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NEWS

author | blanchet |

Tue Dec 07 11:56:53 2010 +0100 (2010-12-07) | |

changeset 41052 | 3db267a01c1d |

parent 41035 | 22a57175df20 |

child 41079 | a0d9258e2091 |

permissions | -rw-r--r-- |

remove the "fin_fun" optimization in Nitpick -- it was always a hack and didn't help much

1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes

2 ==============================================

4 New in this Isabelle version

5 ----------------------------

7 *** General ***

9 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.

11 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned

12 ISO-Latin-1. INCOMPATIBILITY. Isabelle LaTeX documents might require

13 the following package declarations:

15 \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}

16 \usepackage{textcomp}

18 * Explicit treatment of UTF8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that

19 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of

20 non-ASCII bytes as before. Since Isabelle/ML string literals may

21 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be

22 used here as well. Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a

23 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)

24 merely give a byte-oriented representation.

26 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER

27 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/IsabelleXXXX),

28 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra

29 suffix. This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each

30 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.

31 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.

33 * Theory loading: only the master source file is looked-up in the

34 implicit load path, all other files are addressed relatively to its

35 directory. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.

37 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.

38 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --

39 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies. Recall that Isabelle/ML

40 files exclusively use the .ML extension. Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.

42 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly

43 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of

44 unsynchronized references or print modes. There are both ML Config.T

45 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.

47 ML (Config.T) Isar (attribute)

49 eta_contract eta_contract

50 show_brackets show_brackets

51 show_sorts show_sorts

52 show_types show_types

53 show_question_marks show_question_marks

54 show_consts show_consts

55 show_abbrevs show_abbrevs

57 Syntax.ambiguity_level syntax_ambiguity_level

59 Goal_Display.goals_limit goals_limit

60 Goal_Display.show_main_goal show_main_goal

62 Thy_Output.display thy_output_display

63 Thy_Output.quotes thy_output_quotes

64 Thy_Output.indent thy_output_indent

65 Thy_Output.source thy_output_source

66 Thy_Output.break thy_output_break

68 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may be only

69 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.

70 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode

71 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.

73 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.

74 INCOMPATIBILTY.

76 trace_simp ~> simp_trace

77 debug_simp ~> simp_debug

79 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic

80 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for

81 float_token.

84 *** Pure ***

86 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for

87 experimentation in Isar without any result. INCOMPATIBILITY.

89 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type).

91 * Interpretation command 'interpret' accepts a list of equations like

92 'interpretation' does.

94 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs

95 in addition to interpretations in theories.

97 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate

98 the theory name space. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY. The ML functions

99 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this

100 feature is still required for historical reasons.

102 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

103 'definition' instead.

105 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type

106 constructors.

108 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within

109 the local file system.

112 *** HOL ***

114 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random

115 testing. Random testing can be invoked by quickcheck[random],

116 exhaustive testing by quickcheck[exhaustive].

118 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite

119 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to

120 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.

122 * Functions can be declared as coercions and type inference will add

123 them as necessary upon input of a term. In theory Complex_Main,

124 real :: nat => real and real :: int => real are declared as

125 coercions. A new coercion function f is declared like this:

127 declare [[coercion f]]

129 To lift coercions through type constructors (eg from nat => real to

130 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.

132 declare [[coercion_map map]]

134 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including

135 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main. This is controlled by

136 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in

137 other theories like this:

139 declare [[coercion_enabled]]

141 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence

142 relations. INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same

143 for congruent(2)).

145 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"

146 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".

147 INCOMPATIBILITY.

149 * Theory Enum (for explicit enumerations of finite types) is now part

150 of the HOL-Main image. INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum

151 theory now have to be referred to by its qualified name.

153 enum ~> Enum.enum

154 nlists ~> Enum.nlists

155 product ~> Enum.product

157 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to

158 avoid confusion with finite sets. INCOMPATIBILITY.

160 * Quickcheck's generator for random generation is renamed from "code"

161 to "random". INCOMPATIBILITY.

163 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30

164 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the

165 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set

166 independently.

168 * Theory Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of

169 sort_key.

171 * New command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive

172 function definitions over complete partial orders. Concrete instances

173 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary

174 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL. See

175 HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy for

176 examples.

178 * Predicates "distinct" and "sorted" now defined inductively, with

179 nice induction rules. INCOMPATIBILITY: former distinct.simps and

180 sorted.simps now named distinct_simps and sorted_simps.

182 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name

183 contents for other uses. INCOMPATIBILITY.

185 * Dropped syntax for old primrec package. INCOMPATIBILITY.

187 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator

188 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.

190 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype. INCOMPATIBILITY.

192 * Renamed facts:

193 expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff

194 expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff

195 set_ext ~> set_eqI

196 nat_number ~> eval_nat_numeral

198 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class

199 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various

200 tuning. INCOMPATIBILITY.

202 * Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target languages of the

203 code generator.

205 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1. INCOMPATIBILITY.

207 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option". INCOMPATIBILITY.

209 * Theory SetsAndFunctions has been split into Function_Algebras and

210 Set_Algebras; canonical names for instance definitions for functions;

211 various improvements. INCOMPATIBILITY.

213 * Records: logical foundation type for records do not carry a '_type'

214 suffix any longer. INCOMPATIBILITY.

216 * Code generation for records: more idiomatic representation of record

217 types. Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code

218 generation any longer. INCOMPATIBILITY. In cases of need, a suitable

219 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:

221 record 'a foo = ...

222 ...

223 rep_datatype foo_ext ...

225 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.

226 INCOMPATIBILITY.

228 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for

229 counter example search.

231 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.

232 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.

233 INCOMPATIBILITY.

235 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints

236 to standard output. INCOMPATIBILITY.

238 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace

239 "*" and "+" respectively. INCOMPATIBILITY.

241 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden. Write

242 Sum_Type.Plus.

244 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of

245 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,

246 though. INCOMPATIBILITY.

248 * Dropped old infix syntax "mem" for List.member; use "in set"

249 instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

251 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in List.thy

253 constants

254 null ~> List.null

256 facts

257 mem_iff ~> member_def

258 null_empty ~> null_def

260 INCOMPATIBILITY. Note that these were not suppossed to be used

261 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code

262 generation.

264 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:

266 types

267 bool ~> HOL.bool

268 nat ~> Nat.nat

270 constants

271 Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop

272 True ~> HOL.True

273 False ~> HOL.False

274 op & ~> HOL.conj

275 op | ~> HOL.disj

276 op --> ~> HOL.implies

277 op = ~> HOL.eq

278 Not ~> HOL.Not

279 The ~> HOL.The

280 All ~> HOL.All

281 Ex ~> HOL.Ex

282 Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1

283 Let ~> HOL.Let

284 If ~> HOL.If

285 Ball ~> Set.Ball

286 Bex ~> Set.Bex

287 Suc ~> Nat.Suc

288 Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair

289 fst ~> Product_Type.fst

290 snd ~> Product_Type.snd

291 curry ~> Product_Type.curry

292 op : ~> Set.member

293 Collect ~> Set.Collect

295 INCOMPATIBILITY.

297 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long

298 been the case with "split". INCOMPATIBILITY.

300 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class

301 eq) carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.

303 * Removed lemma Option.is_none_none (Duplicate of is_none_def).

304 INCOMPATIBILITY.

306 * List.thy: use various operations from the Haskell prelude when

307 generating Haskell code.

309 * Multiset.thy: renamed empty_idemp -> empty_neutral

311 * code_simp.ML and method code_simp: simplification with rules

312 determined by code generator.

314 * code generator: do not print function definitions for case

315 combinators any longer.

317 * Multivariate Analysis: Introduced a type class for euclidean

318 space. Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces

319 instead of finite cartesian products.

321 types

322 real ^ 'n ~> 'a::real_vector

323 ~> 'a::euclidean_space

324 ~> 'a::ordered_euclidean_space

325 (depends on your needs)

327 constants

328 _ $ _ ~> _ $$ _

329 \<chi> x. _ ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _

330 CARD('n) ~> DIM('a)

332 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some

333 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products

334 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to

335 be euclidean_spaces. INCOMPATIBILITY.

337 * Probability: Introduced pextreal as positive extended real numbers.

338 Use pextreal as value for measures. Introduce the Radon-Nikodym

339 derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for arbitrary sigma

340 finite measures. Introduces Lebesgue measure based on the integral in

341 Multivariate Analysis. INCOMPATIBILITY.

343 * Inductive package: offers new command 'inductive_simps' to

344 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for

345 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.

347 * "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV". "surj f"

348 is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV". The theorems bij_def and

349 surj_def are unchanged. INCOMPATIBILITY.

351 * Function package: .psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared

352 [simp]. INCOMPATIBILITY.

354 * Weaker versions of the "meson" and "metis" proof methods are now

355 available in "HOL-Plain", without dependency on "Hilbert_Choice". The

356 proof methods become more powerful after "Hilbert_Choice" is loaded in

357 "HOL-Main".

359 * MESON: Renamed lemmas:

360 meson_not_conjD ~> Meson.not_conjD

361 meson_not_disjD ~> Meson.not_disjD

362 meson_not_notD ~> Meson.not_notD

363 meson_not_allD ~> Meson.not_allD

364 meson_not_exD ~> Meson.not_exD

365 meson_imp_to_disjD ~> Meson.imp_to_disjD

366 meson_not_impD ~> Meson.not_impD

367 meson_iff_to_disjD ~> Meson.iff_to_disjD

368 meson_not_iffD ~> Meson.not_iffD

369 meson_not_refl_disj_D ~> Meson.not_refl_disj_D

370 meson_conj_exD1 ~> Meson.conj_exD1

371 meson_conj_exD2 ~> Meson.conj_exD2

372 meson_disj_exD ~> Meson.disj_exD

373 meson_disj_exD1 ~> Meson.disj_exD1

374 meson_disj_exD2 ~> Meson.disj_exD2

375 meson_disj_assoc ~> Meson.disj_assoc

376 meson_disj_comm ~> Meson.disj_comm

377 meson_disj_FalseD1 ~> Meson.disj_FalseD1

378 meson_disj_FalseD2 ~> Meson.disj_FalseD2

379 INCOMPATIBILITY.

381 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct". The tool is now available

382 manually as command 'solve_direct'.

384 * Sledgehammer:

385 - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof method. See

386 the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").

387 - Renamed lemmas:

388 COMBI_def ~> Meson.COMBI_def

389 COMBK_def ~> Meson.COMBK_def

390 COMBB_def ~> Meson.COMBB_def

391 COMBC_def ~> Meson.COMBC_def

392 COMBS_def ~> Meson.COMBS_def

393 abs_I ~> Meson.abs_I

394 abs_K ~> Meson.abs_K

395 abs_B ~> Meson.abs_B

396 abs_C ~> Meson.abs_C

397 abs_S ~> Meson.abs_S

398 INCOMPATIBILITY.

399 - Renamed commands:

400 sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers

401 sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers

402 sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers

403 INCOMPATIBILITY.

404 - Renamed options:

405 sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]

406 sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]

407 sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]

408 (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)

409 INCOMPATIBILITY.

411 * Metis and Meson now have configuration options "meson_trace",

412 "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled to diagnose

413 these tools. E.g.

415 using [[metis_trace = true]]

417 * Nitpick:

418 - Renamed options:

419 nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]

420 nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]

421 INCOMPATIBILITY.

422 - Now requires Kodkodi 1.2.9. INCOMPATIBILITY.

423 - Added support for partial quotient types.

424 - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.

425 - Added "whack" option.

426 - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.

427 - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.

428 - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.

429 - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach

430 higher cardinalities.

431 - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.

433 * Changed SMT configuration options:

434 - Renamed:

435 z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with swapped semantics)

436 z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts

437 INCOMPATIBILITY.

438 - Added:

439 smt_verbose

440 smt_datatypes

441 cvc3_options

442 yices_options

444 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory

445 header.

447 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of

448 [split_format]. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

451 *** HOLCF ***

453 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The

454 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'. To use the domain

455 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.

456 INCOMPATIBILITY.

458 * The new class 'domain' is now the default sort; the definitional

459 domain package and the powerdomain theories both require this class.

460 The new class 'predomain' is an unpointed version of 'domain'.

461 Theories can be updated by replacing sort annotations as shown below.

462 INCOMPATIBILITY.

464 'a::type ~> 'a::countable

465 'a::cpo ~> 'a::predomain

466 'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain

468 * The old type class 'rep' has been superseded by class 'domain'.

469 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any

470 'default_sort rep' declarations. INCOMPATIBILITY.

472 * The old type classes 'profinite' and 'bifinite', along with the

473 overloaded constant 'approx' have been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

475 * The type 'udom alg_defl' has been replaced by the non-parameterized

476 type 'defl'. HOLCF no longer defines an embedding of type defl into

477 udom by default; the instance proof defl :: domain is now available in

478 HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.

480 * The syntax 'REP('a)' has been replaced with 'DEFL('a)'.

482 * The predicate 'directed' has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

484 * The type class 'finite_po' has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

486 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).

487 expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff

488 below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI

489 expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff

490 ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI

491 expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff

492 below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI

493 cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP

495 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.

496 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.

497 Rep_CFun ~> Rep_cfun

498 Abs_CFun ~> Abs_cfun

499 Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod

500 Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod

501 Rep_Ssum ~> Rep_ssum

502 Abs_Ssum ~> Abs_ssum

504 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have

505 been renamed to *_bottom_iff. INCOMPATIBILITY.

507 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:

508 - Definitions of 'bisim' constants no longer mention definedness.

509 - With mutual recursion, 'bisim' predicate is now curried.

510 - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.

511 - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.

512 INCOMPATIBILITY.

514 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type 'foo' are

515 now named 'foo_case' instead of 'foo_when'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

517 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the

518 names of constants and types involved. INCOMPATIBILITY.

519 thelub_const ~> lub_const

520 lub_const ~> is_lub_const

521 thelubI ~> lub_eqI

522 is_lub_lub ~> is_lubD2

523 lubI ~> is_lub_lub

524 unique_lub ~> is_lub_unique

525 is_ub_lub ~> is_lub_rangeD1

526 lub_bin_chain ~> is_lub_bin_chain

527 lub_fun ~> is_lub_fun

528 thelub_fun ~> lub_fun

529 thelub_cfun ~> lub_cfun

530 thelub_Pair ~> lub_Pair

531 lub_cprod ~> is_lub_prod

532 thelub_cprod ~> lub_prod

533 minimal_cprod ~> minimal_prod

534 inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo

536 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY.

537 sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans

538 sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans

539 refl_less ~> below_refl

540 trans_less ~> below_trans

541 antisym_less ~> below_antisym

542 antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]

543 box_less ~> box_below

544 rev_trans_less ~> rev_below_trans

545 not_less2not_eq ~> not_below2not_eq

546 less_UU_iff ~> below_UU_iff

547 flat_less_iff ~> flat_below_iff

548 adm_less ~> adm_below

549 adm_not_less ~> adm_not_below

550 adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below

551 less_fun_def ~> below_fun_def

552 expand_fun_less ~> fun_below_iff

553 less_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI

554 less_discr_def ~> below_discr_def

555 discr_less_eq ~> discr_below_eq

556 less_unit_def ~> below_unit_def

557 less_cprod_def ~> below_prod_def

558 prod_lessI ~> prod_belowI

559 Pair_less_iff ~> Pair_below_iff

560 fst_less_iff ~> fst_below_iff

561 snd_less_iff ~> snd_below_iff

562 expand_cfun_less ~> cfun_below_iff

563 less_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI

564 injection_less ~> injection_below

565 less_up_def ~> below_up_def

566 not_Iup_less ~> not_Iup_below

567 Iup_less ~> Iup_below

568 up_less ~> up_below

569 Def_inject_less_eq ~> Def_below_Def

570 Def_less_is_eq ~> Def_below_iff

571 spair_less_iff ~> spair_below_iff

572 less_sprod ~> below_sprod

573 spair_less ~> spair_below

574 sfst_less_iff ~> sfst_below_iff

575 ssnd_less_iff ~> ssnd_below_iff

576 fix_least_less ~> fix_least_below

577 dist_less_one ~> dist_below_one

578 less_ONE ~> below_ONE

579 ONE_less_iff ~> ONE_below_iff

580 less_sinlD ~> below_sinlD

581 less_sinrD ~> below_sinrD

584 *** FOL and ZF ***

586 * All constant names are now qualified. INCOMPATIBILITY.

589 *** ML ***

591 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority

592 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.

594 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax

595 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.

597 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with

598 ListPair.UnequalLengths.

600 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its

601 meaning. Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in

602 almost all situations.

604 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.

605 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in

606 Isabelle/ML.

608 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises

609 Fail if the argument is false. Due to inlining the source position of

610 failed assertions is included in the error output.

612 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML

613 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.

614 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.

616 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its

617 meaning.

619 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its

620 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is

621 rarely-used global-only stuff.

623 * Discontinued Output.debug. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln

624 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).

626 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty

627 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.

629 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive. Rare

630 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and

631 @{thms} for most purposes.

633 * ML structure Unsynchronized never opened, not even in Isar

634 interaction mode as before. Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been

635 discontinued -- use plain := instead. This should be *rare* anyway,

636 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably

637 configuration options.

639 * ML antiquotations @{theory} and @{theory_ref} refer to named

640 theories from the ancestry of the current context, not any accidental

641 theory loader state as before. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle

642 change in semantics.

644 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning

645 interrupts. Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that

646 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt. User code must not absorb

647 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be

648 followed by re-raising of the original exception. Another common

649 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of

650 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.

653 *** System ***

655 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from

656 DajaVu Sans.

658 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.

662 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)

663 ---------------------------------

665 *** General ***

667 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type

668 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust

669 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax. Within

670 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by

671 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with

672 their full internal name.

674 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations

675 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).

676 Some hints on upgrading:

678 - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced

679 by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',

680 which are independent of this issue.

682 - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax

683 provides the following special forms:

685 CONST c -- produces syntax version of constant c from context

686 XCONST c -- literally c, checked as constant from context

687 c -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'

689 Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the

690 system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains

691 extra variables".

693 Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their

694 concrete syntax. Some old translations rules need to be written

695 for the "type" category, using type constructor application

696 instead of pseudo-term application of the default category

697 "logic".

699 - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following

700 antiquotations:

702 @{class_syntax c} -- type class c within parse tree / AST

703 @{term_syntax c} -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST

704 @{const_syntax c} -- ML version of "CONST c" above

705 @{syntax_const c} -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)

707 - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*

708 represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim. Use @{class

709 c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax

710 antiquotations.

712 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base

713 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide. Recall

714 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to

715 diagnose syntax problems.

717 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.

719 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof

720 body, too. This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',

721 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is

722 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.

724 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --

725 need to specify constant name and syntax separately. Internal ML

726 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.

727 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

729 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,

730 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',

731 'schematic_corollary'. Thus the relevance of the proof is made

732 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or

733 asynchronous interactive environment. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

735 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been

736 discontinued (old legacy feature).

738 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by

739 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the

740 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via

742 using [[trace_simp = true]]

744 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in

745 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or

746 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.

748 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',

749 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command. Minor

750 INCOMPATIBILITY.

752 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is

753 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.

