NEWS
author wenzelm
Mon Nov 19 20:23:47 2012 +0100 (2012-11-19)
changeset 50126 3dec88149176
parent 50119 5c370a036de7
child 50132 180d086c30dd
permissions -rw-r--r--
theorem status about oracles/futures is no longer printed by default;
renamed Proofterm/Thm.status_of to Proofterm/Thm.peek_status to emphasize its semantics;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
    10 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
    11 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
    12 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
    13 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
    14 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
    15 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
    16 
    17 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
    18 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
    19 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
    20 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
    21 
    22 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
    23 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
    24 
    25 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
    26 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
    27 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
    28 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
    29 dependencies properly.
    30 
    31 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    32 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    33 
    34 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
    35 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
    36 
    37 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for
    38 specifications: nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
    39 and "class ... context ...".
    40 
    41 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
    42 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
    43 
    44 
    45 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    46 
    47 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
    48 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
    49 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
    50 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
    51 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
    52 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
    53 
    54 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
    55 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
    56 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
    57 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
    58 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
    59 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
    60 
    61 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
    62 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
    63 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
    64 that frequently occur in user interaction.
    65 
    66 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
    67 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
    68 
    69 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: output window informs about
    70 accumulated messages; prover transactions are limited to emit maximum
    71 amount of output, before being canceled (cf. system option
    72 "editor_tracing_limit").  This avoids swamping the front-end with
    73 potentially infinite message streams.
    74 
    75 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
    76 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
    77 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
    78 schemes.
    79 
    80 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
    81 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
    82 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
    83 
    84 
    85 *** Pure ***
    86 
    87 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
    88 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
    89 
    90 * Command "export_code": relative file names are interpreted
    91 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than
    92 the rather arbitrary current working directory.
    93 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    94 
    95 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
    96 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
    97 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
    98 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
    99 with some care where this is really required.
   100 
   101 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   102 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   103 given given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   104 
   105   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   106 
   107 
   108 *** HOL ***
   109 
   110 * Removed constant "chars".  Prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   111 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   112 
   113 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from Enum.thy
   114 to List.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   115 
   116 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   117 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   118 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   119 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   120 accordingly.
   121 
   122 * Theory "Library/Multiset":
   123 
   124   - Renamed constants
   125       fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold  -- for coherence with other fold combinators
   126 
   127   - Renamed facts
   128       fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm  -- for coherence with fold_comm
   129 
   130 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   131 
   132 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   133 
   134 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   135 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   136 
   137 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type
   138 to lattice type classes.
   139 
   140 * New combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   141 
   142 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist.
   143 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Related changes are:
   144 
   145   - Renamed constants:
   146 
   147       prefix ~> prefixeq
   148       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   149 
   150     Renamed lemmas accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   151 
   152   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument order
   153     (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped old infix
   154     syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.  Renamed lemmas
   155     accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   156 
   157   - New constant "emb" for homeomorphic embedding on lists. New
   158     abbreviation "sub" for special case "emb (op =)".
   159 
   160   - Library/Sublist does no longer provide "order" and "bot" type class
   161     instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   162     interpretations). The type class instances are to be found in
   163     Library/Prefix_Order. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   164 
   165   - The sublist relation from Library/Sublist_Order is now based on
   166     "Sublist.sub". Replaced lemmas:
   167 
   168       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append_le_same_iff
   169       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.emb_append_mono
   170       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.emb_Nil, Sublist.emb_Nil2
   171       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.emb_ConsD
   172       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sub_Cons2'
   173       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sub_Cons2_neq
   174       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sub_Cons'
   175       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sub_drop_many
   176       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sub_filter_left
   177       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sub_rev_drop_many
   178       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append
   179       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sub_same_length
   180       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sub_append'
   181       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   182       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   183       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sub_length
   184 
   185     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   186 
   187 * HOL/Rings: renamed lemmas
   188 
   189 left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   190 right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   191 
   192 in class semiring.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   193 
   194 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural
   195 functors with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting
   196 non-free datatypes.
   197 
   198 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals
   199 (supersedes the AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   200 
   201 * Library/Debug.thy and Library/Parallel.thy: debugging and parallel
   202 execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   203 
   204 * Library/FinFun.thy: theory of almost everywhere constant functions
   205 (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as Data").
   206 
   207 * Library/Phantom.thy: generic phantom type to make a type parameter
   208 appear in a constant's type. This alternative to adding TYPE('a) as
   209 another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated code.
   210 
   211 * Library/RBT_Impl.thy: efficient construction of red-black trees 
   212 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   213 return a structurally different tree than before. MINOR INCOMPATIBILITY.
   214 
   215 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   216 expressions.
   217 
   218 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   219 pointfree expressions.
   220 
   221 * Quickcheck:
   222 
   223   - added an optimisation for equality premises.
   224     It is switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting
   225     the configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   226 
   227 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   228 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   229 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   230 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".
   231 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   232 
   233 * Sledgehammer:
   234 
   235   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   236     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   237   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   238   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill"
   239   - Renamed options:
   240       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   241       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   242       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   243       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   244 
   245 
   246 *** Document preparation ***
   247 
   248 * Default for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package, instead of
   249 slightly exotic babel/greek.
   250 
   251 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   252 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   253 document/root.tex.
   254 
   255 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   256 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   257 
   258 
   259 *** ML ***
   260 
   261 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   262 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   263 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   264 
   265 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   266 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   267 necessarily printing visible text.
   268 
   269 
   270 *** System ***
   271 
   272 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   273 instead of 4.
   274 
   275 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   276 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   277 for home-made configurations.
   278 
   279 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   280 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   281 
   282 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   283 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   284 build" tool and its examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   285 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   286 
   287 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   288 
   289 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   290 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   291 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   292 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   293 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   294 
   295 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   296 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   297 
   298   isabelle build -s -b HOLCF
   299 
   300 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   301 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   302 
   303 * The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares session root directories for use
   304 with "isabelle build", similar to former "isabelle mkdir" for
   305 "isabelle usedir".
   306 
   307 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   308 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   309 version of Isabelle.
   310 
   311 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   312 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   313 configuration.
   314 
   315 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   316 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   317 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   318 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   319 bundled as Isabelle component.
   320 
   321 
   322 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   323 ------------------------------
   324 
   325 *** General ***
   326 
   327 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   328 
   329   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   330     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   331   - markup for bound variables
   332   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   333   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   334   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   335     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   336 
   337 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   338 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   339 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   340 
   341 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   342 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   343 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   344 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   345 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   346 
   347   context
   348     fixes x y z :: 'a
   349     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   350   begin
   351 
   352   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   353 
   354   end
   355 
   356   thm my_trans
   357 
   358 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   359 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   360 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   361 
   362 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   363 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   364 
   365 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   366 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   367 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   368 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   369 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   370 
   371 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   372 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   373 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   374 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   375 indices of schematic variables.
   376 
   377 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   378 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   379 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   380 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   381 etc. was exploited.
   382 
   383 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   384 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   385 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   386 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   387 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   388 of the material of that old tutorial.
   389 
   390 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   391 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   392 manual.
   393 
   394 
   395 *** Pure ***
   396 
   397 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   398 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   399 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   400 
   401 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   402 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   403 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   404 undocumented feature.)
   405 
   406 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   407 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   408 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   409 
   410   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   411 
   412   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   413     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   414 
   415 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   416 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   417 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   418 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   419 
   420 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   421 
   422     num ~> num_token
   423     xnum ~> xnum_token
   424     xstr ~> str_token
   425 
   426 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   427 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   428 position information via constraints).
   429 
   430 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   431 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   432 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   433 
   434 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   435 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   436 
   437 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   438 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   439 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   440 
   441 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   442 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   443 
   444 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   445 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   446 
   447   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   448 
   449 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   450 
   451 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   452 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   453 
   454 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   455 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   456 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   457 
   458 
   459 *** HOL ***
   460 
   461 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   462 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   463 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   464 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   465 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   466 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   467 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   468 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   469 possible.
   470 
   471 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   472 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   473 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   474 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   475 
   476 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   477 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   478 
   479 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   480 
   481 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   482 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   483 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   484 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   485 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   486 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   487 
   488   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   489     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   490 
   491   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   492     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   493     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   494 
   495   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   496     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   497 
   498   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   499     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   500     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   501 
   502   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   503     Redefine using other integer operations.
   504 
   505 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   506 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   507 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   508 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   509 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   510 
   511   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   512     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   513     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   514     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   515     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   516 
   517     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   518     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   519 
   520   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   521     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   522     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   523     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   524     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   525     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   526     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   527     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   528 
   529   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   530     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   531     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   532     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   533 
   534   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   535     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   536     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   537     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   538 
   539   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   540     from type nat to type int.
   541 
   542 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   543 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   544 
   545   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   546     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   547     type.  Example syntax:
   548 
   549     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   550       is List.insert
   551 
   552     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   553     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   554     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   555     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   556     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   557     by the package.
   558 
   559   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   560     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   561     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   562     code generation for each constant.
   563 
   564   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   565     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   566     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   567     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   568     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   569 
   570   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   571     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   572     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   573 
   574 * Quotient package:
   575 
   576   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   577     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   578 
   579   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   580     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   581 
   582   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   583     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   584     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   585 
   586   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   587     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   588 
   589 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   590 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   591 
   592 * Quickcheck:
   593 
   594   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   595     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   596     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   597     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   598     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   599 
   600     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   601     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   602     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   603 
   604     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   605     continues searching for genuine ones.
   606 
   607     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   608     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   609     show genuine counterexamples.
   610 
   611   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   612     value generators for a given type and operations.
   613 
   614     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   615     constructors of that type.
   616 
   617   - Support for multisets.
   618 
   619   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   620 
   621   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   622     conjectures in a locale context.
