NEWS
author wenzelm
Fri Jul 04 11:39:34 2014 +0200 (2014-07-04)
changeset 57503 3e04e25a751e
parent 57491 9eedaafc05c8
child 57504 5cf245c62c4c
permissions -rw-r--r--
NEWS;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history of user-relevant changes
     2 =================================================
     3 
     4 New in Isabelle2014 (August 2014)
     5 ---------------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
    10 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
    11 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
    12 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
    13 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
    14 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
    15 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
    16 some examples.
    17 
    18 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
    19 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
    20 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
    21 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
    22 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
    23 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
    24 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
    25 proof tools.
    26 
    27 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    28 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
    29 supports input via ` (backquote).
    30 
    31 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
    32 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
    33 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
    34 
    35 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    36 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    37 string token.  General renovation of its syntax using text cartouches.
    38 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    39 
    40 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary workaround for
    41 Isabelle/ML in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    42 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.  Potential
    43 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    44 
    45 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    46 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    47 
    48 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    49 not check existence within the file-system.
    50 
    51 * Updated and extended manuals: codegen, datatypes, implementation,
    52 isar-ref, jedit, system.
    53 
    54 * Standard tactics and proof methods such as "clarsimp", "auto" and
    55 "safe" now preserve equality hypotheses "x = expr" where x is a free
    56 variable.  Locale assumptions and chained facts containing "x"
    57 continue to be useful.  The new method "hypsubst_thin" and the
    58 configuration option "hypsubst_thin" (within the attribute name space)
    59 restore the previous behavior.
    60 
    61 INCOMPATIBILITY, especially where induction is done after these
    62 methods or when the names of free and bound variables clash.  As first
    63 approximation, old proofs may be repaired by "using [[hypsubst_thin =
    64 true]]" in the critical spot.
    65 
    66 
    67 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    68 
    69 * Improved Document panel: simplied interaction where every single
    70 mouse click (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit
    71 buffer.
    72 
    73 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons), with connection
    74 to PIDE hyperlinks.
    75 
    76 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    77 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    78 
    79 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
    80 auxiliary ML files.
    81 
    82 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism, with simple
    83 templates, completion language context, name-space completion,
    84 file-name completion, spell-checker completion.
    85 
    86 * Refined GUI popup for completion: more robust key/mouse event
    87 handling and propagation to enclosing text area -- avoid loosing
    88 keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
    89 
    90 * Refined insertion of completion items wrt. jEdit text: multiple
    91 selections, rectangular selections, rectangular selection as "tall
    92 caret".
    93 
    94 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
    95 completion popup and context-menu.
    96 
    97 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
    98 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
    99 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
   100 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
   101 
   102 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
   103 to highlight text via regular expression.
   104 
   105 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
   106 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
   107 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
   108 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
   109 
   110 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
   111 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
   112 
   113 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
   114 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
   115 
   116 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
   117 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
   118 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
   119 
   120 * New Simplifier Trace panel provides an interactive view of the
   121 simplification process, enabled by the "simplifier_trace" attribute
   122 within the context.
   123 
   124 
   125 
   126 *** Pure ***
   127 
   128 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
   129 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
   130 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
   131 renaming needs to be applied:
   132 
   133   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
   134   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
   135   all            ~>  Pure.all
   136   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
   137   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
   138 
   139 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
   140 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
   141 old constants:
   142 
   143 setup {*
   144   fn thy => thy
   145     |> Sign.root_path
   146     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
   147     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
   148     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
   149     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
   150 *}
   151 
   152 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
   153 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
   154 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
   155 
   156 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
   157 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
   158 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
   159 'instance' command with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem
   160 might be postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof
   161 finished trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous
   162 (without any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
   163 Axclass.class_axiomatization, Axclass.classrel_axiomatization,
   164 Axclass.arity_axiomatization.
   165 
   166 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
   167 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
   168 instantiated theorem.
   169 
   170 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
   171 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
   172 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
   173 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
   174 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
   175 
   176   attribute_setup standard =
   177     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
   178 
   179 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
   180 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
   181 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
   182 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
   183 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
   184 
   185 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
   186 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
   187 differently, e.g. via cartouches).
   188 
   189 * Code generator preprocessor: explicit control of simp tracing on a
   190 per-constant basis.  See attribute "code_preproc".