756 *** Pure ***

758 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the

759 "unconstrain" operation internally. This eliminates all sort

760 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit

761 OFCLASS-premises. On the proof term level, this operation is

762 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs

763 are always free of sort constraints. INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that

764 inspect proof terms.

766 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that

767 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself

768 are added internally. For example:

770 definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"

772 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory

773 "class" prefix. INCOMPATIBILITY.

775 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort. INCOMPATIBILITY.

777 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

778 'class' instead.

780 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into

781 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.

782 INCOMPATIBILITY.

784 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying

785 invariants.

787 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the

788 user space functionality any longer.

790 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale

791 subgoals. This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.

792 INCOMPATIBILITY.

794 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body. This allows to

795 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.

797 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax

798 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the

799 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).

801 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory

802 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or

803 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.

805 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works

806 within a local theory context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

809 *** HOL ***

811 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without

812 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not

813 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL. Note that the logical environment may

814 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different

815 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.

817 * New package for quotient types. Commands 'quotient_type' and

818 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by

819 quotient constructions. An example is the type of integers created by

820 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:

822 fun

823 intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"

824 where

825 "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"

827 quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel

828 by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)

830 quotient_definition

831 "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"

833 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the

834 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type. The example

835 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient

836 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.

838 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid

839 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.

841 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating

842 separate HOL-SMT session.

844 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.

845 INCOMPATIBILITY.

847 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed. Use library Word/Word.thy

848 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in

849 the AFP entry RSAPPS.

851 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no

852 longer shadowed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

854 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.

855 INCOMPATIBILITY.

857 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.

858 INCOMPATIBILITY.

860 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes

861 instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

863 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and

864 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"

865 instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.

867 floor_number_of_eq ~> floor_number_of

868 le_floor_eq_number_of ~> number_of_le_floor

869 le_floor_eq_zero ~> zero_le_floor

870 le_floor_eq_one ~> one_le_floor

871 floor_less_eq_number_of ~> floor_less_number_of

872 floor_less_eq_zero ~> floor_less_zero

873 floor_less_eq_one ~> floor_less_one

874 less_floor_eq_number_of ~> number_of_less_floor

875 less_floor_eq_zero ~> zero_less_floor

876 less_floor_eq_one ~> one_less_floor

877 floor_le_eq_number_of ~> floor_le_number_of

878 floor_le_eq_zero ~> floor_le_zero

879 floor_le_eq_one ~> floor_le_one

880 floor_subtract_number_of ~> floor_diff_number_of

881 floor_subtract_one ~> floor_diff_one

882 ceiling_number_of_eq ~> ceiling_number_of

883 ceiling_le_eq_number_of ~> ceiling_le_number_of

884 ceiling_le_zero_eq ~> ceiling_le_zero

885 ceiling_le_eq_one ~> ceiling_le_one

886 less_ceiling_eq_number_of ~> number_of_less_ceiling

887 less_ceiling_eq_zero ~> zero_less_ceiling

888 less_ceiling_eq_one ~> one_less_ceiling

889 ceiling_less_eq_number_of ~> ceiling_less_number_of

890 ceiling_less_eq_zero ~> ceiling_less_zero

891 ceiling_less_eq_one ~> ceiling_less_one

892 le_ceiling_eq_number_of ~> number_of_le_ceiling

893 le_ceiling_eq_zero ~> zero_le_ceiling

894 le_ceiling_eq_one ~> one_le_ceiling

895 ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of

896 ceiling_subtract_one ~> ceiling_diff_one

898 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the

899 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.

901 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"

902 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as

903 implementation. INCOMPATIBILTY.

905 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by

906 AFP/thys/Coinductive.

908 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has

909 been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

911 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.

913 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,

914 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set. INCOMPATIBILITY.

916 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",

917 "Int" etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

919 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified. INCOMPATIBILITY.

921 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute

922 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.

924 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory

925 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more

926 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes

927 within the HOL theories. INCOMPATIBILITY.

929 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:

930 - less_eq, less: Orderings

931 - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups

932 - inverse, divide: Rings

933 INCOMPATIBILITY.

935 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and

936 lattices):

938 lower_semilattice ~> semilattice_inf

939 upper_semilattice ~> semilattice_sup

941 dense_linear_order ~> dense_linorder

943 pordered_ab_group_add ~> ordered_ab_group_add

944 pordered_ab_group_add_abs ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs

945 pordered_ab_semigroup_add ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add

946 pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le

947 pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add

948 pordered_cancel_comm_semiring ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring

949 pordered_cancel_semiring ~> ordered_cancel_semiring

950 pordered_comm_monoid_add ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add

951 pordered_comm_ring ~> ordered_comm_ring

952 pordered_comm_semiring ~> ordered_comm_semiring

953 pordered_ring ~> ordered_ring

954 pordered_ring_abs ~> ordered_ring_abs

955 pordered_semiring ~> ordered_semiring

957 ordered_ab_group_add ~> linordered_ab_group_add

958 ordered_ab_semigroup_add ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add

959 ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add

960 ordered_comm_semiring_strict ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict

961 ordered_field ~> linordered_field

962 ordered_field_no_lb ~> linordered_field_no_lb

963 ordered_field_no_ub ~> linordered_field_no_ub

964 ordered_field_dense_linear_order ~> dense_linordered_field

965 ordered_idom ~> linordered_idom

966 ordered_ring ~> linordered_ring

967 ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor

968 ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor

969 ordered_ring_strict ~> linordered_ring_strict

970 ordered_semidom ~> linordered_semidom

971 ordered_semiring ~> linordered_semiring

972 ordered_semiring_1 ~> linordered_semiring_1

973 ordered_semiring_1_strict ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict

974 ordered_semiring_strict ~> linordered_semiring_strict

976 The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a

977 separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:

979 lordered_ab_group_add ~> lattice_ab_group_add

980 lordered_ab_group_add_abs ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs

981 lordered_ab_group_add_meet ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add

982 lordered_ab_group_add_join ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add

983 lordered_ring ~> lattice_ring

985 INCOMPATIBILITY.

987 * Refined field classes:

988 - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,

989 linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --

990 subsumes former division_by_zero class;

991 - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.

992 INCOMPATIBILITY.

994 * Refined algebra theorem collections:

995 - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;

996 - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;

997 - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem

998 groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;

999 - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for

1000 equal_neg_zero.

1001 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1003 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from

1004 sets to lattices:

1006 fun_left_comm_idem_inter ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf

1007 fun_left_comm_idem_union ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup

1008 inter_Inter_fold_inter ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf

1009 union_Union_fold_union ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup

1010 Inter_fold_inter ~> Inf_fold_inf

1011 Union_fold_union ~> Sup_fold_sup

1012 inter_INTER_fold_inter ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf

1013 union_UNION_fold_union ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup

1014 INTER_fold_inter ~> INFI_fold_inf

1015 UNION_fold_union ~> SUPR_fold_sup

1017 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been

1018 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.

1019 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed

1020 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert. Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace

1021 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ. Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right

1022 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1024 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and

1025 multiset order:

1027 - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax

1028 <= and <;

1029 - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties

1030 are provided by means of interpretation with prefix

1031 multiset_order;

1032 - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,

1033 conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code

1034 generation;

1035 - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,

1036 if needed.

1038 Renamed:

1040 multiset_eq_conv_count_eq ~> multiset_ext_iff

1041 multi_count_ext ~> multiset_ext

1042 diff_union_inverse2 ~> diff_union_cancelR

1044 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1046 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.

1048 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.

1050 * Theory List: added transpose.

1052 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions

1053 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries

1054 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1056 Constants:

1057 Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat ~> prod_encode

1058 Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2 ~> prod_decode

1059 Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij ~> int_encode

1060 Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij ~> int_decode

1061 Countable.pair_encode ~> prod_encode

1062 NatIso.prod2nat ~> prod_encode

1063 NatIso.nat2prod ~> prod_decode

1064 NatIso.sum2nat ~> sum_encode

1065 NatIso.nat2sum ~> sum_decode

1066 NatIso.list2nat ~> list_encode

1067 NatIso.nat2list ~> list_decode

1068 NatIso.set2nat ~> set_encode

1069 NatIso.nat2set ~> set_decode

1071 Lemmas:

1072 Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij ~> bij_int_decode

1073 Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj ~> inj_prod_encode

1074 Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj ~> surj_prod_encode

1075 Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj ~> inj_prod_decode

1076 Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj ~> surj_prod_decode

1077 Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id ~> int_encode_inverse

1078 Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id ~> int_decode_inverse

1079 Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode

1080 Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode

1081 Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij ~> inj_int_encode

1082 Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij ~> inj_int_decode

1083 Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij ~> bij_int_encode

1084 Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij ~> bij_int_decode

1086 * Sledgehammer:

1087 - Renamed ATP commands:

1088 atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_atps

1089 atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_atps

1090 atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages

1091 atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize

1092 print_atps ~> sledgehammer available_atps

1093 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1094 - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").

1095 - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize

1096 Sledgehammer's behavior. See the manual for details.

1097 - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces

1098 direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction. (This feature

1099 is still experimental.)

1100 - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in

1101 full-typed mode.

1102 - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.

1104 * Nitpick:

1105 - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.

1106 - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.

1107 - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision

1108 of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.

1109 - Added support for quotient types.

1110 - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"

1111 constructs.

1112 - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and

1113 "termination" proofs).

1114 - Added support for term postprocessors.

1115 - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".

1116 - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.

1117 - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and

1118 record getters.

1119 - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.

1120 - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.

1121 - Improved precision of set constructs.

1122 - Added "atoms" option.

1123 - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same

1124 problems.

1125 - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and

1126 "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and

1127 "SAT4J_Light". INCOMPATIBILITY.

1128 - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",

1129 "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1130 - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1132 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not

1133 a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.

1134 If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.

1135 By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations

1136 are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases

1137 to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.

1138 Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old

1139 behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"

1140 and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.

1141 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1144 *** HOLCF ***

1146 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have

1147 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype

1148 package. Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1150 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for

1151 recursive domain "foo". The reach lemma is now stated directly in

1152 terms of "foo_take". Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must

1153 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.

1155 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously

1156 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form

1157 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.

1158 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,

1159 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

1161 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now

1162 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each

1163 constructor). INCOMPATIBILITY.

1165 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"

1166 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1168 foo_bar.reach ~> foo.reach bar.reach

1169 foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma bar.take_lemma

1171 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for

1172 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1174 foo.ind ~> foo.induct

1175 foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct

1176 foo.coind ~> foo.coinduct

1177 foo.casedist ~> foo.exhaust

1178 foo.exhaust ~> foo.nchotomy

1180 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package

1181 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1183 foo_simps ~> foo.simps

1184 foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold

1185 foo_induct ~> foo.induct

1187 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed. The "fixrec_simp"

1188 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.

1189 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1191 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed. Proof scripts should use

1192 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1194 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1196 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of

1197 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1200 *** ML ***

1202 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:

1204 @{class NAME} -- type class

1205 @{class_syntax NAME} -- syntax representation of the above

1207 @{type_name NAME} -- logical type

1208 @{type_abbrev NAME} -- type abbreviation

1209 @{nonterminal NAME} -- type of concrete syntactic category

1210 @{type_syntax NAME} -- syntax representation of any of the above

1212 @{const_name NAME} -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)

1213 @{const_abbrev NAME} -- abbreviated constant

1214 @{const_syntax NAME} -- syntax representation of any of the above

1216 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw

1217 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).

1219 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary

1220 values similar to the ML toplevel. The result is compiler dependent

1221 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.

1223 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to

1224 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}. This replaces impure

1225 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do

1226 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.

1228 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on

1229 the context or even global references.

1231 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174). It

1232 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).

1234 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names

1235 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:

1237 OuterKeyword ~> Keyword

1238 OuterLex ~> Token

1239 OuterParse ~> Parse

1240 OuterSyntax ~> Outer_Syntax

1241 PrintMode ~> Print_Mode

1242 SpecParse ~> Parse_Spec

1243 ThyInfo ~> Thy_Info

1244 ThyLoad ~> Thy_Load

1245 ThyOutput ~> Thy_Output

1246 TypeInfer ~> Type_Infer

1248 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting

1249 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.

1251 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named

1252 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or

1253 ProofContext.init_global. There are some situations where a global

1254 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to

1255 pass the proper local context through the code!

1257 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data

1258 needs to be pure. Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional

1259 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard

1260 Theory_Data version.

1262 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms

1263 no longer minimize sorts. Thus certification at the boundary of the

1264 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,

1265 which is an important monotonicity principle. Sorts are now minimized

1266 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the

1267 system. Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort

1268 explicitly in rare situations.

1270 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to

1271 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.

1272 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1274 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as

1275 usual for resolution. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.

1277 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global

1278 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is

1279 quite rare).

1281 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted

1282 as infinity (as in chop). Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.

1284 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical

1285 order of type variables. INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof

1286 terms.

1288 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs

1289 may no longer carry premises. User-level specifications are

1290 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.

1293 *** System ***

1295 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;

1296 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions. Note that

1297 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.

1299 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy

1300 feature since Isabelle2009). Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,

1301 respectively.

1303 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the

1304 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit

1305 variant, even on a 64 bit machine. The following example setting

1306 prefers 64 bit if available:

1308 ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"

1310 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging

1311 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.

1312 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built

1313 component.

1315 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono

1316 and Bluesky TeX fonts. It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,

1317 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system

1318 (cf. isabellesym.sty). The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System

1319 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking

1320 the user for manual installation.

1324 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)

1325 -------------------------------------

1327 *** General ***

1329 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>. Only

1330 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.

1333 *** Pure ***

1335 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.

1336 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map

1337 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.

1339 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'. Use "print_interps

1340 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.

1341 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.

1343 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial. New section on conditional

1344 interpretation.

1346 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters

1347 are formally declared. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1350 *** Document preparation ***

1352 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}

1353 instead of @{foo_style style ...} (old form is still retained for

1354 backward compatibility). Styles can be also applied for

1355 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.

1358 *** HOL ***

1360 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with

1361 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and

1362 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order

1363 features (esp. lambda abstractions). It is an incomplete decision

1364 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;

1365 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing. Certificates

1366 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for

1367 re-checking proofs. Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for

1368 installing SMT solvers locally. See src/HOL/SMT.

1370 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by

1371 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C

1372 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#). See src/HOL/Boogie.

1374 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod

1375 relational model finder. See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and

1376 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.

1378 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate

1379 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.

1381 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.

1383 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;

1384 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records

1385 and datatypes. Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory

1386 Library/SML_Quickcheck.

1388 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools. Applies

1389 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to

1390 every proof step in a theory. To be used in batch mode via the

1391 "mirabelle" utility.

1393 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real

1394 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory

1395 Library/Sum_Of_Squares. It is not a complete decision procedure but

1396 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,

1397 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and

1398 inequalities between polynomials. It makes use of external

1399 semidefinite programming solvers. Method "sos" generates a

1400 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need

1401 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked. See

1402 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.

1404 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision

1405 procedure only.

1407 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.

1409 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.

1410 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs. This slows

1411 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"

1412 that fail later.

1414 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type

1415 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.

1417 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using

1418 the same method as the approximation method.

1420 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as

1421 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor

1422 series expansion.

1424 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype

1425 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.

1427 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of

1428 reals.

1430 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure

1431 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.

1433 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's

1434 fixpoint theorem.

1436 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:

1437 - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides

1438 and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory

1439 - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int

1440 accordingly

1441 - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including

1442 theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)

1443 - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to

1444 src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory

1446 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and

1447 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete

1448 lattice.

1450 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of

1451 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,

1452 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been

1453 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems

1454 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and

1455 zdiv_zmult_zmult2. div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.

1456 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1458 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:

1459 - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default

1460 intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity

1461 - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with

1462 le_inf_iff

1463 - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and

1464 sup_aci)

1465 - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci

1466 - new class "boolean_algebra"

1467 - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory

1468 "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)

1469 renamed and with authentic syntax:

1470 Set.Inf ~> Complete_Lattice.Inf

1471 Set.Sup ~> Complete_Lattice.Sup

1472 Set.INFI ~> Complete_Lattice.INFI

1473 Set.SUPR ~> Complete_Lattice.SUPR

1474 Set.Inter ~> Complete_Lattice.Inter

1475 Set.Union ~> Complete_Lattice.Union

1476 Set.INTER ~> Complete_Lattice.INTER

1477 Set.UNION ~> Complete_Lattice.UNION

1478 - authentic syntax for

1479 Set.Pow

1480 Set.image

1481 - mere abbreviations:

1482 Set.empty (for bot)

1483 Set.UNIV (for top)

1484 Set.inter (for inf, formerly Set.Int)

1485 Set.union (for sup, formerly Set.Un)

1486 Complete_Lattice.Inter (for Inf)

1487 Complete_Lattice.Union (for Sup)

1488 Complete_Lattice.INTER (for INFI)

1489 Complete_Lattice.UNION (for SUPR)

1490 - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate

1492 INCOMPATIBILITY. Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or

1493 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also

1494 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be

1495 deleted to achieve the desired effect.

1497 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp

1498 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1

1499 etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1501 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as

1502 pred_set_conv by default. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1504 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated

1505 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^". Power operation on

1506 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic

1507 in class power. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1509 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:

1510 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}". INCOMPATIBILITY,

1511 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally

1512 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this. Fix using

1513 O_assoc[symmetric]. The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".

1515 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an

1516 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV". Lemmas are renamed accordingly.

1517 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1519 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory

1520 prefixes. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1522 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by

1523 the attribute of the same name. Each of the theorems in the list

1524 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and

1525 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the

1526 Simplifier. Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative

1527 of most elementary terms. Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and

1528 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).

1529 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1531 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:

1532 code_unfold replaces code unfold

1533 code_post replaces code post

1534 etc.

1535 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1537 * Renamed methods:

1538 sizechange -> size_change

1539 induct_scheme -> induction_schema

1540 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1542 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".

1543 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.

1545 * Renamed theorems:

1546 Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1

1547 Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left

1548 Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1

1549 *anti_sym -> *antisym*

1550 vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def

1551 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1553 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp]. Removed List.map_compose.

1554 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1556 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).

1557 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1560 *** HOLCF ***

1562 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are

1563 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".

1564 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.

1566 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the

1567 domain package, for representable domains. Syntax is identical to the

1568 old domain package. The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect

1569 recursion using previously-defined type constructors. See

1570 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.

1572 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant

1573 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs

1574 simplification. Rewriting is done using rules declared with the

1575 "fixrec_simp" attribute. The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a

1576 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.

1578 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors

1579 with HOL function types. Pattern-match combinators for the Pair

1580 constructor are pre-configured.

1582 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules

1583 for mutually-recursive definitions: Induction rules have conclusions

1584 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".

1586 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has

1587 been renamed to "below". The name "below" now replaces "less" in many

1588 theorem names. (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported

1589 as well.)

1591 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns". Bottom

1592 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make

1593 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the

1594 Glasgow Haskell Compiler). See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

1595 examples.

1598 *** ML ***

1600 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler

1601 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.

1603 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely

1604 identified entries, with some additional information such as source

1605 position, logical grouping etc.