   623 
   624 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   625 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   626 
   627 * Sledgehammer:
   628   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   629     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   630   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   631   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   632     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   633   - Sped up the minimizer.
   634   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   635   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   636   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   637 
   638 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   639 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   640 
   641 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   642 
   643 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   644 
   645 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   646 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   647 
   648   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   649 
   650 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   651 a list and a nat.
   652 
   653 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   654 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   655 
   656 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   657 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   658 default.
   659 
   660 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   661 
   662   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   663 
   664 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   665 
   666 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   667 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   668 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   669 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   670 one_case.
   671 
   672 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   673 the result of the fact expression.
   674 
   675 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   676 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   677 of some relation theorems:
   678 
   679   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   680   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   681   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   682   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   683   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   684   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   685 
   686 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   687 
   688 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   689 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   690 
   691 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   692 
   693 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   694 to match the constant's name:
   695 
   696   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   697   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   698   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   699   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   700   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   701   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   702   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   703   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   704   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   705   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   706   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   707   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   708   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   709   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   710   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   711   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   712   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   713   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   714   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   715   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   716   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   717   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   718   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   719   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   720 
   721 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   722 
   723 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   724 and corresponding theorem names:
   725 
   726   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   727 
   728   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   729 
   730   - Renamed theorems:
   731 
   732     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   733     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   734     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   735     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   736     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   737     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   738     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   739     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   740     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   741     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   742     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   743     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   744     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   745     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   746     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   747     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   748     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   749     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   750     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   751     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   752     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   753     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   754     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   755 
   756     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   757 
   758     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   759 
   760 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   761 
   762 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   763 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   764 
   765   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   766   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   767   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   768   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   769   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   770   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   771   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   772   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   773   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   774   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   775   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   776   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   777   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   778   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   779   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   780   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   781   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   782   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   783   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   784   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   785   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   786 
   787 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   788 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   789 
   790 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   791 
   792 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   793 
   794   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   795   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   796   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   797   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   798   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   799   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   800   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   801   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   802   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   803   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   804   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   805   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   806   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   807   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   808   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   809   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   810   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   811   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   812 
   813 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   814 
   815 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   816 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   817 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   818 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   819 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   820 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   821 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   822 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   823 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   824 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   825 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   826 
   827 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   828 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   829 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   830 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   831 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   832 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   833 
   834 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   835 through option types.
   836 
   837 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   838 relations.
   839 
   840 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   841 
   842 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   843 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   844 
   845   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   846   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   847   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   848   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   849   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   850   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   851   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   852   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   853   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   854   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   855   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   856   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   857   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   858   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   859   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   860   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   861   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   862   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   863   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   864   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   865   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   866   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   867   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   868   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   869   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   870   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   871   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   872   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   873   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   874   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   875   zless_le ~> less_le
   876   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   877   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   878   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   879 
   880 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   881 
   882   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   883 
   884 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
   885 
   886 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
   887 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
   888 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
   889 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
   890 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   891 
   892 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   893 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   894 
   895 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
   896 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
   897 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
   898 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
   899 follows:
   900 
   901   Operations:
   902   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
   903   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
   904   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
   905   del -> rbt_del
   906   delete -> rbt_delete
   907   ins -> rbt_ins
   908   insert -> rbt_insert
   909   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
   910   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
   911   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
   912   lookup -> rbt_lookup
   913   sorted -> rbt_sorted
   914   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
   915   tree_less -> rbt_less
   916   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
   917   union -> rbt_union
   918   union_with -> rbt_union_with
   919   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
   920 
   921   Lemmas:
   922   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
   923   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
   924   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
   925   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
   926   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
   927   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
   928   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
   929   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
   930   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
   931   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
   932   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
   933   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
   934   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
   935   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
   936   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
   937   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
   938   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
   939   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
   940   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
   941   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
   942   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
   943   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
   944   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
   945   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
   946   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
   947   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
   948   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
   949   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
   950   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
   951   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
   952   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
   953   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
   954   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
   955   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
   956   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
   957   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
   958   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
   959   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
   960   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
   961   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
   962   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
   963   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
   964   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
   965   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
   966   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
   967   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
   968   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
   969   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
   970   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
   971   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
   972   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
   973   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
   974   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
   975   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
   976   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
   977   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
   978   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
   979   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
   980   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
   981   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
   982   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
   983   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
   984   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
   985   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
   986   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
   987   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
   988   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
   989   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
   990   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
   991   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
   992   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
   993   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
   994   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
   995   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
   996   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
   997   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
   998   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
   999   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1000   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1001   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1002   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1003   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1004   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1005 
  1006 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1007 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1008 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1009 
  1010   Changed Operations:
  1011   float_abs -> abs
  1012   float_nprt -> nprt
  1013   float_pprt -> pprt
  1014   pow2 -> use powr
  1015   round_down -> float_round_down
  1016   round_up -> float_round_up
  1017   scale -> exponent
  1018 
  1019   Removed Operations:
  1020   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1021 
  1022   Renamed Lemmas:
  1023   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1024   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1025   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1026   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1027   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1028   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1029   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1030   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1031   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1032   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1033   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1034   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1035   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1036   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1037   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1038   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1039   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1040   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1041   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1042   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1043   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1044   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1045   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1046   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1047   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1048   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1049   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1050   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1051   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1052   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1053   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1054   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1055   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1056   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1057   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1058   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1059 
  1060   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1061   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1062   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1063   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1064   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1065   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1066   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1067   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1068   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1069   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1070 
  1071 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1072 association lists with distinct keys.
  1073 
  1074 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1075 annotated commands.
  1076 
  1077 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1078 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1079 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1080 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1081 
  1082 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1083 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1084 instead.
  1085 
  1086   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1087   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1088   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1089   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1090   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1091   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1092   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1093   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1094   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1095   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1096   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1097   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1098   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1099   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1100   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1101   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1102   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1103   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1104   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1105   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1106   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1107   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1108   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1109   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1110   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1111   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1112   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1113   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1114   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1115   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1116   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1117   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1118   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1119   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1120   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1121   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1122   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1123   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1124   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1125   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1126   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1127 
  1128 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1129 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1130 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1131 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1132 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1133 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1134 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1135 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1136 
  1137 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1138 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1139 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1140 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1141 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1142 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1143 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1144 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1145 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1146 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1147 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1148 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1149 
  1150   Renamed constants:
  1151   measure -> emeasure
  1152   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1153   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1154   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1155   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1156 
  1157   Removed locales:
  1158   completeable_measure_space
  1159   finite_measure_space
  1160   finite_prob_space
  1161   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1162   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1163   finite_sigma_algebra
  1164   measure_space
  1165   pair_finite_prob_space
  1166   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1167   pair_finite_space
  1168   pair_sigma_algebra
  1169   product_sigma_algebra
  1170 
  1171   Removed constants:
  1172   conditional_space
  1173   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1174   image_space
  1175   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1176   pair_measure_generator
  1177   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1178   subvimage
  1179 
  1180   Replacement theorems:
  1181   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1182   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1183   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1184   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1185   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1186   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1187   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1188   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1189   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1190   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1191   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1192   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1193   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1194   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1195   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1196   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1197   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1198   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1199   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1200   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1201   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1202   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1203   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1204   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1205   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1206   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1207   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1208   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1209   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1210   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1211   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1212   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1213   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1214   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1215   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1216   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1217   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1218   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1219   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1220   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1221   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1222   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1223   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1224   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1225   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1226   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1227   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1228   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1229   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1230   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1231   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1232   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1233   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1234   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1235   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1236   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1237   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1238   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1239   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1240   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1241   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1242   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1243   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1244   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1245   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1246   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1247   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1248   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1249   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1250   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1251   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1252   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1253   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1254   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1255   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1256   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1257   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1258   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1259   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1260   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1261   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1262   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1263   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1264   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1265   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1266   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1267   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1268   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1269   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1270   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1271   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1272   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1273   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1274   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1275   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1276   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1277   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1278   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1279   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1280   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1281   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1282   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1283   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1284   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1285   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1286   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1287   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1288   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1289   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1290   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1291   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1292   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1293   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1294   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1295   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1296   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1297   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1298   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1299   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1300   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1301   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1302   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1303   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1304   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1305   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1306   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1307   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1308   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1309 
  1310 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1311 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1312 
  1313 
  1314 *** FOL ***
  1315 
  1316 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1317 
  1318 
  1319 *** ZF ***
  1320 
  1321 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1322 analysis.
  1323 
  1324 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1325 
  1326 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1327 
  1328 
  1329 *** ML ***
  1330 
  1331 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1332 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1333 
  1334 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1335 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1336 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1337 
  1338 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1339 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1340 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1341 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1342 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1343 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1344 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1345 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1346 
  1347 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1348 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1349 
  1350 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1351 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1352 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1353 
  1354 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1355 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1356 
  1357 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1358 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1359 context as well.
  1360 
  1361 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1362 
  1363   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1364   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1365   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1366   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1367   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1368   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1369   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1370   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1371   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1372   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1373   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1374   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1375 
  1376 
  1377 *** System ***
  1378 
  1379 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1380 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1381 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1382 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1383 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1384 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1385 the generic user home was intended.
  1386 
  1387 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1388 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1389 
  1390 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1391 (not just JRE).
  1392 
  1393 
  1394 
  1395 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1396 ------------------------------------
  1397 
  1398 *** General ***
  1399 
  1400 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1401 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1402 
  1403   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1404     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1405     files for checking).
  1406 
  1407   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1408     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1409     positions.
  1410 
  1411   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1412     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1413     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1414 
  1415   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1416     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1417     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1418 
  1419   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1420     cores.
  1421 
  1422   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1423     versions (garbage collection).
  1424 
  1425 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1426 including some remaining limitations.
  1427 
  1428 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1429 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1430 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1431 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1432 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1433 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1434 
  1435 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1436 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1437 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1438 
  1439 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1440 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1441 usedir option -Q.