   191 
   192 * Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,
   193 but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.
   194 
   195 
   196 *** HOL ***
   197 
   198 * Qualified String.implode and String.explode.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   199 
   200 * Command and antiquotation "value" are now hardcoded against nbe and
   201 ML.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   202 
   203 * Separate command "approximate" for approximative computation in
   204 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   205 
   206 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
   207   - Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
   208   - Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF and
   209     SUP instead uniformly.
   210   - More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
   211     or SUP and Sup.
   212   - INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
   213   - Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
   214   - Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong, with
   215     simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace former
   216     INT_cong, SUP_cong
   217 
   218 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   219 
   220 * Revisions to HOL/Number_Theory
   221   - consolidated the proofs of the binomial theorem
   222   - the function fib is again of type nat=>nat and not overloaded
   223   - no more references to Old_Number_Theory in the HOL libraries (except the AFP)
   224 
   225 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   226 
   227 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
   228 
   229   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   230   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   231   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   232   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   233 
   234 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   235 
   236 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules can
   237 now deal with conjunctions.  For help with converting proofs, the old
   238 behaviour of the simplifier can be restored like this: declare/using
   239 [[simp_legacy_precond]].  This configuration option will disappear
   240 again in the future.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   241 
   242 * HOL-Word:
   243   - Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a duplicate
   244     of "word_arith_wis".
   245   - Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
   246     "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
   247     "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
   248 
   249 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict target
   250 language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   251 
   252 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   253 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   254 
   255 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.  Minor
   256 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   257 
   258 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures"
   259 option.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   260 
   261 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   262 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   263 
   264 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from session
   265   "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".  The commands 'bnf', 'wrap_free_constructors',
   266   'datatype_new', 'codatatype', 'primcorec', 'primcorecursive' are now
   267   part of theory "Main".
   268 
   269   Theory renamings:
   270     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   271     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   272     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   273     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   274     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   275     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   276     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   277     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   278     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   279     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   280     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   281     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   282     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   283     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   284     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   285     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   286     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   287     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   288     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   289     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   290     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   291     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   292 
   293   New theories:
   294     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   295     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   296     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
   297     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   298     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   299 
   300   Discontinued theories:
   301     BNF/BNF.thy
   302     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   303 
   304 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   305 
   306 * New (co)datatype package:
   307   - Command 'primcorec' is fully implemented.
   308   - Command 'datatype_new' generates size functions ("size_xxx" and
   309     "size") as required by 'fun'.
   310   - BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style
   311     (co)datatypes with Transfer.
   312   - Renamed commands:
   313       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   314       primrec_new ~> primrec
   315       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   316     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   317   - The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   318     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   319     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   320   - The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer
   321     generated.  Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually
   322     using "prim(co)rec".
   323     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   324   - No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by
   325     default, eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
   326     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   327   - No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
   328     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
   329     "discs_sels" option is passed.
   330     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   331 
   332 * Old datatype package:
   333   - The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been
   334     renamed "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" ->
   335     "sum.case").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   336   - The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have
   337     been renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g.,
   338     "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   339 
   340 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions,
   341   their relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new
   342   BNF-based datatype package.
   343 
   344   Renamed constants:
   345     Option.set ~> set_option
   346     Option.map ~> map_option
   347     option_rel ~> rel_option
   348 
   349   Renamed theorems:
   350     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   351     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   352     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   353     option.recs ~> option.rec
   354     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   355     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   356     map.simps ~> list.map
   357     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   358     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   359     the.simps ~> option.sel
   360 
   361 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   362 
   363 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   364     sum_map ~> map_sum
   365     map_pair ~> map_prod
   366     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   367     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   368     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   369     set_rel ~> rel_set
   370     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   371     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "src/HOL/Library/FSet.thy")
   372     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "src/HOL/Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   373     vset ~> rel_vset (in "src/HOL/Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   374 
   375 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   376 
   377 * New theory src/HOL/Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy.
   378 
   379 * New theory src/HOL/Library/Tree.thy.