1607 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and

1608 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data. Data needs

1609 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit

1610 copy operation) is still available for some time.

1612 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)

1613 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state

1614 variables with atomic update. This works via pure function

1615 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as

1616 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,

1617 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!

1619 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)

1620 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe

1621 behaviour. The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to

1622 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive

1623 experiments with references.

1625 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for

1626 parallel tactical reasoning.

1628 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS

1629 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the

1630 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the

1631 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.

1633 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has

1634 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion. Use SUBPROOF

1635 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.

1637 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph. (Since

1638 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them

1639 separately.) Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.

1641 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1643 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar. Occasional,

1644 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1646 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty

1647 mode, which avoids critical setmp.

1649 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related

1650 combinators for "args". INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified

1651 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.

1653 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of. May fall

1654 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as

1655 last resort. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1657 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former

1658 ProofContext.pretty_thm). May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global

1659 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.

1660 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1662 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

1663 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context

1664 instead of global theory.

1667 *** System ***

1669 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores

1670 (max. speedup factor 5.0). See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and

1671 usedir option -q.

1673 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see

1674 also the system manual.

1676 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with

1677 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".

1679 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;

1680 this is always enabled.

1682 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.

1684 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'

1685 on a given logic image. This requires the lighttpd webserver and is

1686 currently supported on Linux only.

1690 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)

1691 --------------------------------

1693 *** General ***

1695 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on

1696 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).

1698 - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of

1699 "isatool."

1701 - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been

1702 removed (should rarely occur to regular users).

1704 - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been

1705 removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).

1707 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables

1708 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,

1709 respectively. (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)

1711 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if

1712 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise. Individual

1713 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the

1714 Isabelle system manual. In particular, Proof General is now available

1715 via "isabelle emacs".

1717 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts. Users may need to

1718 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle

1719 install -p ...", or use symlinks.

1721 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the

1722 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause

1723 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).

1725 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,

1726 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place. Special

1727 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle. Note that

1728 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any

1729 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.

1731 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on

1732 multi-core systems. A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on

1733 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably

1734 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H). (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)

1736 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and

1737 "system") have been updated and extended. Formally checked references

1738 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.

1741 *** Pure ***

1743 * Complete re-implementation of locales. INCOMPATIBILITY in several

1744 respects. The most important changes are listed below. See the

1745 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.

1747 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming. Parameters

1748 must be declared in a for clause. To aid compatibility with previous

1749 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not

1750 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added

1751 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.

1753 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in

1754 locale expressions and context elements. The latter is particularly

1755 useful in locale declarations.

1757 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale

1758 expressions. Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale

1759 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or

1760 optional (syntax "name?:"). The default depends for plain "name:"

1761 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in

1762 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in

1763 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory. The old

1764 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are

1765 no longer generated.

1767 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e". The

1768 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square

1769 brackets) is no longer available. Use locale expressions.

1771 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in

1772 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even

1773 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior. In the

1774 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones. Qualifiers

1775 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.

1777 - Dropped locale element "includes". This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.

1778 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the

1779 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those

1780 that are already present in the theorem specification. Multiple

1781 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one

1782 involving the locale predicate. In the proof body, declarations (most

1783 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective

1784 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").

1786 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the

1787 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,

1788 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on

1789 the parameters (context element "constrains").

1791 - Discontinued "locale (open)". INCOMPATIBILITY.

1793 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.

1794 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs. Use

1795 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.

1797 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation

1798 attributes. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1800 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import

1801 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification. Particularly

1802 in HOL, write

1804 class foo = ...

1806 instead of

1808 class foo = type + ...

1810 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a

1811 parameter prefix any longer. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1813 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.

1814 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.

1816 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in

1817 Isabelle2007. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really

1818 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.

1820 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in

1821 isar-ref manual. Removed locales meta_term_syntax and

1822 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,

1823 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations. Note that &&& should not be used

1824 directly in regular applications.

1826 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal

1827 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).

1829 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command. INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML

1830 interface with 'setup' command instead.

1832 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local

1833 theory context.

1835 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory

1836 context. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1838 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort

1839 hypotheses. Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be

1840 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the

1841 type instance information of the background theory. Non-trivial sort

1842 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via

1843 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c). For example:

1845 lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...

1847 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --

1848 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule

1849 normalization.

1851 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state

1852 addressing etc.

1854 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:

1856 unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)

1857 unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)

1859 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):

1861 a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular

1862 constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other

1863 parts of the code generator framework).

1865 b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code

1866 attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming

1867 from definition, primrec, fun etc.

1869 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1871 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators. Thus [code

1872 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1874 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name

1875 patterns, e.g.

1877 find_consts "_ => bool"

1879 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to

1880 the whole type. Searching by name is possible. Multiple queries are

1881 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a

1882 hyphen:

1884 find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"

1886 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that

1887 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).

1889 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal

1890 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could

1891 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.

1892 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,

1893 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of

1894 higher-order unification.

1897 *** Document preparation ***

1899 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,

1900 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression

1901 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.

1904 *** HOL ***

1906 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL. Entry

1907 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.

1909 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important

1910 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...). This facilitates

1911 experimentation and tool development. Note that user applications

1912 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory

1913 Main, as before.

1915 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates

1916 experimentation due to shorter build times.

1918 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which

1919 were previously part of former HOL-Complex. Entry point Hyperreal

1920 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use

1921 new entry point Hypercomplex.

1923 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of

1924 Posix processes. Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML

1925 process. New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix

1926 platforms (Cygwin). Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined

1927 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions. Basic Sledgehammer

1928 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.

1930 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use

1931 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other

1932 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also

1933 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.

1935 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings

1936 menu.

1938 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial

1939 (contains the empty clause).

1941 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising

1942 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.

1944 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also

1945 src/Tools/coherent.ML).

1947 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary". Usually

1948 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though

1949 logically there is no difference. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1951 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms. The

1952 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed. In

1953 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be

1954 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]). See further

1955 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.

1957 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.

1958 Declare with attribute [code nbe].

1960 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules

1961 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the

1962 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes. Mutual induction rules

1963 are now presented as a list of individual projections

1964 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with

1965 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, in

1966 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple

1967 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t

1968 rule: prod.exhaust) here.

1970 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.

1972 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".

1974 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option. Renamed

1975 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.

1977 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial

1978 orders. With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about

1979 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",

1980 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".

1982 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with

1983 authentic syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY:

1985 op Int ~> Set.Int

1986 op Un ~> Set.Un

1987 INTER ~> Set.INTER

1988 UNION ~> Set.UNION

1989 Inter ~> Set.Inter

1990 Union ~> Set.Union

1991 {} ~> Set.empty

1992 UNIV ~> Set.UNIV

1994 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in

1995 theory Set.

1997 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any

1998 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.

2000 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.

2002 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,

2003 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.

2005 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof

2006 method "approximation". It proves formulas on real values by using

2007 interval arithmetic. In the formulas are also the transcendental

2008 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are

2009 allowed. For examples see

2010 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.

2012 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.

2014 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".

2015 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2017 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution

2018 structure:

2020 src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy

2021 src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/

2022 src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/

2023 src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/

2024 src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/

2025 src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/

2026 src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

2027 src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/

2028 src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/

2029 src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/

2030 src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/

2031 src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/

2032 src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/

2033 src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/

2034 src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/

2035 src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/

2036 src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

2037 src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/

2038 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/

2039 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/

2040 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/

2041 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/

2042 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/

2043 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/

2044 src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/

2045 src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/

2046 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/

2047 src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/

2048 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/

2049 src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/

2050 src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/

2051 src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach

2052 src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/

2054 src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2055 src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2056 src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2057 src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML

2058 src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2059 src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2060 src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2061 src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2062 src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2063 src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools

2065 src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

2066 src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

2067 src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

2068 src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

2069 src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

2070 src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL

2072 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof

2073 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if

2074 possible), avoiding strange error messages.

2076 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a

2077 modification of) the size-change principle. Requires SAT solver. See

2078 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.

2080 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound

2081 variable occurs at most once in let expression body. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2083 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when

2084 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.

2086 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used

2087 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in

2088 proofs, e.g.

2090 assumes [arith]: "x > 0"

2092 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.

2094 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and

2095 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"

2096 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot". INCOMPATIBILITY.

2098 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an

2099 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.

2100 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2102 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit

2103 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption. For instantiation of

2104 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.

2105 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2107 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".

2108 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder

2109 etc. slightly changed. Some theorems named order_class.* now named

2110 preorder_class.*.

2112 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,

2113 "diag" to "Id_on".

2115 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type

2117 ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b

2119 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator

2120 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to

2121 fold_image.

2123 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"

2124 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be

2125 extended with further lemmas!). At the moment both still exist but

2126 the former will disappear at some point.

2128 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in

2129 class recpower. Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types

2130 have been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:

2132 rat_power_0 -> power_0

2133 rat_power_Suc -> power_Suc

2134 realpow_0 -> power_0

2135 realpow_Suc -> power_Suc

2136 complexpow_0 -> power_0

2137 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc

2138 power_poly_0 -> power_0

2139 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc

2141 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been

2142 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on

2143 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1. Likewise a bunch

2144 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class

2145 semiring_div. INCOMPATIBILITY. This involves the following theorem

2146 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:

2148 dvd_def_mod ~> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0

2149 zero_dvd_iff ~> dvd_0_left_iff

2150 dvd_0 ~> dvd_0_right

2151 DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0

2152 DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0

2153 mult_div ~> div_mult_self2_is_id

2154 mult_mod ~> mod_mult_self2_is_0

2156 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based

2157 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field). INCOMPATIBILITY,

2158 rename old lemmas as follows:

2160 dvd_diff -> nat_dvd_diff

2161 dvd_zminus_iff -> dvd_minus_iff

2162 mod_add1_eq -> mod_add_eq

2163 mod_mult1_eq -> mod_mult_right_eq

2164 mod_mult1_eq' -> mod_mult_left_eq

2165 mod_mult_distrib_mod -> mod_mult_eq

2166 nat_mod_add_left_eq -> mod_add_left_eq

2167 nat_mod_add_right_eq -> mod_add_right_eq

2168 nat_mod_div_trivial -> mod_div_trivial

2169 nat_mod_mod_trivial -> mod_mod_trivial

2170 zdiv_zadd_self1 -> div_add_self1

2171 zdiv_zadd_self2 -> div_add_self2

2172 zdiv_zmult_self1 -> div_mult_self2_is_id

2173 zdiv_zmult_self2 -> div_mult_self1_is_id

2174 zdvd_triv_left -> dvd_triv_left

2175 zdvd_triv_right -> dvd_triv_right

2176 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left

2177 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]

2178 zmod_zadd_left_eq -> mod_add_left_eq

2179 zmod_zadd_right_eq -> mod_add_right_eq

2180 zmod_zadd_self1 -> mod_add_self1

2181 zmod_zadd_self2 -> mod_add_self2

2182 zmod_zadd1_eq -> mod_add_eq

2183 zmod_zdiff1_eq -> mod_diff_eq

2184 zmod_zdvd_zmod -> mod_mod_cancel

2185 zmod_zmod_cancel -> mod_mod_cancel

2186 zmod_zmult_self1 -> mod_mult_self2_is_0

2187 zmod_zmult_self2 -> mod_mult_self1_is_0

2188 zmod_1 -> mod_by_1

2189 zdiv_1 -> div_by_1

2190 zdvd_abs1 -> abs_dvd_iff

2191 zdvd_abs2 -> dvd_abs_iff

2192 zdvd_refl -> dvd_refl

2193 zdvd_trans -> dvd_trans

2194 zdvd_zadd -> dvd_add

2195 zdvd_zdiff -> dvd_diff

2196 zdvd_zminus_iff -> dvd_minus_iff

2197 zdvd_zminus2_iff -> minus_dvd_iff

2198 zdvd_zmultD -> dvd_mult_right

2199 zdvd_zmultD2 -> dvd_mult_left

2200 zdvd_zmult_mono -> mult_dvd_mono

2201 zdvd_0_right -> dvd_0_right

2202 zdvd_0_left -> dvd_0_left_iff

2203 zdvd_1_left -> one_dvd

2204 zminus_dvd_iff -> minus_dvd_iff

2206 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2208 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated

2209 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.

2211 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of

2212 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a. In addition to

2213 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod. Code

2214 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.

2216 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real

2217 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a

2218 => real. Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from

2219 theory RealVector.

2221 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product

2222 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.

2223 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,

2224 and inner products are included.

2226 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2. In

2227 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also

2228 supported.

2230 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's

2231 first diagonalization argument.

2233 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,

2234 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in

2235 the HOL Distribution. Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and

2236 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY,

2237 may recover tupled syntax as follows:

2239 hide (open) const gcd

2240 abbreviation gcd where

2241 "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"

2242 notation (output)

2243 GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")

2245 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.

2247 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more

2248 instantiations for algebraic structures. Removed some duplicate

2249 theorems. Changes in simp rules. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2251 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates

2252 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding

2253 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.

2254 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated

2255 simultaneously. Provides a generic and safe interface for

2256 instrumentalizing code generation. See

2257 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.

2258 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML

2259 code on the ML toplevel. Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}

2260 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are

2261 set. Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that

2262 cases.

2264 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now

2265 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be

2266 represented as datatype. The characteristic theorems have to be

2267 proven. INCOMPATIBILITY. Also observe that the following theorems

2268 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:

2270 unit_induct ~> unit.induct

2271 prod_induct ~> prod.induct

2272 sum_induct ~> sum.induct

2273 Suc_Suc_eq ~> nat.inject

2274 Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc ~> nat.distinct

2277 *** HOL-Algebra ***

2279 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation

2280 is not restricted to equality. INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice

2281 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.

2283 * New theory of factorial domains.

2285 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.

2286 INCOMPATIBILITY. Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv

2287 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.

2289 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:

2291 UpperD ~> Upper_memD

2292 LowerD ~> Lower_memD

2293 least_carrier ~> least_closed

2294 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed

2295 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below

2296 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero

2297 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero (collision with assumption)

2300 *** HOL-Nominal ***

2302 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.

2304 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local

2305 theory targets.

2307 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its

2308 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in

2309 'inductive' etc.

2311 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes

2312 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.

2314 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the

2315 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.

2317 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction

2318 principles for inductive definitions. In contrast to

2319 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of

2320 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of

2321 atoms to be avoided. The only inductive definition we have at the

2322 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in

2323 the algorithm W:

2325 Gamma |- t1 : T1 (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2 x#Gamma

2326 -----------------------------------------------------------------

2327 Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2

2329 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by

2330 "close Gamma T1". We are looking for other examples where this

2331 feature might be useful. Please let us know.

2334 *** HOLCF ***

2336 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity

2337 subgoals. The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional

2338 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].

2340 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for

2341 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions. In

2342 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the

2343 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.

2344 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

2346 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general

2347 format as seen in 'inductive' etc. See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

2348 examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2351 *** ZF ***

2353 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.

2356 *** ML ***

2358 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for

2359 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later. Important note: the TimeLimit facility

2360 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML

2361 5.2.1!

2363 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see

2364 src/Pure/Cuncurrent. The data-oriented model of "future values" is

2365 particularly convenient to organize independent functional

2366 computations. The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a

2367 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the

2368 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables. (Requires

2369 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)

2371 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar

2372 context (theory or proof). Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'

2373 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning

2374 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).

2375 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the

2376 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a

2377 theory. (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)

2379 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof

2380 context. Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in

2381 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.

2382 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the

2383 proof. (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)

2385 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup

2386 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and

2387 'method_setup'. INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify

2388 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old

2389 Method.add_method.

2391 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm

2392 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle

2393 name. The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type

2394 is specified. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code

2395 accordingly. Note that extra performance may be gained by producing

2396 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.

2398 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via

2399 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally

2400 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user

2401 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common

2402 examples.

2404 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and

2405 name space operations. Basic operations on qualified names have been

2406 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,

2407 Long_Name.append. Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by

2408 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise

2409 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper

2410 tracking of source positions. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old

2411 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract

2412 bindings everywhere. See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,

2413 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML

2415 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,

2416 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the

2417 bstring as before. INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!

2419 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,

2420 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,

2421 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.). INCOMPATIBILITY, should

2422 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,

2423 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last

2424 resort for legacy applications.

2426 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to

2427 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,

2428 Simp_tac, SIMPSET). INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in

2429 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as

2430 explicit runtime argument.

2432 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,

2433 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof

2434 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking. Moreover,

2435 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings

2436 thereof. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2438 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of

2439 transactions. E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML

2440 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new

2441 theory state.

2443 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by

2444 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:

2446 @{binding name} - basic name binding

2447 @{let ?pat = term} - term abbreviation (HO matching)

2448 @{note name = fact} - fact abbreviation

2449 @{thm fact} - singleton fact (with attributes)

2450 @{thms fact} - general fact (with attributes)

2451 @{lemma prop by method} - singleton goal

2452 @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2} - singleton goal

2453 @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method} - general goal

2454 @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal

2455 @{lemma (open) ...} - open derivation

2458 *** System ***

2460 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke

2461 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not

2462 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on

2463 isabelle-process). The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the

2464 installation location of the Proof General distribution.

2466 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate

2467 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application. See

2468 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example. (The obsolete Java

2469 process wrapper has been discontinued.)

2471 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.

2473 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are

2474 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled. This allows

2475 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal

2476 prover operations.

2480 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)

2481 -------------------------------

2483 *** General ***

2485 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized

2486 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.

2488 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the

2489 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in

2490 conflict with concurrency. INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which

2491 provides a proper context already.

2493 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy

2494 file are no longer supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and

2495 'use' within a theory file will do the job.

2497 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space

2498 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first

2499 space take precedence. INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to

2500 swap theory imports.

2502 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter. Potential

2503 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.

2505 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,

2506 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

2507 white space without escapes.

2509 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes

2510 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML). E.g. "foo\095bar" for

2511 "foo_bar".

2514 *** Pure ***

2516 * Context-dependent token translations. Default setup reverts locally

2517 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.

2519 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.

2520 There are three ways of invoking it:

2522 (1) unused_thms

2523 Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.

2525 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -

2526 Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,

2527 excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.

2529 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m

2530 Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of

2531 their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of

2532 their ancestors.

2534 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by

2535 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance

2536 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered

2537 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in

2538 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer

2539 reported as unused. Moreover, if all theorems in the group are

2540 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.

2542 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for

2543 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is

2544 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).

2546 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous

2547 theorems within the same name space. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove

2548 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications. Note

2549 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using

2550 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.

2552 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.

2554 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and

2555 clasimpset. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear

2556 update of theories within ML code.

2558 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.

2559 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require

2560 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics

2561 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.

2563 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on

2564 theory/local_theory. Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'

2565 instead. Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.

2566 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2568 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.

2570 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class

2571 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.

2572 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.

2573 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and

2574 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.

2576 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only

2577 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the

2578 background context (locale etc.). Affects `prop` notation and method

2579 "fact". INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare

2580 situations.

2582 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented

2583 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the

2584 proof text.

2586 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".

2587 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.

2589 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';

2590 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale

2591 predicates.