  1442 
  1443 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1444 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1445 
  1446   long_names   ~> names_long
  1447   short_names  ~> names_short
  1448   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1449 
  1450 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1451 
  1452   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1453 
  1454 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1455 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1456 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1457 
  1458 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1459 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1460 
  1461 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1462   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1463   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1464   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1465     "Classical Reasoner".
  1466 
  1467 
  1468 *** HOL ***
  1469 
  1470 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1471 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1472 
  1473 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1474 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1475 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1476 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1477 class complete_linorder.
  1478 
  1479 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1480 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1481 
  1482 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1483 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1484 
  1485   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1486   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1487   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1488   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1489   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1490   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1491   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1492   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1493   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1494   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1495   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1496 
  1497 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1498 
  1499   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1500   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1501   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1502   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1503   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1504   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1505   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1506   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1507   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1508   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1509   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1510   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1511   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1512   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1513   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1514   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1515 
  1516 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1517 
  1518 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1519 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1520 
  1521 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1522 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1523 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1524 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1525 
  1526 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1527 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1528 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1529 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1530 
  1531 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1532 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1533 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1534 
  1535 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1536 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1537 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1538 
  1539 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1540 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1541 
  1542 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1543 
  1544     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1545     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1546 
  1547 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1548 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1549 
  1550 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1551 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1552 
  1553 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1554 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1555 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1556 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1557 
  1558   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1559   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1560   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1561   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1562   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1563   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1564   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1565 
  1566 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1567 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1568 
  1569   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1570   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1571   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1572   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1573   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1574   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1575   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1576   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1577   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1578   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1579   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1580   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1581   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1582   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1583   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1584   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1585   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1586   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1587   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1588   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1589   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1590   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1591   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1592   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1593   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1594   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1595   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1596   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1597   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1598   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1599   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1600   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1601   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1602   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1603   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1604   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1605   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1606   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1607   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1608   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1609   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1610   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1611   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1612   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1613   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1614   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1615   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1616   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1617   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1618   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1619   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1620   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1621   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1622   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1623   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1624   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1625   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1626   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1627   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1628   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1629   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1630   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1631   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1632   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1633   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1634   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1635   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1636   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1637   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1638   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1639   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1640   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1641   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1642   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1643   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1644   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1645   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1646   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1647   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1648   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1649   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1650   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1651 
  1652 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1653 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1654 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1655 
  1656 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1657 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1658 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1659 
  1660 * Code generation:
  1661 
  1662   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1663     characters in the target language.
  1664 
  1665   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1666     instead.
  1667 
  1668   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1669 
  1670   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1671     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1672 
  1673       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1674 
  1675 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1676 
  1677 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1678 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1679 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1680 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1681 syntax.
  1682 
  1683 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1684 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1685 
  1686 * Nitpick:
  1687   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1688   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1689   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1690     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1691 
  1692 * Sledgehammer:
  1693   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1694   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1695     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1696   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1697     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1698   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1699     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1700   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1701     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1702   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1703     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1704 
  1705 * Metis:
  1706   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1707   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1708     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1709 
  1710 * Command 'try':
  1711   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1712     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1713   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1714     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1715 
  1716 * Quickcheck:
  1717   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1718     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1719   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1720     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1721   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1722     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1723     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1724     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1725   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1726     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1727 
  1728 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1729 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1730 
  1731 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1732 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1733 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1734 
  1735 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1736 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1737 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1738 
  1739 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1740 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1741 
  1742 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1743 arithmetic.
  1744 
  1745 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1746 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1747 and lattice type classes.
  1748 
  1749 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1750 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1751 
  1752 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1753 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1754 
  1755 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1756 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1757 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1758 
  1759   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1760   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1761   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1762   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1763 
  1764 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1765 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1766 constants:
  1767 
  1768   type inat   ~> type enat
  1769   Fin         ~> enat
  1770   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1771   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1772   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1773 
  1774 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1775 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1776 
  1777 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1778 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1779 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1780 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1781 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1782 
  1783 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1784 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1785 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1786 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1787 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1788 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1789 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1790 
  1791   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1792   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1793   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1794   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1795 
  1796 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1797 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1798 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1799 
  1800   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1801   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1802   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1803   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1804   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1805   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1806   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1807   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1808   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1809   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1810   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1811   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1812   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1813   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1814   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1815   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1816   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1817   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1818   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1819   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1820   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1821   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1822   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1823   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1824   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1825   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1826   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1827   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1828   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1829   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1830   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1831   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1832   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1833   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1834   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1835   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1836   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1837   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1838   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1839   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1840   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1841   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1842   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1843   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1844   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1845   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1846   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1847   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1848   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1849   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1850   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1851 
  1852 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1853   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1854   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1855   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1856   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1857     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1858 
  1859 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1860 
  1861   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1862   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1863   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1864   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1865   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1866   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1867   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1868   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1869   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1870   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1871   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1872   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1873   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1874   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1875   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1876   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1877   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1878   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1879   UU_I ~> bottomI
  1880   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  1881   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1882   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1883   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  1884   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  1885   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  1886 
  1887 
  1888 *** Document preparation ***
  1889 
  1890 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1891 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1892 same.
  1893 
  1894 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  1895 result.
  1896 
  1897 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  1898 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  1899 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  1900 
  1901 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  1902 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  1903 
  1904 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  1905 like this:
  1906 
  1907   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  1908   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  1909 
  1910 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  1911 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  1912 layouts.
  1913 
  1914 
  1915 *** ML ***
  1916 
  1917 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  1918 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  1919 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  1920 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  1921 under external program control.
  1922 
  1923 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  1924 data, which requires explicit setup.
  1925 
  1926 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  1927 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  1928 (better known as Proof General).
  1929 
  1930 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1931 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  1932 
  1933 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  1934 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  1935 
  1936 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  1937 (including quotes etc.).
  1938 
  1939 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  1940 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  1941 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  1942 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  1943 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  1944 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  1945 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  1946 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  1947 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  1948 
  1949 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  1950 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  1951 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1952 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  1953 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  1954 
  1955 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  1956 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  1957 
  1958 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  1959 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  1960 
  1961 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  1962 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  1963 
  1964 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  1965 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  1966 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  1967 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  1968 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  1969 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  1970 proper Proof.context.
  1971 
  1972 
  1973 *** System ***
  1974 
  1975 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  1976 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  1977 
  1978 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  1979 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  1980 
  1981 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  1982 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  1983 
  1984   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  1985   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  1986   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  1987   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  1988   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  1989 
  1990 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  1991 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1992 
  1993 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  1994 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  1995 example:
  1996 
  1997   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  1998 
  1999 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2000 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2001 
  2002 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2003 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2004 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2005 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2006 
  2007 
  2008 
  2009 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2010 ----------------------------------
  2011 
  2012 *** General ***
  2013 
  2014 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2015 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2016 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2017 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2018 like this:
  2019 
  2020   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2021 
  2022 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2023 
  2024 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2025 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2026 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2027 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2028 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2029 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2030 
  2031 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2032 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2033 the following package declarations:
  2034 
  2035   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2036   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2037 
  2038 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2039 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2040 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2041 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2042 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2043 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2044 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2045 
  2046 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2047 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2048 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2049 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2050 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2051 
  2052 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2053 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2054 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2055 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2056 
  2057 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2058 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2059 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2060 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2061 
  2062   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2063 
  2064   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2065   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2066   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2067   show_types                    show_types
  2068   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2069   show_consts                   show_consts
  2070   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2071 
  2072   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2073   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2074   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2075 
  2076   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2077   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2078 
  2079   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2080 
  2081   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2082   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2083   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2084   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2085   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2086 
  2087 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2088 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2089 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2090 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2091 
  2092 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2093 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2094 
  2095   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2096   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2097 
  2098 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2099 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2100 float_token.
  2101 
  2102 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2103 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2104 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2105 
  2106 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2107 DejaVu Sans.
  2108 
  2109 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2110 
  2111 
  2112 *** Pure ***
  2113 
  2114 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2115 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2116 time.
  2117 
  2118 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2119 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2120 
  2121 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2122 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2123 
  2124 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2125 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2126 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2127 command already provided this functionality.
  2128 
  2129 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2130 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2131 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2132 without interpretations.
  2133 
  2134 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2135 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2136 
  2137 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2138 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2139 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2140 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2141 
  2142 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2143 'definition' instead.
  2144 
  2145 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2146 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2147 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2148 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2149 
  2150 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2151 constructors.
  2152 
  2153 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2154 the local file system.
  2155 
  2156 
  2157 *** HOL ***
  2158 
  2159 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2160 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2161 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2162 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2163 
  2164   declare [[coercion f]]
  2165 
  2166 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2167 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2168 
  2169   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2170 
  2171 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2172 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2173 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2174 other theories like this:
  2175 
  2176   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2177 
  2178 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2179 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2180 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2181 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2182 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2183 for examples.
  2184 
  2185 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2186 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2187 
  2188 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2189 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2190 
  2191 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2192 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2193 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2194 
  2195 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2196 functorial structure of types.
  2197 
  2198 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2199 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2200 
  2201 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2202 languages.
  2203 
  2204 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2205 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2206 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2207 
  2208 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2209 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2210 
  2211 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2212 combinators any longer.
  2213 
  2214 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2215 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2216 
  2217 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2218 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2219 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2220 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2221 
  2222   record 'a foo = ...
  2223   ...
  2224   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2225 
  2226 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2227 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2228 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2229 
  2230 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2231 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2232 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2233 
  2234 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2235 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2236 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2237 
  2238 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2239 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2240 
  2241 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2242 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2243 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2244 independently.
  2245 
  2246 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2247 counter example search.
  2248 
  2249 * Sledgehammer:
  2250   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2251     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2252     sledgehammer").
