 
  1695 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  1696 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  1697 
  1698   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  1699     "isatool."
  1700 
  1701   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  1702     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  1703 
  1704   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  1705     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  1706 
  1707 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  1708 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  1709 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  1710 
  1711 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  1712 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  1713 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  1714 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  1715 via "isabelle emacs".
  1716 
  1717 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  1718 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  1719 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  1720 
  1721 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  1722 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  1723 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  1724 
  1725 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  1726 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  1727 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  1728 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  1729 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  1730 
  1731 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  1732 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  1733 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  1734 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  1735 
  1736 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  1737 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  1738 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  1739 
  1740 
  1741 *** Pure ***
  1742 
  1743 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  1744 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  1745 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  1746 
  1747 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  1748 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  1749 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  1750 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  1751 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  1752 
  1753 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  1754 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  1755 useful in locale declarations.
  1756 
  1757 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  1758 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  1759 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  1760 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  1761 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  1762 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  1763 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  1764 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  1765 no longer generated.
  1766 
  1767 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  1768 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  1769 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  1770 
  1771 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  1772 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  1773 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  1774 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  1775 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  1776 
  1777 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1778 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  1779 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  1780 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  1781 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  1782 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  1783 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  1784 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  1785 
  1786 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  1787 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  1788 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  1789 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  1790 
  1791 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1792 
  1793 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  1794 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  1795 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  1796 
  1797 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  1798 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1799 
  1800 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  1801 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  1802 in HOL, write
  1803 
  1804     class foo = ...
  1805 
  1806 instead of
  1807 
  1808     class foo = type + ...
  1809 
  1810 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  1811 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1812 
  1813 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  1814 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  1815 
  1816 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  1817 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  1818 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  1819 
  1820 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  1821 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  1822 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  1823 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  1824 directly in regular applications.
  1825 
  1826 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  1827 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  1828 
  1829 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  1830 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  1831 
  1832 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  1833 theory context.
  1834 
  1835 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  1836 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1837 
  1838 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  1839 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  1840 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  1841 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  1842 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  1843 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  1844 
  1845   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  1846 
  1847 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  1848 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  1849 normalization.
  1850 
  1851 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  1852 addressing etc.
  1853 
  1854 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  1855 
  1856   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  1857   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  1858 
  1859 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1860 
  1861   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  1862      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  1863      parts of the code generator framework).
  1864 
  1865   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  1866      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  1867      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  1868 
  1869 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1870 
  1871 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  1872 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1873 
  1874 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  1875 patterns, e.g.
  1876 
  1877     find_consts "_ => bool"
  1878 
  1879 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  1880 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  1881 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  1882 hyphen:
  1883 
  1884     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  1885 
  1886 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  1887 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  1888 
  1889 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  1890 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  1891 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  1892 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  1893 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  1894 higher-order unification.
  1895 
  1896 
  1897 *** Document preparation ***
  1898 
  1899 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  1900 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  1901 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  1902 
  1903 
  1904 *** HOL ***
  1905 
  1906 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  1907 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  1908 
  1909 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  1910 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  1911 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  1912 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  1913 Main, as before.
  1914 
  1915 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  1916 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  1917 
  1918 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  1919 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  1920 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  1921 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  1922 
  1923 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  1924 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  1925 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  1926 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  1927 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  1928 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  1929 
  1930 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  1931 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  1932 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  1933 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  1934 
  1935 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  1936 menu.
  1937 
  1938 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  1939 (contains the empty clause).
  1940 
  1941 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  1942 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  1943 
  1944 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  1945 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  1946 
  1947 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  1948 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  1949 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1950 
  1951 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  1952 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  1953 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  1954 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  1955 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  1956 
  1957 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  1958 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  1959 
  1960 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  1961 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  1962 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  1963 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  1964 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  1965 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  1966 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  1967 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  1968 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  1969 
  1970 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  1971 
  1972 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  1973 
  1974 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  1975 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1976 
  1977 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  1978 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  1979 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  1980 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  1981 
  1982 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  1983 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  1984 
  1985     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  1986     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  1987     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  1988     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  1989     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  1990     Union ~>    Set.Union
  1991     {} ~>       Set.empty
  1992     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  1993 
  1994 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  1995 theory Set.
  1996 
  1997 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  1998 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  1999 
  2000 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  2001 
  2002 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  2003 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  2004 
  2005 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  2006 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  2007 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  2008 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  2009 allowed. For examples see
  2010 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  2011 
  2012 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  2013 
  2014 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  2015 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2016 
  2017 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  2018 structure:
  2019 
  2020     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  2021     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2022     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2023     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2024     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2025     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2026     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2027     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2028     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2029     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2030     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2031     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2032     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2033     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2034     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2035     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2036     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2037     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2038     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2039     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2040     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2041     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2042     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2043     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2044     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2045     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2046     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2047     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2048     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2049     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2050     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  2051     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  2052     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  2053 
  2054     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2055     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2056     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2057     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  2058     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2059     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2060     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2061     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2062     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2063     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  2064 
  2065     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2066     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2067     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2068     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2069     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2070     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  2071 
  2072 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  2073 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  2074 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  2075 
  2076 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  2077 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  2078 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  2079 
  2080 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  2081 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2082 
  2083 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  2084 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  2085 
  2086 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  2087 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  2088 proofs, e.g.
  2089 
  2090   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  2091 
  2092 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  2093 
  2094 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  2095 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  2096 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2097 
  2098 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  2099 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  2100 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2101 
  2102 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  2103 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  2104 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  2105 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2106 
  2107 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  2108 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  2109 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  2110 preorder_class.*.
  2111 
  2112 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  2113 "diag" to "Id_on".
  2114 
  2115 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  2116 
  2117   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  2118 
  2119 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  2120 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  2121 fold_image.
  2122 
  2123 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  2124 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  2125 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  2126 the former will disappear at some point.
  2127 
  2128 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  2129 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  2130 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  2131 
  2132 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  2133 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  2134 realpow_0      -> power_0
  2135 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  2136 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  2137 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  2138 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  2139 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  2140 
  2141 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  2142 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  2143 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  2144 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  2145 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  2146 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  2147 
  2148     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  2149     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  2150     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  2151     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  2152     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  2153     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  2154     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  2155 
  2156 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  2157 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2158 rename old lemmas as follows:
  2159 
  2160 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  2161 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  2162 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  2163 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  2164 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  2165 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  2166 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  2167 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  2168 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  2169 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  2170 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  2171 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  2172 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  2173 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  2174 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  2175 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  2176 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  2177 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  2178 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  2179 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  2180 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  2181 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  2182 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  2183 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  2184 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  2185 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  2186 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  2187 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  2188 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  2189 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  2190 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  2191 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  2192 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  2193 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  2194 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  2195 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  2196 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  2197 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  2198 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  2199 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  2200 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  2201 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  2202 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  2203 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  2204 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  2205 
  2206 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2207 
  2208 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  2209 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  2210 
  2211 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  2212 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  2213 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  2214 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  2215 
  2216 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  2217 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  2218 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  2219 theory RealVector.
  2220 
  2221 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  2222 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  2223 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  2224 and inner products are included.
  2225 
  2226 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  2227 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  2228 supported.
  2229 
  2230 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  2231 first diagonalization argument.
  2232 
  2233 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  2234 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  2235 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  2236 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2237 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  2238 
  2239     hide (open) const gcd
  2240     abbreviation gcd where
  2241       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  2242     notation (output)
  2243       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  2244 
  2245 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  2246 
  2247 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  2248 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  2249 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2250 
  2251 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  2252 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  2253 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  2254 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  2255 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  2256 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  2257 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  2258 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  2259 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  2260 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  2261 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  2262 cases.
  2263 
  2264 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  2265 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  2266 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  2267 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  2268 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  2269 
  2270     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  2271     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  2272     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  2273     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  2274     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  2275 
  2276 
  2277 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2278 
  2279 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  2280 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  2281 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  2282 
  2283 * New theory of factorial domains.
  2284 
  2285 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  2286 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  2287 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  2288 
  2289 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  2290 
  2291 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  2292 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  2293 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  2294 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  2295 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  2296 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  2297 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  2298 
  2299 
  2300 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  2301 
  2302 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  2303 
  2304 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  2305 theory targets.
  2306 
  2307 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  2308 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  2309 'inductive' etc.
  2310 
  2311 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  2312 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  2313 
  2314 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  2315 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  2316 
  2317 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  2318 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  2319 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  2320 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  2321 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  2322 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  2323 the algorithm W:
  2324 
  2325  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  2326  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  2327          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  2328 
  2329 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  2330 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  2331 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  2332 
  2333 
  2334 *** HOLCF ***
  2335 
  2336 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  2337 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  2338 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  2339 
  2340 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  2341 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  2342 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  2343 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  2344 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2345 
  2346 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  2347 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  2348 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2349 
  2350 
  2351 *** ZF ***
  2352 
  2353 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  2354 
  2355 
  2356 *** ML ***
  2357 
  2358 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  2359 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  2360 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  2361 5.2.1!
  2362 
  2363 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  2364 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  2365 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  2366 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  2367 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  2368 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  2369 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  2370 
  2371 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  2372 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  2373 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  2374 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  2375 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  2376 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  2377 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  2378 
  2379 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  2380 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  2381 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  2382 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  2383 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  2384 
  2385 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  2386 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  2387 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  2388 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  2389 Method.add_method.
  2390 
  2391 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  2392 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  2393 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  2394 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  2395 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  2396 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  2397 
  2398 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  2399 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  2400 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  2401 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  2402 examples.
  2403 
  2404 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  2405 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  2406 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  2407 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  2408 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  2409 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  2410 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  2411 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  2412 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  2413 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  2414 
  2415 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  2416 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  2417 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  2418 
  2419 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  2420 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  2421 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  2422 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  2423 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  2424 resort for legacy applications.
  2425 
  2426 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  2427 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  2428 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  2429 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  2430 explicit runtime argument.
  2431 
  2432 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  2433 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  2434 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  2435 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  2436 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2437 
  2438 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  2439 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  2440 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  2441 theory state.
  2442 
  2443 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  2444 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  2445 
  2446   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  2447   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  2448   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  2449   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  2450   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  2451   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  2452   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  2453   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  2454   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  2455   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  2456 
  2457 
  2458 *** System ***
  2459 
  2460 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  2461 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  2462 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  2463 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  2464 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  2465 
  2466 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  2467 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  2468 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  2469 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  2470 
  2471 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  2472 
  2473 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  2474 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  2475 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  2476 prover operations.
  2477 
  2478 
  2479 
  2480 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  2481 -------------------------------
  2482 
  2483 *** General ***
  2484 
  2485 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  2486 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  2487 
  2488 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  2489 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  2490 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  2491 provides a proper context already.
  2492 
  2493 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  2494 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  2495 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  2496 
  2497 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  2498 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  2499 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  2500 swap theory imports.
  2501 
  2502 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  2503 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  2504 
  2505 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  2506 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2507 white space without escapes.
  2508 
  2509 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  2510 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  2511 "foo_bar".
  2512 
  2513 
  2514 *** Pure ***
  2515 
  2516 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  2517 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  2518 
  2519 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  2520 There are three ways of invoking it:
  2521 
  2522 (1) unused_thms
  2523      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  2524 
  2525 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  2526      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  2527      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  2528 
  2529 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  2530      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  2531      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  2532      their ancestors.
  2533 
  2534 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  2535 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  2536 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  2537 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  2538 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  2539 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  2540 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  2541 
  2542 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  2543 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  2544 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  2545 
  2546 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  2547 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  2548 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  2549 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  2550 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  2551 
  2552 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  2553 
  2554 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  2555 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  2556 update of theories within ML code.
  2557 
  2558 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  2559 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  2560 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  2561 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  2562 
  2563 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  2564 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  2565 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  2566 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2567 
  2568 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  2569 
  2570 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  2571 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  2572 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  2573 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  2574 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  2575 
  2576 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  2577 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  2578 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  2579 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  2580 situations.
  2581 
  2582 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  2583 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  2584 proof text.
  2585 
  2586 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  2587 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  2588 
  2589 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  2590 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  2591 predicates.
  2592 
  2593 
  2594 *** Document preparation ***
  2595 
  2596 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  2597 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  2598 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  2599 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  2600 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  2601 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  2602 
  2603 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  2604 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  2605 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  2606 
  2607 
  2608 *** HOL ***
  2609 
  2610 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  2611 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  2612 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  2613 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  2614 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  2615 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  2616 
  2617 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  2618 with multithreading.
  2619 
  2620 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  2621 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  2622 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  2623 
  2624 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  2625 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  2626 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  2627 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2628 
  2629 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  2630 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  2631 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  2632 and makes them available separately.  See
  2633 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  2634 
  2635 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  2636 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  2637 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  2638 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  2639 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  2640 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  2641 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  2642 the declared rules.
  2643 
  2644 This setup also deals with rules like 
  2645 
  2646   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  2647 
  2648 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  2649 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  2650 
  2651 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  2652 
  2653   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  2654 
  2655   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  2656     definitions on => and bool.
  2657 
  2658   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  2659     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  2660     the following theorems have been renamed:
  2661 
  2662       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  2663       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  2664       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  2665       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  2666       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  2667       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  2668       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  2669       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  2670 
  2671   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  2672     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  2673     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  2674 
  2675   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  2676     The proof pattern
  2677 
  2678       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  2679       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  2680 
  2681     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  2682     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  2683 
  2684       have "EX S. P S"
  2685       proof
  2686         show "P S" <...>
  2687       qed
  2688 
  2689   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  2690     The proof pattern
  2691 
  2692       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  2693       also have "S = T" <...>
  2694       finally have "P T" .