2594 *** Document preparation ***

2596 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for

2597 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed

2598 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the

2599 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default

2600 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets

2601 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).

2603 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given

2604 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method

2605 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.

2608 *** HOL ***

2610 * New primrec package. Specification syntax conforms in style to

2611 definition/function/.... No separate induction rule is provided. The

2612 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications

2613 by syntax. The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.

2614 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style

2615 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.

2617 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works

2618 with multithreading.

2620 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a

2621 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses. Theorems that

2622 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.

2624 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To

2625 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]]. Attributes

2626 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed

2627 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2629 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules

2630 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors

2631 out some operations that are done internally by the function package

2632 and makes them available separately. See

2633 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.

2635 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination

2636 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the

2637 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.

2638 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and

2639 just guides the heuristic. To find suitable measure functions, the

2640 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate

2641 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using

2642 the declared rules.

2644 This setup also deals with rules like

2646 "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"

2648 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.

2649 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.

2651 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"

2653 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

2655 - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by

2656 definitions on => and bool.

2658 - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved

2659 using the definitions of the operators on => and bool. Therefore,

2660 the following theorems have been renamed:

2662 subset_def -> subset_eq

2663 psubset_def -> psubset_eq

2664 set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq

2665 Compl_def -> Compl_eq

2666 Sup_set_def -> Sup_set_eq

2667 Inf_set_def -> Inf_set_eq

2668 sup_set_def -> sup_set_eq

2669 inf_set_def -> inf_set_eq

2671 - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some

2672 rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of

2673 the unknowns in the rule is a set.

2675 - Higher order unification and forward proofs:

2676 The proof pattern

2678 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

2679 then have "EX S. P S" ..

2681 no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification

2682 algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern

2684 have "EX S. P S"

2685 proof

2686 show "P S" <...>

2687 qed

2689 - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):

2690 The proof pattern

2692 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

2693 also have "S = T" <...>

2694 finally have "P T" .

2696 no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and

2697 must be replaced by something like

2699 have "P (S::'a set)" <...>

2700 moreover have "S = T" <...>

2701 ultimately have "P T" by simp

2703 - Tactics or packages written in ML code:

2704 Code performing pattern matching on types via

2706 Type ("set", [T]) => ...

2708 must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or

2709 binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a

2710 type of the form

2712 T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool

2714 rather than

2716 T1 => ... => Tn => U set

2718 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and

2719 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.

2721 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2723 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter. Use class

2724 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.

2725 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2727 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"

2728 and "Cons". INCOMPATIBILITY.

2730 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.

2731 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

2733 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and

2734 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.

2735 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2737 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of

2738 the same name in theory Orderings:

2740 less_trans

2741 less_linear

2742 le_imp_less_or_eq

2743 le_less_trans

2744 less_le_trans

2745 less_not_sym

2746 less_asym

2748 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to

2749 less_irrefl_nat. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types

2750 and different variable names.

2752 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.

2754 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of

2755 finite maps.

2757 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.

2759 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed. The infix

2760 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have

2761 disappeared. INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in

2762 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively. Theorems

2763 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"

2764 accordingly.

2766 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer

2767 depend on well-founded relations. INCOMPATIBILITY. Definitions

2768 le_def and less_def have disappeared. Consider lemmas not_less

2769 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.

2771 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin

2772 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been

2773 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes

2774 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,

2775 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.

2776 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2778 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper

2779 case_names ("base" and "step"). INCOMPATIBILITY.

2781 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete

2782 lattices. The form set-specific version is available as

2783 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.

2785 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".

2786 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2788 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings

2789 with division and modulo operations. Subsumes former class dvd_mod.

2791 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory

2792 Int. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2794 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural

2795 numbers rather than integers. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2797 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class

2798 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).

2799 INCOMPATIBILITY.

2801 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic

2802 syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2804 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,

2805 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,

2806 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,

2807 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,

2808 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object

2809 equality. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2811 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term

2812 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.

2813 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.

2815 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.

2817 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.

2819 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of

2820 pairs. Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and

2821 well-orders on sets and on types.

2824 *** ZF ***

2826 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the

2827 same session:

2829 Datatype -> Datatype_ZF

2830 Inductive -> Inductive_ZF

2831 Int -> Int_ZF

2832 IntDiv -> IntDiv_ZF

2833 Nat -> Nat_ZF

2834 List -> List_ZF

2835 Main -> Main_ZF

2837 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below

2838 Main might need to be adapted. Regular theory Main is still

2839 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.

2842 *** ML ***

2844 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const

2845 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.

2847 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact

2848 (of the same name). Removed obsolete print command.

2850 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.

2852 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global

2853 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes

2854 non-critical. The global print_mode reference is for session

2855 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,

2856 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2858 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external

2859 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML

2860 5.2.1). Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!

2863 *** System ***

2865 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---

2866 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.

2868 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;

2869 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR

2870 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".

2872 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general

2873 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.

2875 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to

2876 standard XML transfer syntax. See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and

2877 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.

2879 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)

2880 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust

2881 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.

2883 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),

2884 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).

2886 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature. NB: the documented

2887 way of changing the user's settings is via

2888 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash

2889 script.

2891 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU

2892 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for

2893 optimal performance tuning. The corresponding usedir option -M allows

2894 "max" as an alias for "0". WARNING: does not work on certain versions

2895 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).

2897 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the

2898 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably

2899 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).

2903 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)

2904 -----------------------------------

2906 *** General ***

2908 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a

2909 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the

2910 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:

2911 legacy features will disappear eventually.

2913 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been

2914 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''. Use isatool

2915 fixheaders to convert existing theory files. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2917 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been

2918 discontinued altogether. Note that ML proof scripts may still be used

2919 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML

2920 function use_legacy_bindings. INCOMPATIBILITY.

2922 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',

2923 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords. INCOMPATIBILITY, use double

2924 quotes.

2926 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory

2927 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the

2928 accidental file locations of previously successful loads. The strict

2929 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by

2930 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several

2931 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header

2932 specification, but without merging the results. Potential

2933 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands

2934 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.

2936 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file

2937 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical

2938 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting

2939 (cf. the system manual). The new scheme allows to work with

2940 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source

2941 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.

2943 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy

2944 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy

2945 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader

2946 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.

2948 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is

2949 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous

2950 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the

2951 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and

2952 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit

2953 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.

2955 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',

2956 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in

2957 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations

2958 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space

2959 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse

2960 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax

2961 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and

2962 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.

2964 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required

2965 to keep existing proof scripts running. Most other user-level

2966 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open

2967 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).

2968 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because

2969 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being

2970 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().

2972 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"

2973 criterion; "with_dups" option. Certain ProofGeneral versions might

2974 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).

2976 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1

2977 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are

2978 suppressed from proof state output. Note that the ProofGeneral

2979 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but

2980 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems

2981 limit is imposed.

2983 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of

2984 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''. The body may

2985 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism

2986 that has been implemented on top of these primitives. This concept

2987 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility

2988 and scalability.

2990 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;

2991 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).

2994 *** Document preparation ***

2996 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,

2997 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the

2998 current context.

3000 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which

3001 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.

3003 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation

3004 "c args == rhs" given in the current context. (Any number of

3005 arguments may be given on the LHS.)

3008 *** Pure ***

3010 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to

3011 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle. Definitions and

3012 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with

3013 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic

3014 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class

3015 context). Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate

3016 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting

3017 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.

3018 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).

3019 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.

3021 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable

3022 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes). A short usage

3023 sketch:

3025 internal compilation:

3026 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML

3027 writing SML code to a file:

3028 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>

3029 writing OCaml code to a file:

3030 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>

3031 writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:

3032 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>

3034 evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:

3035 method ``eval''

3037 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.

3039 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:

3041 [code fun]: select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

3042 [code fun del]: deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

3043 [code inline]: select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

3044 [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

3046 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):

3048 code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>

3049 {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+

3051 code_type <and-list of type constructors>

3052 {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+

3054 code_instance <and-list of instances>

3055 {(target)}+

3056 where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>

3058 code_class <and_list of classes>

3059 {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+

3060 where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?

3062 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.

3064 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and

3065 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy. A separate tutorial on code

3066 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc

3067 codegen".

3069 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now

3070 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type

3071 annotations).

3073 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory

3074 syntax.

3076 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic

3077 dependencies. The overloading scheme is slightly more general than

3078 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact

3079 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.

3080 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more

3081 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!

3083 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the

3084 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general

3085 declaration given in the signature. For example, with the declaration

3086 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented

3087 as c(nat). Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural

3088 recursion over such type arguments. Incomplete specification patterns

3089 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the

3090 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.

3091 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive

3092 equations, see section "definitions".

3094 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof

3095 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple

3096 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data. Tools may

3097 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to

3098 these values using Config.get etc. Users may change options via an

3099 associated attribute of the same name. This form of context

3100 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or

3101 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''. Thus it has become

3102 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar

3103 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.

3105 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into

3106 configuration options:

3108 Unify.search_bound unify_search_bound

3109 Unify.trace_bound unify_trace_bound

3110 Unify.trace_simp unify_trace_simp

3111 Unify.trace_types unify_trace_types

3112 Simplifier.simp_depth_limit simp_depth_limit

3113 Blast.depth_limit blast_depth_limit

3114 DatatypeProp.dtK datatype_distinctness_limit

3115 fast_arith_neq_limit fast_arith_neq_limit

3116 fast_arith_split_limit fast_arith_split_limit

3118 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context

3119 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also

3120 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML). The user may add or delete facts via

3121 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command. This facility is

3122 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way

3123 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical

3124 order.

3126 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic

3127 declaration functions written in ML. This enables arbitrary content

3128 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the

3129 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application

3130 context encountered later on.

3132 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures. Command

3133 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body

3134 text in ML). Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current

3135 context. ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.

3137 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations

3138 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,

3139 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on

3140 the background context will persist. This form of in-place

3141 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and

3142 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.

3144 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now

3145 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying

3146 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic

3147 assumption steps. This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'

3148 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",

3149 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the

3150 Isar proof context. POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is

3151 more permissive.

3153 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is

3154 considered a legacy feature. Common applications like ``have A .''

3155 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''. In general,

3156 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and

3157 maintainability of proof texts.

3159 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives

3160 the obtained context from the course of reasoning! For example:

3162 assume "EX x y. A x & B y" -- "any previous fact"

3163 then guess x and y by clarify

3165 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and

3166 proof tools being involved here.

3168 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal

3169 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax. This works wherever

3170 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof

3171 methods, attributes etc. Literal facts are retrieved from the context

3172 according to unification of type and term parameters. For example,

3173 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known

3174 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:

3175 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.

3177 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition

3178 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with

3179 certain special cases of literal facts:

3181 have "A" by fact == note `A`

3182 have "A ==> B" by fact == note `A ==> B`

3183 have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact == note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`

3184 have "P a ==> Q a" by fact == note `P a ==> Q a`

3186 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in

3187 outer syntax. Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without

3188 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.

3190 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,

3191 both named and unnamed ones.

3193 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:

3195 def x == "t" and y == "u"

3197 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to

3198 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given

3199 rewrite rules. Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or

3200 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.

3202 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',

3203 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities

3204 (potentially conditional). The underlying notion of rewrite rule is

3205 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the

3206 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).

3208 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the

3209 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.

3211 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a

3212 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N

3213 sub-goals, which need to exist. For example, ``simp_all [3]''

3214 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]

3215 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the

3216 originally first one.

3218 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order

3219 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as

3220 expected.

3222 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either

3223 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'

3224 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and

3225 assumptions). The latter allows to express general elimination rules

3226 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:

3228 lemma exE: -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

3229 assumes "EX x. P x"

3230 obtains x where "P x"

3232 lemma conjE: -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

3233 assumes "A & B"

3234 obtains A and B

3236 lemma disjE: -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

3237 assumes "A | B"

3238 obtains

3239 A

3240 | B

3242 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"

3243 explicitly:

3245 lemma classical: -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

3246 obtains "~ thesis"

3248 lemma Peirce's_Law: -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

3249 obtains "thesis ==> something"

3251 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the

3252 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.

3253 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be

3254 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the

3255 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute

3256 case_names).

3258 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as

3259 "assms" fact in the proof context. This is more appropriate than the

3260 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current

3261 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.

3263 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or

3264 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a

3265 top-level lemma.

3267 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context

3268 introduction rule (default "that").

3270 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

3271 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens

3272 to occur.

3274 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant

3275 according to the current context. This is particularly useful for

3276 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant

3277 representations independently of name spaces.

3279 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"

3280 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist

3281 in the same context. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3283 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'

3284 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and

3285 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation

3286 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the

3287 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the

3288 current context.

3290 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',

3291 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit

3292 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence). See also the

3293 isar-ref manual. Examples:

3295 axiomatization

3296 eq (infix "===" 50) where

3297 eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"

3299 definition "f x y = x + y + 1"

3300 definition g where "g x = f x x"

3302 abbreviation

3303 neq (infix "=!=" 50) where

3304 "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"

3306 These specifications may be also used in a locale context. Then the

3307 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the

3308 constant name is qualified by the locale base name. An internal

3309 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the

3310 parameters implicit and using the original short name. See also

3311 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic

3312 entities from a monomorphic theory.

3314 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but

3315 not inherited by general import expressions. Also note that

3316 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +

3317 'translations' in common applications. The "no_abbrevs" print mode

3318 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.

3320 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,

3321 independently of name spaces. The parse tree representation is

3322 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and

3323 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.

3325 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms

3326 (e.g. 'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits

3327 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_"). For example:

3329 definition "K x _ = x"

3331 inductive conj for A B

3332 where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"

3334 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of

3335 the current context. Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of

3336 abbreviations on output.

3338 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and

3339 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer

3340 required to be injective. For example, this allows to define

3341 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.

3343 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.

3344 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is

3345 now an interpretation. INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of

3346 locale expressions. In particular, in interpretations of locales with

3347 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not

3348 removed automatically. Use methods `intro_locales' and

3349 `unfold_locales'; see below.

3351 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'

3352 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates. The methods are

3353 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.

3354 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not

3355 unfold predicates to assumptions.

3357 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated

3358 has changed. This enables to override declarations from fragments due

3359 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.

3361 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been

3362 extended. One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are

3363 unfolded in interpreted theorems. This is useful for replacing

3364 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by

3365 concepts already existing in the target context. Example:

3367 interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]

3368 where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"

3370 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a

3371 definition specification element in the context of locale

3372 partial_order.

3374 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support

3375 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level

3376 connectives !! and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals

3377 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long

3378 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in

3379 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also

3380 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic

3381 examples.

3383 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of

3384 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into

3385 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested

3386 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,

3387 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.

3389 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list

3390 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide

3391 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive

3392 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify

3393 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:

3395 (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)

3396 (induct set: foo bar)

3397 (induct pred: foo bar)

3398 (induct type: foo bar)

3400 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the

3401 new format.

3403 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see

3404 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.

3406 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is

3407 considered a legacy feature.

3409 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic

3410 variables (index 0). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

3412 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level

3413 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by

3414 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The

3415 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.

3417 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format

3418 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when

3419 manipulating the claset.

3421 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,

3422 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at

3423 least one premise.

3425 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional

3426 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions). Weights are

3427 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single

3428 rule steps.

3430 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",

3431 where the body does not mention the bound variable. Note that dummy

3432 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes

3433 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected. Potential

3434 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic

3435 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.

3437 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated

3438 parse translation. INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,

3439 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".

3441 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using

3442 the graph browser tool.

3444 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by

3445 default; use '!' option for full details.

3448 *** HOL ***

3450 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose

3451 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).

3452 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples. WARNING: the

3453 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with

3454 multi-threading.

3456 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as

3457 background processes. It generates calls to the "metis" method if

3458 successful. These can be pasted into the proof. Users do not have to

3459 wait for the automatic provers to return. WARNING: does not really

3460 work with multi-threading.

3462 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for

3463 potential counter-examples. Controlled by ML references

3464 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default

3465 5000 milliseconds). Fails silently if statements is outside of

3466 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.

3468 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".

3470 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic

3471 equality.

3473 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in

3474 the new 'class' package:

3476 HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs

3477 HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide

3478 0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero

3479 1 ~> HOL.one_class.one

3480 op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus

3481 op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus

3482 uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus

3483 op * ~> HOL.times_class.times

3484 op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less

3485 op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq

3486 Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power

3487 Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size

3488 Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of

3489 FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf

3490 FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup

3491 Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min

3492 Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max

3493 Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div

3494 Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod

3495 Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd

3497 INCOMPATIBILITY. Adaptions may be required in the following cases:

3499 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",

3500 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for

3501 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong. INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific

3502 names.

3504 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"

3505 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.

3507 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")

3508 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative

3509 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows

3510 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle

3511 distribution). INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs

3513 d) ML code directly refering to constant names

3514 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and

3515 so on. INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.

3516 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.

3518 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".

3520 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex

3521 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn". Two possible defs of

3522 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and

3523 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.

3524 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3526 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory

3527 Orderings), added parameter "less". INCOMPATIBILITY.

3529 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and

3530 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid

3531 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans". INCOMPATIBILITY.

3533 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to

3534 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.

3536 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up

3537 for classes "order" and "linorder". Instances of the reasoner are available

3538 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.

3539 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner

3540 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver. Diagnostic

3541 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner

3542 in the current context.

3544 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated

3545 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.

3546 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3548 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration

3549 with new class dense_linear_order.

3551 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.

3553 constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"

3554 constant "Meet" now named "Inf"

3556 classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named

3557 "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"

3558 class "lorder" now named "lattice"

3559 class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"

3561 Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions

3562 for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).