  2253   - Renamed commands:
  2254     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2255     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2256     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2257     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2258   - Renamed options:
  2259     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2260     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2261     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2262     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2263     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2264 
  2265 * Nitpick:
  2266   - Renamed options:
  2267     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2268     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2269     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2270   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2271   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2272   - Added "whack" option.
  2273   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2274   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2275   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2276   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2277     higher cardinalities.
  2278   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2279 
  2280 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2281 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2282 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2283 
  2284     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2285 
  2286 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2287 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2288 
  2289 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2290 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2291 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2292 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2293 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2294 "smt_solver".
  2295 
  2296 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2297 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2298 
  2299 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2300 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2301 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2302 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2303 
  2304 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2305   - Renamed:
  2306     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2307     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2308     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2309   - Added:
  2310     smt_verbose
  2311     smt_random_seed
  2312     smt_datatypes
  2313     smt_infer_triggers
  2314     smt_monomorph_limit
  2315     cvc3_options
  2316     remote_cvc3_options
  2317     remote_z3_options
  2318     yices_options
  2319 
  2320 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2321 header.
  2322 
  2323 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2324 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2325 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2326 
  2327   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2328 
  2329 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2330 
  2331 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2332 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2333 
  2334 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2335 
  2336 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2337 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2338 
  2339 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2340 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2341 
  2342 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2343 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2344 
  2345 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2346 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2347 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2348 
  2349 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2350 
  2351 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2352 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2353 
  2354 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2355 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2356 
  2357 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2358 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2359 for congruent(2)).
  2360 
  2361 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2362 
  2363   types
  2364     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2365     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2366 
  2367   constants
  2368     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2369     True ~> HOL.True
  2370     False ~> HOL.False
  2371     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2372     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2373     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2374     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2375     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2376     The ~> HOL.The
  2377     All ~> HOL.All
  2378     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2379     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2380     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2381     If ~> HOL.If
  2382     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2383     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2384     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2385     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2386     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2387     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2388     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2389     op : ~> Set.member
  2390     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2391 
  2392 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2393 
  2394 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2395 
  2396     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2397     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2398     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2399     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2400     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2401     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2402     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2403     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2404 
  2405 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2406 
  2407 * More stylized fact names:
  2408 
  2409   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2410   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2411   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2412   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2413 
  2414 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2415 
  2416 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2417 
  2418   constants
  2419     null ~> List.null
  2420 
  2421   facts
  2422     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2423     null_empty ~> null_def
  2424 
  2425 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2426 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2427 generation.
  2428 
  2429 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2430 Haskell code.
  2431 
  2432 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2433 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2434 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2435 
  2436 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2437 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2438 
  2439 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2440 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2441 
  2442 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2443 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2444 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2445 
  2446 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2447 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2448 
  2449 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2450 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2451 
  2452 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2453 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2454 referred to by its qualified name.
  2455 
  2456   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2457   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2458   product ~>  Enum.product
  2459 
  2460 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2461 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2462 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2463 
  2464 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2465 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2466 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2467 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2468 
  2469 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2470 sort_key.
  2471 
  2472 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2473 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2474 
  2475 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2476 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2477 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2478 
  2479   types
  2480     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2481               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2482               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2483         (depends on your needs)
  2484 
  2485   constants
  2486      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2487      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2488      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2489 
  2490 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2491 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2492 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2493 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2494 
  2495 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2496 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2497 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2498 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2499 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2500 
  2501 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2502 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2503 
  2504 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2505 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2506 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2507 
  2508 
  2509 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2510 
  2511 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2512 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2513 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2514 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2515 compatibility.
  2516 
  2517 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2518 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2519 
  2520 
  2521 *** HOLCF ***
  2522 
  2523 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2524 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2525 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2526 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2527 
  2528 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2529 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2530 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2531 
  2532   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2533   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2534   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2535 
  2536 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2537 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2538 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2539 
  2540 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2541 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2542 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2543 domain definition now works:
  2544 
  2545   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2546 
  2547 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2548 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2549 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2550 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2551 
  2552   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2553     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2554 
  2555   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2556 
  2557 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2558 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2559 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2560 
  2561 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2562 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2563 
  2564 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2565 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2566 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2567 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2568 
  2569 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2570 
  2571 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2572 
  2573 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2574 
  2575 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2576 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2577 
  2578 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2579 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2580 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2581 
  2582 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2583 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2584 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2585 
  2586 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2587 still supported as an input translation.
  2588 
  2589 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2590 
  2591   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2592   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2593   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2594   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2595   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2596   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2597   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2598 
  2599 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2600 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2601 
  2602   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2603   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2604   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2605   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2606   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2607   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2608 
  2609 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2610 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2611 
  2612 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2613 
  2614   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2615   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2616   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2617   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2618 
  2619 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2620 
  2621 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2622 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2623 
  2624 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2625 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2626 
  2627   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2628   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2629   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2630   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2631   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2632   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2633   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2634   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2635   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2636   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2637   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2638   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2639   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2640   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2641   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2642   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2643   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2644   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2645   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2646   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2647 
  2648 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2649 
  2650   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2651   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2652   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2653   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2654   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2655   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2656   box_less             ~> box_below
  2657   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2658   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2659   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2660   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2661   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2662   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2663   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2664   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2665   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2666   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2667   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2668   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2669   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2670   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2671   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2672   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2673   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2674   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2675   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2676   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2677   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2678   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2679   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2680   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2681   up_less              ~> up_below
  2682   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2683   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2684   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2685   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2686   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2687   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2688   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2689   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2690   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2691   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2692   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2693   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2694   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2695 
  2696 
  2697 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2698 
  2699 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2700 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2701 
  2702 
  2703 *** ML ***
  2704 
  2705 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2706 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2707 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2708 
  2709 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2710 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2711 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2712 
  2713 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2714 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2715 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2716 
  2717 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2718 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2719 
  2720 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2721 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2722 
  2723 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2724 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2725 
  2726 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2727 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2728 
  2729 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2730 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2731 almost all situations.
  2732 
  2733 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2734 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2735 Isabelle/ML.
  2736 
  2737 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2738 meaning.
  2739 
  2740 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2741 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2742 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2743 
  2744 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2745 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2746 
  2747 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2748 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2749 
  2750 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2751 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2752 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2753 
  2754 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2755 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2756 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2757 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2758 configuration options.
  2759 
  2760 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2761 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2762 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2763 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2764 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2765 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2766 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2767 
  2768 
  2769 
  2770 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2771 ---------------------------------
  2772 
  2773 *** General ***
  2774 
  2775 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2776 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2777 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2778 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2779 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2780 their full internal name.
  2781 
  2782 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2783 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2784 Some hints on upgrading:
  2785 
  2786   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2787     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2788     which are independent of this issue.
  2789 
  2790   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2791     provides the following special forms:
  2792 
  2793       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2794       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2795       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2796 
  2797     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2798     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2799     extra variables".
  2800 
  2801     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2802     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2803     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2804     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2805     "logic".
  2806 
  2807   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2808     antiquotations:
  2809 
  2810       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2811       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2812       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2813       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2814 
  2815   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2816     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2817     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2818     antiquotations.
  2819 
  2820 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2821 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2822 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2823 diagnose syntax problems.
  2824 
  2825 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2826 
  2827 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2828 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2829 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2830 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2831 
  2832 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2833 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2834 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2835 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2836 
  2837 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2838 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2839 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2840 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2841 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2842 
  2843 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2844 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2845 
  2846 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2847 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2848 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2849 
  2850   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2851 
  2852 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2853 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2854 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2855 
  2856 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2857 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2858 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2859 
  2860 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2861 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2862 
  2863 
  2864 *** Pure ***
  2865 
  2866 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2867 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2868 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2869 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2870 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2871 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2872 inspect proof terms.
  2873 
  2874 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2875 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2876 are added internally.  For example:
  2877 
  2878   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2879 
  2880 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  2881 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2882 
  2883 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2884 
  2885 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2886 'class' instead.
  2887 
  2888 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2889 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2890 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2891 
  2892 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2893 invariants.
  2894 
  2895 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  2896 user space functionality any longer.
  2897 
  2898 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  2899 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  2900 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2901 
  2902 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  2903 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  2904 
  2905 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  2906 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  2907 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  2908 
  2909 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  2910 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  2911 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  2912 
  2913 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  2914 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2915 
  2916 
  2917 *** HOL ***
  2918 
  2919 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  2920 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  2921 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  2922 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  2923 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  2924 
  2925 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  2926 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  2927 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  2928 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  2929 
  2930   fun
  2931     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  2932   where
  2933     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  2934 
  2935   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  2936     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  2937 
  2938   quotient_definition
  2939     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  2940 
  2941 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  2942 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  2943 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  2944 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  2945 
  2946 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  2947 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  2948 
  2949 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  2950 separate HOL-SMT session.
  2951 
  2952 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  2953 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2954 
  2955 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  2956 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  2957 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  2958 
  2959 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  2960 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2961 
  2962 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  2963 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2964 
  2965 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  2966 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2967 
  2968 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  2969 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2970 
  2971 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  2972 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  2973 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2974 
  2975   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  2976   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  2977   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  2978   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  2979   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  2980   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  2981   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  2982   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  2983   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  2984   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  2985   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  2986   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  2987   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  2988   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  2989   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  2990   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  2991   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  2992   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  2993   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  2994   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  2995   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  2996   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  2997   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  2998   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  2999   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3000   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3001   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3002   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3003   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3004   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3005 
  3006 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3007 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3008 
  3009 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3010 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3011 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3012 
  3013 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3014 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3015 
  3016 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3017 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3018 
  3019 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3020 
  3021 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3022 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3023 
  3024 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3025 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3026 
  3027 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3028 
  3029 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3030 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3031 
  3032 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3033 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3034 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3035 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3036 
  3037 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3038   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3039   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3040   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3041 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3042 
  3043 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3044 lattices):
  3045 
  3046     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3047     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3048 
  3049     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3050 
  3051     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3052     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3053     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3054     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3055     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3056     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3057     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3058     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3059     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3060     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3061     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3062     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3063     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3064 
  3065     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3066     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3067     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3068     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3069     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3070     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3071     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3072     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3073     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3074     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3075     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3076     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3077     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3078     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3079     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3080     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3081     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3082     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3083 
  3084   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3085   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3086 
  3087     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3088     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3089     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3090     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3091     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3092 
  3093 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3094 
  3095 * Refined field classes:
  3096   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3097     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3098     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3099   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3100 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3101 
  3102 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3103   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3104   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3105   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3106     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3107   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3108     equal_neg_zero.