  2695 
  2696     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  2697     must be replaced by something like
  2698 
  2699       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  2700       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  2701       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  2702 
  2703   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  2704     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  2705 
  2706       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  2707 
  2708     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  2709     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  2710     type of the form
  2711 
  2712       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  2713 
  2714     rather than
  2715 
  2716       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  2717 
  2718 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  2719 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  2720 
  2721 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2722 
  2723 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  2724 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  2725 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2726 
  2727 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  2728 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2729 
  2730 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  2731 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2732 
  2733 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  2734 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  2735 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2736 
  2737 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  2738 the same name in theory Orderings:
  2739 
  2740   less_trans
  2741   less_linear
  2742   le_imp_less_or_eq
  2743   le_less_trans
  2744   less_le_trans
  2745   less_not_sym
  2746   less_asym
  2747 
  2748 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  2749 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  2750 and different variable names.
  2751 
  2752 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  2753 
  2754 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  2755 finite maps.
  2756 
  2757 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  2758 
  2759 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  2760 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  2761 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  2762 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  2763 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  2764 accordingly.
  2765 
  2766 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  2767 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  2768 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  2769 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  2770 
  2771 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  2772 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  2773 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  2774 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  2775 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  2776 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2777 
  2778 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  2779 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2780 
  2781 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  2782 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  2783 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  2784 
  2785 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  2786 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2787 
  2788 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  2789 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  2790 
  2791 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  2792 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2793 
  2794 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  2795 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2796 
  2797 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  2798 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  2799 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2800 
  2801 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  2802 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2803 
  2804 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  2805 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  2806 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  2807 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  2808 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  2809 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2810 
  2811 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  2812 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  2813 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  2814 
  2815 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  2816 
  2817 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  2818 
  2819 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  2820 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  2821 well-orders on sets and on types.
  2822 
  2823 
  2824 *** ZF ***
  2825 
  2826 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  2827 same session:
  2828 
  2829   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  2830   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  2831   Int       -> Int_ZF
  2832   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  2833   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  2834   List      -> List_ZF
  2835   Main      -> Main_ZF
  2836 
  2837 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  2838 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  2839 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  2840 
  2841 
  2842 *** ML ***
  2843 
  2844 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  2845 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  2846 
  2847 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  2848 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  2849 
  2850 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  2851 
  2852 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  2853 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  2854 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  2855 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  2856 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2857 
  2858 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  2859 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  2860 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  2861 
  2862 
  2863 *** System ***
  2864 
  2865 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  2866 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  2867 
  2868 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  2869 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  2870 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  2871 
  2872 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  2873 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  2874 
  2875 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  2876 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  2877 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  2878 
  2879 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  2880 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  2881 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  2882 
  2883 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  2884 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  2885 
  2886 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  2887 way of changing the user's settings is via
  2888 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  2889 script.
  2890 
  2891 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  2892 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  2893 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  2894 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  2895 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  2896 
  2897 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  2898 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  2899 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  2900 
  2901 
  2902 
  2903 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  2904 -----------------------------------
  2905 
  2906 *** General ***
  2907 
  2908 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  2909 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  2910 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  2911 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  2912 
  2913 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  2914 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  2915 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2916 
  2917 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  2918 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  2919 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  2920 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2921 
  2922 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  2923 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  2924 quotes.
  2925 
  2926 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  2927 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  2928 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  2929 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  2930 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  2931 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  2932 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  2933 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  2934 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  2935 
  2936 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  2937 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  2938 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  2939 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  2940 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  2941 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  2942 
  2943 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  2944 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  2945 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  2946 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  2947 
  2948 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  2949 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  2950 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  2951 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  2952 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  2953 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  2954 
  2955 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  2956 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  2957 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  2958 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  2959 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  2960 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  2961 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  2962 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  2963 
  2964 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  2965 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  2966 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  2967 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  2968 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  2969 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  2970 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  2971 
  2972 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  2973 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  2974 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  2975 
  2976 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  2977 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  2978 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  2979 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  2980 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  2981 limit is imposed.
  2982 
  2983 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  2984 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  2985 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  2986 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  2987 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  2988 and scalability.
  2989 
  2990 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  2991 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  2992 
  2993 
  2994 *** Document preparation ***
  2995 
  2996 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  2997 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  2998 current context.
  2999 
  3000 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  3001 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  3002 
  3003 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  3004 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  3005 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  3006 
  3007 
  3008 *** Pure ***
  3009 
  3010 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  3011 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  3012 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  3013 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  3014 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  3015 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  3016 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  3017 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  3018 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  3019 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  3020 
  3021 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  3022 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  3023 sketch:
  3024 
  3025     internal compilation:
  3026         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  3027     writing SML code to a file:
  3028         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  3029     writing OCaml code to a file:
  3030         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  3031     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  3032         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  3033 
  3034     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  3035         method ``eval''
  3036 
  3037 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  3038 
  3039 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  3040 
  3041     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  3042     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  3043     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  3044     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  3045 
  3046 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  3047 
  3048     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  3049       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  3050 
  3051     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  3052       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  3053 
  3054     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  3055       {(target)}+
  3056         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  3057 
  3058     code_class <and_list of classes>
  3059       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  3060         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  3061 
  3062 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  3063 
  3064 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  3065 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  3066 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  3067 codegen".
  3068 
  3069 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  3070 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  3071 annotations).
  3072 
  3073 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  3074 syntax.
  3075 
  3076 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  3077 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  3078 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  3079 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  3080 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  3081 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  3082 
  3083 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  3084 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  3085 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  3086 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  3087 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  3088 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  3089 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  3090 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  3091 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  3092 equations, see section "definitions".
  3093 
  3094 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  3095 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  3096 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  3097 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  3098 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  3099 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  3100 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  3101 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  3102 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  3103 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  3104 
  3105 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  3106 configuration options:
  3107 
  3108   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  3109   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  3110   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  3111   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  3112   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  3113   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  3114   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  3115   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  3116   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  3117 
  3118 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  3119 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  3120 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  3121 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  3122 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  3123 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  3124 order.
  3125 
  3126 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  3127 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  3128 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  3129 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  3130 context encountered later on.
  3131 
  3132 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  3133 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  3134 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  3135 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  3136 
  3137 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  3138 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  3139 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  3140 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  3141 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  3142 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  3143 
  3144 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  3145 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  3146 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  3147 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  3148 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  3149 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  3150 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  3151 more permissive.
  3152 
  3153 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  3154 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  3155 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  3156 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  3157 maintainability of proof texts.
  3158 
  3159 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  3160 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  3161 
  3162   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  3163   then guess x and y by clarify
  3164 
  3165 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  3166 proof tools being involved here.
  3167 
  3168 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  3169 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  3170 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  3171 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  3172 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  3173 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  3174 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  3175 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  3176 
  3177 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  3178 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  3179 certain special cases of literal facts:
  3180 
  3181   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  3182   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  3183   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  3184   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  3185 
  3186 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  3187 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  3188 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  3189 
  3190 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  3191 both named and unnamed ones.
  3192 
  3193 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  3194 
  3195   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  3196 
  3197 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  3198 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  3199 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  3200 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  3201 
  3202 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  3203 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  3204 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  3205 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  3206 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  3207 
  3208 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  3209 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  3210 
  3211 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  3212 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  3213 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  3214 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  3215 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  3216 originally first one.
  3217 
  3218 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  3219 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  3220 expected.
  3221 
  3222 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  3223 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  3224 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  3225 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  3226 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  3227 
  3228   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3229     assumes "EX x. P x"
  3230     obtains x where "P x"
  3231 
  3232   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3233     assumes "A & B"
  3234     obtains A and B
  3235 
  3236   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3237     assumes "A | B"
  3238     obtains
  3239       A
  3240     | B
  3241 
  3242 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  3243 explicitly:
  3244 
  3245   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3246     obtains "~ thesis"
  3247 
  3248   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  3249     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  3250 
  3251 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  3252 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  3253 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  3254 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  3255 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  3256 case_names).
  3257 
  3258 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  3259 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  3260 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  3261 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  3262 
  3263 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  3264 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  3265 top-level lemma.
  3266 
  3267 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  3268 introduction rule (default "that").
  3269 
  3270 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3271 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  3272 to occur.
  3273 
  3274 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  3275 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  3276 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  3277 representations independently of name spaces.
  3278 
  3279 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  3280 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  3281 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3282 
  3283 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  3284 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  3285 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  3286 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  3287 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  3288 current context.
  3289 
  3290 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  3291 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  3292 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  3293 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  3294 
  3295   axiomatization
  3296     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  3297     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  3298 
  3299   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  3300   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  3301 
  3302   abbreviation
  3303     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  3304     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  3305 
  3306 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  3307 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  3308 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  3309 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  3310 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  3311 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  3312 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  3313 
  3314 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  3315 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  3316 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  3317 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  3318 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  3319 
  3320 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  3321 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  3322 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  3323 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  3324 
  3325 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  3326 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  3327 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  3328 
  3329   definition "K x _ = x"
  3330 
  3331   inductive conj for A B
  3332   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  3333 
  3334 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  3335 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  3336 abbreviations on output.
  3337 
  3338 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  3339 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  3340 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  3341 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  3342 
  3343 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  3344 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  3345 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  3346 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  3347 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  3348 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  3349 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  3350 
  3351 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  3352 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  3353 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  3354 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  3355 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  3356 
  3357 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  3358 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  3359 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  3360 
  3361 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  3362 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  3363 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  3364 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  3365 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  3366 
  3367   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  3368     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  3369 
  3370 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  3371 definition specification element in the context of locale
  3372 partial_order.
  3373 
  3374 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  3375 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  3376 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  3377 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  3378 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  3379 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  3380 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  3381 examples.
  3382 
  3383 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  3384 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  3385 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  3386 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  3387 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  3388 
  3389 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  3390 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  3391 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  3392 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  3393 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  3394 
  3395   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  3396   (induct set: foo bar)
  3397   (induct pred: foo bar)
  3398   (induct type: foo bar)
  3399 
  3400 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  3401 new format.
  3402 
  3403 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  3404 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  3405 
  3406 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  3407 considered a legacy feature.
  3408 
  3409 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  3410 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3411 
  3412 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  3413 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  3414 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  3415 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  3416   
  3417 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  3418 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  3419 manipulating the claset.
  3420 
  3421 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  3422 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  3423 least one premise.
  3424 
  3425 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  3426 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  3427 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  3428 rule steps.
  3429 
  3430 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  3431 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  3432 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  3433 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  3434 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  3435 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  3436 
  3437 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  3438 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  3439 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  3440 
  3441 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  3442 the graph browser tool.
  3443 
  3444 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  3445 default; use '!' option for full details.
  3446 
  3447 
  3448 *** HOL ***
  3449 
  3450 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  3451 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  3452 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  3453 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  3454 multi-threading.
  3455   
  3456 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  3457 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  3458 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  3459 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  3460 work with multi-threading.
  3461 
  3462 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  3463 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  3464 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  3465 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  3466 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  3467 
  3468 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  3469 
  3470 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  3471 equality.
  3472 
  3473 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  3474 the new 'class' package:
  3475 
  3476     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  3477     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  3478     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  3479     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  3480     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  3481     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  3482     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  3483     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  3484     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  3485     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  3486     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  3487     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  3488     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  3489     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  3490     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  3491     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  3492     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  3493     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  3494     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  3495     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  3496 
  3497 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  3498 
  3499 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  3500 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  3501 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  3502 names.
  3503 
  3504 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  3505 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  3506 
  3507 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  3508 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  3509 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  3510 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  3511 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  3512 
  3513 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  3514 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  3515 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  3516 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  3517 
  3518 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  3519 
  3520 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  3521 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  3522 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  3523 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  3524 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3525 
  3526 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  3527 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3528 
  3529 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  3530 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  3531 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3532 
  3533 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  3534 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  3535 
  3536 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  3537 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  3538 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  3539 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  3540 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  3541 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  3542 in the current context.
  3543 
  3544 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  3545 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  3546 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3547 
  3548 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  3549 with new class dense_linear_order.
  3550 
  3551 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  3552 
  3553     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  3554     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  3555 
  3556     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  3557       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  3558     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  3559     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  3560 
  3561     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  3562     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  3563 
  3564   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  3565 
  3566     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  3567     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  3568     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  3569     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  3570     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  3571     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  3572     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  3573     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  3574     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  3575     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  3576     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  3577     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  3578     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  3579     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  3580     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  3581     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  3582     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  3583     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  3584     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  3585     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  3586     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  3587     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  3588     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  3589     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  3590     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  3591     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  3592     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  3593     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  3594     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  3595     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  3596     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  3597     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  3598     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  3599     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  3600     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  3601 
  3602     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  3603     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  3604     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  3605     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  3606     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  3607     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  3608     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  3609     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  3610     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  3611     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  3612     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  3613     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  3614     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  3615     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  3616     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  3617     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  3618     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  3619 
  3620     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  3621     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  3622     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  3623     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  3624     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  3625     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  3626     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  3627     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  3628     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  3629     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  3630     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  3631     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  3632     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  3633     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  3634     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  3635     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  3636     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  3637     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  3638     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  3639     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  3640     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  3641     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  3642     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  3643     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  3644     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  3645     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  3646     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  3647     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  3648 
  3649     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  3650     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  3651     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  3652     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  3653     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  3654     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  3655 
  3656     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  3657     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  3658     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  3659     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  3660 
  3661     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  3662     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  3663 
  3664     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  3665     join_max                ~> sup_max
  3666 
  3667 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  3668 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  3669 
  3670 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  3671 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  3672 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  3673 "*.size".
  3674 
  3675 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  3676 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3677 
  3678 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  3679 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  3680 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3681 
  3682 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3683 
  3684 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  3685 machine words, with arithemtic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  3686 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  3687 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  3688 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  3689 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  3690 numerals on all operations.