3564 INCOMPATIBILITY. Theorem renames:

3566 meet_left_le ~> inf_le1

3567 meet_right_le ~> inf_le2

3568 join_left_le ~> sup_ge1

3569 join_right_le ~> sup_ge2

3570 meet_join_le ~> inf_sup_ord

3571 le_meetI ~> le_infI

3572 join_leI ~> le_supI

3573 le_meet ~> le_inf_iff

3574 le_join ~> ge_sup_conv

3575 meet_idempotent ~> inf_idem

3576 join_idempotent ~> sup_idem

3577 meet_comm ~> inf_commute

3578 join_comm ~> sup_commute

3579 meet_leI1 ~> le_infI1

3580 meet_leI2 ~> le_infI2

3581 le_joinI1 ~> le_supI1

3582 le_joinI2 ~> le_supI2

3583 meet_assoc ~> inf_assoc

3584 join_assoc ~> sup_assoc

3585 meet_left_comm ~> inf_left_commute

3586 meet_left_idempotent ~> inf_left_idem

3587 join_left_comm ~> sup_left_commute

3588 join_left_idempotent ~> sup_left_idem

3589 meet_aci ~> inf_aci

3590 join_aci ~> sup_aci

3591 le_def_meet ~> le_iff_inf

3592 le_def_join ~> le_iff_sup

3593 join_absorp2 ~> sup_absorb2

3594 join_absorp1 ~> sup_absorb1

3595 meet_absorp1 ~> inf_absorb1

3596 meet_absorp2 ~> inf_absorb2

3597 meet_join_absorp ~> inf_sup_absorb

3598 join_meet_absorp ~> sup_inf_absorb

3599 distrib_join_le ~> distrib_sup_le

3600 distrib_meet_le ~> distrib_inf_le

3602 add_meet_distrib_left ~> add_inf_distrib_left

3603 add_join_distrib_left ~> add_sup_distrib_left

3604 is_join_neg_meet ~> is_join_neg_inf

3605 is_meet_neg_join ~> is_meet_neg_sup

3606 add_meet_distrib_right ~> add_inf_distrib_right

3607 add_join_distrib_right ~> add_sup_distrib_right

3608 add_meet_join_distribs ~> add_sup_inf_distribs

3609 join_eq_neg_meet ~> sup_eq_neg_inf

3610 meet_eq_neg_join ~> inf_eq_neg_sup

3611 add_eq_meet_join ~> add_eq_inf_sup

3612 meet_0_imp_0 ~> inf_0_imp_0

3613 join_0_imp_0 ~> sup_0_imp_0

3614 meet_0_eq_0 ~> inf_0_eq_0

3615 join_0_eq_0 ~> sup_0_eq_0

3616 neg_meet_eq_join ~> neg_inf_eq_sup

3617 neg_join_eq_meet ~> neg_sup_eq_inf

3618 join_eq_if ~> sup_eq_if

3620 mono_meet ~> mono_inf

3621 mono_join ~> mono_sup

3622 meet_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_eq

3623 join_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_eq

3624 meet_fun_eq ~> inf_fun_eq

3625 join_fun_eq ~> sup_fun_eq

3626 meet_set_eq ~> inf_set_eq

3627 join_set_eq ~> sup_set_eq

3628 meet1_iff ~> inf1_iff

3629 meet2_iff ~> inf2_iff

3630 meet1I ~> inf1I

3631 meet2I ~> inf2I

3632 meet1D1 ~> inf1D1

3633 meet2D1 ~> inf2D1

3634 meet1D2 ~> inf1D2

3635 meet2D2 ~> inf2D2

3636 meet1E ~> inf1E

3637 meet2E ~> inf2E

3638 join1_iff ~> sup1_iff

3639 join2_iff ~> sup2_iff

3640 join1I1 ~> sup1I1

3641 join2I1 ~> sup2I1

3642 join1I1 ~> sup1I1

3643 join2I2 ~> sup1I2

3644 join1CI ~> sup1CI

3645 join2CI ~> sup2CI

3646 join1E ~> sup1E

3647 join2E ~> sup2E

3649 is_meet_Meet ~> is_meet_Inf

3650 Meet_bool_def ~> Inf_bool_def

3651 Meet_fun_def ~> Inf_fun_def

3652 Meet_greatest ~> Inf_greatest

3653 Meet_lower ~> Inf_lower

3654 Meet_set_def ~> Inf_set_def

3656 Sup_def ~> Sup_Inf

3657 Sup_bool_eq ~> Sup_bool_def

3658 Sup_fun_eq ~> Sup_fun_def

3659 Sup_set_eq ~> Sup_set_def

3661 listsp_meetI ~> listsp_infI

3662 listsp_meet_eq ~> listsp_inf_eq

3664 meet_min ~> inf_min

3665 join_max ~> sup_max

3667 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has

3668 type "'a::size ==> bool"

3670 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems

3671 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still

3672 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named

3673 "*.size".

3675 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".

3676 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3678 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,

3679 Linorder etc. have disappeared; operations defined in terms of

3680 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3682 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3684 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size

3685 machine words, with arithemtic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating

3686 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for

3687 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including

3688 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity. Instantiated to all appropriate

3689 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of

3690 numerals on all operations.

3692 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.

3694 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).

3696 * Code generator library theories:

3697 - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target

3698 languages.

3699 - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target

3700 languages.

3701 - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character

3702 codes; includes Code_Integer.

3703 - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.

3704 - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,

3705 denominator).

3706 - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those

3707 representable by rational numbers.

3708 - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will

3709 result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;

3710 includes Code_Integer.

3711 - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to

3712 target-language built-in integers.

3713 - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to

3714 strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.

3716 * New package for inductive predicates

3718 An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via

3720 inductive

3721 p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

3722 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

3723 where

3724 rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"

3725 | ...

3727 with full support for type-inference, rather than

3729 consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

3731 abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

3732 where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

3734 inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"

3735 intros

3736 rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

3737 ...

3739 For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive

3740 sets to be defined with the new package via

3742 inductive_set

3743 s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

3744 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

3745 where

3746 rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

3747 | ...

3749 or

3751 inductive_set

3752 s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

3753 and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

3754 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

3755 where

3756 "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

3757 | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"

3758 | ...

3760 if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.

3762 Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,

3763 src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.

3765 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

3767 - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates

3768 is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly

3769 introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the

3770 introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather

3771 than before the actual inductive definition.

3773 - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now

3774 quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction

3775 rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break

3776 some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by

3777 reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'

3778 statements of the form

3780 case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})

3782 or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding

3783 meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.

3785 | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"

3787 - The format of the elimination rules is now

3789 p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>

3790 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)

3791 ==> ... ==> P

3793 for predicates and

3795 (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>

3796 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)

3797 ==> ... ==> P

3799 for sets rather than

3801 x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>

3802 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)

3803 ==> ... ==> P

3805 This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples

3806 (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all

3807 rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.

3809 - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive

3810 sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The

3811 list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.

3813 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,

3814 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,

3815 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy

3816 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function

3817 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but

3818 users are encouraged to use the new package.

3820 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination

3821 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures.

3823 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including

3824 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional

3825 programming. Internally, this is translated into nested

3826 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined

3827 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show

3828 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow

3829 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an

3830 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new

3831 variable.

3833 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"

3834 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification

3835 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did

3836 previously. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:

3837 - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"

3838 - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules

3840 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using

3841 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the

3842 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for

3843 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding

3844 declarations for computation on the coefficients. The method is

3845 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class

3846 of idoms with numerals. See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at

3847 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this

3848 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.

3850 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over

3851 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to

3852 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class

3853 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,

3854 rat, etc.

3856 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append". Use ML

3857 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to

3858 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.

3860 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".

3862 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.

3863 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)

3865 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.

3866 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.

3868 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :

3869 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list

3870 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3872 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders. It used to be

3873 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]

3874 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3876 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD" to "set_takeWhileD".

3878 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.

3880 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for

3881 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all

3882 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or

3883 positive/negative (in inequations).

3885 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib

3886 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and

3887 ring_distribs. Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field

3888 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3890 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function

3891 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried. Infix syntax for

3892 algebraic operations.

3894 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.

3895 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3897 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.

3898 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3900 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the

3901 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update

3902 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.

3903 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be

3904 adapted.

3906 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0

3907 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring. Richer structures do not

3908 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem

3909 there, not an axiom. INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,

3910 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.

3912 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just

3913 commutative semirings. INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate

3914 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.

3916 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.

3917 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,

3918 better use 'abbreviation'.

3920 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member". INCOMPATIBILITY.

3922 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has

3923 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'. INCOMPATIBILITY --

3924 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:

3925 - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead

3926 of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.

3927 - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.

3928 - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.

3929 - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.

3931 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.

3933 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may

3934 contain free variables. For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''

3935 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof). This command is suitable for

3936 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML

3937 first. Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided. See

3938 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.

3940 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority

3941 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is

3942 "A = B" (with priority 50).

3944 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.

3945 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,

3946 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z". Potential

3947 INCOMPATIBILITY.

3949 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).

3951 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds

3952 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.

3954 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been

3955 removed. Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.

3957 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites

3958 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq"). INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using

3959 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.

3961 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to

3962 True/False.

3964 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".

3966 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.

3968 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the

3969 ``rule'' method.

3971 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:

3972 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences

3973 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form

3974 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.

3976 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.

3977 zChaff is still supported as well.

3979 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,

3980 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;

3982 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to

3983 Library.

3985 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.

3987 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists

3988 as greatest fixed-point.

3990 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as

3991 association lists.

3993 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)

3994 efficiently by compiling it to ML. The goal is "proved" (via an

3995 oracle) if it evaluates to True.

3997 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)

3998 also when invoked by the simplifier. This results in the Simplifier

3999 being more powerful on arithmetic goals. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4000 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old

4001 behavior.

4003 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.

4005 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an

4006 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional

4007 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the

4008 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The

4009 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs

4010 s. If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.

4012 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)

4013 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,

4014 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code

4015 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then

4016 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =

4017 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the

4018 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.

4020 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is

4021 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy

4023 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a

4024 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an

4025 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of

4026 HOL types. This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,

4027 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.

4030 *** HOL-Complex ***

4032 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real

4033 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.

4034 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so

4035 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential

4036 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4038 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and

4039 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a

4040 and norm :: 'a => real.

4042 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from

4043 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now

4044 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

4046 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.

4047 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.

4049 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the

4050 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector

4051 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential

4052 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4054 Infinitesimal :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

4055 HFinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

4056 HInfinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

4057 approx :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool

4058 monad :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

4059 galaxy :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

4060 (NS)LIMSEQ :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

4061 (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

4062 (NS)Bseq :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

4063 (NS)Cauchy :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

4064 (NS)LIM :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool

4065 is(NS)Cont :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

4066 deriv :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool

4067 sgn :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a

4068 exp :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a

4070 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for

4071 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =

4072 hnorm. Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the

4073 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

4075 approx <-- capprox

4076 HFinite <-- CFinite

4077 HInfinite <-- CInfinite

4078 Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal

4079 monad <-- cmonad

4080 galaxy <-- cgalaxy

4081 (NS)LIM <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM

4082 is(NS)Cont <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR

4083 (ns)deriv <-- (ns)cderiv

4086 *** HOL-Algebra ***

4088 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.

4090 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.

4091 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4093 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->

4094 greatest_closed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4096 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute. For examples see

4097 Ring.thy. INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations

4098 of algebraic structures.

4100 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.

4103 *** HOL-Nominal ***

4105 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding

4106 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic. See src/HOL/Nominal and

4107 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples. Prospective users should consult

4108 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/

4111 *** ML ***

4113 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int

4114 (even on SML/NJ).

4116 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked

4117 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at

4118 compile-time. For example:

4120 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}

4121 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}

4122 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}

4123 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}

4124 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}

4125 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}

4126 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}

4127 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}

4128 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}

4129 ML {* @{type_name c} *}

4130 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}

4131 ML {* @{const_name c} *}

4132 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}

4133 ML {* @{context} *}

4134 ML {* @{theory} *}

4135 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}

4136 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}

4137 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}

4138 ML {* @{simpset} *}

4139 ML {* @{claset} *}

4140 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}

4142 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.

4144 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with

4145 ML_Context.trace enabled.

4147 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions

4148 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and

4149 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.

4151 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now

4152 use Context.generic instead of just theory.

4154 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and

4155 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of

4156 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.

4158 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always

4159 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.

4160 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while

4161 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and

4162 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure

4163 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably

4164 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type

4165 declarations and definitions.

4167 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed

4168 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,

4169 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need

4170 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)

4172 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in

4173 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the

4174 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,

4175 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

4177 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with

4178 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed

4179 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --

4180 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and

4181 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede

4182 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.

4184 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --

4185 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been

4186 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted

4187 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for

4188 attributes, methods, etc.

4190 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."

4191 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to

4192 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and

4193 fold_map combinators.

4195 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional

4196 comments (tags) are now strictly separate. Name hints -- which are

4197 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the

4198 derivation.

4200 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an

4201 actual goal state (thm). Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to

4202 achieve the old behaviour.

4204 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a

4205 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule

4206 statements.

4208 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now

4209 enforced instead of silently assumed. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use

4210 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.

4212 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating

4213 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc. This replaces

4214 some popular functions from term.ML:

4216 Term.variant -> Name.variant

4217 Term.variantlist -> Name.variant_list

4218 Term.invent_names -> Name.invent_list

4220 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations

4221 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).

4223 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper

4224 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context. For example,

4225 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and

4226 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces

4227 various freeze_thaw operations.

4229 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for

4230 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former

4231 Tactic.prove). Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results

4232 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for

4233 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard. Note that

4234 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is

4235 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or

4236 in a locale context).

4238 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)

4239 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations

4240 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.

4241 which are considered legacy and await removal.

4243 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking

4244 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),

4245 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term

4246 etc.). Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still

4247 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using

4248 a mere theory instead of a full context.

4250 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception

4251 ERROR of string uniformly. Function error now merely raises ERROR,

4252 without any side effect on output channels. The Isar toplevel takes

4253 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions. ML code may use plain

4254 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:

4256 ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."

4258 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be

4259 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like

4260 this:

4262 Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)

4264 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed

4265 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,

4266 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)

4267 -- use plain ERROR instead.

4269 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a

4270 list. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.

4272 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to

4273 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.

4275 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the

4276 theory before entering a proof state. Transactions now always see a

4277 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and

4278 batch mode.

4280 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax. Renamed

4281 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords. Removed

4282 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in

4283 OuterSyntax.command etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4285 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now

4286 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the

4287 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by

4288 simpset_of/local_simpset_of). Consequently, all plug-in components

4289 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.

4291 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the

4292 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc

4293 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this! Removed

4294 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --

4295 INCOMPATIBILITY. Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to

4296 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.

4298 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces

4299 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a

4300 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --

4301 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4303 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired

4304 "Trueprop" etc.

4307 *** System ***

4309 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now

4310 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER. This simplifies use of multiple

4311 Isabelle installations.

4313 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical

4314 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source

4315 code.

4317 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.

4319 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of

4320 Poly/ML 5.1. The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing

4321 independent theories, according to the given theory header

4322 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via

4323 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A

4324 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up

4325 to 6 on a 8-core machine. User-code needs to observe certain

4326 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar

4327 Implementation manual.

4331 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)

4332 ----------------------------------

4334 *** General ***

4336 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is

4338 theory <name>

4339 imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>

4340 uses <file1> ... <fileM>

4341 begin

4343 where the 'uses' part is optional. The previous syntax

4345 theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:

4347 will disappear in the next release. Use isatool fixheaders to convert

4348 existing theory files. Note that there is no change in ancient

4349 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.

4351 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via

4352 relative and absolute paths.

4354 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a

4355 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,

4356 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select

4357 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that

4358 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified

4359 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose

4360 lhs match term. Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects

4361 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under

4362 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f. Example:

4364 C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."

4366 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",

4367 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."

4368 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).

4370 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of

4371 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.

4373 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that

4374 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both

4375 formal and informal parts). Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof

4376 General interface. Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):

4378 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html

4379 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html

4381 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the

4382 Classical Reasoner. Typical big applications run around 2 times

4383 faster.

4386 *** Document preparation ***

4388 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output

4389 of raw sources. Only those symbols that do not require additional

4390 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are

4391 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim. isatool display

4392 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the

4393 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).

4395 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,

4396 notably folding and hiding. Predefined tags include "theory" (for

4397 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for

4398 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and

4399 "invisible" are unused by default. Users may give explicit tag

4400 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''. The

4401 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document

4402 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of

4403 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,

4404 \isadroptag.

4406 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool

4407 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them). Typical

4408 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present

4409 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold

4410 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit

4411 these parts without any formal replacement text. The Isabelle site

4412 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as

4413 specified above.

4415 * Several new antiquotations:

4417 @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;

4419 @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;

4421 @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the

4422 argument is a known logical constant;

4424 @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or

4425 theorem applying a "style" to it

4427 @{ML text}

4429 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of

4430 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the

4431 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'

4432 to print the specified premise. TermStyle.add_style provides an ML

4433 interface for introducing further styles. See also the "LaTeX Sugar"

4434 document practical applications. The ML antiquotation prints

4435 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.

4437 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',

4438 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which

4439 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations. For

4440 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.

4442 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative

4443 context interpreting the subsequent argument. For example: @{thm

4444 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.

4446 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within

4447 a proof context.

4449 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a

4450 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').

4452 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX

4453 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).

4455 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option

4456 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false

4457 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.

4460 *** Pure ***

4462 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command. Now performs

4463 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for

4464 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also

4465 isar-ref manual. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly

4466 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'

4467 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier. If

4468 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.

4470 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures. First of all,

4471 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted

4472 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary

4473 expressions. Secondly, in a local context with structure

4474 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default

4475 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option

4476 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures. Typical

4477 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.

4479 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and

4480 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is

4481 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.

4483 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend

4484 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for

4485 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.

4487 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an

4488 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of

4489 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle

4490 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;

4491 INCOMPATIBILITY.

4493 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"

4494 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.

4495 INCOMPATIBILITY. This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for

4496 axclasses vs. locales.

4498 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes

4499 instead of base 26 numbers.

4501 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question

4502 marks in schematic variable names.

4504 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or

4505 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name. For example, the

4506 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:

4508 lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"

4509 by simp

4511 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).

4513 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix

4514 annotations as "(00...)".

4516 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter

4517 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.

4518 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class

4519 "logic" vs. "{}". Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper

4520 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'. Some very

4521 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption

4522 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).

4524 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.

4525 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'

4526 rather than 'types'. INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic

4527 specifications.

4529 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be

4530 locally fixed variables as well.

4532 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting

4533 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth

4534 Limit.

4536 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current

4537 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc

4538 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier

4539 recursively. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs

4540 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead. Moreover, the

4541 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to

4542 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.

4544 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!

4545 or ==>. More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of

4546 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.

4548 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4550 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived

4551 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already. Both

4552 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.

4553 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /

4554 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;

4555 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.

4557 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific

4558 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.

4560 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference

4561 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),

4562 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');

4564 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.

4566 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive

4567 theory development.

4569 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code

4570 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures

4571 for each theory). INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'

4572 must be quoted when used as identifiers.

4574 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using

4575 the code generator. INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be

4576 quoted when used as identifier.

4579 *** Locales ***

4581 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in

4582 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3). These generate

4583 proof obligations from the expression specification. After the

4584 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added

4585 to the theory, target locale or proof context. The synopsis of the

4586 commands is a follows:

4588 (1) interpretation expr inst

4589 (2) interpretation target < expr

4590 (3) interpret expr inst

4592 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter

4593 instantiation of terms from the current context. This is applied to

4594 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.

4595 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the

4596 locale expression. Interpretation is smart in that interpretations

4597 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are

4598 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate. Use 'print_interps' to

4599 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale. For details,

4600 see the Isar Reference manual. Examples can be found in

4601 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.

4603 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use

4604 'interpret' instead.

4606 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to

4607 parameters.

4609 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax

4610 redeclaration.

4612 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.

4614 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /

4615 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition

4616 context, independently of the context of later invocations. Moreover,

4617 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied

4618 to attribute arguments as expected.

4620 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of

4621 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to

4622 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.

4623 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static

4624 binding mechanism. Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and

4625 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further

4626 intervention. Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"

4627 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both

4628 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed

4629 values to argument tokens explicitly.

4631 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal

4632 statements with 'includes'. INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different

4633 theorem statement in rare situations.

4635 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements. Use

4636 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.