  3109 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3110 
  3111 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3112 sets to lattices:
  3113 
  3114   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3115   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3116   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3117   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3118   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3119   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3120   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3121   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3122   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3123   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3124 
  3125 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3126 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3127 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3128 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3129 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3130 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3131 
  3132 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3133 multiset order:
  3134 
  3135   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3136     <= and <;
  3137   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3138     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3139     multiset_order;
  3140   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3141     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3142     generation;
  3143   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3144     if needed.
  3145 
  3146 Renamed:
  3147 
  3148   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3149   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3150   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3151 
  3152 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3153 
  3154 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3155 
  3156 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3157 
  3158 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3159 
  3160 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3161 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3162 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3163 
  3164   Constants:
  3165   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3166   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3167   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3168   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3169   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3170   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3171   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3172   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3173   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3174   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3175   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3176   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3177   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3178 
  3179   Lemmas:
  3180   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3181   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3182   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3183   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3184   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3185   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3186   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3187   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3188   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3189   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3190   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3191   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3192   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3193 
  3194 * Sledgehammer:
  3195   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3196     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3197     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3198     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3199     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3200     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3201     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3202   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3203   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3204     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3205   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3206     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3207     is still experimental.)
  3208   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3209     full-typed mode.
  3210   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3211 
  3212 * Nitpick:
  3213   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3214   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3215   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3216     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3217   - Added support for quotient types.
  3218   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3219     constructs.
  3220   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3221     "termination" proofs).
  3222   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3223   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3224   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3225   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3226     record getters.
  3227   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3228   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3229   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3230   - Added "atoms" option.
  3231   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3232     problems.
  3233   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3234     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3235     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3236   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3237     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3238   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3239 
  3240 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3241   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3242   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3243   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3244   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3245   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3246   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3247   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3248   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3249   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3250 
  3251 
  3252 *** HOLCF ***
  3253 
  3254 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3255 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3256 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3257 
  3258 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3259 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3260 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3261 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3262 
  3263 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3264 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3265 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3266 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3267 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3268 
  3269 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3270 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3271 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3272 
  3273 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3274 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3275 
  3276   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3277   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3278 
  3279 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3280 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3281 
  3282   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3283   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3284   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3285   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3286   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3287 
  3288 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3289 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3290 
  3291   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3292   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3293   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3294 
  3295 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3296 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3297 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3298 
  3299 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3300 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3301 
  3302 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3303 
  3304 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3305 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3306 
  3307 
  3308 *** ML ***
  3309 
  3310 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3311 
  3312     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3313     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3314 
  3315     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3316     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3317     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3318     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3319 
  3320     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3321     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3322     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3323 
  3324 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3325 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3326 
  3327 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3328 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3329 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3330 
  3331 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3332 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3333 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3334 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3335 
  3336 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3337 the context or even global references.
  3338 
  3339 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3340 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3341 
  3342 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3343 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3344 
  3345   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3346   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3347   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3348   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3349   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3350   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3351   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3352   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3353   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3354   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3355 
  3356 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3357 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3358 
  3359 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3360 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3361 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3362 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3363 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3364 
  3365 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3366 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3367 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3368 Theory_Data version.
  3369 
  3370 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3371 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3372 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3373 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3374 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3375 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3376 explicitly in rare situations.
  3377 
  3378 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3379 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3380 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3381 
  3382 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3383 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3384 
  3385 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3386 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3387 quite rare).
  3388 
  3389 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3390 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3391 
  3392 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3393 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3394 terms.
  3395 
  3396 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3397 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3398 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3399 
  3400 
  3401 *** System ***
  3402 
  3403 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3404 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3405 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3406 
  3407 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3408 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3409 respectively.
  3410 
  3411 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3412 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3413 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3414 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3415 
  3416   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3417 
  3418 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3419 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3420 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3421 component.
  3422 
  3423 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3424 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3425 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3426 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3427 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3428 the user for manual installation.
  3429 
  3430 
  3431 
  3432 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3433 -------------------------------------
  3434 
  3435 *** General ***
  3436 
  3437 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3438 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3439 
  3440 
  3441 *** Pure ***
  3442 
  3443 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3444 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3445 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3446 
  3447 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3448 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3449 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3450 
  3451 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3452 interpretation.
  3453 
  3454 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3455 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3456 
  3457 
  3458 *** Document preparation ***
  3459 
  3460 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3461 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3462 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3463 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3464 
  3465 
  3466 *** HOL ***
  3467 
  3468 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3469 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3470 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3471 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3472 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3473 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3474 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3475 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3476 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3477 
  3478 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3479 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3480 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3481 
  3482 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3483 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3484 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3485 
  3486 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3487 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3488 
  3489 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3490 
  3491 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3492 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3493 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3494 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3495 
  3496 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3497 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3498 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3499 "mirabelle" utility.
  3500 
  3501 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3502 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3503 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3504 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3505 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3506 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3507 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3508 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3509 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3510 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3511 
  3512 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3513 procedure only.
  3514 
  3515 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3516 
  3517 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3518 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3519 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3520 that fail later.
  3521 
  3522 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3523 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3524 
  3525 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3526 the same method as the approximation method.
  3527 
  3528 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3529 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3530 series expansion.
  3531 
  3532 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3533 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3534 
  3535 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3536 reals.
  3537 
  3538 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3539 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3540 
  3541 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3542 fixpoint theorem.
  3543 
  3544 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3545   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3546     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3547   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3548     accordingly
  3549   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3550     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3551   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3552     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3553 
  3554 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3555 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3556 lattice.
  3557 
  3558 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3559 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3560 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3561 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3562 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3563 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3564 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3565 
  3566 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3567   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3568     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3569   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3570     le_inf_iff
  3571   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3572     sup_aci)
  3573   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3574   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3575   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3576     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3577     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3578     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3579     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3580     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3581     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3582     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3583     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3584     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3585     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3586   - authentic syntax for
  3587     Set.Pow
  3588     Set.image
  3589   - mere abbreviations:
  3590     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3591     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3592     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3593     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3594     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3595     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3596     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3597     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3598   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3599 
  3600 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3601 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3602 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3603 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3604 
  3605 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3606 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3607 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3608 
  3609 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3610 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3611 
  3612 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3613 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3614 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3615 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3616 
  3617 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3618 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3619 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3620 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3621 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3622 
  3623 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3624 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3625 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3626 
  3627 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3628 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3629 
  3630 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3631 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3632 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3633 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3634 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3635 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3636 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3637 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3638 
  3639 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3640     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3641     code_post       replaces    code post
  3642     etc.
  3643   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3644 
  3645 * Renamed methods:
  3646     sizechange -> size_change
  3647     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3648   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3649 
  3650 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3651 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3652 
  3653 * Renamed theorems:
  3654     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3655     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3656     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3657     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3658     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3659   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3660 
  3661 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3662 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3663 
  3664 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3665 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3666 
  3667 
  3668 *** HOLCF ***
  3669 
  3670 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3671 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3672 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3673 
  3674 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3675 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3676 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3677 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3678 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3679 
  3680 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3681 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3682 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3683 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3684 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3685 
  3686 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3687 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3688 constructor are pre-configured.
  3689 
  3690 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3691 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3692 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3693 
  3694 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3695 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3696 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3697 as well.)
  3698 
  3699 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3700 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3701 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3702 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3703 examples.
  3704 
  3705 
  3706 *** ML ***
  3707 
  3708 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3709 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3710 
  3711 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3712 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3713 position, logical grouping etc.
  3714 
  3715 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3716 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3717 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3718 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3719 
  3720 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3721 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3722 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3723 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3724 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3725 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3726 
  3727 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3728 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3729 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3730 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3731 experiments with references.
  3732 
  3733 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3734 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3735 
  3736 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3737 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3738 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3739 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3740 
  3741 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3742 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3743 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3744 
  3745 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3746 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3747 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3748 
  3749 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3750 
  3751 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3752 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3753 
  3754 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3755 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3756 
  3757 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3758 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3759 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3760 
  3761 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3762 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3763 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3764 
  3765 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3766 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3767 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3768 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3769 
  3770 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3771 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3772 instead of global theory.
  3773 
  3774 
  3775 *** System ***
  3776 
  3777 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3778 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3779 usedir option -q.
  3780 
  3781 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3782 also the system manual.
  3783 
  3784 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3785 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3786 
  3787 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3788 this is always enabled.
  3789 
  3790 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3791 
  3792 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3793 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3794 currently supported on Linux only.
  3795 
  3796 
  3797 
  3798 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3799 --------------------------------
  3800 
  3801 *** General ***
  3802 
  3803 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3804 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3805 
  3806   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3807     "isatool."
  3808 
  3809   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3810     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3811 
  3812   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3813     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3814 
  3815 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3816 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3817 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3818 
  3819 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3820 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3821 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3822 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3823 via "isabelle emacs".
  3824 
  3825 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3826 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3827 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3828 
  3829 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3830 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3831 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3832 
  3833 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3834 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3835 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3836 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3837 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3838 
  3839 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3840 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3841 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3842 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3843 
  3844 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3845 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3846 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3847 
  3848 
  3849 *** Pure ***
  3850 
  3851 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3852 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3853 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3854 
  3855 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3856 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3857 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3858 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3859 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3860 
  3861 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3862 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3863 useful in locale declarations.