   380 
   381 * Theory reorganization:
   382   Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   383 
   384 * Consolidated some facts about big group operators:
   385 
   386     setsum_0' ~> setsum.neutral
   387     setsum_0 ~> setsum.neutral_const
   388     setsum_addf ~> setsum.distrib
   389     setsum_cartesian_product ~> setsum.cartesian_product
   390     setsum_cases ~> setsum.If_cases
   391     setsum_commute ~> setsum.commute
   392     setsum_cong ~> setsum.cong
   393     setsum_delta ~> setsum.delta
   394     setsum_delta' ~> setsum.delta'
   395     setsum_diff1' ~> setsum.remove
   396     setsum_empty ~> setsum.empty
   397     setsum_infinite ~> setsum.infinite
   398     setsum_insert ~> setsum.insert
   399     setsum_inter_restrict'' ~> setsum.inter_filter
   400     setsum_mono_zero_cong_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_left
   401     setsum_mono_zero_cong_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_right
   402     setsum_mono_zero_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_left
   403     setsum_mono_zero_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_right
   404     setsum_reindex ~> setsum.reindex
   405     setsum_reindex_cong ~> setsum.reindex_cong
   406     setsum_reindex_nonzero ~> setsum.reindex_nontrivial
   407     setsum_restrict_set ~> setsum.inter_restrict
   408     setsum_Plus ~> setsum.Plus
   409     setsum_setsum_restrict ~> setsum.commute_restrict
   410     setsum_Sigma ~> setsum.Sigma
   411     setsum_subset_diff ~> setsum.subset_diff
   412     setsum_Un_disjoint ~> setsum.union_disjoint
   413     setsum_UN_disjoint ~> setsum.UNION_disjoint
   414     setsum_Un_Int ~> setsum.union_inter
   415     setsum_Union_disjoint ~> setsum.Union_disjoint
   416     setsum_UNION_zero ~> setsum.Union_comp
   417     setsum_Un_zero ~> setsum.union_inter_neutral
   418     strong_setprod_cong ~> setprod.strong_cong
   419     strong_setsum_cong ~> setsum.strong_cong
   420     setprod_1' ~> setprod.neutral
   421     setprod_1 ~> setprod.neutral_const
   422     setprod_cartesian_product ~> setprod.cartesian_product
   423     setprod_cong ~> setprod.cong
   424     setprod_delta ~> setprod.delta
   425     setprod_delta' ~> setprod.delta'
   426     setprod_empty ~> setprod.empty
   427     setprod_infinite ~> setprod.infinite
   428     setprod_insert ~> setprod.insert
   429     setprod_mono_one_cong_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_left
   430     setprod_mono_one_cong_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_right
   431     setprod_mono_one_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_left
   432     setprod_mono_one_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_right
   433     setprod_reindex ~> setprod.reindex
   434     setprod_reindex_cong ~> setprod.reindex_cong
   435     setprod_reindex_nonzero ~> setprod.reindex_nontrivial
   436     setprod_Sigma ~> setprod.Sigma
   437     setprod_subset_diff ~> setprod.subset_diff
   438     setprod_timesf ~> setprod.distrib
   439     setprod_Un2 ~> setprod.union_diff2
   440     setprod_Un_disjoint ~> setprod.union_disjoint
   441     setprod_UN_disjoint ~> setprod.UNION_disjoint
   442     setprod_Un_Int ~> setprod.union_inter
   443     setprod_Union_disjoint ~> setprod.Union_disjoint
   444     setprod_Un_one ~> setprod.union_inter_neutral
   445 
   446   Dropped setsum_cong2 (simple variant of setsum.cong).
   447   Dropped setsum_inter_restrict' (simple variant of setsum.inter_restrict)
   448   Dropped setsum_reindex_id, setprod_reindex_id
   449     (simple variants of setsum.reindex [symmetric], setprod.reindex [symmetric]).
   450 
   451 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   452 
   453 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof
   454 traces.  This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and
   455 "dpll".  Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT
   456 solvers should use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now
   457 the default SAT solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and
   458 corresponding tactics; the old default can be restored using "declare
   459 [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   460 
   461 * SMT module: A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called
   462 "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2 and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g.,
   463 4.3). The new proof method is called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also
   464 supported as oracles. Yices is no longer supported, because no version
   465 of the solver can handle both SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
   466 
   467 * Sledgehammer:
   468   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
   469   - MaSh overhaul:
   470     . New SML-based learning engines eliminate the dependency on
   471       Python and increase performance and reliability.
   472     . MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the
   473       traditional MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable
   474       MaSh, set the "MaSh" system option in Isabelle/jEdit Plugin
   475       Options / Isabelle / General to "none".
   476   - New option:
   477       smt_proofs
   478   - Renamed options:
   479       isar_compress ~> compress
   480       isar_try0 ~> try0
   481 
   482 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   483 
   484 * Metis: Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis
   485 (full_types)' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   486 
   487 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   488 
   489 * Command renaming: enriched_type ~> functor. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   490 
   491 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   492 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   493 
   494 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   495 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   496 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   497 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   498 
   499 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   500 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   501 
   502 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   503 with the given constants.