4639 *** Provers ***

4641 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for

4642 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is

4643 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption. INCOMPATIBILITY: may

4644 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is

4645 still available as 'simplesubst'.

4647 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only

4648 and quasi orders.

4650 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and

4651 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.

4653 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth

4654 limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.

4656 * Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup

4657 is peformed already. Object-logics merely need to finish their

4658 initial simpset configuration as before. INCOMPATIBILITY.

4661 *** HOL ***

4663 * Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:

4665 syntax (epsilon)

4666 "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a" ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)

4668 The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX

4669 and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.

4670 Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>

4671 becomes available as variable, constant etc. INCOMPATIBILITY,

4673 * "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".

4674 Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc. The x-symbol for >=

4675 is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to

4676 support corresponding Isar calculations.

4678 * "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"

4679 instead of ":".

4681 * theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:

4683 Old New

4684 {..n(} {..<n}

4685 {)n..} {n<..}

4686 {m..n(} {m..<n}

4687 {)m..n} {m<..n}

4688 {)m..n(} {m<..<n}

4690 The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next

4691 release. For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace

4692 patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):

4694 {)\([^\.]*\)\.\. -> {\1<\.\.}

4695 \.\.\([^(}]*\)(} -> \.\.<\1}

4697 * Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving

4698 equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic

4699 interface.

4701 * Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over

4702 finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is

4703 now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can

4704 be a tuple pattern.

4706 Some new syntax forms are available:

4708 "\<Sum>x | P. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"

4709 "\<Sum>x = a..b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"

4710 "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"

4711 "\<Sum>x < k. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"

4713 The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate

4714 function "Summation", which has been discontinued.

4716 * theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case

4717 is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case

4718 (insert F x)'.

4720 * The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger

4721 fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and

4722 typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.

4724 * New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.

4725 Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed. See

4726 HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.

4728 * Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the

4729 induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by

4730 induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather

4731 than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY

4732 in unstructured proof scripts.

4734 * Reworked implementation of records. Improved scalability for

4735 records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type

4736 inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but

4737 of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear

4738 in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields. The

4739 top-level (users) view on records is preserved. Potential

4740 INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the

4741 old record representation. The type generated for a record is called

4742 <record_name>_ext_type.

4744 Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the

4745 proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if

4746 quick_and_dirty is enabled). Definitions of large records can take

4747 quite long.

4749 New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record

4750 updates enabled by default. Moreover, trivial updates are also

4751 removed: r(|x := x r|) = r. INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break

4752 occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.

4754 * typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra

4755 type-variables in the term.

4757 * Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains

4758 involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics

4759 provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers. INCOMPATIBILITY:

4760 old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more

4761 goals than previously.

4763 * Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is

4764 present. Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular

4765 numbers and sets. For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y

4766 just like y <= x.

4768 * Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x". If a is a free or

4769 bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded. Otherwise

4770 first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If

4771 possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",

4772 otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g. The simproc can be

4773 enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc. Potential

4774 INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.

4776 * Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.

4778 * Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background

4779 jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.

4781 * Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and

4782 improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and

4783 inequalities.

4785 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

4786 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

4788 abs_eq now named abs_of_nonneg

4789 abs_of_ge_0 now named abs_of_nonneg

4790 abs_minus_eq now named abs_of_nonpos

4791 imp_abs_id now named abs_of_nonneg

4792 imp_abs_neg_id now named abs_of_nonpos

4793 mult_pos now named mult_pos_pos

4794 mult_pos_le now named mult_nonneg_nonneg

4795 mult_pos_neg_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos

4796 mult_pos_neg2_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2

4797 mult_neg now named mult_neg_neg

4798 mult_neg_le now named mult_nonpos_nonpos

4800 * The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:

4802 zero_le_square

4803 not_square_less_zero

4805 The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:

4807 realpow_zero_zero

4808 realpow_two

4809 realpow_less

4810 zero_le_power

4811 realpow_two_le

4812 abs_realpow_two

4813 realpow_two_abs

4815 * Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.

4817 * Theory List:

4819 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

4820 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

4822 list_all_Nil now named list_all.simps(1)

4823 list_all_Cons now named list_all.simps(2)

4824 list_all_conv now named list_all_iff

4825 set_mem_eq now named mem_iff

4827 * Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support

4828 asymptotic "big O" calculations. See the notes in BigO.thy.

4831 *** HOL-Complex ***

4833 * Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and

4834 integers in the reals.

4836 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

4837 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

4839 exp_ge_add_one_self now requires no hypotheses

4840 real_of_int_add reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

4841 real_of_int_minus reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

4842 real_of_int_diff reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

4843 real_of_int_mult reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

4845 * Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.

4847 * Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm

4849 * Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making

4850 nonstandard types. The old type names are now type synonyms:

4852 hypreal = real star

4853 hypnat = nat star

4854 hcomplex = complex star

4856 * Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been

4857 replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

4859 star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex

4861 starset <-- starsetNat, starsetC

4862 *s* <-- *sNat*, *sc*

4863 starset_n <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n

4864 *sn* <-- *sNatn*, *scn*

4865 InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets

4867 starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

4868 *f* <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*

4869 starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n

4870 *fn* <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*

4871 InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs

4873 * Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of

4874 theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):

4876 add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute

4877 add_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs

4878 OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left

4879 OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right

4880 right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus

4881 left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left

4882 mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute

4883 mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc

4884 mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left

4885 mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right

4886 mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left

4887 left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib

4888 right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2

4889 zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one

4890 right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse

4891 left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left

4892 order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl

4893 order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans

4894 order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym

4895 order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le

4896 linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear

4897 add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono

4898 mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2

4899 add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order

4901 * Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific

4902 versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the

4903 new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):

4905 STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set

4906 STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set

4907 STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un

4908 STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int

4909 STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl

4910 STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset

4911 STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem

4912 STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl

4913 STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff

4914 STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,

4915 STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset

4916 starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un

4917 starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int

4918 starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl

4919 starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff

4920 InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un

4921 InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int

4922 InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl

4923 InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff

4924 InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff

4925 InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n

4926 starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq

4927 starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}

4928 starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

4929 starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

4930 starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult

4931 starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add

4932 starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus

4933 starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff

4934 starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o

4935 starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2

4936 starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun

4937 starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse

4938 starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq

4939 starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff

4940 starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id

4941 starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx

4942 starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox

4943 starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs

4944 starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel

4945 starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2

4946 starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox

4947 starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox

4948 starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox

4949 starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx

4950 starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse

4951 starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide

4952 starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n

4953 starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult

4954 starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add

4955 starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus

4956 starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun

4957 starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus

4958 starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq

4960 star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add

4961 star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus

4962 star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff

4963 star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult

4964 star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse

4965 star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le

4966 star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less

4967 star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num

4968 star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num

4969 star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs

4970 star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide

4972 star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add

4973 star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus

4974 star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff

4975 star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult

4976 star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one

4977 star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero

4978 star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff

4979 star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff

4980 star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff

4981 star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse

4982 star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide

4983 star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat

4984 star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int

4985 star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of

4986 star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff

4987 star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff

4988 star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff

4989 star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff

4990 star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff

4991 star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power

4992 star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff

4994 * Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer

4995 principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions

4996 nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"

4997 replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.

4998 To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-

4999 standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.

5001 * Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.

5004 *** HOLCF ***

5006 * Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support

5007 continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full

5008 type-inference.

5010 * New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it

5011 is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic

5012 instead of exponential time).

5014 * New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.

5015 Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:

5017 domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")

5019 * New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern

5020 matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also

5021 supported. Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,

5022 sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given

5023 equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

5024 syntax and examples.

5026 * New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes

5027 of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,

5028 but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility

5029 requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,

5030 with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.

5032 * HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming

5033 scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):

5035 foo_inject: "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"

5036 foo_eq: "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"

5037 foo_less: "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"

5038 foo_strict: "foo$UU = UU"

5039 foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"

5040 foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"

5043 *** ZF ***

5045 * ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,

5046 including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel

5047 of a homomorphism).

5049 * ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually

5050 makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);

5051 the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.

5054 *** Cube ***

5056 * Converted to Isar theory format; use locales instead of axiomatic

5057 theories.

5060 *** ML ***

5062 * Pure/library.ML: added ##>, ##>>, #>> -- higher-order counterparts

5063 for ||>, ||>>, |>>,

5065 * Pure/library.ML no longer defines its own option datatype, but uses

5066 that of the SML basis, which has constructors NONE and SOME instead of

5067 None and Some, as well as exception Option.Option instead of OPTION.

5068 The functions the, if_none, is_some, is_none have been adapted

5069 accordingly, while Option.map replaces apsome.

5071 * Pure/library.ML: the exception LIST has been given up in favour of

5072 the standard exceptions Empty and Subscript, as well as

5073 Library.UnequalLengths. Function like Library.hd and Library.tl are

5074 superceded by the standard hd and tl functions etc.

5076 A number of basic list functions are no longer exported to the ML

5077 toplevel, as they are variants of predefined functions. The following

5078 suggests how one can translate existing code:

5080 rev_append xs ys = List.revAppend (xs, ys)

5081 nth_elem (i, xs) = List.nth (xs, i)

5082 last_elem xs = List.last xs

5083 flat xss = List.concat xss

5084 seq fs = List.app fs

5085 partition P xs = List.partition P xs

5086 mapfilter f xs = List.mapPartial f xs

5088 * Pure/library.ML: several combinators for linear functional

5089 transformations, notably reverse application and composition:

5091 x |> f f #> g

5092 (x, y) |-> f f #-> g

5094 * Pure/library.ML: introduced/changed precedence of infix operators:

5096 infix 1 |> |-> ||> ||>> |>> |>>> #> #->;

5097 infix 2 ?;

5098 infix 3 o oo ooo oooo;

5099 infix 4 ~~ upto downto;

5101 Maybe INCOMPATIBILITY when any of those is used in conjunction with other

5102 infix operators.

5104 * Pure/library.ML: natural list combinators fold, fold_rev, and

5105 fold_map support linear functional transformations and nesting. For

5106 example:

5108 fold f [x1, ..., xN] y =

5109 y |> f x1 |> ... |> f xN

5111 (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] y =

5112 y |> fold f xs1 |> ... |> fold f xsN

5114 fold f [x1, ..., xN] =

5115 f x1 #> ... #> f xN

5117 (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] =

5118 fold f xs1 #> ... #> fold f xsN

5120 * Pure/library.ML: the following selectors on type 'a option are

5121 available:

5123 the: 'a option -> 'a (*partial*)

5124 these: 'a option -> 'a where 'a = 'b list

5125 the_default: 'a -> 'a option -> 'a

5126 the_list: 'a option -> 'a list

5128 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides

5129 basic operations for association lists, following natural argument

5130 order; moreover the explicit equality predicate passed here avoids

5131 potentially expensive polymorphic runtime equality checks.

5132 The old functions may be expressed as follows:

5134 assoc = uncurry (AList.lookup (op =))

5135 assocs = these oo AList.lookup (op =)

5136 overwrite = uncurry (AList.update (op =)) o swap

5138 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides

5140 val make: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> ('a * 'b) list

5141 val find: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> ('c * 'b) list -> 'a -> 'c list

5143 replacing make_keylist and keyfilter (occassionally used)

5144 Naive rewrites:

5146 make_keylist = AList.make

5147 keyfilter = AList.find (op =)

5149 * eq_fst and eq_snd now take explicit equality parameter, thus

5150 avoiding eqtypes. Naive rewrites:

5152 eq_fst = eq_fst (op =)

5153 eq_snd = eq_snd (op =)

5155 * Removed deprecated apl and apr (rarely used).

5156 Naive rewrites:

5158 apl (n, op) =>>= curry op n

5159 apr (op, m) =>>= fn n => op (n, m)

5161 * Pure/General: structure OrdList (cf. Pure/General/ord_list.ML)

5162 provides a reasonably efficient light-weight implementation of sets as

5163 lists.

5165 * Pure/General: generic tables (cf. Pure/General/table.ML) provide a

5166 few new operations; existing lookup and update are now curried to

5167 follow natural argument order (for use with fold etc.);

5168 INCOMPATIBILITY, use (uncurry Symtab.lookup) etc. as last resort.

5170 * Pure/General: output via the Isabelle channels of

5171 writeln/warning/error etc. is now passed through Output.output, with a

5172 hook for arbitrary transformations depending on the print_mode

5173 (cf. Output.add_mode -- the first active mode that provides a output

5174 function wins). Already formatted output may be embedded into further

5175 text via Output.raw; the result of Pretty.string_of/str_of and derived

5176 functions (string_of_term/cterm/thm etc.) is already marked raw to

5177 accommodate easy composition of diagnostic messages etc. Programmers

5178 rarely need to care about Output.output or Output.raw at all, with

5179 some notable exceptions: Output.output is required when bypassing the

5180 standard channels (writeln etc.), or in token translations to produce

5181 properly formatted results; Output.raw is required when capturing

5182 already output material that will eventually be presented to the user

5183 a second time. For the default print mode, both Output.output and

5184 Output.raw have no effect.

5186 * Pure/General: Output.time_accumulator NAME creates an operator ('a

5187 -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b to measure runtime and count invocations; the

5188 cumulative results are displayed at the end of a batch session.

5190 * Pure/General: File.sysify_path and File.quote_sysify path have been

5191 replaced by File.platform_path and File.shell_path (with appropriate

5192 hooks). This provides a clean interface for unusual systems where the

5193 internal and external process view of file names are different.

5195 * Pure: more efficient orders for basic syntactic entities: added

5196 fast_string_ord, fast_indexname_ord, fast_term_ord; changed sort_ord

5197 and typ_ord to use fast_string_ord and fast_indexname_ord (term_ord is

5198 NOT affected); structures Symtab, Vartab, Typtab, Termtab use the fast

5199 orders now -- potential INCOMPATIBILITY for code that depends on a

5200 particular order for Symtab.keys, Symtab.dest, etc. (consider using

5201 Library.sort_strings on result).

5203 * Pure/term.ML: combinators fold_atyps, fold_aterms, fold_term_types,

5204 fold_types traverse types/terms from left to right, observing natural

5205 argument order. Supercedes previous foldl_XXX versions, add_frees,

5206 add_vars etc. have been adapted as well: INCOMPATIBILITY.

5208 * Pure: name spaces have been refined, with significant changes of the

5209 internal interfaces -- INCOMPATIBILITY. Renamed cond_extern(_table)

5210 to extern(_table). The plain name entry path is superceded by a

5211 general 'naming' context, which also includes the 'policy' to produce

5212 a fully qualified name and external accesses of a fully qualified

5213 name; NameSpace.extend is superceded by context dependent

5214 Sign.declare_name. Several theory and proof context operations modify

5215 the naming context. Especially note Theory.restore_naming and

5216 ProofContext.restore_naming to get back to a sane state; note that

5217 Theory.add_path is no longer sufficient to recover from

5218 Theory.absolute_path in particular.

5220 * Pure: new flags short_names (default false) and unique_names

5221 (default true) for controlling output of qualified names. If

5222 short_names is set, names are printed unqualified. If unique_names is

5223 reset, the name prefix is reduced to the minimum required to achieve

5224 the original result when interning again, even if there is an overlap

5225 with earlier declarations.

5227 * Pure/TheoryDataFun: change of the argument structure; 'prep_ext' is

5228 now 'extend', and 'merge' gets an additional Pretty.pp argument

5229 (useful for printing error messages). INCOMPATIBILITY.

5231 * Pure: major reorganization of the theory context. Type Sign.sg and

5232 Theory.theory are now identified, referring to the universal

5233 Context.theory (see Pure/context.ML). Actual signature and theory

5234 content is managed as theory data. The old code and interfaces were

5235 spread over many files and structures; the new arrangement introduces

5236 considerable INCOMPATIBILITY to gain more clarity:

5238 Context -- theory management operations (name, identity, inclusion,

5239 parents, ancestors, merge, etc.), plus generic theory data;

5241 Sign -- logical signature and syntax operations (declaring consts,

5242 types, etc.), plus certify/read for common entities;

5244 Theory -- logical theory operations (stating axioms, definitions,

5245 oracles), plus a copy of logical signature operations (consts,

5246 types, etc.); also a few basic management operations (Theory.copy,

5247 Theory.merge, etc.)

5249 The most basic sign_of operations (Theory.sign_of, Thm.sign_of_thm

5250 etc.) as well as the sign field in Thm.rep_thm etc. have been retained

5251 for convenience -- they merely return the theory.

5253 * Pure: type Type.tsig is superceded by theory in most interfaces.

5255 * Pure: the Isar proof context type is already defined early in Pure

5256 as Context.proof (note that ProofContext.context and Proof.context are

5257 aliases, where the latter is the preferred name). This enables other

5258 Isabelle components to refer to that type even before Isar is present.

5260 * Pure/sign/theory: discontinued named name spaces (i.e. classK,

5261 typeK, constK, axiomK, oracleK), but provide explicit operations for

5262 any of these kinds. For example, Sign.intern typeK is now

5263 Sign.intern_type, Theory.hide_space Sign.typeK is now

5264 Theory.hide_types. Also note that former

5265 Theory.hide_classes/types/consts are now

5266 Theory.hide_classes_i/types_i/consts_i, while the non '_i' versions

5267 internalize their arguments! INCOMPATIBILITY.

5269 * Pure: get_thm interface (of PureThy and ProofContext) expects

5270 datatype thmref (with constructors Name and NameSelection) instead of

5271 plain string -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

5273 * Pure: cases produced by proof methods specify options, where NONE

5274 means to remove case bindings -- INCOMPATIBILITY in

5275 (RAW_)METHOD_CASES.

5277 * Pure: the following operations retrieve axioms or theorems from a

5278 theory node or theory hierarchy, respectively:

5280 Theory.axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list

5281 Theory.all_axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list

5282 PureThy.thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list

5283 PureThy.all_thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list

5285 * Pure: print_tac now outputs the goal through the trace channel.

5287 * Isar toplevel: improved diagnostics, mostly for Poly/ML only.

5288 Reference Toplevel.debug (default false) controls detailed printing

5289 and tracing of low-level exceptions; Toplevel.profiling (default 0)

5290 controls execution profiling -- set to 1 for time and 2 for space

5291 (both increase the runtime).

5293 * Isar session: The initial use of ROOT.ML is now always timed,

5294 i.e. the log will show the actual process times, in contrast to the

5295 elapsed wall-clock time that the outer shell wrapper produces.

5297 * Simplifier: improved handling of bound variables (nameless

5298 representation, avoid allocating new strings). Simprocs that invoke

5299 the Simplifier recursively should use Simplifier.inherit_bounds to

5300 avoid local name clashes. Failure to do so produces warnings

5301 "Simplifier: renamed bound variable ..."; set Simplifier.debug_bounds

5302 for further details.

5304 * ML functions legacy_bindings and use_legacy_bindings produce ML fact

5305 bindings for all theorems stored within a given theory; this may help

5306 in porting non-Isar theories to Isar ones, while keeping ML proof

5307 scripts for the time being.