  3864 
  3865 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3866 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3867 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3868 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3869 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3870 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3871 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3872 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3873 no longer generated.
  3874 
  3875 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3876 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3877 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3878 
  3879 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  3880 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  3881 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  3882 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3883 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3884 
  3885 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3886 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3887 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3888 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3889 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3890 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3891 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3892 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3893 
  3894 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  3895 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  3896 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  3897 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  3898 
  3899 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3900 
  3901 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  3902 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  3903 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  3904 
  3905 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  3906 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3907 
  3908 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  3909 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  3910 in HOL, write
  3911 
  3912     class foo = ...
  3913 
  3914 instead of
  3915 
  3916     class foo = type + ...
  3917 
  3918 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  3919 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3920 
  3921 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  3922 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  3923 
  3924 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  3925 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  3926 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  3927 
  3928 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  3929 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  3930 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  3931 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  3932 directly in regular applications.
  3933 
  3934 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  3935 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  3936 
  3937 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  3938 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  3939 
  3940 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  3941 theory context.
  3942 
  3943 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  3944 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3945 
  3946 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  3947 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  3948 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  3949 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  3950 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  3951 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  3952 
  3953   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  3954 
  3955 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  3956 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  3957 normalization.
  3958 
  3959 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  3960 addressing etc.
  3961 
  3962 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  3963 
  3964   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  3965   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  3966 
  3967 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3968 
  3969   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  3970      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  3971      parts of the code generator framework).
  3972 
  3973   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  3974      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  3975      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  3976 
  3977 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3978 
  3979 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  3980 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3981 
  3982 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  3983 patterns, e.g.
  3984 
  3985     find_consts "_ => bool"
  3986 
  3987 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  3988 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  3989 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  3990 hyphen:
  3991 
  3992     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  3993 
  3994 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  3995 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  3996 
  3997 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  3998 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  3999 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4000 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4001 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4002 higher-order unification.
  4003 
  4004 
  4005 *** Document preparation ***
  4006 
  4007 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4008 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4009 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4010 
  4011 
  4012 *** HOL ***
  4013 
  4014 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4015 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4016 
  4017 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4018 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4019 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4020 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4021 Main, as before.
  4022 
  4023 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4024 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4025 
  4026 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4027 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4028 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4029 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4030 
  4031 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4032 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4033 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4034 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4035 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4036 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4037 
  4038 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4039 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4040 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4041 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4042 
  4043 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4044 menu.
  4045 
  4046 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4047 (contains the empty clause).
  4048 
  4049 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4050 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4051 
  4052 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4053 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4054 
  4055 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4056 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4057 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4058 
  4059 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4060 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4061 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4062 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4063 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4064 
  4065 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4066 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4067 
  4068 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4069 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4070 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4071 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4072 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4073 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4074 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4075 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4076 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4077 
  4078 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4079 
  4080 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4081 
  4082 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4083 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4084 
  4085 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4086 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4087 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4088 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4089 
  4090 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4091 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4092 
  4093     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4094     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4095     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4096     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4097     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4098     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4099     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4100     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4101 
  4102 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4103 theory Set.
  4104 
  4105 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4106 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4107 
  4108 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4109 
  4110 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4111 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4112 
  4113 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4114 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4115 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4116 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4117 allowed. For examples see
  4118 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4119 
  4120 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4121 
  4122 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4123 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4124 
  4125 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4126 structure:
  4127 
  4128     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4129     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4130     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4131     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4132     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4133     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4134     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4135     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4136     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4137     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4138     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4139     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4140     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4141     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4142     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4143     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4144     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4145     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4146     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4147     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4148     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4149     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4150     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4151     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4152     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4153     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4154     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4155     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4156     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4157     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4158     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4159     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4160     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4161 
  4162     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4163     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4164     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4165     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4166     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4167     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4168     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4169     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4170     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4171     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4172 
  4173     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4174     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4175     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4176     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4177     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4178     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4179 
  4180 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4181 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4182 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4183 
  4184 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4185 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4186 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4187 
  4188 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4189 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4190 
  4191 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4192 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4193 
  4194 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4195 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4196 proofs, e.g.
  4197 
  4198   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4199 
  4200 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4201 
  4202 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4203 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4204 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4205 
  4206 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4207 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4208 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4209 
  4210 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4211 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4212 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4213 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4214 
  4215 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4216 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4217 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4218 preorder_class.*.
  4219 
  4220 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4221 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4222 
  4223 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4224 
  4225   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4226 
  4227 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4228 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4229 fold_image.
  4230 
  4231 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4232 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4233 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4234 the former will disappear at some point.
  4235 
  4236 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4237 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4238 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4239 
  4240 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4241 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4242 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4243 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4244 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4245 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4246 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4247 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4248 
  4249 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4250 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4251 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4252 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4253 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4254 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4255 
  4256     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4257     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4258     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4259     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4260     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4261     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4262     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4263 
  4264 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4265 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4266 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4267 
  4268 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4269 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4270 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4271 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4272 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4273 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4274 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4275 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4276 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4277 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4278 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4279 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4280 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4281 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4282 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4283 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4284 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4285 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4286 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4287 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4288 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4289 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4290 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4291 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4292 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4293 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4294 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4295 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4296 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4297 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4298 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4299 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4300 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4301 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4302 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4303 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4304 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4305 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4306 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4307 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4308 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4309 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4310 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4311 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4312 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4313 
  4314 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4315 
  4316 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4317 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4318 
  4319 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4320 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4321 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4322 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4323 
  4324 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4325 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4326 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4327 theory RealVector.
  4328 
  4329 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4330 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4331 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4332 and inner products are included.
  4333 
  4334 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4335 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4336 supported.
  4337 
  4338 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4339 first diagonalization argument.
  4340 
  4341 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4342 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4343 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4344 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4345 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4346 
  4347     hide (open) const gcd
  4348     abbreviation gcd where
  4349       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4350     notation (output)
  4351       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4352 
  4353 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4354 
  4355 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4356 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4357 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4358 
  4359 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4360 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4361 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4362 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4363 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4364 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4365 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4366 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4367 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4368 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4369 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4370 cases.
  4371 
  4372 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4373 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4374 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4375 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4376 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4377 
  4378     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4379     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4380     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4381     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4382     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4383 
  4384 
  4385 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4386 
  4387 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4388 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4389 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4390 
  4391 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4392 
  4393 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4394 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4395 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4396 
  4397 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4398 
  4399 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4400 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4401 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4402 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4403 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4404 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4405 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4406 
  4407 
  4408 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4409 
  4410 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4411 
  4412 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4413 theory targets.
  4414 
  4415 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4416 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4417 'inductive' etc.
  4418 
  4419 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4420 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4421 
  4422 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4423 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4424 
  4425 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4426 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4427 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4428 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4429 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4430 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4431 the algorithm W:
  4432 
  4433  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4434  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4435          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4436 
  4437 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4438 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4439 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4440 
  4441 
  4442 *** HOLCF ***
  4443 
  4444 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4445 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4446 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4447 
  4448 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4449 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4450 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4451 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4452 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4453 
  4454 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4455 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4456 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4457 
  4458 
  4459 *** ZF ***
  4460 
  4461 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4462 
  4463 
  4464 *** ML ***
  4465 
  4466 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4467 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4468 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4469 5.2.1!
  4470 
  4471 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4472 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4473 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4474 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4475 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4476 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4477 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4478 
  4479 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4480 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4481 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4482 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4483 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4484 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4485 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4486 
  4487 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4488 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4489 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4490 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4491 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4492 
  4493 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4494 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4495 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4496 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4497 Method.add_method.
  4498 
  4499 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4500 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4501 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4502 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4503 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4504 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4505 
  4506 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4507 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4508 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4509 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4510 examples.
  4511 
  4512 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4513 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4514 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4515 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4516 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4517 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4518 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4519 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4520 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4521 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4522 
  4523 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4524 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4525 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4526 
  4527 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4528 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4529 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4530 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4531 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4532 resort for legacy applications.
  4533 
  4534 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4535 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4536 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4537 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4538 explicit runtime argument.
  4539 
  4540 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4541 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4542 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4543 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4544 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4545 
  4546 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4547 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4548 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4549 theory state.
  4550 
  4551 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4552 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4553 
  4554   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4555   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4556   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4557   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4558   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4559   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4560   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4561   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4562   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4563   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4564 
  4565 
  4566 *** System ***
  4567 
  4568 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4569 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4570 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4571 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4572 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4573 
  4574 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4575 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4576 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4577 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4578 
  4579 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4580 
  4581 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4582 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4583 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4584 prover operations.
  4585 
  4586 
  4587 
  4588 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4589 -------------------------------
  4590 
  4591 *** General ***
  4592 
  4593 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4594 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4595 
  4596 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4597 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4598 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4599 provides a proper context already.
  4600 
  4601 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4602 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4603 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4604 
  4605 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4606 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4607 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4608 swap theory imports.
  4609 
  4610 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4611 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4612 
  4613 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4614 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4615 white space without escapes.
  4616 
  4617 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4618 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4619 "foo_bar".
  4620 
  4621 
  4622 *** Pure ***
  4623 
  4624 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4625 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4626 
  4627 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4628 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4629 
  4630 (1) unused_thms
  4631      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4632 
  4633 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4634      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4635      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4636 
  4637 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4638      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4639      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4640      their ancestors.
  4641 
  4642 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4643 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4644 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4645 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4646 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4647 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4648 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4649 
  4650 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4651 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4652 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4653 
  4654 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4655 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4656 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4657 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4658 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4659 
  4660 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4661 
  4662 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4663 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4664 update of theories within ML code.
  4665 
  4666 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4667 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4668 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4669 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4670 
  4671 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4672 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4673 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4674 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4675 
  4676 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4677 
  4678 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4679 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4680 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4681 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4682 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4683 
  4684 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4685 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4686 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4687 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4688 situations.