   504 
   505 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   506 
   507   Fact consolidations:
   508     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   509     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   510     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   511     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   512     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   513     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   514     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   515     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   516     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   517     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   518     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   519     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   520     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   521     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   522     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   523     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   524     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   525     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   526     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   527     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   528     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   529     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   530     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   531     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   532     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   533     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   534     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   535     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   536     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   537     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   538     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   539     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   540     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   541     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   542     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   543     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   544     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   545     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   546     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   547     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   548 
   549 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   550 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   551 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   552 
   553 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1,
   554 min.cobounded2, max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   555 
   556 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
   557 
   558 INCOMPATBILITY.
   559 
   560 * HOL-Word: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   561 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   562 
   563 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~>
   564 Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   565 
   566 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   567 operations on records.
   568 
   569 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   570 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   571 
   572 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   573     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   574 
   575 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   576 
   577 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and
   578   consolidation:
   579     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   580     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   581 
   582 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   583 
   584 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   585   - Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   586   - Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   587   - When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   588     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   589   - HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   590     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   591   - Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   592 
   593 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   594 
   595 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   596     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   597     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   598     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   599     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   600 
   601 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   602 
   603 * Fact name consolidation:
   604     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   605     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   606     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   607     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   608     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   609 
   610 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   611 
   612 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   613 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   614 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   615 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   616 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   617 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly have
   618 been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and field_simps.
   619 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   620 
   621 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   622 
   623 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   624 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   625 
   626 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   627 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   628 
   629 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   630 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   631 or the brute way with
   632 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   633 
   634 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice.
   635 
   636 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   637 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   638 
   639 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in theory
   640 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them instead of explicitly
   641 stating boundedness of sets.
   642 
   643 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow more
   644 syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain shows up as
   645 additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   646 
   647 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
   648   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
   649   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
   650   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
   651   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
   652   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
   653   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
   654   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
   655   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
   656   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
   657   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
   658   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
   659 
   660   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
   661 
   662   removed auxiliary lemmas:
   663 
   664     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
   665     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr,
   666     real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded, summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2,
   667     sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom, sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero,
   668     summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
   669 
   670 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   671 
   672 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
   673   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
   674 
   675   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
   676 
   677   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
   678 
   679   - removed constant isDiff
   680 
   681   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as
   682     input syntax.
   683 
   684   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed.
   685 
   686   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
   687 
   688   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
   689 
   690   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
   691 
   692   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which
   693     includes now rules for DERIV, has_derivative and
   694     has_vector_derivative.
   695 
   696   - Other renamings:
   697     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
   698     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
   699     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
   700     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
   701     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
   702     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
   703     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
   704 
   705 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   706 
   707 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the
   708 continuous_on_intros, isCont_intros collections, these facts are now
   709 in continuous_intros.
   710 
   711 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im,
   712 the Complex constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use
   713 primcorec to defined the behaviour of a complex-valued function.
   714 
   715 Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they
   716 are available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This
   717 especially removes
   718 
   719     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
   720 
   721 Instead the reverse direction is supported with
   722     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
   723 
   724 Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
   725 
   726   Renamings:
   727     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
   728     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
   729     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
   730     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
   731     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
   732     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
   733     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
   734     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
   735     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
   736     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
   737     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
   738     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
   739 
   740     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
   741     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
   742     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
   743 
   744   Removed theorems:
   745     complex_zero_def
   746     complex_add_def
   747     complex_minus_def
   748     complex_diff_def
   749     complex_one_def
   750     complex_mult_def
   751     complex_inverse_def
   752     complex_scaleR_def
   753 
   754 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   755 
   756 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   757 
   758 * Nitpick:
   759   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could
   760     take infinite values.
   761   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as
   762     "Abs_Integ" and "Rep_Integ".
   763   - Removed "std" option.
   764   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   765     "hide_types".