5309 * ML operator HTML.with_charset specifies the charset begin used for

5310 generated HTML files. For example:

5312 HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Hebrew";

5313 HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Chinese";

5316 *** System ***

5318 * Allow symlinks to all proper Isabelle executables (Isabelle,

5319 isabelle, isatool etc.).

5321 * ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT setting specifies preferred document format (for

5322 isatool doc, isatool mkdir, display_drafts etc.).

5324 * isatool usedir: option -f allows specification of the ML file to be

5325 used by Isabelle; default is ROOT.ML.

5327 * New isatool version outputs the version identifier of the Isabelle

5328 distribution being used.

5330 * HOL: new isatool dimacs2hol converts files in DIMACS CNF format

5331 (containing Boolean satisfiability problems) into Isabelle/HOL

5332 theories.

5336 New in Isabelle2004 (April 2004)

5337 --------------------------------

5339 *** General ***

5341 * Provers/order.ML: new efficient reasoner for partial and linear orders.

5342 Replaces linorder.ML.

5344 * Pure: Greek letters (except small lambda, \<lambda>), as well as Gothic

5345 (\<aa>...\<zz>\<AA>...\<ZZ>), calligraphic (\<A>...\<Z>), and Euler

5346 (\<a>...\<z>), are now considered normal letters, and can therefore

5347 be used anywhere where an ASCII letter (a...zA...Z) has until

5348 now. COMPATIBILITY: This obviously changes the parsing of some

5349 terms, especially where a symbol has been used as a binder, say

5350 '\<Pi>x. ...', which is now a type error since \<Pi>x will be parsed

5351 as an identifier. Fix it by inserting a space around former

5352 symbols. Call 'isatool fixgreek' to try to fix parsing errors in

5353 existing theory and ML files.

5355 * Pure: Macintosh and Windows line-breaks are now allowed in theory files.

5357 * Pure: single letter sub/superscripts (\<^isub> and \<^isup>) are now

5358 allowed in identifiers. Similar to Greek letters \<^isub> is now considered

5359 a normal (but invisible) letter. For multiple letter subscripts repeat

5360 \<^isub> like this: x\<^isub>1\<^isub>2.

5362 * Pure: There are now sub-/superscripts that can span more than one

5363 character. Text between \<^bsub> and \<^esub> is set in subscript in

5364 ProofGeneral and LaTeX, text between \<^bsup> and \<^esup> in

5365 superscript. The new control characters are not identifier parts.

5367 * Pure: Control-symbols of the form \<^raw:...> will literally print the

5368 content of "..." to the latex file instead of \isacntrl... . The "..."

5369 may consist of any printable characters excluding the end bracket >.

5371 * Pure: Using new Isar command "finalconsts" (or the ML functions

5372 Theory.add_finals or Theory.add_finals_i) it is now possible to

5373 declare constants "final", which prevents their being given a definition

5374 later. It is useful for constants whose behaviour is fixed axiomatically

5375 rather than definitionally, such as the meta-logic connectives.

5377 * Pure: 'instance' now handles general arities with general sorts

5378 (i.e. intersections of classes),

5380 * Presentation: generated HTML now uses a CSS style sheet to make layout

5381 (somewhat) independent of content. It is copied from lib/html/isabelle.css.

5382 It can be changed to alter the colors/layout of generated pages.

5385 *** Isar ***

5387 * Tactic emulation methods rule_tac, erule_tac, drule_tac, frule_tac,

5388 cut_tac, subgoal_tac and thin_tac:

5389 - Now understand static (Isar) contexts. As a consequence, users of Isar

5390 locales are no longer forced to write Isar proof scripts.

5391 For details see Isar Reference Manual, paragraph 4.3.2: Further tactic

5392 emulations.

5393 - INCOMPATIBILITY: names of variables to be instantiated may no

5394 longer be enclosed in quotes. Instead, precede variable name with `?'.

5395 This is consistent with the instantiation attribute "where".

5397 * Attributes "where" and "of":

5398 - Now take type variables of instantiated theorem into account when reading

5399 the instantiation string. This fixes a bug that caused instantiated

5400 theorems to have too special types in some circumstances.

5401 - "where" permits explicit instantiations of type variables.

5403 * Calculation commands "moreover" and "also" no longer interfere with

5404 current facts ("this"), admitting arbitrary combinations with "then"

5405 and derived forms.

5407 * Locales:

5408 - Goal statements involving the context element "includes" no longer

5409 generate theorems with internal delta predicates (those ending on

5410 "_axioms") in the premise.

5411 Resolve particular premise with <locale>.intro to obtain old form.

5412 - Fixed bug in type inference ("unify_frozen") that prevented mix of target

5413 specification and "includes" elements in goal statement.

5414 - Rule sets <locale>.intro and <locale>.axioms no longer declared as

5415 [intro?] and [elim?] (respectively) by default.

5416 - Experimental command for instantiation of locales in proof contexts:

5417 instantiate <label>[<attrs>]: <loc>

5418 Instantiates locale <loc> and adds all its theorems to the current context

5419 taking into account their attributes. Label and attrs are optional

5420 modifiers, like in theorem declarations. If present, names of

5421 instantiated theorems are qualified with <label>, and the attributes

5422 <attrs> are applied after any attributes these theorems might have already.

5423 If the locale has assumptions, a chained fact of the form

5424 "<loc> t1 ... tn" is expected from which instantiations of the parameters

5425 are derived. The command does not support old-style locales declared

5426 with "locale (open)".

5427 A few (very simple) examples can be found in FOL/ex/LocaleInst.thy.

5429 * HOL: Tactic emulation methods induct_tac and case_tac understand static

5430 (Isar) contexts.

5433 *** HOL ***

5435 * Proof import: new image HOL4 contains the imported library from

5436 the HOL4 system with about 2500 theorems. It is imported by

5437 replaying proof terms produced by HOL4 in Isabelle. The HOL4 image

5438 can be used like any other Isabelle image. See

5439 HOL/Import/HOL/README for more information.

5441 * Simplifier:

5442 - Much improved handling of linear and partial orders.

5443 Reasoners for linear and partial orders are set up for type classes

5444 "linorder" and "order" respectively, and are added to the default simpset

5445 as solvers. This means that the simplifier can build transitivity chains

5446 to solve goals from the assumptions.

5447 - INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break occasionally. Typically, applications

5448 of blast or auto after simplification become unnecessary because the goal

5449 is solved by simplification already.

5451 * Numerics: new theory Ring_and_Field contains over 250 basic numerical laws,

5452 all proved in axiomatic type classes for semirings, rings and fields.

5454 * Numerics:

5455 - Numeric types (nat, int, and in HOL-Complex rat, real, complex, etc.) are

5456 now formalized using the Ring_and_Field theory mentioned above.

5457 - INCOMPATIBILITY: simplification and arithmetic behaves somewhat differently

5458 than before, because now they are set up once in a generic manner.

5459 - INCOMPATIBILITY: many type-specific arithmetic laws have gone.

5460 Look for the general versions in Ring_and_Field (and Power if they concern

5461 exponentiation).

5463 * Type "rat" of the rational numbers is now available in HOL-Complex.

5465 * Records:

5466 - Record types are now by default printed with their type abbreviation

5467 instead of the list of all field types. This can be configured via

5468 the reference "print_record_type_abbr".

5469 - Simproc "record_upd_simproc" for simplification of multiple updates added

5470 (not enabled by default).

5471 - Simproc "record_ex_sel_eq_simproc" to simplify EX x. sel r = x resp.

5472 EX x. x = sel r to True (not enabled by default).

5473 - Tactic "record_split_simp_tac" to split and simplify records added.

5475 * 'specification' command added, allowing for definition by

5476 specification. There is also an 'ax_specification' command that

5477 introduces the new constants axiomatically.

5479 * arith(_tac) is now able to generate counterexamples for reals as well.

5481 * HOL-Algebra: new locale "ring" for non-commutative rings.

5483 * HOL-ex: InductiveInvariant_examples illustrates advanced recursive function

5484 definitions, thanks to Sava Krsti\'{c} and John Matthews.

5486 * HOL-Matrix: a first theory for matrices in HOL with an application of

5487 matrix theory to linear programming.

5489 * Unions and Intersections:

5490 The latex output syntax of UN and INT has been changed

5491 from "\Union x \in A. B" to "\Union_{x \in A} B"

5492 i.e. the index formulae has become a subscript.

5493 Similarly for "\Union x. B", and for \Inter instead of \Union.

5495 * Unions and Intersections over Intervals:

5496 There is new short syntax "UN i<=n. A" for "UN i:{0..n}. A". There is

5497 also an x-symbol version with subscripts "\<Union>\<^bsub>i <= n\<^esub>. A"

5498 like in normal math, and corresponding versions for < and for intersection.

5500 * HOL/List: Ordering "lexico" is renamed "lenlex" and the standard

5501 lexicographic dictonary ordering has been added as "lexord".

5503 * ML: the legacy theory structures Int and List have been removed. They had

5504 conflicted with ML Basis Library structures having the same names.

5506 * 'refute' command added to search for (finite) countermodels. Only works

5507 for a fragment of HOL. The installation of an external SAT solver is

5508 highly recommended. See "HOL/Refute.thy" for details.

5510 * 'quickcheck' command: Allows to find counterexamples by evaluating

5511 formulae under an assignment of free variables to random values.

5512 In contrast to 'refute', it can deal with inductive datatypes,

5513 but cannot handle quantifiers. See "HOL/ex/Quickcheck_Examples.thy"

5514 for examples.

5517 *** HOLCF ***

5519 * Streams now come with concatenation and are part of the HOLCF image

5523 New in Isabelle2003 (May 2003)

5524 ------------------------------

5526 *** General ***

5528 * Provers/simplifier:

5530 - Completely reimplemented method simp (ML: Asm_full_simp_tac):

5531 Assumptions are now subject to complete mutual simplification,

5532 not just from left to right. The simplifier now preserves

5533 the order of assumptions.

5535 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:

5537 -- simp sometimes diverges where the old version did

5538 not, e.g. invoking simp on the goal

5540 [| P (f x); y = x; f x = f y |] ==> Q

5542 now gives rise to the infinite reduction sequence

5544 P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> P(f y) --(y = x)--> P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> ...

5546 Using "simp (asm_lr)" (ML: Asm_lr_simp_tac) instead often solves this

5547 kind of problem.

5549 -- Tactics combining classical reasoner and simplification (such as auto)

5550 are also affected by this change, because many of them rely on

5551 simp. They may sometimes diverge as well or yield a different numbers

5552 of subgoals. Try to use e.g. force, fastsimp, or safe instead of auto

5553 in case of problems. Sometimes subsequent calls to the classical

5554 reasoner will fail because a preceeding call to the simplifier too

5555 eagerly simplified the goal, e.g. deleted redundant premises.

5557 - The simplifier trace now shows the names of the applied rewrite rules

5559 - You can limit the number of recursive invocations of the simplifier

5560 during conditional rewriting (where the simplifie tries to solve the

5561 conditions before applying the rewrite rule):

5562 ML "simp_depth_limit := n"

5563 where n is an integer. Thus you can force termination where previously

5564 the simplifier would diverge.

5566 - Accepts free variables as head terms in congruence rules. Useful in Isar.

5568 - No longer aborts on failed congruence proof. Instead, the

5569 congruence is ignored.

5571 * Pure: New generic framework for extracting programs from constructive

5572 proofs. See HOL/Extraction.thy for an example instantiation, as well

5573 as HOL/Extraction for some case studies.

5575 * Pure: The main goal of the proof state is no longer shown by default, only

5576 the subgoals. This behaviour is controlled by a new flag.

5577 PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Settings -> Show Main Goal

5578 (ML: Proof.show_main_goal).

5580 * Pure: You can find all matching introduction rules for subgoal 1, i.e. all

5581 rules whose conclusion matches subgoal 1:

5582 PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Show me -> matching rules

5583 The rules are ordered by how closely they match the subgoal.

5584 In particular, rules that solve a subgoal outright are displayed first

5585 (or rather last, the way they are printed).

5586 (ML: ProofGeneral.print_intros())

5588 * Pure: New flag trace_unify_fail causes unification to print

5589 diagnostic information (PG: in trace buffer) when it fails. This is

5590 useful for figuring out why single step proofs like rule, erule or

5591 assumption failed.

5593 * Pure: Locale specifications now produce predicate definitions

5594 according to the body of text (covering assumptions modulo local

5595 definitions); predicate "loc_axioms" covers newly introduced text,

5596 while "loc" is cumulative wrt. all included locale expressions; the

5597 latter view is presented only on export into the global theory

5598 context; potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use "(open)" option to fall back

5599 on the old view without predicates;

5601 * Pure: predefined locales "var" and "struct" are useful for sharing

5602 parameters (as in CASL, for example); just specify something like

5603 ``var x + var y + struct M'' as import;

5605 * Pure: improved thms_containing: proper indexing of facts instead of

5606 raw theorems; check validity of results wrt. current name space;

5607 include local facts of proof configuration (also covers active

5608 locales), cover fixed variables in index; may use "_" in term

5609 specification; an optional limit for the number of printed facts may

5610 be given (the default is 40);

5612 * Pure: disallow duplicate fact bindings within new-style theory files

5613 (batch-mode only);

5615 * Provers: improved induct method: assumptions introduced by case

5616 "foo" are split into "foo.hyps" (from the rule) and "foo.prems" (from

5617 the goal statement); "foo" still refers to all facts collectively;

5619 * Provers: the function blast.overloaded has been removed: all constants

5620 are regarded as potentially overloaded, which improves robustness in exchange

5621 for slight decrease in efficiency;

5623 * Provers/linorder: New generic prover for transitivity reasoning over

5624 linear orders. Note: this prover is not efficient!

5626 * Isar: preview of problems to finish 'show' now produce an error

5627 rather than just a warning (in interactive mode);

5630 *** HOL ***

5632 * arith(_tac)

5634 - Produces a counter example if it cannot prove a goal.

5635 Note that the counter example may be spurious if the goal is not a formula

5636 of quantifier-free linear arithmetic.

5637 In ProofGeneral the counter example appears in the trace buffer.

5639 - Knows about div k and mod k where k is a numeral of type nat or int.

5641 - Calls full Presburger arithmetic (by Amine Chaieb) if quantifier-free

5642 linear arithmetic fails. This takes account of quantifiers and divisibility.

5643 Presburger arithmetic can also be called explicitly via presburger(_tac).

5645 * simp's arithmetic capabilities have been enhanced a bit: it now

5646 takes ~= in premises into account (by performing a case split);

5648 * simp reduces "m*(n div m) + n mod m" to n, even if the two summands

5649 are distributed over a sum of terms;

5651 * New tactic "trans_tac" and method "trans" instantiate

5652 Provers/linorder.ML for axclasses "order" and "linorder" (predicates

5653 "<=", "<" and "=").

5655 * function INCOMPATIBILITIES: Pi-sets have been redefined and moved from main

5656 HOL to Library/FuncSet; constant "Fun.op o" is now called "Fun.comp";

5658 * 'typedef' command has new option "open" to suppress the set

5659 definition;

5661 * functions Min and Max on finite sets have been introduced (theory

5662 Finite_Set);

5664 * attribute [symmetric] now works for relations as well; it turns

5665 (x,y) : R^-1 into (y,x) : R, and vice versa;

5667 * induct over a !!-quantified statement (say !!x1..xn):

5668 each "case" automatically performs "fix x1 .. xn" with exactly those names.

5670 * Map: `empty' is no longer a constant but a syntactic abbreviation for

5671 %x. None. Warning: empty_def now refers to the previously hidden definition

5672 of the empty set.

5674 * Algebra: formalization of classical algebra. Intended as base for

5675 any algebraic development in Isabelle. Currently covers group theory

5676 (up to Sylow's theorem) and ring theory (Universal Property of

5677 Univariate Polynomials). Contributions welcome;

5679 * GroupTheory: deleted, since its material has been moved to Algebra;

5681 * Complex: new directory of the complex numbers with numeric constants,

5682 nonstandard complex numbers, and some complex analysis, standard and

5683 nonstandard (Jacques Fleuriot);

5685 * HOL-Complex: new image for analysis, replacing HOL-Real and HOL-Hyperreal;

5687 * Hyperreal: introduced Gauge integration and hyperreal logarithms (Jacques

5688 Fleuriot);

5690 * Real/HahnBanach: updated and adapted to locales;

5692 * NumberTheory: added Gauss's law of quadratic reciprocity (by Avigad,

5693 Gray and Kramer);

5695 * UNITY: added the Meier-Sanders theory of progress sets;

5697 * MicroJava: bytecode verifier and lightweight bytecode verifier

5698 as abstract algorithms, instantiated to the JVM;

5700 * Bali: Java source language formalization. Type system, operational

5701 semantics, axiomatic semantics. Supported language features:

5702 classes, interfaces, objects,virtual methods, static methods,

5703 static/instance fields, arrays, access modifiers, definite

5704 assignment, exceptions.

5707 *** ZF ***

5709 * ZF/Constructible: consistency proof for AC (Gdel's constructible

5710 universe, etc.);

5712 * Main ZF: virtually all theories converted to new-style format;

5715 *** ML ***

5717 * Pure: Tactic.prove provides sane interface for internal proofs;

5718 omits the infamous "standard" operation, so this is more appropriate

5719 than prove_goalw_cterm in many situations (e.g. in simprocs);

5721 * Pure: improved error reporting of simprocs;

5723 * Provers: Simplifier.simproc(_i) provides sane interface for setting

5724 up simprocs;

5727 *** Document preparation ***

5729 * uses \par instead of \\ for line breaks in theory text. This may

5730 shift some page breaks in large documents. To get the old behaviour

5731 use \renewcommand{\isanewline}{\mbox{}\\\mbox{}} in root.tex.