  4689 
  4690 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4691 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4692 proof text.
  4693 
  4694 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4695 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4696 
  4697 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4698 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4699 predicates.
  4700 
  4701 
  4702 *** Document preparation ***
  4703 
  4704 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4705 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4706 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4707 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4708 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4709 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4710 
  4711 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4712 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4713 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4714 
  4715 
  4716 *** HOL ***
  4717 
  4718 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4719 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4720 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4721 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4722 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4723 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4724 
  4725 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4726 with multithreading.
  4727 
  4728 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4729 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4730 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4731 
  4732 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4733 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4734 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4735 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4736 
  4737 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4738 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4739 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4740 and makes them available separately.  See
  4741 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4742 
  4743 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4744 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4745 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4746 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4747 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4748 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4749 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4750 the declared rules.
  4751 
  4752 This setup also deals with rules like
  4753 
  4754   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4755 
  4756 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4757 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4758 
  4759 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4760 
  4761   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4762 
  4763   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4764     definitions on => and bool.
  4765 
  4766   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4767     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4768     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4769 
  4770       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4771       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4772       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4773       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4774       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4775       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4776       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4777       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4778 
  4779   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4780     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4781     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4782 
  4783   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4784     The proof pattern
  4785 
  4786       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4787       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4788 
  4789     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4790     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4791 
  4792       have "EX S. P S"
  4793       proof
  4794         show "P S" <...>
  4795       qed
  4796 
  4797   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4798     The proof pattern
  4799 
  4800       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4801       also have "S = T" <...>
  4802       finally have "P T" .
  4803 
  4804     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4805     must be replaced by something like
  4806 
  4807       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4808       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4809       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4810 
  4811   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4812     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4813 
  4814       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4815 
  4816     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4817     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4818     type of the form
  4819 
  4820       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4821 
  4822     rather than
  4823 
  4824       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4825 
  4826 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4827 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4828 
  4829 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4830 
  4831 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4832 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4833 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4834 
  4835 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4836 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4837 
  4838 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4839 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4840 
  4841 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4842 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4843 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4844 
  4845 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4846 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4847 
  4848   less_trans
  4849   less_linear
  4850   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4851   le_less_trans
  4852   less_le_trans
  4853   less_not_sym
  4854   less_asym
  4855 
  4856 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4857 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4858 and different variable names.
  4859 
  4860 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4861 
  4862 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4863 finite maps.
  4864 
  4865 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4866 
  4867 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4868 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4869 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4870 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4871 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4872 accordingly.
  4873 
  4874 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4875 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4876 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4877 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4878 
  4879 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  4880 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  4881 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  4882 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4883 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4884 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4885 
  4886 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4887 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4888 
  4889 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4890 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4891 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4892 
  4893 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4894 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4895 
  4896 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  4897 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  4898 
  4899 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  4900 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4901 
  4902 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  4903 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4904 
  4905 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  4906 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  4907 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4908 
  4909 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  4910 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4911 
  4912 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  4913 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  4914 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  4915 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  4916 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  4917 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4918 
  4919 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  4920 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  4921 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  4922 
  4923 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  4924 
  4925 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  4926 
  4927 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  4928 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  4929 well-orders on sets and on types.
  4930 
  4931 
  4932 *** ZF ***
  4933 
  4934 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  4935 same session:
  4936 
  4937   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  4938   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  4939   Int       -> Int_ZF
  4940   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  4941   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  4942   List      -> List_ZF
  4943   Main      -> Main_ZF
  4944 
  4945 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  4946 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  4947 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  4948 
  4949 
  4950 *** ML ***
  4951 
  4952 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  4953 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  4954 
  4955 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  4956 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  4957 
  4958 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  4959 
  4960 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  4961 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  4962 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  4963 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  4964 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4965 
  4966 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  4967 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  4968 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  4969 
  4970 
  4971 *** System ***
  4972 
  4973 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  4974 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  4975 
  4976 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  4977 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  4978 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  4979 
  4980 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  4981 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  4982 
  4983 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  4984 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  4985 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  4986 
  4987 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  4988 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  4989 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  4990 
  4991 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  4992 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  4993 
  4994 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  4995 way of changing the user's settings is via
  4996 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  4997 script.
  4998 
  4999 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5000 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5001 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5002 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5003 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5004 
  5005 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5006 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5007 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5008 
  5009 
  5010 
  5011 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5012 -----------------------------------
  5013 
  5014 *** General ***
  5015 
  5016 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5017 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5018 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5019 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5020 
  5021 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5022 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5023 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5024 
  5025 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5026 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5027 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5028 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5029 
  5030 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5031 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5032 quotes.
  5033 
  5034 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5035 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5036 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5037 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5038 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5039 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5040 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5041 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5042 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5043 
  5044 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5045 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5046 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5047 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5048 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5049 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5050 
  5051 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5052 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5053 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5054 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5055 
  5056 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5057 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5058 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5059 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5060 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5061 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5062 
  5063 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5064 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5065 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5066 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5067 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5068 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5069 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5070 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5071 
  5072 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5073 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5074 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5075 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5076 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5077 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5078 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5079 
  5080 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5081 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5082 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5083 
  5084 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5085 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5086 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5087 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5088 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5089 limit is imposed.
  5090 
  5091 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5092 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5093 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5094 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5095 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5096 and scalability.
  5097 
  5098 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5099 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5100 
  5101 
  5102 *** Document preparation ***
  5103 
  5104 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5105 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5106 current context.
  5107 
  5108 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5109 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5110 
  5111 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5112 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5113 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5114 
  5115 
  5116 *** Pure ***
  5117 
  5118 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5119 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5120 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5121 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5122 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5123 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5124 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5125 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5126 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5127 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5128 
  5129 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5130 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5131 sketch:
  5132 
  5133     internal compilation:
  5134         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5135     writing SML code to a file:
  5136         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5137     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5138         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5139     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5140         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5141 
  5142     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5143         method ``eval''
  5144 
  5145 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5146 
  5147 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5148 
  5149     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5150     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5151     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5152     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5153 
  5154 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5155 
  5156     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5157       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5158 
  5159     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5160       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5161 
  5162     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5163       {(target)}+
  5164         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5165 
  5166     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5167       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5168         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5169 
  5170 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5171 
  5172 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5173 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5174 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5175 codegen".
  5176 
  5177 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5178 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5179 annotations).
  5180 
  5181 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5182 syntax.
  5183 
  5184 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5185 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5186 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5187 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5188 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5189 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5190 
  5191 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5192 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5193 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5194 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5195 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5196 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5197 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5198 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5199 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5200 equations, see section "definitions".
  5201 
  5202 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5203 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5204 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5205 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5206 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5207 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5208 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5209 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5210 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5211 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5212 
  5213 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5214 configuration options:
  5215 
  5216   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5217   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5218   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5219   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5220   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5221   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5222   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5223   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5224   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5225 
  5226 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5227 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5228 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5229 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5230 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5231 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5232 order.
  5233 
  5234 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5235 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5236 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5237 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5238 context encountered later on.
  5239 
  5240 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5241 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5242 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5243 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5244 
  5245 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5246 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5247 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5248 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5249 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5250 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5251 
  5252 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5253 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5254 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5255 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5256 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5257 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5258 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5259 more permissive.
  5260 
  5261 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5262 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5263 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5264 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5265 maintainability of proof texts.
  5266 
  5267 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5268 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5269 
  5270   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5271   then guess x and y by clarify
  5272 
  5273 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5274 proof tools being involved here.
  5275 
  5276 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5277 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5278 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5279 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5280 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5281 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5282 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5283 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5284 
  5285 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5286 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5287 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5288 
  5289   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5290   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5291   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5292   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5293 
  5294 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5295 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5296 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5297 
  5298 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5299 both named and unnamed ones.
  5300 
  5301 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5302 
  5303   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5304 
  5305 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5306 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5307 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5308 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5309 
  5310 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5311 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5312 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5313 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5314 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5315 
  5316 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5317 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5318 
  5319 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5320 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5321 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5322 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5323 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5324 originally first one.
  5325 
  5326 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5327 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5328 expected.
  5329 
  5330 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5331 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5332 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5333 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5334 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5335 
  5336   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5337     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5338     obtains x where "P x"
  5339 
  5340   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5341     assumes "A & B"
  5342     obtains A and B
  5343 
  5344   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5345     assumes "A | B"
  5346     obtains
  5347       A
  5348     | B
  5349 
  5350 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5351 explicitly:
  5352 
  5353   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5354     obtains "~ thesis"
  5355 
  5356   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5357     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5358 
  5359 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5360 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5361 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5362 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5363 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5364 case_names).
  5365 
  5366 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5367 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5368 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5369 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5370 
  5371 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5372 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5373 top-level lemma.
  5374 
  5375 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5376 introduction rule (default "that").
  5377 
  5378 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5379 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5380 to occur.
  5381 
  5382 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5383 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5384 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5385 representations independently of name spaces.
  5386 
  5387 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5388 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5389 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5390 
  5391 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5392 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5393 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5394 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5395 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5396 current context.
  5397 
  5398 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5399 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5400 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5401 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5402 
  5403   axiomatization
  5404     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5405     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5406 
  5407   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5408   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5409 
  5410   abbreviation
  5411     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5412     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5413 
  5414 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5415 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5416 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5417 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5418 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5419 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5420 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5421 
  5422 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5423 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5424 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5425 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5426 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5427 
  5428 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5429 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5430 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5431 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5432 
  5433 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5434 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5435 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5436 
  5437   definition "K x _ = x"
  5438 
  5439   inductive conj for A B
  5440   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5441 
  5442 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5443 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5444 abbreviations on output.