  3691 
  3692 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  3693 
  3694 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  3695 
  3696 * Code generator library theories:
  3697   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  3698     languages.
  3699   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  3700     languages.
  3701   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  3702     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  3703   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  3704   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  3705     denominator).
  3706   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  3707     representable by rational numbers.
  3708   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  3709     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  3710     includes Code_Integer.
  3711   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  3712     target-language built-in integers.
  3713   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  3714     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  3715 
  3716 * New package for inductive predicates
  3717 
  3718   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  3719 
  3720     inductive
  3721       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  3722       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  3723     where
  3724       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  3725     | ...
  3726 
  3727   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  3728 
  3729     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  3730 
  3731     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  3732     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  3733 
  3734     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  3735     intros
  3736       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  3737       ...
  3738 
  3739   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  3740   sets to be defined with the new package via
  3741 
  3742     inductive_set
  3743       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  3744       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  3745     where
  3746       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  3747     | ...
  3748 
  3749   or
  3750 
  3751     inductive_set
  3752       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  3753       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  3754       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  3755     where
  3756       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  3757     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  3758     | ...
  3759 
  3760   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  3761 
  3762   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  3763   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  3764 
  3765   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  3766 
  3767   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  3768     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  3769     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  3770     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  3771     than before the actual inductive definition.
  3772 
  3773   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  3774     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  3775     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  3776     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  3777     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  3778     statements of the form
  3779 
  3780       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  3781 
  3782     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  3783     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  3784 
  3785       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  3786 
  3787   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  3788 
  3789       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  3790         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  3791         ==> ... ==> P
  3792 
  3793     for predicates and
  3794 
  3795       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  3796         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  3797         ==> ... ==> P
  3798 
  3799     for sets rather than
  3800 
  3801       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  3802         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  3803         ==> ... ==> P
  3804 
  3805     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  3806     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  3807     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  3808 
  3809   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  3810     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  3811     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  3812 
  3813 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  3814 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  3815 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  3816 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  3817 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  3818 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  3819 
  3820 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  3821 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  3822 
  3823 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  3824 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  3825 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  3826 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  3827 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  3828 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  3829 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  3830 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  3831 variable.
  3832 
  3833 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  3834 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  3835 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  3836 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3837   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  3838   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  3839 
  3840 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  3841 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  3842 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  3843 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  3844 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  3845 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  3846 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  3847 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  3848 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  3849 
  3850 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  3851 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  3852 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  3853 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  3854 rat, etc.
  3855 
  3856 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  3857 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  3858 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  3859 
  3860 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  3861 
  3862 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  3863 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  3864 
  3865 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  3866 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  3867 
  3868 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  3869 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  3870 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3871 
  3872 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  3873 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  3874 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3875 
  3876 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  3877 
  3878 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  3879 
  3880 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  3881 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  3882 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  3883 positive/negative (in inequations).
  3884 
  3885 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  3886 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  3887 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  3888 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3889 
  3890 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  3891 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  3892 algebraic operations.
  3893 
  3894 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  3895 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3896 
  3897 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  3898 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3899 
  3900 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  3901 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  3902 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  3903 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  3904 adapted.
  3905  
  3906 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  3907 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  3908 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  3909 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  3910 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  3911 
  3912 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  3913 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  3914 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  3915 
  3916 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  3917 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  3918 better use 'abbreviation'.
  3919 
  3920 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3921 
  3922 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  3923 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  3924 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  3925   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  3926       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  3927   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  3928   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  3929   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  3930 
  3931 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  3932 
  3933 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  3934 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  3935 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  3936 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  3937 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  3938 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  3939 
  3940 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  3941 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  3942 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  3943 
  3944 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  3945 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  3946 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  3947 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3948 
  3949 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  3950 
  3951 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  3952 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3953 
  3954 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  3955 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  3956 
  3957 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  3958 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  3959 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  3960 
  3961 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  3962 True/False.
  3963 
  3964 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  3965 
  3966 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  3967 
  3968 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  3969 ``rule'' method.
  3970 
  3971 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  3972 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  3973 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  3974 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  3975 
  3976 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  3977 zChaff is still supported as well.
  3978 
  3979 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  3980 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  3981 
  3982 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  3983 Library.
  3984 
  3985 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  3986 
  3987 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  3988 as greatest fixed-point.
  3989 
  3990 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  3991 association lists.
  3992 
  3993 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  3994 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  3995 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  3996 
  3997 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  3998 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  3999 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4000 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  4001 behavior.
  4002 
  4003 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  4004 
  4005 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  4006 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  4007 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  4008 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  4009 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  4010 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  4011 
  4012 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  4013 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  4014 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  4015 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  4016 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  4017 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  4018 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  4019 
  4020 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  4021 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  4022 
  4023 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  4024 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  4025 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  4026 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  4027 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  4028 
  4029 
  4030 *** HOL-Complex ***
  4031 
  4032 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  4033 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  4034 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  4035 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  4036 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4037 
  4038 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  4039 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  4040 and norm :: 'a => real.
  4041 
  4042 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  4043 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  4044 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4045 
  4046 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  4047 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  4048 
  4049 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  4050 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  4051 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  4052 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4053 
  4054   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  4055   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  4056   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  4057   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  4058   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  4059   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  4060   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  4061   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  4062   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  4063   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  4064   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  4065   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  4066   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  4067   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  4068   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  4069 
  4070 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  4071 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  4072 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  4073 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4074 
  4075   approx        <-- capprox
  4076   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  4077   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  4078   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  4079   monad         <-- cmonad
  4080   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  4081   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  4082   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  4083   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  4084 
  4085 
  4086 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4087 
  4088 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  4089 
  4090 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  4091 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4092 
  4093 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  4094 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4095 
  4096 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  4097 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  4098 of algebraic structures.
  4099 
  4100 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  4101 
  4102 
  4103 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4104 
  4105 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  4106 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  4107 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  4108 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  4109 
  4110 
  4111 *** ML ***
  4112 
  4113 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  4114 (even on SML/NJ).
  4115 
  4116 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  4117 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  4118 compile-time.  For example:
  4119 
  4120 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  4121 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  4122 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  4123 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  4124 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  4125 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  4126 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  4127 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  4128 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  4129 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  4130 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  4131 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  4132 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  4133 ML {* @{context} *}
  4134 ML {* @{theory} *}
  4135 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  4136 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  4137 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  4138 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  4139 ML {* @{claset} *}
  4140 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  4141 
  4142 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  4143 
  4144 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  4145 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  4146 
  4147 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  4148 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  4149 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  4150 
  4151 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  4152 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  4153 
  4154 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  4155 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  4156 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  4157 
  4158 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  4159 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  4160 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  4161 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  4162 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  4163 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  4164 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  4165 declarations and definitions.
  4166 
  4167 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  4168 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  4169 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  4170 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  4171 
  4172 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  4173 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  4174 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  4175 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4176 
  4177 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  4178 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  4179 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  4180 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  4181 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  4182 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  4183 
  4184 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  4185 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  4186 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  4187 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  4188 attributes, methods, etc.
  4189 
  4190 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  4191 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  4192 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  4193 fold_map combinators.
  4194 
  4195 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  4196 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  4197 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  4198 derivation.
  4199 
  4200 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  4201 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  4202 achieve the old behaviour.
  4203 
  4204 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  4205 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  4206 statements.
  4207 
  4208 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
  4209 enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
  4210 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
  4211 
  4212 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
  4213 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
  4214 some popular functions from term.ML:
  4215 
  4216   Term.variant		->  Name.variant
  4217   Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
  4218   Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
  4219 
  4220 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
  4221 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
  4222 
  4223 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
  4224 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
  4225 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
  4226 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
  4227 various freeze_thaw operations.
  4228 
  4229 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
  4230 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
  4231 Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
  4232 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
  4233 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
  4234 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
  4235 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
  4236 in a locale context).
  4237 
  4238 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
  4239 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
  4240 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
  4241 which are considered legacy and await removal.
  4242 
  4243 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
  4244 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
  4245 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
  4246 etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still
  4247 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using
  4248 a mere theory instead of a full context.
  4249 
  4250 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
  4251 ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
  4252 without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
  4253 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
  4254 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
  4255 
  4256   ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
  4257 
  4258 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
  4259 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
  4260 this:
  4261 
  4262   Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
  4263 
  4264 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
  4265 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
  4266 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
  4267 -- use plain ERROR instead.
  4268 
  4269 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
  4270 list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
  4271 
  4272 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to
  4273 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
  4274 
  4275 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
  4276 theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
  4277 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
  4278 batch mode.
  4279 
  4280 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax.  Renamed
  4281 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords.  Removed
  4282 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in
  4283 OuterSyntax.command etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4284 
  4285 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
  4286 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
  4287 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
  4288 simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
  4289 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
  4290 
  4291 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
  4292 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
  4293 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
  4294 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
  4295 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
  4296 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
  4297 
  4298 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
  4299 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
  4300 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
  4301 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4302 
  4303 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
  4304 "Trueprop" etc.
  4305 
  4306 
  4307 *** System ***
  4308 
  4309 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now
  4310 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER.  This simplifies use of multiple
  4311 Isabelle installations.
  4312 
  4313 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical
  4314 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source
  4315 code.
  4316 
  4317 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.
  4318 
  4319 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of
  4320 Poly/ML 5.1.  The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing
  4321 independent theories, according to the given theory header
  4322 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via
  4323 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A
  4324 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up
  4325 to 6 on a 8-core machine.  User-code needs to observe certain
  4326 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar
  4327 Implementation manual.
  4328 
  4329 
  4330 
  4331 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
  4332 ----------------------------------
  4333 
  4334 *** General ***
  4335 
  4336 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
  4337 
  4338   theory <name>
  4339   imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
  4340   uses <file1> ... <fileM>
  4341   begin
  4342 
  4343 where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax
  4344 
  4345   theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:
  4346 
  4347 will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
  4348 existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
  4349 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.
  4350 
  4351 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via
  4352 relative and absolute paths.
  4353 
  4354 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a
  4355 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,
  4356 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select
  4357 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that
  4358 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified
  4359 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose
  4360 lhs match term.  Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects
  4361 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under
  4362 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f.  Example:
  4363 
  4364   C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."
  4365 
  4366 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",
  4367 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."
  4368 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).
  4369 
  4370 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of
  4371 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4372 
  4373 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that
  4374 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both
  4375 formal and informal parts).  Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof
  4376 General interface.  Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):
  4377 
  4378   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html
  4379   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html
  4380 
  4381 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the
  4382 Classical Reasoner.  Typical big applications run around 2 times
  4383 faster.
  4384 
  4385 
  4386 *** Document preparation ***
  4387 
  4388 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output
  4389 of raw sources.  Only those symbols that do not require additional
  4390 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are
  4391 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim.  isatool display
  4392 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the
  4393 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).
  4394 
  4395 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,
  4396 notably folding and hiding.  Predefined tags include "theory" (for
  4397 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for
  4398 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and
  4399 "invisible" are unused by default.  Users may give explicit tag
  4400 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''.  The
  4401 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document
  4402 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of
  4403 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,
  4404 \isadroptag.
  4405 
  4406 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool
  4407 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them).  Typical
  4408 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present
  4409 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold
  4410 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit
  4411 these parts without any formal replacement text.  The Isabelle site
  4412 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as
  4413 specified above.
  4414 
  4415 * Several new antiquotations:
  4416 
  4417   @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;
  4418 
  4419   @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;
  4420 
  4421   @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the
  4422   argument is a known logical constant;
  4423 
  4424   @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or
  4425   theorem applying a "style" to it
  4426 
  4427   @{ML text}
  4428 
  4429 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of
  4430 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the
  4431 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'
  4432 to print the specified premise.  TermStyle.add_style provides an ML
  4433 interface for introducing further styles.  See also the "LaTeX Sugar"
  4434 document practical applications.  The ML antiquotation prints
  4435 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.
  4436 
  4437 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',
  4438 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which
  4439 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations.  For
  4440 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.
  4441 
  4442 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative
  4443 context interpreting the subsequent argument.  For example: @{thm
  4444 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.
  4445 
  4446 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within
  4447 a proof context.
  4448 
  4449 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a
  4450 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').
  4451 
  4452 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX
  4453 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).
  4454 
  4455 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option
  4456 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false
  4457 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.
  4458 
  4459 
  4460 *** Pure ***
  4461 
  4462 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command.  Now performs
  4463 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for
  4464 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also
  4465 isar-ref manual.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly
  4466 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'
  4467 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier.  If
  4468 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.
  4469 
  4470 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures.  First of all,
  4471 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted
  4472 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary
  4473 expressions.  Secondly, in a local context with structure
  4474 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default
  4475 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option
  4476 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures.  Typical
  4477 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.
  4478 
  4479 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and
  4480 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is
  4481 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.
  4482 
  4483 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend
  4484 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for
  4485 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.
  4486 
  4487 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an
  4488 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of
  4489 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle
  4490 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;
  4491 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4492 
  4493 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"
  4494 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.
  4495 INCOMPATIBILITY.  This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for
  4496 axclasses vs. locales.
  4497 
  4498 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes
  4499 instead of base 26 numbers.
  4500 
  4501 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question
  4502 marks in schematic variable names.
  4503 
  4504 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or
  4505 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name.  For example, the
  4506 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:
  4507 
  4508   lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"
  4509     by simp
  4510 
  4511 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).
  4512 
  4513 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix
  4514 annotations as "(00...)".
  4515 
  4516 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter
  4517 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.
  4518 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class
  4519 "logic" vs. "{}".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper
  4520 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'.  Some very
  4521 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption
  4522 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).
  4523 
  4524 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.