5733 * minimized dependencies of isabelle.sty and isabellesym.sty on

5734 other packages

5736 * \<euro> now needs package babel/greek instead of marvosym (which

5737 broke \Rightarrow)

5739 * normal size for \<zero>...\<nine> (uses \mathbf instead of

5740 textcomp package)

5744 New in Isabelle2002 (March 2002)

5745 --------------------------------

5747 *** Document preparation ***

5749 * greatly simplified document preparation setup, including more

5750 graceful interpretation of isatool usedir -i/-d/-D options, and more

5751 instructive isatool mkdir; users should basically be able to get

5752 started with "isatool mkdir HOL Test && isatool make"; alternatively,

5753 users may run a separate document processing stage manually like this:

5754 "isatool usedir -D output HOL Test && isatool document Test/output";

5756 * theory dependency graph may now be incorporated into documents;

5757 isatool usedir -g true will produce session_graph.eps/.pdf for use

5758 with \includegraphics of LaTeX;

5760 * proper spacing of consecutive markup elements, especially text

5761 blocks after section headings;

5763 * support bold style (for single symbols only), input syntax is like

5764 this: "\<^bold>\<alpha>" or "\<^bold>A";

5766 * \<bullet> is now output as bold \cdot by default, which looks much

5767 better in printed text;

5769 * added default LaTeX bindings for \<tturnstile> and \<TTurnstile>;

5770 note that these symbols are currently unavailable in Proof General /

5771 X-Symbol; new symbols \<zero>, \<one>, ..., \<nine>, and \<euro>;

5773 * isatool latex no longer depends on changed TEXINPUTS, instead

5774 isatool document copies the Isabelle style files to the target

5775 location;

5778 *** Isar ***

5780 * Pure/Provers: improved proof by cases and induction;

5781 - 'case' command admits impromptu naming of parameters (such as

5782 "case (Suc n)");

5783 - 'induct' method divinates rule instantiation from the inductive

5784 claim; no longer requires excessive ?P bindings for proper

5785 instantiation of cases;

5786 - 'induct' method properly enumerates all possibilities of set/type

5787 rules; as a consequence facts may be also passed through *type*

5788 rules without further ado;

5789 - 'induct' method now derives symbolic cases from the *rulified*

5790 rule (before it used to rulify cases stemming from the internal

5791 atomized version); this means that the context of a non-atomic

5792 statement becomes is included in the hypothesis, avoiding the

5793 slightly cumbersome show "PROP ?case" form;

5794 - 'induct' may now use elim-style induction rules without chaining

5795 facts, using ``missing'' premises from the goal state; this allows

5796 rules stemming from inductive sets to be applied in unstructured

5797 scripts, while still benefitting from proper handling of non-atomic

5798 statements; NB: major inductive premises need to be put first, all

5799 the rest of the goal is passed through the induction;

5800 - 'induct' proper support for mutual induction involving non-atomic

5801 rule statements (uses the new concept of simultaneous goals, see

5802 below);

5803 - append all possible rule selections, but only use the first

5804 success (no backtracking);

5805 - removed obsolete "(simplified)" and "(stripped)" options of methods;

5806 - undeclared rule case names default to numbers 1, 2, 3, ...;

5807 - added 'print_induct_rules' (covered by help item in recent Proof

5808 General versions);

5809 - moved induct/cases attributes to Pure, methods to Provers;

5810 - generic method setup instantiated for FOL and HOL;

5812 * Pure: support multiple simultaneous goal statements, for example

5813 "have a: A and b: B" (same for 'theorem' etc.); being a pure

5814 meta-level mechanism, this acts as if several individual goals had

5815 been stated separately; in particular common proof methods need to be

5816 repeated in order to cover all claims; note that a single elimination

5817 step is *not* sufficient to establish the two conjunctions, so this

5818 fails:

5820 assume "A & B" then have A and B .. (*".." fails*)

5822 better use "obtain" in situations as above; alternative refer to

5823 multi-step methods like 'auto', 'simp_all', 'blast+' etc.;

5825 * Pure: proper integration with ``locales''; unlike the original

5826 version by Florian Kammller, Isar locales package high-level proof

5827 contexts rather than raw logical ones (e.g. we admit to include

5828 attributes everywhere); operations on locales include merge and

5829 rename; support for implicit arguments (``structures''); simultaneous

5830 type-inference over imports and text; see also HOL/ex/Locales.thy for

5831 some examples;

5833 * Pure: the following commands have been ``localized'', supporting a

5834 target locale specification "(in name)": 'lemma', 'theorem',

5835 'corollary', 'lemmas', 'theorems', 'declare'; the results will be

5836 stored both within the locale and at the theory level (exported and

5837 qualified by the locale name);

5839 * Pure: theory goals may now be specified in ``long'' form, with

5840 ad-hoc contexts consisting of arbitrary locale elements. for example

5841 ``lemma foo: fixes x assumes "A x" shows "B x"'' (local syntax and

5842 definitions may be given, too); the result is a meta-level rule with

5843 the context elements being discharged in the obvious way;

5845 * Pure: new proof command 'using' allows to augment currently used

5846 facts after a goal statement ('using' is syntactically analogous to

5847 'apply', but acts on the goal's facts only); this allows chained facts

5848 to be separated into parts given before and after a claim, as in

5849 ``from a and b have C using d and e <proof>'';

5851 * Pure: renamed "antecedent" case to "rule_context";

5853 * Pure: new 'judgment' command records explicit information about the

5854 object-logic embedding (used by several tools internally); no longer

5855 use hard-wired "Trueprop";

5857 * Pure: added 'corollary' command;

5859 * Pure: fixed 'token_translation' command;

5861 * Pure: removed obsolete 'exported' attribute;

5863 * Pure: dummy pattern "_" in is/let is now automatically lifted over

5864 bound variables: "ALL x. P x --> Q x" (is "ALL x. _ --> ?C x")

5865 supersedes more cumbersome ... (is "ALL x. _ x --> ?C x");

5867 * Pure: method 'atomize' presents local goal premises as object-level

5868 statements (atomic meta-level propositions); setup controlled via

5869 rewrite rules declarations of 'atomize' attribute; example

5870 application: 'induct' method with proper rule statements in improper

5871 proof *scripts*;

5873 * Pure: emulation of instantiation tactics (rule_tac, cut_tac, etc.)

5874 now consider the syntactic context of assumptions, giving a better

5875 chance to get type-inference of the arguments right (this is

5876 especially important for locales);

5878 * Pure: "sorry" no longer requires quick_and_dirty in interactive

5879 mode;

5881 * Pure/obtain: the formal conclusion "thesis", being marked as

5882 ``internal'', may no longer be reference directly in the text;

5883 potential INCOMPATIBILITY, may need to use "?thesis" in rare

5884 situations;

5886 * Pure: generic 'sym' attribute which declares a rule both as pure

5887 'elim?' and for the 'symmetric' operation;

5889 * Pure: marginal comments ``--'' may now occur just anywhere in the

5890 text; the fixed correlation with particular command syntax has been

5891 discontinued;

5893 * Pure: new method 'rules' is particularly well-suited for proof

5894 search in intuitionistic logic; a bit slower than 'blast' or 'fast',

5895 but often produces more compact proof terms with less detours;

5897 * Pure/Provers/classical: simplified integration with pure rule

5898 attributes and methods; the classical "intro?/elim?/dest?"

5899 declarations coincide with the pure ones; the "rule" method no longer

5900 includes classically swapped intros; "intro" and "elim" methods no

5901 longer pick rules from the context; also got rid of ML declarations

5902 AddXIs/AddXEs/AddXDs; all of this has some potential for

5903 INCOMPATIBILITY;

5905 * Provers/classical: attribute 'swapped' produces classical inversions

5906 of introduction rules;

5908 * Provers/simplifier: 'simplified' attribute may refer to explicit

5909 rules instead of full simplifier context; 'iff' attribute handles

5910 conditional rules;

5912 * HOL: 'typedef' now allows alternative names for Rep/Abs morphisms;

5914 * HOL: 'recdef' now fails on unfinished automated proofs, use

5915 "(permissive)" option to recover old behavior;

5917 * HOL: 'inductive' no longer features separate (collective) attributes

5918 for 'intros' (was found too confusing);

5920 * HOL: properly declared induction rules less_induct and

5921 wf_induct_rule;

5924 *** HOL ***

5926 * HOL: moved over to sane numeral syntax; the new policy is as

5927 follows:

5929 - 0 and 1 are polymorphic constants, which are defined on any

5930 numeric type (nat, int, real etc.);

5932 - 2, 3, 4, ... and -1, -2, -3, ... are polymorphic numerals, based

5933 binary representation internally;

5935 - type nat has special constructor Suc, and generally prefers Suc 0

5936 over 1::nat and Suc (Suc 0) over 2::nat;

5938 This change may cause significant problems of INCOMPATIBILITY; here

5939 are some hints on converting existing sources:

5941 - due to the new "num" token, "-0" and "-1" etc. are now atomic

5942 entities, so expressions involving "-" (unary or binary minus) need

5943 to be spaced properly;

5945 - existing occurrences of "1" may need to be constraint "1::nat" or

5946 even replaced by Suc 0; similar for old "2";

5948 - replace "#nnn" by "nnn", and "#-nnn" by "-nnn";

5950 - remove all special provisions on numerals in proofs;

5952 * HOL: simp rules nat_number expand numerals on nat to Suc/0

5953 representation (depends on bin_arith_simps in the default context);

5955 * HOL: symbolic syntax for x^2 (numeral 2);

5957 * HOL: the class of all HOL types is now called "type" rather than

5958 "term"; INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt references to this type class

5959 in axclass/classes, instance/arities, and (usually rare) occurrences

5960 in typings (of consts etc.); internally the class is called

5961 "HOL.type", ML programs should refer to HOLogic.typeS;

5963 * HOL/record package improvements:

5964 - new derived operations "fields" to build a partial record section,

5965 "extend" to promote a fixed record to a record scheme, and

5966 "truncate" for the reverse; cf. theorems "xxx.defs", which are *not*

5967 declared as simp by default;

5968 - shared operations ("more", "fields", etc.) now need to be always

5969 qualified) --- potential INCOMPATIBILITY;

5970 - removed "make_scheme" operations (use "make" with "extend") --

5971 INCOMPATIBILITY;

5972 - removed "more" class (simply use "term") -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

5973 - provides cases/induct rules for use with corresponding Isar

5974 methods (for concrete records, record schemes, concrete more

5975 parts, and schematic more parts -- in that order);

5976 - internal definitions directly based on a light-weight abstract

5977 theory of product types over typedef rather than datatype;

5979 * HOL: generic code generator for generating executable ML code from

5980 specifications; specific support for HOL constructs such as inductive

5981 datatypes and sets, as well as recursive functions; can be invoked

5982 via 'generate_code' theory section;

5984 * HOL: canonical cases/induct rules for n-tuples (n = 3..7);

5986 * HOL: consolidated and renamed several theories. In particular:

5987 Ord.thy has been absorbed into HOL.thy

5988 String.thy has been absorbed into List.thy

5990 * HOL: concrete setsum syntax "\<Sum>i:A. b" == "setsum (%i. b) A"

5991 (beware of argument permutation!);

5993 * HOL: linorder_less_split superseded by linorder_cases;

5995 * HOL/List: "nodups" renamed to "distinct";

5997 * HOL: added "The" definite description operator; move Hilbert's "Eps"

5998 to peripheral theory "Hilbert_Choice"; some INCOMPATIBILITIES:

5999 - Ex_def has changed, now need to use some_eq_ex

6001 * HOL: made split_all_tac safe; EXISTING PROOFS MAY FAIL OR LOOP, so

6002 in this (rare) case use:

6004 delSWrapper "split_all_tac"

6005 addSbefore ("unsafe_split_all_tac", unsafe_split_all_tac)

6007 * HOL: added safe wrapper "split_conv_tac" to claset; EXISTING PROOFS

6008 MAY FAIL;

6010 * HOL: introduced f^n = f o ... o f; warning: due to the limits of

6011 Isabelle's type classes, ^ on functions and relations has too general

6012 a domain, namely ('a * 'b) set and 'a => 'b; this means that it may be

6013 necessary to attach explicit type constraints;

6015 * HOL/Relation: the prefix name of the infix "O" has been changed from

6016 "comp" to "rel_comp"; INCOMPATIBILITY: a few theorems have been

6017 renamed accordingly (eg "compI" -> "rel_compI").

6019 * HOL: syntax translations now work properly with numerals and records

6020 expressions;

6022 * HOL: bounded abstraction now uses syntax "%" / "\<lambda>" instead

6023 of "lam" -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

6025 * HOL: got rid of some global declarations (potential INCOMPATIBILITY

6026 for ML tools): const "()" renamed "Product_Type.Unity", type "unit"

6027 renamed "Product_Type.unit";

6029 * HOL: renamed rtrancl_into_rtrancl2 to converse_rtrancl_into_rtrancl

6031 * HOL: removed obsolete theorem "optionE" (use "option.exhaust", or

6032 the "cases" method);

6034 * HOL/GroupTheory: group theory examples including Sylow's theorem (by

6035 Florian Kammller);

6037 * HOL/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory format; several

6038 parts turned into readable document, with proper Isar proof texts and

6039 some explanations (by Gerwin Klein);

6041 * HOL-Real: added Complex_Numbers (by Gertrud Bauer);

6043 * HOL-Hyperreal is now a logic image;

6046 *** HOLCF ***

6048 * Isar: consts/constdefs supports mixfix syntax for continuous

6049 operations;

6051 * Isar: domain package adapted to new-style theory format, e.g. see

6052 HOLCF/ex/Dnat.thy;

6054 * theory Lift: proper use of rep_datatype lift instead of ML hacks --

6055 potential INCOMPATIBILITY; now use plain induct_tac instead of former

6056 lift.induct_tac, always use UU instead of Undef;

6058 * HOLCF/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory;

6061 *** ZF ***

6063 * Isar: proper integration of logic-specific tools and packages,

6064 including theory commands '(co)inductive', '(co)datatype',

6065 'rep_datatype', 'inductive_cases', as well as methods 'ind_cases',

6066 'induct_tac', 'case_tac', and 'typecheck' (with attribute 'TC');

6068 * theory Main no longer includes AC; for the Axiom of Choice, base

6069 your theory on Main_ZFC;

6071 * the integer library now covers quotients and remainders, with many

6072 laws relating division to addition, multiplication, etc.;

6074 * ZF/UNITY: Chandy and Misra's UNITY is now available in ZF, giving a

6075 typeless version of the formalism;

6077 * ZF/AC, Coind, IMP, Resid: updated and converted to new-style theory

6078 format;

6080 * ZF/Induct: new directory for examples of inductive definitions,

6081 including theory Multiset for multiset orderings; converted to

6082 new-style theory format;

6084 * ZF: many new theorems about lists, ordinals, etc.;

6087 *** General ***

6089 * Pure/kernel: meta-level proof terms (by Stefan Berghofer); reference

6090 variable proof controls level of detail: 0 = no proofs (only oracle

6091 dependencies), 1 = lemma dependencies, 2 = compact proof terms; see

6092 also ref manual for further ML interfaces;

6094 * Pure/axclass: removed obsolete ML interface

6095 goal_subclass/goal_arity;

6097 * Pure/syntax: new token syntax "num" for plain numerals (without "#"

6098 of "xnum"); potential INCOMPATIBILITY, since -0, -1 etc. are now

6099 separate tokens, so expressions involving minus need to be spaced

6100 properly;

6102 * Pure/syntax: support non-oriented infixes, using keyword "infix"

6103 rather than "infixl" or "infixr";

6105 * Pure/syntax: concrete syntax for dummy type variables admits genuine

6106 sort constraint specifications in type inference; e.g. "x::_::foo"

6107 ensures that the type of "x" is of sort "foo" (but not necessarily a

6108 type variable);

6110 * Pure/syntax: print modes "type_brackets" and "no_type_brackets"

6111 control output of nested => (types); the default behavior is

6112 "type_brackets";

6114 * Pure/syntax: builtin parse translation for "_constify" turns valued

6115 tokens into AST constants;

6117 * Pure/syntax: prefer later declarations of translations and print

6118 translation functions; potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to reverse

6119 multiple declarations for same syntax element constant;

6121 * Pure/show_hyps reset by default (in accordance to existing Isar

6122 practice);

6124 * Provers/classical: renamed addaltern to addafter, addSaltern to

6125 addSafter;

6127 * Provers/clasimp: ``iff'' declarations now handle conditional rules

6128 as well;

6130 * system: tested support for MacOS X; should be able to get Isabelle +

6131 Proof General to work in a plain Terminal after installing Poly/ML

6132 (e.g. from the Isabelle distribution area) and GNU bash alone

6133 (e.g. from http://www.apple.com); full X11, XEmacs and X-Symbol

6134 support requires further installations, e.g. from

6135 http://fink.sourceforge.net/);

6137 * system: support Poly/ML 4.1.1 (able to manage larger heaps);

6139 * system: reduced base memory usage by Poly/ML (approx. 20 MB instead

6140 of 40 MB), cf. ML_OPTIONS;

6142 * system: Proof General keywords specification is now part of the

6143 Isabelle distribution (see etc/isar-keywords.el);

6145 * system: support for persistent Proof General sessions (refrain from

6146 outdating all loaded theories on startup); user may create writable

6147 logic images like this: ``isabelle -q HOL Test'';

6149 * system: smart selection of Isabelle process versus Isabelle

6150 interface, accommodates case-insensitive file systems (e.g. HFS+); may

6151 run both "isabelle" and "Isabelle" even if file names are badly

6152 damaged (executable inspects the case of the first letter of its own

6153 name); added separate "isabelle-process" and "isabelle-interface";

6155 * system: refrain from any attempt at filtering input streams; no

6156 longer support ``8bit'' encoding of old isabelle font, instead proper

6157 iso-latin characters may now be used; the related isatools

6158 "symbolinput" and "nonascii" have disappeared as well;

6160 * system: removed old "xterm" interface (the print modes "xterm" and

6161 "xterm_color" are still available for direct use in a suitable

6162 terminal);

6166 New in Isabelle99-2 (February 2001)

6167 -----------------------------------

6169 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES ***

6171 * HOL: please note that theories in the Library and elsewhere often use the

6172 new-style (Isar) format; to refer to their theorems in an ML script you must

6173 bind them to ML identifers by e.g. val thm_name = thm "thm_name";

6175 * HOL: inductive package no longer splits induction rule aggressively,

6176 but only as far as specified by the introductions given; the old

6177 format may be recovered via ML function complete_split_rule or attribute

6178 'split_rule (complete)';

6180 * HOL: induct renamed to lfp_induct, lfp_Tarski to lfp_unfold,

6181 gfp_Tarski to gfp_unfold;

6183 * HOL: contrapos, contrapos2 renamed to contrapos_nn, contrapos_pp;

6185 * HOL: infix "dvd" now has priority 50 rather than 70 (because it is a

6186 relation); infix "^^" has been renamed "``"; infix "``" has been

6187 renamed "`"; "univalent" has been renamed "single_valued";

6189 * HOL/Real: "rinv" and "hrinv" replaced by overloaded "inverse"

6190 operation;

6192 * HOLCF: infix "`" has been renamed "$"; the symbol syntax is \<cdot>;

6194 * Isar: 'obtain' no longer declares "that" fact as simp/intro;

6196 * Isar/HOL: method 'induct' now handles non-atomic goals; as a

6197 consequence, it is no longer monotonic wrt. the local goal context

6198 (which is now passed through the inductive cases);

6200 * Document preparation: renamed standard symbols \<ll> to \<lless> and

6201 \<gg> to \<ggreater>;

6204 *** Document preparation ***

6206 * \isabellestyle{NAME} selects version of Isabelle output (currently

6207 available: are "it" for near math-mode best-style output, "sl" for

6208 slanted text style, and "tt" for plain type-writer; if no

6209 \isabellestyle command is given, output is according to slanted

6210 type-writer);

6212 * support sub/super scripts (for single symbols only), input syntax is

6213 like this: "A\<^sup>*" or "A\<^sup>\<star>";

6215 * some more standard symbols; see Appendix A of the system manual for

6216 the complete list of symbols defined in isabellesym.sty;

6218 * improved isabelle style files; more abstract symbol implementation

6219 (should now use \isamath{...} and \isatext{...} in custom symbol

6220 definitions);

6222 * antiquotation @{goals} and @{subgoals} for output of *dynamic* goals

6223 state; Note that presentation of goal states does not conform to

6224 actual human-readable proof documents. Please do not include goal

6225 states into document output unless you really know what you are doing!

6227 * proper indentation of antiquoted output with proportional LaTeX

6228 fonts;

6230 * no_document ML operator temporarily disables LaTeX document

6231 generation;

6233 * isatool unsymbolize tunes s