  5445 
  5446 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5447 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5448 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5449 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5450 
  5451 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5452 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5453 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5454 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5455 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5456 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5457 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5458 
  5459 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5460 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5461 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5462 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5463 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5464 
  5465 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5466 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5467 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5468 
  5469 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5470 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5471 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5472 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5473 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5474 
  5475   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5476     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5477 
  5478 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5479 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5480 partial_order.
  5481 
  5482 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5483 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5484 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5485 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5486 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5487 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5488 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5489 examples.
  5490 
  5491 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5492 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5493 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5494 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5495 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5496 
  5497 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5498 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5499 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5500 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5501 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5502 
  5503   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5504   (induct set: foo bar)
  5505   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5506   (induct type: foo bar)
  5507 
  5508 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5509 new format.
  5510 
  5511 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5512 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5513 
  5514 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5515 considered a legacy feature.
  5516 
  5517 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5518 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5519 
  5520 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5521 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5522 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5523 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5524 
  5525 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5526 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5527 manipulating the claset.
  5528 
  5529 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5530 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5531 least one premise.
  5532 
  5533 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5534 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5535 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5536 rule steps.
  5537 
  5538 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5539 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5540 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5541 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5542 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5543 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5544 
  5545 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5546 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5547 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5548 
  5549 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5550 the graph browser tool.
  5551 
  5552 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5553 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5554 
  5555 
  5556 *** HOL ***
  5557 
  5558 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5559 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5560 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5561 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5562 multi-threading.
  5563 
  5564 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5565 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5566 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5567 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5568 work with multi-threading.
  5569 
  5570 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5571 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5572 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5573 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5574 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5575 
  5576 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5577 
  5578 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5579 equality.
  5580 
  5581 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5582 the new 'class' package:
  5583 
  5584     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5585     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5586     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5587     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5588     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5589     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5590     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5591     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5592     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5593     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5594     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5595     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5596     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5597     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5598     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5599     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5600     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5601     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5602     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5603     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5604 
  5605 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5606 
  5607 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5608 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5609 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5610 names.
  5611 
  5612 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5613 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5614 
  5615 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5616 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5617 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5618 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5619 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5620 
  5621 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5622 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5623 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5624 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5625 
  5626 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5627 
  5628 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5629 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5630 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5631 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5632 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5633 
  5634 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5635 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5636 
  5637 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5638 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5639 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5640 
  5641 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5642 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5643 
  5644 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5645 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5646 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5647 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5648 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5649 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5650 in the current context.
  5651 
  5652 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5653 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5654 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5655 
  5656 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5657 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5658 
  5659 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5660 
  5661     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5662     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5663 
  5664     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5665       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5666     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5667     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5668 
  5669     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5670     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5671 
  5672   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5673 
  5674     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5675     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5676     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5677     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5678     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5679     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5680     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5681     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5682     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5683     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5684     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5685     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5686     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5687     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5688     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5689     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5690     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5691     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5692     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5693     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5694     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5695     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5696     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5697     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5698     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5699     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5700     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5701     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5702     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5703     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5704     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5705     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5706     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5707     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5708     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5709 
  5710     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5711     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5712     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5713     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5714     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5715     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5716     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5717     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5718     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5719     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5720     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5721     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5722     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5723     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5724     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5725     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5726     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5727 
  5728     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5729     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5730     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5731     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5732     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5733     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5734     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5735     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5736     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5737     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5738     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5739     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5740     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5741     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5742     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5743     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5744     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5745     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5746     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5747     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5748     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5749     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5750     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5751     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5752     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5753     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5754     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5755     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5756 
  5757     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5758     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5759     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5760     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5761     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5762     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5763 
  5764     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5765     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5766     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5767     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5768 
  5769     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5770     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5771 
  5772     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5773     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5774 
  5775 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5776 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5777 
  5778 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5779 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5780 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5781 "*.size".
  5782 
  5783 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5784 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5785 
  5786 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5787 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5788 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5789 
  5790 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5791 
  5792 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5793 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5794 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5795 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5796 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5797 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5798 numerals on all operations.
  5799 
  5800 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5801 
  5802 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5803 
  5804 * Code generator library theories:
  5805   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5806     languages.
  5807   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5808     languages.
  5809   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5810     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5811   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5812   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5813     denominator).
  5814   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5815     representable by rational numbers.
  5816   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5817     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5818     includes Code_Integer.
  5819   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5820     target-language built-in integers.
  5821   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5822     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5823 
  5824 * New package for inductive predicates
  5825 
  5826   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5827 
  5828     inductive
  5829       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5830       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5831     where
  5832       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5833     | ...
  5834 
  5835   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5836 
  5837     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5838 
  5839     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5840     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5841 
  5842     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5843     intros
  5844       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5845       ...
  5846 
  5847   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5848   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5849 
  5850     inductive_set
  5851       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5852       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5853     where
  5854       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5855     | ...
  5856 
  5857   or
  5858 
  5859     inductive_set
  5860       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5861       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5862       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5863     where
  5864       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5865     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5866     | ...
  5867 
  5868   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5869 
  5870   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5871   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5872 
  5873   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5874 
  5875   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5876     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5877     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5878     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5879     than before the actual inductive definition.
  5880 
  5881   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  5882     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5883     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5884     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5885     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5886     statements of the form
  5887 
  5888       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5889 
  5890     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5891     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5892 
  5893       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5894 
  5895   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  5896 
  5897       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  5898         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5899         ==> ... ==> P
  5900 
  5901     for predicates and
  5902 
  5903       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5904         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5905         ==> ... ==> P
  5906 
  5907     for sets rather than
  5908 
  5909       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5910         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  5911         ==> ... ==> P
  5912 
  5913     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  5914     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  5915     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  5916 
  5917   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  5918     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  5919     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  5920 
  5921 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  5922 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  5923 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  5924 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  5925 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  5926 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  5927 
  5928 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  5929 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures.
  5930 
  5931 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  5932 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  5933 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  5934 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  5935 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  5936 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  5937 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  5938 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  5939 variable.
  5940 
  5941 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  5942 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  5943 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  5944 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5945   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  5946   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  5947 
  5948 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  5949 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  5950 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  5951 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  5952 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  5953 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  5954 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  5955 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  5956 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  5957 
  5958 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  5959 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  5960 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  5961 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  5962 rat, etc.
  5963 
  5964 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  5965 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  5966 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  5967 
  5968 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  5969 
  5970 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  5971 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  5972 
  5973 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  5974 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  5975 
  5976 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  5977 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  5978 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5979 
  5980 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  5981 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  5982 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5983 
  5984 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  5985 
  5986 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  5987 
  5988 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  5989 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  5990 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  5991 positive/negative (in inequations).
  5992 
  5993 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  5994 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  5995 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  5996 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5997 
  5998 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  5999 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  6000 algebraic operations.
  6001 
  6002 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  6003 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6004 
  6005 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  6006 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6007 
  6008 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  6009 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  6010 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  6011 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  6012 adapted.
  6013 
  6014 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  6015 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  6016 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  6017 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  6018 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  6019 
  6020 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  6021 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  6022 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  6023 
  6024 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  6025 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  6026 better use 'abbreviation'.
  6027 
  6028 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6029 
  6030 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  6031 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  6032 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  6033   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  6034       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  6035   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  6036   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  6037   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  6038 
  6039 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  6040 
  6041 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  6042 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  6043 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  6044 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  6045 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  6046 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  6047 
  6048 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  6049 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  6050 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  6051 
  6052 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  6053 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  6054 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  6055 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6056 
  6057 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  6058 
  6059 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  6060 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6061 
  6062 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  6063 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  6064 
  6065 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  6066 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  6067 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  6068 
  6069 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  6070 True/False.
  6071 
  6072 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  6073 
  6074 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  6075 
  6076 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  6077 ``rule'' method.
  6078 
  6079 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  6080 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  6081 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  6082 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  6083 
  6084 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  6085 zChaff is still supported as well.
  6086 
  6087 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  6088 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  6089 
  6090 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  6091 Library.
  6092 
  6093 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  6094 
  6095 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  6096 as greatest fixed-point.
  6097 
  6098 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  6099 association lists.
  6100 
  6101 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  6102 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  6103 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  6104 
  6105 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  6106 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  6107 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6108 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  6109 behavior.
  6110 
  6111 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  6112 
  6113 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  6114 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  6115 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  6116 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  6117 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  6118 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  6119 
  6120 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  6121 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  6122 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  6123 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  6124 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  6125 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  6126 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  6127 
  6128 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  6129 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  6130 
  6131 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  6132 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  6133 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  6134 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  6135 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  6136 
  6137 
  6138 *** HOL-Complex ***
  6139 
  6140 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  6141 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  6142 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  6143 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  6144 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6145 
  6146 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  6147 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  6148 and norm :: 'a => real.
  6149 
  6150 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  6151 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  6152 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6153 
  6154 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  6155 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  6156 
  6157 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  6158 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  6159 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  6160 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6161 
  6162   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6163   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6164   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  6165   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  6166   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  6167   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  6168   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  6169   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6170   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6171   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  6172   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  6173   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  6174   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  6175   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  6176   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  6177 
  6178 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  6179 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  6180 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  6181 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6182 
  6183   approx        <-- capprox
  6184   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  6185   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  6186   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  6187   monad         <-- cmonad
  6188   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  6189   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  6190   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  6191   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  6192 
  6193 
  6194 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  6195 
  6196 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  6197 
  6198 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  6199 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6200 
  6201 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  6202 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6203 
  6204 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  6205 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  6206 of algebraic structures.
  6207 
  6208 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  6209 
  6210 
  6211 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  6212 
  6213 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  6214 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  6215 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  6216 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  6217 
  6218 
  6219 *** ML ***
  6220 
  6221 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  6222 (even on SML/NJ).
  6223 
  6224 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  6225 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  6226 compile-time.  For example:
  6227 
  6228 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  6229 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  6230 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  6231 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  6232 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  6233 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  6234 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  6235 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  6236 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  6237 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  6238 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  6239 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  6240 M