  4525 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'
  4526 rather than 'types'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic
  4527 specifications.
  4528 
  4529 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be
  4530 locally fixed variables as well.
  4531 
  4532 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting
  4533 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth
  4534 Limit.
  4535 
  4536 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current
  4537 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc
  4538 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier
  4539 recursively.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs
  4540 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead.  Moreover, the
  4541 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to
  4542 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.
  4543 
  4544 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!
  4545 or ==>.  More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of
  4546 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.
  4547 
  4548 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4549 
  4550 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived
  4551 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already.  Both
  4552 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.
  4553 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /
  4554 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;
  4555 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.
  4556 
  4557 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific
  4558 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.
  4559 
  4560 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference
  4561 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),
  4562 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');
  4563 
  4564 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.
  4565 
  4566 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive
  4567 theory development.
  4568 
  4569 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code
  4570 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures
  4571 for each theory).  INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'
  4572 must be quoted when used as identifiers.
  4573 
  4574 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using
  4575 the code generator.  INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be
  4576 quoted when used as identifier.
  4577 
  4578 
  4579 *** Locales ***
  4580 
  4581 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in
  4582 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3).  These generate
  4583 proof obligations from the expression specification.  After the
  4584 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added
  4585 to the theory, target locale or proof context.  The synopsis of the
  4586 commands is a follows:
  4587 
  4588   (1) interpretation expr inst
  4589   (2) interpretation target < expr
  4590   (3) interpret expr inst
  4591 
  4592 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter
  4593 instantiation of terms from the current context.  This is applied to
  4594 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.
  4595 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the
  4596 locale expression.  Interpretation is smart in that interpretations
  4597 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are
  4598 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate.  Use 'print_interps' to
  4599 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale.  For details,
  4600 see the Isar Reference manual.  Examples can be found in
  4601 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.
  4602 
  4603 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use
  4604 'interpret' instead.
  4605 
  4606 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to
  4607 parameters.
  4608 
  4609 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax
  4610 redeclaration.
  4611 
  4612 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.
  4613 
  4614 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /
  4615 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition
  4616 context, independently of the context of later invocations.  Moreover,
  4617 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied
  4618 to attribute arguments as expected.
  4619 
  4620 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of
  4621 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to
  4622 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.
  4623 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static
  4624 binding mechanism.  Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and
  4625 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further
  4626 intervention.  Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"
  4627 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both
  4628 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed
  4629 values to argument tokens explicitly.
  4630 
  4631 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal
  4632 statements with 'includes'.  INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different
  4633 theorem statement in rare situations.
  4634 
  4635 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements.  Use
  4636 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.
  4637 
  4638 
  4639 *** Provers ***
  4640 
  4641 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for
  4642 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is
  4643 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may
  4644 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is
  4645 still available as 'simplesubst'.
  4646 
  4647 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only
  4648 and quasi orders.
  4649 
  4650 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and
  4651 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.
  4652 
  4653 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth
  4654 limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.
  4655 
  4656 * Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup
  4657 is peformed already.  Object-logics merely need to finish their
  4658 initial simpset configuration as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4659 
  4660 
  4661 *** HOL ***
  4662 
  4663 * Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:
  4664 
  4665   syntax (epsilon)
  4666     "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a"    ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)
  4667 
  4668 The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX
  4669 and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.
  4670 Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>
  4671 becomes available as variable, constant etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4672 
  4673 * "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".
  4674 Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc.  The x-symbol for >=
  4675 is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to
  4676 support corresponding Isar calculations.
  4677 
  4678 * "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"
  4679 instead of ":".
  4680 
  4681 * theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:
  4682 
  4683   Old       New
  4684   {..n(}    {..<n}
  4685   {)n..}    {n<..}
  4686   {m..n(}   {m..<n}
  4687   {)m..n}   {m<..n}
  4688   {)m..n(}  {m<..<n}
  4689 
  4690 The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next
  4691 release.  For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace
  4692 patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):
  4693 
  4694   {)\([^\.]*\)\.\.  ->  {\1<\.\.}
  4695   \.\.\([^(}]*\)(}  ->  \.\.<\1}
  4696 
  4697 * Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving
  4698 equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic
  4699 interface.
  4700 
  4701 * Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over
  4702 finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is
  4703 now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can
  4704 be a tuple pattern.
  4705 
  4706 Some new syntax forms are available:
  4707 
  4708   "\<Sum>x | P. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"
  4709   "\<Sum>x = a..b. e"   for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"
  4710   "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e"  for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"
  4711   "\<Sum>x < k. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"
  4712 
  4713 The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate
  4714 function "Summation", which has been discontinued.
  4715 
  4716 * theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case
  4717 is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case
  4718 (insert F x)'.
  4719 
  4720 * The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger
  4721 fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and
  4722 typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.
  4723 
  4724 * New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.
  4725 Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed.  See
  4726 HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.
  4727 
  4728 * Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the
  4729 induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by
  4730 induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather
  4731 than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  4732 in unstructured proof scripts.
  4733 
  4734 * Reworked implementation of records.  Improved scalability for
  4735 records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type
  4736 inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but
  4737 of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear
  4738 in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields.  The
  4739 top-level (users) view on records is preserved.  Potential
  4740 INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the
  4741 old record representation. The type generated for a record is called
  4742 <record_name>_ext_type.
  4743 
  4744 Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the
  4745 proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if
  4746 quick_and_dirty is enabled).  Definitions of large records can take
  4747 quite long.
  4748 
  4749 New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record
  4750 updates enabled by default.  Moreover, trivial updates are also
  4751 removed: r(|x := x r|) = r.  INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break
  4752 occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.
  4753 
  4754 * typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra
  4755 type-variables in the term.
  4756 
  4757 * Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains
  4758 involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics
  4759 provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4760 old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more
  4761 goals than previously.
  4762 
  4763 * Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is
  4764 present.  Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular
  4765 numbers and sets.  For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y
  4766 just like y <= x.
  4767 
  4768 * Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x".  If a is a free or
  4769 bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded.  Otherwise
  4770 first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If
  4771 possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",
  4772 otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g.  The simproc can be
  4773 enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc.  Potential
  4774 INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.
  4775 
  4776 * Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.
  4777 
  4778 * Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background
  4779 jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.
  4780 
  4781 * Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and
  4782 improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and
  4783 inequalities.
  4784 
  4785 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  4786 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4787 
  4788   abs_eq             now named abs_of_nonneg
  4789   abs_of_ge_0        now named abs_of_nonneg
  4790   abs_minus_eq       now named abs_of_nonpos
  4791   imp_abs_id         now named abs_of_nonneg
  4792   imp_abs_neg_id     now named abs_of_nonpos
  4793   mult_pos           now named mult_pos_pos
  4794   mult_pos_le        now named mult_nonneg_nonneg
  4795   mult_pos_neg_le    now named mult_nonneg_nonpos
  4796   mult_pos_neg2_le   now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2
  4797   mult_neg           now named mult_neg_neg
  4798   mult_neg_le        now named mult_nonpos_nonpos
  4799 
  4800 * The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:
  4801      
  4802      zero_le_square
  4803      not_square_less_zero 
  4804 
  4805   The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:
  4806   
  4807      realpow_zero_zero
  4808      realpow_two
  4809      realpow_less
  4810      zero_le_power
  4811      realpow_two_le
  4812      abs_realpow_two
  4813      realpow_two_abs     
  4814 
  4815 * Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.
  4816 
  4817 * Theory List:
  4818 
  4819 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  4820 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4821 
  4822   list_all_Nil       now named list_all.simps(1)
  4823   list_all_Cons      now named list_all.simps(2)
  4824   list_all_conv      now named list_all_iff
  4825   set_mem_eq         now named mem_iff
  4826 
  4827 * Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support
  4828 asymptotic "big O" calculations.  See the notes in BigO.thy.
  4829 
  4830 
  4831 *** HOL-Complex ***
  4832 
  4833 * Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and
  4834 integers in the reals.
  4835 
  4836 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  4837 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4838 
  4839   exp_ge_add_one_self  now requires no hypotheses
  4840   real_of_int_add      reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  4841   real_of_int_minus    reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  4842   real_of_int_diff     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  4843   real_of_int_mult     reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])
  4844 
  4845 * Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.
  4846 
  4847 * Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm
  4848 
  4849 * Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making
  4850 nonstandard types.  The old type names are now type synonyms:
  4851 
  4852   hypreal = real star
  4853   hypnat = nat star
  4854   hcomplex = complex star
  4855 
  4856 * Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been
  4857 replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4858 
  4859   star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex
  4860 
  4861   starset      <-- starsetNat, starsetC
  4862   *s*          <-- *sNat*, *sc*
  4863   starset_n    <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n
  4864   *sn*         <-- *sNatn*, *scn*
  4865   InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets
  4866 
  4867   starfun      <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  4868   *f*          <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*
  4869   starfun_n    <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n
  4870   *fn*         <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*
  4871   InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs
  4872 
  4873 * Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of
  4874 theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4875 
  4876   add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute
  4877   add_assoc   <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs
  4878   OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left
  4879   OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right
  4880   right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus
  4881   left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left
  4882   mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute
  4883   mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc
  4884   mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left
  4885   mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right
  4886   mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left
  4887   left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib
  4888   right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2
  4889   zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one
  4890   right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse
  4891   left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left
  4892   order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl
  4893   order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans
  4894   order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym
  4895   order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le
  4896   linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear
  4897   add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono
  4898   mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2
  4899   add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order
  4900 
  4901 * Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific
  4902 versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the
  4903 new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4904 
  4905   STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set
  4906   STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set
  4907   STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un
  4908   STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int
  4909   STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl
  4910   STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset
  4911   STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem
  4912   STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl
  4913   STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff
  4914   STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,
  4915     STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset
  4916   starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un
  4917   starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int
  4918   starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl
  4919   starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff
  4920   InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un
  4921   InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int
  4922   InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl
  4923   InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff
  4924   InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff
  4925   InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n
  4926   starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq
  4927   starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}
  4928   starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  4929   starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}
  4930   starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult
  4931   starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add
  4932   starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus
  4933   starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff
  4934   starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o
  4935   starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2
  4936   starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun
  4937   starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse
  4938   starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq
  4939   starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff
  4940   starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id
  4941   starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx
  4942   starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox
  4943   starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs
  4944   starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel
  4945   starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2
  4946   starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox
  4947   starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox
  4948   starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox
  4949   starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx
  4950   starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse
  4951   starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide
  4952   starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n
  4953   starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult
  4954   starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add
  4955   starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus
  4956   starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun
  4957   starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus
  4958   starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq
  4959 
  4960   star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add
  4961   star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus
  4962   star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff
  4963   star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult
  4964   star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse
  4965   star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le
  4966   star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less
  4967   star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num
  4968   star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num
  4969   star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs
  4970   star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide
  4971 
  4972   star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add
  4973   star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus
  4974   star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff
  4975   star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult
  4976   star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one
  4977   star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero
  4978   star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff
  4979   star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff
  4980   star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff
  4981   star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse
  4982   star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide
  4983   star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat
  4984   star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int
  4985   star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of
  4986   star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff
  4987   star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff
  4988   star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff
  4989   star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff
  4990   star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff
  4991   star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power
  4992   star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff
  4993 
  4994 * Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer
  4995 principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions
  4996 nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"
  4997 replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.
  4998 To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-
  4999 standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.
  5000 
  5001 * Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.
  5002 
  5003 
  5004 *** HOLCF ***
  5005 
  5006 * Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support
  5007 continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full
  5008 type-inference.
  5009 
  5010 * New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it
  5011 is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic
  5012 instead of exponential time).
  5013 
  5014 * New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.
  5015 Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:
  5016 
  5017   domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")
  5018 
  5019 * New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern
  5020 matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also
  5021 supported.  Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,
  5022 sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given
  5023 equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5024 syntax and examples.
  5025 
  5026 * New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes
  5027 of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,
  5028 but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility
  5029 requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,
  5030 with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.
  5031 
  5032 * HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming
  5033 scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5034 
  5035   foo_inject:  "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"
  5036   foo_eq:      "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"
  5037   foo_less:    "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"
  5038   foo_strict:  "foo$UU = UU"
  5039   foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"
  5040   foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"
  5041 
  5042 
  5043 *** ZF ***
  5044 
  5045 * ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,
  5046 including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel
  5047 of a homomorphism).
  5048 
  5049 * ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually
  5050 makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);
  5051 the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.
  5052 
  5053 
  5054 *** Cube ***
  5055 
  5056 * Converted to Isar theory format; use locales instead of axiomatic
  5057 theories.
  5058 
  5059 
  5060 *** ML ***
  5061 
  5062 * Pure/library.ML: added ##>, ##>>, #>> -- higher-order counterparts
  5063 for ||>, ||>>, |>>,
  5064 
  5065 * Pure/library.ML no longer defines its own option datatype, but uses
  5066 that of the SML basis, which has constructors NONE and SOME instead of
  5067 None and Some, as well as exception Option.Option instead of OPTION.
  5068 The functions the, if_none, is_some, is_none have been adapted
  5069 accordingly, while Option.map replaces apsome.
  5070 
  5071 * Pure/library.ML: the exception LIST has been given up in favour of
  5072 the standard exceptions Empty and Subscript, as well as
  5073 Library.UnequalLengths.  Function like Library.hd and Library.tl are
  5074 superceded by the standard hd and tl functions etc.
  5075 
  5076 A number of basic list functions are no longer exported to the ML
  5077 toplevel, as they are variants of predefined functions.  The following
  5078 suggests how one can translate existing code:
  5079 
  5080     rev_append xs ys = List.revAppend (xs, ys)
  5081     nth_elem (i, xs) = List.nth (xs, i)
  5082     last_elem xs = List.last xs
  5083     flat xss = List.concat xss
  5084     seq fs = List.app fs
  5085     partition P xs = List.partition P xs
  5086     mapfilter f xs = List.mapPartial f xs
  5087 
  5088 * Pure/library.ML: several combinators for linear functional
  5089 transformations, notably reverse application and composition:
  5090 
  5091   x |> f                f #> g
  5092   (x, y) |-> f          f #-> g
  5093 
  5094 * Pure/library.ML: introduced/changed precedence of infix operators:
  5095 
  5096   infix 1 |> |-> ||> ||>> |>> |>>> #> #->;
  5097   infix 2 ?;
  5098   infix 3 o oo ooo oooo;
  5099   infix 4 ~~ upto downto;
  5100 
  5101 Maybe INCOMPATIBILITY when any of those is used in conjunction with other
  5102 infix operators.
  5103 
  5104 * Pure/library.ML: natural list combinators fold, fold_rev, and
  5105 fold_map support linear functional transformations and nesting.  For
  5106 example:
  5107 
  5108   fold f [x1, ..., xN] y =
  5109     y |> f x1 |> ... |> f xN
  5110 
  5111   (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] y =
  5112     y |> fold f xs1 |> ... |> fold f xsN
  5113 
  5114   fold f [x1, ..., xN] =
  5115     f x1 #> ... #> f xN
  5116 
  5117   (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] =
  5118     fold f xs1 #> ... #> fold f xsN
  5119 
  5120 * Pure/library.ML: the following selectors on type 'a option are
  5121 available:
  5122 
  5123   the:               'a option -> 'a  (*partial*)
  5124   these:             'a option -> 'a  where 'a = 'b list
  5125   the_default: 'a -> 'a option -> 'a
  5126   the_list:          'a option -> 'a list
  5127 
  5128 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides
  5129 basic operations for association lists, following natural argument
  5130 order; moreover the explicit equality predicate passed here avoids
  5131 potentially expensive polymorphic runtime equality checks.
  5132 The old functions may be expressed as follows:
  5133 
  5134   assoc = uncurry (AList.lookup (op =))
  5135   assocs = these oo AList.lookup (op =)
  5136   overwrite = uncurry (AList.update (op =)) o swap
  5137 
  5138 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides
  5139 
  5140   val make: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> ('a * 'b) list
  5141   val find: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> ('c * 'b) list -> 'a -> 'c list
  5142 
  5143 replacing make_keylist and keyfilter (occassionally used)
  5144 Naive rewrites:
  5145 
  5146   make_keylist = AList.make
  5147   keyfilter = AList.find (op =)
  5148 
  5149 * eq_fst and eq_snd now take explicit equality parameter, thus
  5150   avoiding eqtypes. Naive rewrites:
  5151 
  5152     eq_fst = eq_fst (op =)
  5153     eq_snd = eq_snd (op =)
  5154 
  5155 * Removed deprecated apl and apr (rarely used).
  5156   Naive rewrites:
  5157 
  5158     apl (n, op) =>>= curry op n
  5159     apr (op, m) =>>= fn n => op (n, m)
  5160 
  5161 * Pure/General: structure OrdList (cf. Pure/General/ord_list.ML)
  5162 provides a reasonably efficient light-weight implementation of sets as
  5163 lists.
  5164 
  5165 * Pure/General: generic tables (cf. Pure/General/table.ML) provide a
  5166 few new operations; existing lookup and update are now curried to
  5167 follow natural argument order (for use with fold etc.);
  5168 INCOMPATIBILITY, use (uncurry Symtab.lookup) etc. as last resort.
  5169 
  5170 * Pure/General: output via the Isabelle channels of
  5171 writeln/warning/error etc. is now passed through Output.output, with a
  5172 hook for arbitrary transformations depending on the print_mode
  5173 (cf. Output.add_mode -- the first active mode that provides a output
  5174 function wins).  Already formatted output may be embedded into further
  5175 text via Output.raw; the result of Pretty.string_of/str_of and derived
  5176 functions (string_of_term/cterm/thm etc.) is already marked raw to
  5177 accommodate easy composition of diagnostic messages etc.  Programmers
  5178 rarely need to care about Output.output or Output.raw at all, with
  5179 some notable exceptions: Output.output is required when bypassing the
  5180 standard channels (writeln etc.), or in token translations to produce
  5181 properly formatted results; Output.raw is required when capturing
  5182 already output material that will eventually be presented to the user
  5183 a second time.  For the default print mode, both Output.output and
  5184 Output.raw have no effect.
  5185 
  5186 * Pure/General: Output.time_accumulator NAME creates an operator ('a
  5187 -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b to measure runtime and count invocations; the
  5188 cumulative results are displayed at the end of a batch session.
  5189 
  5190 * Pure/General: File.sysify_path and File.quote_sysify path have been
  5191 replaced by File.platform_path and File.shell_path (with appropriate
  5192 hooks).  This provides a clean interface for unusual systems where the
  5193 internal and external process view of file names are different.
  5194 
  5195 * Pure: more efficient orders for basic syntactic entities: added
  5196 fast_string_ord, fast_indexname_ord, fast_term_ord; changed sort_ord
  5197 and typ_ord to use fast_string_ord and fast_indexname_ord (term_ord is
  5198 NOT affected); structures Symtab, Vartab, Typtab, Termtab use the fast
  5199 orders now -- potential INCOMPATIBILITY for code that depends on a
  5200 particular order for Symtab.keys, Symtab.dest, etc. (consider using
  5201 Library.sort_strings on result).
  5202 
  5203 * Pure/term.ML: combinators fold_atyps, fold_aterms, fold_term_types,
  5204 fold_types traverse types/terms from left to right, observing natural
  5205 argument order.  Supercedes previous foldl_XXX versions, add_frees,
  5206 add_vars etc. have been adapted as well: INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5207 
  5208 * Pure: name spaces have been refined, with significant changes of the
  5209 internal interfaces -- INCOMPATIBILITY.  Renamed cond_extern(_table)
  5210 to extern(_table).  The plain name entry path is superceded by a
  5211 general 'naming' context, which also includes the 'policy' to produce
  5212 a fully qualified name and external accesses of a fully qualified
  5213 name; NameSpace.extend is superceded by context dependent
  5214 Sign.declare_name.  Several theory and proof context operations modify
  5215 the naming context.  Especially note Theory.restore_naming and
  5216 ProofContext.restore_naming to get back to a sane state; note that
  5217 Theory.add_path is no longer sufficient to recover from
  5218 Theory.absolute_path in particular.
  5219 
  5220 * Pure: new flags short_names (default false) and unique_names
  5221 (default true) for controlling output of qualified names.  If
  5222 short_names is set, names are printed unqualified.  If unique_names is
  5223 reset, the name prefix is reduced to the minimum required to achieve
  5224 the original result when interning again, even if there is an overlap
  5225 with earlier declarations.
  5226 
  5227 * Pure/TheoryDataFun: change of the argument structure; 'prep_ext' is
  5228 now 'extend', and 'merge' gets an additional Pretty.pp argument
  5229 (useful for printing error messages).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5230 
  5231 * Pure: major reorganization of the theory context.  Type Sign.sg and
  5232 Theory.theory are now identified, referring to the universal
  5233 Context.theory (see Pure/context.ML).  Actual signature and theory
  5234 content is managed as theory data.  The old code and interfaces were
  5235 spread over many files and structures; the new arrangement introduces
  5236 considerable INCOMPATIBILITY to gain more clarity:
  5237 
  5238   Context -- theory management operations (name, identity, inclusion,
  5239     parents, ancestors, merge, etc.), plus generic theory data;
  5240 
  5241   Sign -- logical signature and syntax operations (declaring consts,
  5242     types, etc.), plus certify/read for common entities;
  5243 
  5244   Theory -- logical theory operations (stating axioms, definitions,
  5245     oracles), plus a copy of logical signature operations (consts,
  5246     types, etc.); also a few basic management operations (Theory.copy,
  5247     Theory.merge, etc.)
  5248 
  5249 The most basic sign_of operations (Theory.sign_of, Thm.sign_of_thm
  5250 etc.) as well as the sign field in Thm.rep_thm etc. have been retained
  5251 for convenience -- they merely return the theory.
  5252 
  5253 * Pure: type Type.tsig is superceded by theory in most interfaces.
  5254 
  5255 * Pure: the Isar proof context type is already defined early in Pure
  5256 as Context.proof (note that ProofContext.context and Proof.context are
  5257 aliases, where the latter is the preferred name).  This enables other
  5258 Isabelle components to refer to that type even before Isar is present.
  5259 
  5260 * Pure/sign/theory: discontinued named name spaces (i.e. classK,
  5261 typeK, constK, axiomK, oracleK), but provide explicit operations for
  5262 any of these kinds.  For example, Sign.intern typeK is now
  5263 Sign.intern_type, Theory.hide_space Sign.typeK is now
  5264 Theory.hide_types.  Also note that former
  5265 Theory.hide_classes/types/consts are now
  5266 Theory.hide_classes_i/types_i/consts_i, while the non '_i' versions
  5267 internalize their arguments!  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5268 
  5269 * Pure: get_thm interface (of PureThy and ProofContext) expects
  5270 datatype thmref (with constructors Name and NameSelection) instead of
  5271 plain string -- INCOMPATIBILITY;
  5272 
  5273 * Pure: cases produced by proof methods specify options, where NONE
  5274 means to remove case bindings -- INCOMPATIBILITY in
  5275 (RAW_)METHOD_CASES.
  5276 
  5277 * Pure: the following operations retrieve axioms or theorems from a
  5278 theory node or theory hierarchy, respectively:
  5279 
  5280   Theory.axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list
  5281   Theory.all_axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list
  5282   PureThy.thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list
  5283   PureThy.all_thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list
  5284 
  5285 * Pure: print_tac now outputs the goal through the trace channel.
  5286 
  5287 * Isar toplevel: improved diagnostics, mostly for Poly/ML only.
  5288 Reference Toplevel.debug (default false) controls detailed printing
  5289 and tracing of low-level exceptions; Toplevel.profiling (default 0)
  5290 controls execution profiling -- set to 1 for time and 2 for space
  5291 (both increase the runtime).
  5292 
  5293 * Isar session: The initial use of ROOT.ML is now always timed,
  5294 i.e. the log will show the actual process times, in contrast to the
  5295 elapsed wall-clock time that the outer shell wrapper produces.
  5296 
  5297 * Simplifier: improved handling of bound variables (nameless
  5298 representation, avoid allocating new strings).  Simprocs that invoke
  5299 the Simplifier recursively should use Simplifier.inherit_bounds to
  5300 avoid local name clashes.  Failure to do so produces warnings
  5301 "Simplifier: renamed bound variable ..."; set Simplifier.debug_bounds
  5302 for further details.
  5303 
  5304 * ML functions legacy_bindings and use_legacy_bindings produce ML fact
  5305 bindings for all theorems stored within a given theory; this may help
  5306 in porting non-Isar theories to Isar ones, while keeping ML proof
  5307 scripts for the time being.
  5308 
  5309 * ML operator HTML.with_charset specifies the charset begin used for
  5310 generated HTML files.  For example:
  5311 
  5312   HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Hebrew";
  5313   HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Chinese";
  5314 
  5315 
  5316 *** System ***
  5317 
  5318 * Allow symlinks to all proper Isabelle executables (Isabelle,
  5319 isabelle, isatool etc.).
  5320 
  5321 * ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT setting specifies preferred document format (for
  5322 isatool doc, isatool mkdir, display_drafts etc.).
  5323 
  5324 * isatool usedir: option -f allows specification of the ML file to be
  5325 used by Isabelle; default is ROOT.ML.
  5326 
  5327 * New isatool version outputs the version identifier of the Isabelle
  5328 distribution being used.
  5329 
  5330 * HOL: new isatool dimacs2hol converts files in DIMACS CNF format
  5331 (containing Boolean satisfiability problems) into Isabelle/HOL
  5332 theories.
  5333 
  5334 
  5335 
  5336 New in Isabelle2004 (April 2004)
  5337 --------------------------------
  5338 
  5339 *** General ***
  5340 
  5341 * Provers/order.ML:  new efficient reasoner for partial and linear orders.
  5342   Replaces linorder.ML.
  5343 
  5344 * Pure: Greek letters (except small lambda, \<lambda>), as well as Gothic
  5345   (\<aa>...\<zz>\<AA>...\<ZZ>), calligraphic (\<A>...\<Z>), and Euler
  5346   (\<a>...\<z>), are now considered normal letters, and can therefore
  5347   be used anywhere where an ASCII letter (a...zA...Z) has until
  5348   now. COMPATIBILITY: This obviously changes the parsing of some
  5349   terms, especially where a symbol has been used as a binder, say
  5350   '\<Pi>x. ...', which is now a type error since \<Pi>x will be parsed
  5351   as an identifier.  Fix it by inserting a space around former
  5352   symbols.  Call 'isatool fixgreek' to try to fix parsing errors in
  5353   existing theory and ML files.
  5354 
  5355 * Pure: Macintosh and Windows line-breaks are now allowed in theory files.
  5356 
  5357 * Pure: single letter sub/superscripts (\<^isub> and \<^isup>) are now
  5358   allowed in identifiers. Similar to Greek letters \<^isub> is now considered
  5359   a normal (but invisible) letter. For multiple letter subscripts repeat
  5360   \<^isub> like this: x\<^isub>1\<^isub>2.
  5361 
  5362 * Pure: There are now sub-/superscripts that can span more than one
  5363   character. Text between \<^bsub> and \<^esub> is set in subscript in
  5364   ProofGeneral and LaTeX, text between \<^bsup> and \<^esup> in
  5365   superscript. The new control characters are not identifier parts.
  5366 
  5367 * Pure: Control-symbols of the form \<^raw:...> will literally print the
  5368   content of "..." to the latex file instead of \isacntrl... . The "..."
  5369   may consist of any printable characters excluding the end bracket >.
  5370 
  5371 * Pure: Using new Isar command "finalconsts" (or the ML functions
  5372   Theory.add_finals or Theory.add_finals_i) it is now possible to
  5373   declare constants "final", which prevents their being given a definition
  5374   later.  It is useful for constants whose behaviour is fixed axiomatically
  5375   rather than definitionally, such as the meta-logic connectives.
  5376 
  5377 * Pure: 'instance' now handles general arities with general sorts
  5378   (i.e. intersections of classes),
  5379 
  5380 * Presentation: generated HTML now uses a CSS style sheet to make layout
  5381   (somewhat) independent of content. It is copied from lib/html/isabelle.css.
  5382   It can be changed to alter the colors/layout of generated pages.
  5383 
  5384 
  5385 *** Isar ***
  5386 
  5387 * Tactic emulation methods rule_tac, erule_tac, drule_tac, frule_tac,
  5388   cut_tac, subgoal_tac and thin_tac:
  5389   - Now understand static (Isar) contexts.  As a consequence, users of Isar
  5390     locales are no longer forced to write Isar proof scripts.
  5391     For details see Isar Reference Manual, paragraph 4.3.2: Further tactic
  5392     emulations.
  5393   - INCOMPATIBILITY: names of variables to be instantiated may no
  5394     longer be enclosed in quotes.  Instead, precede variable name with `?'.
  5395     This is consistent with the instantiation attribute "where".
  5396 
  5397 * Attributes "where" and "of":
  5398   - Now take type variables of instantiated theorem into account when reading
  5399     the instantiation string.  This fixes a bug that caused instantiated
  5400     theorems to have too special types in some circumstances.
  5401   - "where" permits explicit instantiations of type variables.
  5402 
  5403 * Calculation commands "moreover" and "also" no longer interfere with
  5404   current facts ("this"), admitting arbitrary combinations with "then"
  5405   and derived forms.
  5406 
  5407 * Locales:
  5408   - Goal statements involving the context element "includes" no longer
  5409     generate theorems with internal delta predicates (those ending on
  5410     "_axioms") in the premise.
  5411     Resolve particular premise with <locale>.intro to obtain old form.
  5412   - Fixed bug in type inference ("unify_frozen") that prevented mix of target
  5413     specification and "includes" elements in goal statement.
  5414   - Rule sets <locale>.intro and <locale>.axioms no longer declared as
  5415     [intro?] and [elim?] (respectively) by default.
  5416   - Experimental command for instantiation of locales in proof contexts:
  5417         instantiate <label>[<attrs>]: <loc>
  5418     Instantiates locale <loc> and adds all its theorems to the current context
  5419     taking into account their attributes.  Label and attrs are optional
  5420     modifiers, like in theorem declarations.  If present, names of
  5421     instantiated theorems are qualified with <label>, and the attributes
  5422     <attrs> are applied after any attributes these theorems might have already.
  5423       If the locale has assumptions, a chained fact of the form
  5424     "<loc> t1 ... tn" is expected from which instantiations of the parameters
  5425     are derived.  The command does not support old-style locales declared
  5426     with "locale (open)".
  5427       A few (very simple) examples can be found in FOL/ex/LocaleInst.thy.
  5428 
  5429 * HOL: Tactic emulation methods induct_tac and case_tac understand static
  5430   (Isar) contexts.
  5431 
  5432 
  5433 *** HOL ***
  5434 
  5435 * Proof import: new image HOL4 contains the imported library from
  5436   the HOL4 system with about 2500 theorems. It is imported by
  5437   replaying proof terms produced by HOL4 in Isabelle. The HOL4 image
  5438   can be used like any other Isabelle image.  See
  5439   HOL/Import/HOL/README for more information.
  5440 
  5441 * Simplifier:
  5442   - Much improved handling of linear and partial orders.
  5443     Reasoners for linear and partial orders are set up for type classes
  5444     "linorder" and "order" respectively, and are added to the default simpset
  5445     as solvers.  This means that the simplifier can build transitivity chains
  5446     to solve goals from the assumptions.
  5447   - INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break occasionally.  Typically, applications
  5448     of blast or auto after simplification become unnecessary because the goal
  5449     is solved by simplification already.
  5450 
  5451 * Numerics: new theory Ring_and_Field contains over 250 basic numerical laws,
  5452     all proved in axiomatic type classes for semirings, rings and fields.
  5453 
  5454 * Numerics:
  5455   - Numeric types (nat, int, and in HOL-Complex rat, real, complex, etc.) are
  5456     now formalized using the Ring_and_Field theory mentioned above.
  5457   - INCOMPATIBILITY: simplification and arithmetic behaves somewhat differently
  5458     than before, because now they are set up once in a generic manner.
  5459   - INCOMPATIBILITY: many type-specific arithmetic laws have gone.
  5460     Look for the general versions in Ring_and_Field (and Power if they concern
  5461     exponentiation).
  5462 
  5463 * Type "rat" of the rational numbers is now available in HOL-Complex.
  5464 
  5465 * Records:
  5466   - Record types are now by default printed with their type abbreviation
  5467     instead of the list of all field types. This can be configured via
  5468     the reference "print_record_type_abbr".
  5469   - Simproc "record_upd_simproc" for simplification of multiple updates added
  5470     (not enabled by default).
  5471   - Simproc "record_ex_sel_eq_simproc" to simplify EX x. sel r = x resp.
  5472     EX x. x = sel r to True (not enabled by default).
  5473   - Tactic "record_split_simp_tac" to split and simplify records added.
  5474 
  5475 * 'specification' command added, allowing for definition by
  5476   specification.  There is also an 'ax_specification' command that
  5477   introduces the new constants axiomatically.
  5478 
  5479 * arith(_tac) is now able to generate counterexamples for reals as well.
  5480 
  5481 * HOL-Algebra: new locale "ring" for non-commutative rings.
  5482 
  5483 * HOL-ex: InductiveInvariant_examples illustrates advanced recursive function
  5484   definitions, thanks to Sava Krsti\'{c} and John Matthews.
  5485 
  5486 * HOL-Matrix: a first theory for matrices in HOL with an application of
  5487   matrix theory to linear programming.
  5488 
  5489 * Unions and Intersections:
  5490   The latex output syntax of UN and INT has been changed
  5491   from "\Union x \in A. B" to "\Union_{x \in A} B"
  5492   i.e. the index formulae has become a subscript.
  5493   Similarly for "\Union x. B", and for \Inter instead of \Union.
  5494 
  5495 * Unions and Intersections over Intervals:
  5496   There is new short syntax "UN i<=n. A" for "UN i:{0..n}. A". There is
  5497   also an x-symbol version with subscripts "\<Union>\<^bsub>i <= n\<^esub>. A"
  5498   like in normal math, and corresponding versions for < and for intersection.
  5499 
  5500 * HOL/List: Ordering "lexico" is renamed "lenlex" and the standard
  5501   lexicographic dictonary ordering has been added as "lexord".
  5502 
  5503 * ML: the legacy theory structures Int and List have been removed. They had
  5504   conflicted with ML Basis Library structures having the same names.
  5505 
  5506 * 'refute' command added to search for (finite) countermodels.  Only works
  5507   for a fragment of HOL.  The installation of an external SAT solver is
  5508   highly recommended.  See "HOL/Refute.thy" for details.
  5509 
  5510 * 'quickcheck' command: Allows to find counterexamples by evaluating
  5511   formulae under an assignment of free variables to random values.
  5512   In contrast to 'refute', it can deal with inductive datatypes,
  5513   but cannot handle quantifiers. See "HOL/ex/Quickcheck_Examples.thy"
  5514   for examples.
  5515 
  5516 
  5517 *** HOLCF ***
  5518 
  5519 * Streams now come with concatenation and are part of the HOLCF image
  5520 
  5521 
  5522 
  5523 New in Isabelle2003 (May 2003)
  5524 ------------------------------
  5525 
  5526 *** General ***
  5527 
  5528 * Provers/simplifier:
  5529 
  5530   - Completely reimplemented method simp (ML: Asm_full_simp_tac):
  5531     Assumptions are now subject to complete mutual simplification,
  5532     not just from left to right. The simplifier now preserves
  5533     the order of assumptions.
  5534 
  5535     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5536 
  5537     -- simp sometimes diverges where the old version did
  5538        not, e.g. invoking simp on the goal
  5539 
  5540         [| P (f x); y = x; f x = f y |] ==> Q
  5541 
  5542        now gives rise to the infinite reduction sequence
  5543 
  5544         P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> P(f y) --(y = x)--> P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> ...
  5545 
  5546        Using "simp (asm_lr)" (ML: Asm_lr_simp_tac) instead often solves this
  5547        kind of problem.
  5548 
  5549     -- Tactics combining classical reasoner and simplification (such as auto)
  5550        are also affected by this change, because many of them rely on
  5551        simp. They may sometimes diverge as well or yield a different numbers
  5552        of subgoals. Try to use e.g. force, fastsimp, or safe instead of auto
  5553        in case of problems. Sometimes subsequent calls to the classical
  5554        reasoner will fail because a preceeding call to the simplifier too
  5555        eagerly simplified the goal, e.g. deleted redundant premises.
  5556 
  5557   - The simplifier trace now shows the names of the applied rewrite rules
  5558 
  5559   - You can limit the number of recursive invocations of the simplifier
  5560     during conditional rewriting (where the simplifie tries to solve the
  5561     conditions before applying the rewrite rule):
  5562     ML "simp_depth_limit := n"
  5563     where n is an integer. Thus you can force termination where previously
  5564     the simplifier would diverge.
  5565 
  5566   - Accepts free variables as head terms in congruence rules.  Useful in Isar.
  5567 
  5568   - No longer aborts on failed congruence proof.  Instead, the
  5569     congruence is ignored.
  5570 
  5571 * Pure: New generic framework for extracting programs from constructive
  5572   proofs. See HOL/Extraction.thy for an example instantiation, as well
  5573   as HOL/Extraction for some case studies.
  5574 
  5575 * Pure: The main goal of the proof state is no longer shown by default, only
  5576 the subgoals. This behaviour is controlled by a new flag.
  5577    PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Settings -> Show Main Goal
  5578 (ML: Proof.show_main_goal).
  5579 
  5580 * Pure: You can find all matching introduction rules for subgoal 1, i.e. all
  5581 rules whose conclusion matches subgoal 1:
  5582       PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Show me -> matching rules
  5583 The rules are ordered by how closely they match the subgoal.
  5584 In particular, rules that solve a subgoal outright are displayed first
  5585 (or rather last, the way they are printed).
  5586 (ML: ProofGeneral.print_intros())
  5587 
  5588 * Pure: New flag trace_unify_fail causes unification to print
  5589 diagnostic information (PG: in trace buffer) when it fails. This is
  5590 useful for figuring out why single step proofs like rule, erule or
  5591 assumption failed.
  5592 
  5593 * Pure: Locale specifications now produce predicate definitions
  5594 according to the body of text (covering assumptions modulo local
  5595 definitions); predicate "loc_axioms" covers newly introduced text,
  5596 while "loc" is cumulative wrt. all included locale expressions; the
  5597 latter view is presented only on export into the global theory
  5598 context; potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use "(open)" option to fall back
  5599 on the old view without predicates;
  5600 
  5601 * Pure: predefined locales "var" and "struct" are useful for sharing
  5602 parameters (as in CASL, for example); just specify something like
  5603 ``var x + var y + struct M'' as import;
  5604 
  5605 * Pure: improved thms_containing: proper indexing of facts instead of
  5606 raw theorems; check validity of results wrt. current name space;
  5607 include local facts of proof configuration (also covers active
  5608 locales), cover fixed variables in index; may use "_" in term
  5609 specification; an optional limit for the number of printed facts may
  5610 be given (the default is 40);
  5611 
  5612 * Pure: disallow duplicate fact bindings within new-style theory files
  5613 (batch-mode only);
  5614 
  5615 * Provers: improved induct method: assumptions introduced by case
  5616 "foo" are split into "foo.hyps" (from the rule) and "foo.prems" (from
  5617 the goal statement); "foo" still refers to all facts collectively;
  5618 
  5619 * Provers: the function blast.overloaded has been removed: all constants
  5620 are regarded as potentially overloaded, which improves robustness in exchange
  5621 for slight decrease in efficiency;
  5622 
  5623 * Provers/linorder: New generic prover for transitivity reasoning over
  5624 linear orders.  Note: this prover is not efficient!
  5625 
  5626 * Isar: preview of problems to finish 'show' now produce an error
  5627 rather than just a warning (in interactive mode);
  5628 
  5629 
  5630 *** HOL ***
  5631 
  5632 * arith(_tac)
  5633 
  5634  - Produces a counter example if it cannot prove a goal.
  5635    Note that the counter example may be spurious if the goal is not a formula
  5636    of quantifier-free linear arithmetic.
  5637    In ProofGeneral the counter example appears in the trace buffer.
  5638 
  5639  - Knows about div k and mod k where k is a numeral of type nat or int.
  5640 
  5641  - Calls full Presburger arithmetic (by Amine Chaieb) if quantifier-free
  5642    linear arithmetic fails. This takes account of quantifiers and divisibility.
  5643    Presburger arithmetic can also be called explicitly via presburger(_tac).
  5644 
  5645 * simp's arithmetic capabilities have been enhanced a bit: it now
  5646 takes ~= in premises into account (by performing a case split);
  5647 
  5648 * simp reduces "m*(n div m) + n mod m" to n, even if the two summands
  5649 are distributed over a sum of terms;
  5650 
  5651 * New tactic "trans_tac" and method "trans" instantiate
  5652 Provers/linorder.ML for axclasses "order" and "linorder" (predicates
  5653 "<=", "<" and "=").
  5654 
  5655 * function INCOMPATIBILITIES: Pi-sets have been redefined and moved from main
  5656 HOL to Library/FuncSet; constant "Fun.op o" is now called "Fun.comp";
  5657 
  5658 * 'typedef' command has new option "open" to suppress the set
  5659 definition;
  5660 
  5661 * functions Min and Max on finite sets have been introduced (theory
  5662 Finite_Set);
  5663 
  5664 * attribute [symmetric] now works for relations as well; it turns
  5665 (x,y) : R^-1 into (y,x) : R, and vice versa;
  5666 
  5667 * induct over a !!-quantified statement (say !!x1..xn):
  5668   each "case" automatically performs "fix x1 .. xn" with exactly those names.
  5669 
  5670 * Map: `empty' is no longer a constant but a syntactic abbreviation for
  5671 %x. None. Warning: empty_def now refers to the previously hidden definition
  5672 of the empty set.
  5673 
  5674 * Algebra: formalization of classical algebra.  Intended as base for
  5675 any algebraic development in Isabelle.  Currently covers group theory
  5676 (up to Sylow's theorem) and ring theory (Universal Property of
  5677 Univariate Polynomials).  Contributions welcome;
  5678 
  5679 * GroupTheory: deleted, since its material has been moved to Algebra;
  5680 
  5681 * Complex: new directory of the complex numbers with numeric constants,
  5682 nonstandard complex numbers, and some complex analysis, standard and
  5683 nonstandard (Jacques Fleuriot);
  5684 
  5685 * HOL-Complex: new image for analysis, replacing HOL-Real and HOL-Hyperreal;
  5686 
  5687 * Hyperreal: introduced Gauge integration and hyperreal logarithms (Jacques
  5688 Fleuriot);
  5689 
  5690 * Real/HahnBanach: updated and adapted to locales;
  5691 
  5692 * NumberTheory: added Gauss's law of quadratic reciprocity (by Avigad,
  5693 Gray and Kramer);
  5694 
  5695 * UNITY: added the Meier-Sanders theory of progress sets;
  5696 
  5697 * MicroJava: bytecode verifier and lightweight bytecode verifier
  5698 as abstract algorithms, instantiated to the JVM;
  5699 
  5700 * Bali: Java source language formalization. Type system, operational
  5701 semantics, axiomatic semantics. Supported language features:
  5702 classes, interfaces, objects,virtual methods, static methods,
  5703 static/instance fields, arrays, access modifiers, definite
  5704 assignment, exceptions.
  5705 
  5706 
  5707 *** ZF ***
  5708 
  5709 * ZF/Constructible: consistency proof for AC (Gdel's constructible
  5710 universe, etc.);
  5711 
  5712 * Main ZF: virtually all theories converted to new-style format;
  5713 
  5714 
  5715 *** ML ***
  5716 
  5717 * Pure: Tactic.prove provides sane interface for internal proofs;
  5718 omits the infamous "standard" operation, so this is more appropriate
  5719 than prove_goalw_cterm in many situations (e.g. in simprocs);
  5720 
  5721 * Pure: improved error reporting of simprocs;
  5722 
  5723 * Provers: Simplifier.simproc(_i) provides sane interface for setting
  5724 up simprocs;
  5725 
  5726 
  5727 *** Document preparation ***
  5728 
  5729 * uses \par instead of \\ for line breaks in theory text. This may
  5730 shift some page breaks in large documents. To get the old behaviour
  5731 use \renewcommand{\isanewline}{\mbox{}\\\mbox{}} in root.tex.
  5732 
  5733 * minimized dependencies of isabelle.sty and isabellesym.sty on
  5734 other packages
  5735 
  5736 * \<euro> now needs package babel/greek instead of marvosym (which
  5737 broke \Rightarrow)
  5738 
  5739 * normal size for \<zero>...\<nine> (uses \mathbf instead of
  5740 textcomp package)
  5741 
  5742 
  5743 
  5744 New in Isabelle2002 (March 2002)
  5745 --------------------------------
  5746 
  5747 *** Document preparation ***
  5748 
  5749 * greatly simplified document preparation setup, including more
  5750 graceful interpretation of isatool usedir -i/-d/-D options, and more
  5751 instructive isatool mkdir; users should basically be able to get
  5752 started with "isatool mkdir HOL Test && isatool make"; alternatively,
  5753 users may run a separate document processing stage manually like this:
  5754 "isatool usedir -D output HOL Test && isatool document Test/output";
  5755 
  5756 * theory dependency graph may now be incorporated into documents;
  5757 isatool usedir -g true will produce session_graph.eps/.pdf for use
  5758 with \includegraphics of LaTeX;
  5759 
  5760 * proper spacing of consecutive markup elements, especially text
  5761 blocks after section headings;
  5762 
  5763 * support bold style (for single symbols only), input syntax is like
  5764 this: "\<^bold>\<alpha>" or "\<^bold>A";
  5765 
  5766 * \<bullet> is now output as bold \cdot by default, which looks much
  5767 better in printed text;
  5768 
  5769 * added default LaTeX bindings for \<tturnstile> and \<TTurnstile>;
  5770 note that these symbols are currently unavailable in Proof General /
  5771 X-Symbol; new symbols \<zero>, \<one>, ..., \<nine>, and \<euro>;
  5772 
  5773 * isatool latex no longer depends on changed TEXINPUTS, instead
  5774 isatool document copies the Isabelle style files to the target
  5775 location;
  5776 
  5777 
  5778 *** Isar ***
  5779 
  5780 * Pure/Provers: improved proof by cases and induction;
  5781   - 'case' command admits impromptu naming of parameters (such as
  5782     "case (Suc n)");
  5783   - 'induct' method divinates rule instantiation from the inductive
  5784     claim; no longer requires excessive ?P bindings for proper
  5785     instantiation of cases;
  5786   - 'induct' method properly enumerates all possibilities of set/type
  5787     rules; as a consequence facts may be also passed through *type*
  5788     rules without further ado;
  5789   - 'induct' method now derives symbolic cases from the *rulified*
  5790     rule (before it used to rulify cases stemming from the internal
  5791     atomized version); this means that the context of a non-atomic
  5792     statement becomes is included in the hypothesis, avoiding the
  5793     slightly cumbersome show "PROP ?case" form;
  5794   - 'induct' may now use elim-style induction rules without chaining
  5795     facts, using ``missing'' premises from the goal state; this allows
  5796     rules stemming from inductive sets to be applied in unstructured
  5797     scripts, while still benefitting from proper handling of non-atomic
  5798     statements; NB: major inductive premises need to be put first, all
  5799     the rest of the goal is passed through the induction;
  5800   - 'induct' proper support for mutual induction involving non-atomic
  5801     rule statements (uses the new concept of simultaneous goals, see
  5802     below);
  5803   - append all possible rule selections, but only use the first
  5804     success (no backtracking);
  5805   - removed obsolete "(simplified)" and "(stripped)" options of methods;
  5806   - undeclared rule case names default to numbers 1, 2, 3, ...;
  5807   - added 'print_induct_rules' (covered by help item in recent Proof
  5808     General versions);
  5809   - moved induct/cases attributes to Pure, methods to Provers;
  5810   - generic method setup instantiated for FOL and HOL;
  5811 
  5812 * Pure: support multiple simultaneous goal statements, for example
  5813 "have a: A and b: B" (same for 'theorem' etc.); being a pure
  5814 meta-level mechanism, this acts as if several individual goals had
  5815 been stated separately; in particular common proof methods need to be
  5816 repeated in order to cover all claims; note that a single elimination
  5817 step is *not* sufficient to establish the two conjunctions, so this
  5818 fails:
  5819 
  5820   assume "A & B" then have A and B ..   (*".." fails*)
  5821 
  5822 better use "obtain" in situations as above; alternative refer to
  5823 multi-step methods like 'auto', 'simp_all', 'blast+' etc.;
  5824 
  5825 * Pure: proper integration with ``locales''; unlike the original
  5826 version by Florian Kammller, Isar locales package high-level proof
  5827 contexts rather than raw logical ones (e.g. we admit to include
  5828 attributes everywhere); operations on locales include merge and
  5829 rename; support for implicit arguments (``structures''); simultaneous
  5830 type-inference over imports and text; see also HOL/ex/Locales.thy for
  5831 some examples;
  5832 
  5833 * Pure: the following commands have been ``localized'', supporting a
  5834 target locale specification "(in name)": 'lemma', 'theorem',
  5835 'corollary', 'lemmas', 'theorems', 'declare'; the results will be
  5836 stored both within the locale and at the theory level (exported and
  5837 qualified by the locale name);
  5838 
  5839 * Pure: theory goals may now be specified in ``long'' form, with
  5840 ad-hoc contexts consisting of arbitrary locale elements. for example
  5841 ``lemma foo: fixes x assumes "A x" shows "B x"'' (local syntax and
  5842 definitions may be given, too); the result is a meta-level rule with
  5843 the context elements being discharged in the obvious way;
  5844 
  5845 * Pure: new proof command 'using' allows to augment currently used
  5846 facts after a goal statement ('using' is syntactically analogous to
  5847 'apply', but acts on the goal's facts only); this allows chained facts
  5848 to be separated into parts given before and after a claim, as in
  5849 ``from a and b have C using d and e <proof>'';
  5850 
  5851 * Pure: renamed "antecedent" case to "rule_context";
  5852 
  5853 * Pure: new 'judgment' command records explicit information about the
  5854 object-logic embedding (used by several tools internally); no longer
  5855 use hard-wired "Trueprop";
  5856 
  5857 * Pure: added 'corollary' command;
  5858 
  5859 * Pure: fixed 'token_translation' command;
  5860 
  5861 * Pure: removed obsolete 'exported' attribute;
  5862 
  5863 * Pure: dummy pattern "_" in is/let is now automatically lifted over
  5864 bound variables: "ALL x. P x --> Q x" (is "ALL x. _ --> ?C x")
  5865 supersedes more cumbersome ... (is "ALL x. _ x --> ?C x");
  5866 
  5867 * Pure: method 'atomize' presents local goal premises as object-level
  5868 statements (atomic meta-level propositions); setup controlled via
  5869 rewrite rules declarations of 'atomize' attribute; example
  5870 application: 'induct' method with proper rule statements in improper
  5871 proof *scripts*;
  5872 
  5873 * Pure: emulation of instantiation tactics (rule_tac, cut_tac, etc.)
  5874 now consider the syntactic context of assumptions, giving a better
  5875 chance to get type-inference of the arguments right (this is
  5876 especially important for locales);
  5877 
  5878 * Pure: "sorry" no longer requires quick_and_dirty in interactive
  5879 mode;
  5880 
  5881 * Pure/obtain: the formal conclusion "thesis", being marked as
  5882 ``internal'', may no longer be reference directly in the text;
  5883 potential INCOMPATIBILITY, may need to use "?thesis" in rare
  5884 situations;
  5885 
  5886 * Pure: generic 'sym' attribute which declares a rule both as pure
  5887 'elim?' and for the 'symmetric' operation;
  5888 
  5889 * Pure: marginal comments ``--'' may now occur just anywhere in the
  5890 text; the fixed correlation with particular command syntax has been
  5891 discontinued;
  5892 
  5893 * Pure: new method 'rules' is particularly well-suited for proof
  5894 search in intuitionistic logic; a bit slower than 'blast' or 'fast',
  5895 but often produces more compact proof terms with less detours;
  5896 
  5897 * Pure/Provers/classical: simplified integration with pure rule
  5898 attributes and methods; the classical "intro?/elim?/dest?"
  5899 declarations coincide with the pure ones; the "rule" method no longer
  5900 includes classically swapped intros; "intro" and "elim" methods no
  5901 longer pick rules from the context; also got rid of ML declarations
  5902 AddXIs/AddXEs/AddXDs; all of this has some potential for
  5903 INCOMPATIBILITY;
  5904 
  5905 * Provers/classical: attribute 'swapped' produces classical inversions
  5906 of introduction rules;
  5907 
  5908 * Provers/simplifier: 'simplified' attribute may refer to explicit
  5909 rules instead of full simplifier context; 'iff' attribute handles
  5910 conditional rules;
  5911 
  5912 * HOL: 'typedef' now allows alternative names for Rep/Abs morphisms;
  5913 
  5914 * HOL: 'recdef' now fails on unfinished automated proofs, use
  5915 "(permissive)" option to recover old behavior;
  5916 
  5917 * HOL: 'inductive' no longer features separate (collective) attributes
  5918 for 'intros' (was found too confusing);
  5919 
  5920 * HOL: properly declared induction rules less_induct and
  5921 wf_induct_rule;
  5922 
  5923 
  5924 *** HOL ***
  5925 
  5926 * HOL: moved over to sane numeral syntax; the new policy is as
  5927 follows:
  5928 
  5929   - 0 and 1 are polymorphic constants, which are defined on any
  5930   numeric type (nat, int, real etc.);
  5931 
  5932   - 2, 3, 4, ... and -1, -2, -3, ... are polymorphic numerals, based
  5933   binary representation internally;
  5934 
  5935   - type nat has special constructor Suc, and generally prefers Suc 0
  5936   over 1::nat and Suc (Suc 0) over 2::nat;
  5937 
  5938 This change may cause significant problems of INCOMPATIBILITY; here
  5939 are some hints on converting existing sources:
  5940 
  5941   - due to the new "num" token, "-0" and "-1" etc. are now atomic
  5942   entities, so expressions involving "-" (unary or binary minus) need
  5943   to be spaced properly;
  5944 
  5945   - existing occurrences of "1" may need to be constraint "1::nat" or
  5946   even replaced by Suc 0; similar for old "2";
  5947 
  5948   - replace "#nnn" by "nnn", and "#-nnn" by "-nnn";
  5949 
  5950   - remove all special provisions on numerals in proofs;
  5951 
  5952 * HOL: simp rules nat_number expand numerals on nat to Suc/0
  5953 representation (depends on bin_arith_simps in the default context);
  5954 
  5955 * HOL: symbolic syntax for x^2 (numeral 2);
  5956 
  5957 * HOL: the class of all HOL types is now called "type" rather than
  5958 "term"; INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt references to this type class
  5959 in axclass/classes, instance/arities, and (usually rare) occurrences
  5960 in typings (of consts etc.); internally the class is called
  5961 "HOL.type", ML programs should refer to HOLogic.typeS;
  5962 
  5963 * HOL/record package improvements:
  5964   - new derived operations "fields" to build a partial record section,
  5965     "extend" to promote a fixed record to a record scheme, and
  5966     "truncate" for the reverse; cf. theorems "xxx.defs", which are *not*
  5967     declared as simp by default;
  5968   - shared operations ("more", "fields", etc.) now need to be always
  5969     qualified) --- potential INCOMPATIBILITY;
  5970   - removed "make_scheme" operations (use "make" with "extend") --
  5971     INCOMPATIBILITY;
  5972   - removed "more" class (simply use "term") -- INCOMPATIBILITY;
  5973   - provides cases/induct rules for use with corresponding Isar
  5974     methods (for concrete records, record schemes, concrete more
  5975     parts, and schematic more parts -- in that order);
  5976   - internal definitions directly based on a light-weight abstract
  5977     theory of product types over typedef rather than datatype;
  5978 
  5979 * HOL: generic code generator for generating executable ML code from
  5980 specifications; specific support for HOL constructs such as inductive
  5981 datatypes and sets, as well as recursive functions; can be invoked
  5982 via 'generate_code' theory section;
  5983 
  5984 * HOL: canonical cases/induct rules for n-tuples (n = 3..7);
  5985 
  5986 * HOL: consolidated and renamed several theories.  In particular:
  5987         Ord.thy has been absorbed into HOL.thy
  5988         String.thy has been absorbed into List.thy
  5989 
  5990 * HOL: concrete setsum syntax "\<Sum>i:A. b" == "setsum (%i. b) A"
  5991 (beware of argument permutation!);
  5992 
  5993 * HOL: linorder_less_split superseded by linorder_cases;
  5994 
  5995 * HOL/List: "nodups" renamed to "distinct";
  5996 
  5997 * HOL: added "The" definite description operator; move Hilbert's "Eps"
  5998 to peripheral theory "Hilbert_Choice"; some INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5999   - Ex_def has changed, now need to use some_eq_ex
  6000 
  6001 * HOL: made split_all_tac safe; EXISTING PROOFS MAY FAIL OR LOOP, so
  6002 in this (rare) case use:
  6003 
  6004   delSWrapper "split_all_tac"
  6005   addSbefore ("unsafe_split_all_tac", unsafe_split_all_tac)
  6006 
  6007 * HOL: added safe wrapper "split_conv_tac" to claset; EXISTING PROOFS
  6008 MAY FAIL;
  6009 
  6010 * HOL: introduced f^n = f o ... o f; warning: due to the limits of
  6011 Isabelle's type classes, ^ on functions and relations has too general
  6012 a domain, namely ('a * 'b) set and 'a => 'b; this means that it may be
  6013 necessary to attach explicit type constraints;
  6014 
  6015 * HOL/Relation: the prefix name of the infix "O" has been changed from
  6016 "comp" to "rel_comp"; INCOMPATIBILITY: a few theorems have been
  6017 renamed accordingly (eg "compI" -> "rel_compI").
  6018 
  6019 * HOL: syntax translations now work properly with numerals and records
  6020 expressions;
  6021 
  6022 * HOL: bounded abstraction now uses syntax "%" / "\<lambda>" instead
  6023 of "lam" -- INCOMPATIBILITY;
  6024 
  6025 * HOL: got rid of some global declarations (potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  6026 for ML tools): const "()" renamed "Product_Type.Unity", type "unit"
  6027 renamed "Product_Type.unit";
  6028 
  6029 * HOL: renamed rtrancl_into_rtrancl2 to converse_rtrancl_into_rtrancl
  6030 
  6031 * HOL: removed obsolete theorem "optionE" (use "option.exhaust", or
  6032 the "cases" method);
  6033 
  6034 * HOL/GroupTheory: group theory examples including Sylow's theorem (by
  6035 Florian Kammller);
  6036 
  6037 * HOL/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory format; several
  6038 parts turned into readable document, with proper Isar proof texts and
  6039 some explanations (by Gerwin Klein);
  6040 
  6041 * HOL-Real: added Complex_Numbers (by Gertrud Bauer);
  6042 
  6043 * HOL-Hyperreal is now a logic image;
  6044 
  6045 
  6046 *** HOLCF ***
  6047 
  6048 * Isar: consts/constdefs supports mixfix syntax for continuous
  6049 operations;
  6050 
  6051 * Isar: domain package adapted to new-style theory format, e.g. see
  6052 HOLCF/ex/Dnat.thy;
  6053 
  6054 * theory Lift: proper use of rep_datatype lift instead of ML hacks --
  6055 potential INCOMPATIBILITY; now use plain induct_tac instead of former
  6056 lift.induct_tac, always use UU instead of Undef;
  6057 
  6058 * HOLCF/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory;
  6059 
  6060 
  6061 *** ZF ***
  6062 
  6063 * Isar: proper integration of logic-specific tools and packages,
  6064 including theory commands '(co)inductive', '(co)datatype',
  6065 'rep_datatype', 'inductive_cases', as well as methods 'ind_cases',
  6066 'induct_tac', 'case_tac', and 'typecheck' (with attribute 'TC');
  6067 
  6068 * theory Main no longer includes AC; for the Axiom of Choice, base
  6069 your theory on Main_ZFC;
  6070 
  6071 * the integer library now covers quotients and remainders, with many
  6072 laws relating division to addition, multiplication, etc.;
  6073 
  6074 * ZF/UNITY: Chandy and Misra's UNITY is now available in ZF, giving a
  6075 typeless version of the formalism;
  6076 
  6077 * ZF/AC, Coind, IMP, Resid: updated and converted to new-style theory
  6078 format;
  6079 
  6080 * ZF/Induct: new directory for examples of inductive definitions,
  6081 including theory Multiset for multiset orderings; converted to
  6082 new-style theory format;
  6083 
  6084 * ZF: many new theorems about lists, ordinals, etc.;
  6085 
  6086 
  6087 *** General ***
  6088 
  6089 * Pure/kernel: meta-level proof terms (by Stefan Berghofer); reference
  6090 variable proof controls level of detail: 0 = no proofs (only oracle
  6091 dependencies), 1 = lemma dependencies, 2 = compact proof terms; see
  6092 also ref manual for further ML interfaces;
  6093 
  6094 * Pure/axclass: removed obsolete ML interface
  6095 goal_subclass/goal_arity;
  6096 
  6097 * Pure/syntax: new token syntax "num" for plain numerals (without "#"
  6098 of "xnum"); potential INCOMPATIBILITY, since -0, -1 etc. are now
  6099 separate tokens, so expressions involving minus need to be spaced
  6100 properly;
  6101 
  6102 * Pure/syntax: support non-oriented infixes, using keyword "infix"
  6103 rather than "infixl" or "infixr";
  6104 
  6105 * Pure/syntax: concrete syntax for dummy type variables admits genuine
  6106 sort constraint specifications in type inference; e.g. "x::_::foo"
  6107 ensures that the type of "x" is of sort "foo" (but not necessarily a
  6108 type variable);
  6109 
  6110 * Pure/syntax: print modes "type_brackets" and "no_type_brackets"
  6111 control output of nested => (types); the default behavior is
  6112 "type_brackets";
  6113 
  6114 * Pure/syntax: builtin parse translation for "_constify" turns valued
  6115 tokens into AST constants;
  6116 
  6117 * Pure/syntax: prefer later declarations of translations and print
  6118 translation functions; potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to reverse
  6119 multiple declarations for same syntax element constant;
  6120 
  6121 * Pure/show_hyps reset by default (in accordance to existing Isar
  6122 practice);
  6123 
  6124 * Provers/classical: renamed addaltern to addafter, addSaltern to
  6125 addSafter;
  6126 
  6127 * Provers/clasimp: ``iff'' declarations now handle conditional rules
  6128 as well;
  6129 
  6130 * system: tested support for MacOS X; should be able to get Isabelle +
  6131 Proof General to work in a plain Terminal after installing Poly/ML
  6132 (e.g. from the Isabelle distribution area) and GNU bash alone
  6133 (e.g. from http://www.apple.com); full X11, XEmacs and X-Symbol
  6134 support requires further installations, e.g. from
  6135 http://fink.sourceforge.net/);
  6136 
  6137 * system: support Poly/ML 4.1.1 (able to manage larger heaps);
  6138 
  6139 * system: reduced base memory usage by Poly/ML (approx. 20 MB instead
  6140 of 40 MB), cf. ML_OPTIONS;
  6141 
  6142 * system: Proof General keywords specification is now part of the
  6143 Isabelle distribution (see etc/isar-keywords.el);
  6144 
  6145 * system: support for persistent Proof General sessions (refrain from
  6146 outdating all loaded theories on startup); user may create writable
  6147 logic images like this: ``isabelle -q HOL Test'';
  6148 
  6149 * system: smart selection of Isabelle process versus Isabelle
  6150 interface, accommodates case-insensitive file systems (e.g. HFS+); may
  6151 run both "isabelle" and "Isabelle" even if file names are badly
  6152 damaged (executable inspects the case of the first letter of its own
  6153 name); added separate "isabelle-process" and "isabelle-interface";
  6154 
  6155 * system: refrain from any attempt at filtering input streams; no
  6156 longer support ``8bit'' encoding of old isabelle font, instead proper
  6157 iso-latin characters may now be used; the related isatools
  6158 "symbolinput" and "nonascii" have disappeared as well;
  6159 
  6160 * system: removed old "xterm" interface (the print modes "xterm" and
  6161 "xterm_color" are still available for direct use in a suitable
  6162 terminal);
  6163 
  6164 
  6165 
  6166 New in Isabelle99-2 (February 2001)
  6167 -----------------------------------
  6168 
  6169 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES ***
  6170 
  6171 * HOL: please note that theories in the Library and elsewhere often use the
  6172 new-style (Isar) format; to refer to their theorems in an ML script you must
  6173 bind them to ML identifers by e.g.      val thm_name = thm "thm_name";
  6174 
  6175 * HOL: inductive package no longer splits induction rule aggressively,
  6176 but only as far as specified by the introductions given; the old
  6177 format may be recovered via ML function complete_split_rule or attribute
  6178 'split_rule (complete)';
  6179 
  6180 * HOL: induct renamed to lfp_induct, lfp_Tarski to lfp_unfold,
  6181 gfp_Tarski to gfp_unfold;
  6182 
  6183 * HOL: contrapos, contrapos2 renamed to contrapos_nn, contrapos_pp;
  6184 
  6185 * HOL: infix "dvd" now has priority 50 rather than 70 (because it is a
  6186 relation); infix "^^" has been renamed "``"; infix "``" has been
  6187 renamed "`"; "univalent" has been renamed "single_valued";
  6188 
  6189 * HOL/Real: "rinv" and "hrinv" replaced by overloaded "inverse"
  6190 operation;
  6191 
  6192 * HOLCF: infix "`" has been renamed "$"; the symbol syntax is \<cdot>;
  6193 
  6194 * Isar: 'obtain' no longer declares "that" fact as simp/intro;
  6195 
  6196 * Isar/HOL: method 'induct' now handles non-atomic goals; as a
  6197 consequence, it is no longer monotonic wrt. the local goal context
  6198 (which is now passed through the inductive cases);
  6199 
  6200 * Document preparation: renamed standard symbols \<ll> to \<lless> and
  6201 \<gg> to \<ggreater>;
  6202 
  6203 
  6204 *** Document preparation ***
  6205 
  6206 * \isabellestyle{NAME} selects version of Isabelle output (currently
  6207 available: are "it" for near math-mode best-style output, "sl" for
  6208 slanted text style, and "tt" for plain type-writer; if no
  6209 \isabellestyle command is given, output is according to slanted
  6210 type-writer);
  6211 
  6212 * support sub/super scripts (for single symbols only), input syntax is
  6213 like this: "A\<^sup>*" or "A\<^sup>\<star>";
  6214 
  6215 * some more standard symbols; see Appendix A of the system manual for
  6216 the complete list of symbols defined in isabellesym.sty;
  6217 
  6218 * improved isabelle style files; more abstract symbol implementation
  6219 (should now use \isamath{...} and \isatext{...} in custom symbol
  6220 definitions);
  6221 
  6222 * antiquotation @{goals} and @{subgoals} for output of *dynamic* goals
  6223 state; Note that presentation of goal states does not conform to
  6224 actual human-readable proof documents.  Please do not include goal
  6225 states into document output unless you really know what you are doing!
  6226 
  6227 * proper indentation of antiquoted output with proportional LaTeX
  6228 fonts;
  6229 
  6230 * no_document ML operator temporarily disables LaTeX document
  6231 generation;
  6232 
  6233 * isatool unsymbolize tunes s