   766 
   767 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   768   - Type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces.
   769   - New theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
   770     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
   771   - Changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   772     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   773     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   774     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   775     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-)open
   776     intervals.
   777   - removed dependencies on type class ordered_euclidean_space with
   778     introduction of "cbox" on euclidean_space
   779     - renamed theorems:
   780         interval ~> box
   781         mem_interval ~> mem_box
   782         interval_eq_empty ~> box_eq_empty
   783         interval_ne_empty ~> box_ne_empty
   784         interval_sing(1) ~> cbox_sing
   785         interval_sing(2) ~> box_sing
   786         subset_interval_imp ~> subset_box_imp
   787         subset_interval ~> subset_box
   788         open_interval ~> open_box
   789         closed_interval ~> closed_cbox
   790         interior_closed_interval ~> interior_cbox
   791         bounded_closed_interval ~> bounded_cbox
   792         compact_interval ~> compact_cbox
   793         bounded_subset_closed_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_cbox_symmetric
   794         bounded_subset_closed_interval ~> bounded_subset_cbox
   795         mem_interval_componentwiseI ~> mem_box_componentwiseI
   796         convex_box ~> convex_prod
   797         rel_interior_real_interval ~> rel_interior_real_box
   798         convex_interval ~> convex_box
   799         convex_hull_eq_real_interval ~> convex_hull_eq_real_cbox
   800         frechet_derivative_within_closed_interval ~> frechet_derivative_within_cbox
   801         content_closed_interval' ~> content_cbox'
   802         elementary_subset_interval ~> elementary_subset_box
   803         diameter_closed_interval ~> diameter_cbox
   804         frontier_closed_interval ~> frontier_cbox
   805         frontier_open_interval ~> frontier_box
   806         bounded_subset_open_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_box_symmetric
   807         closure_open_interval ~> closure_box
   808         open_closed_interval_convex ~> open_cbox_convex
   809         open_interval_midpoint ~> box_midpoint
   810         content_image_affinity_interval ~> content_image_affinity_cbox
   811         is_interval_interval ~> is_interval_cbox + is_interval_box + is_interval_closed_interval
   812         bounded_interval ~> bounded_closed_interval + bounded_boxes
   813 
   814     - respective theorems for intervals over the reals:
   815         content_closed_interval + content_cbox
   816         has_integral + has_integral_real
   817         fine_division_exists + fine_division_exists_real
   818         has_integral_null + has_integral_null_real
   819         tagged_division_union_interval + tagged_division_union_interval_real
   820         has_integral_const + has_integral_const_real
   821         integral_const + integral_const_real
   822         has_integral_bound + has_integral_bound_real
   823         integrable_continuous + integrable_continuous_real
   824         integrable_subinterval + integrable_subinterval_real
   825         has_integral_reflect_lemma + has_integral_reflect_lemma_real
   826         integrable_reflect + integrable_reflect_real
   827         integral_reflect + integral_reflect_real
   828         image_affinity_interval + image_affinity_cbox
   829         image_smult_interval + image_smult_cbox
   830         integrable_const + integrable_const_ivl
   831         integrable_on_subinterval + integrable_on_subcbox
   832 
   833   - renamed theorems:
   834     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
   835     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
   836     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
   837 
   838 * HOL-Probability:
   839   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general
   840     Bochner integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
   841 
   842     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
   843     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
   844     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
   845     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
   846     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
   847     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
   848     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
   849     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
   850     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
   851     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
   852     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
   853     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  positive_integral_liminf
   854     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
   855     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
   856     integral_indicator          ~>
   857          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
   858     positive_integral_fst       ~>  positive_integral_fst'
   859     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> positive_integral_fst
   860     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> positive_integral_snd
   861 
   862     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
   863          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
   864 
   865     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
   866          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
   867 
   868     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
   869          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
   870 
   871     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
   872          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
   873          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
   874 
   875     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
   876          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
   877 
   878     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
   879          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
   880 
   881     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
   882          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
   883          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
   884 
   885     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
   886          positive_integral_real_affine
   887 
   888     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
   889          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
   890 
   891     The following theorems where removed:
   892 
   893     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
   894     lebesgue_integral_uminus
   895     lebesgue_integral_cmult
   896     lebesgue_integral_multc
   897     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
   898     integral_cmul_indicator
   899     integral_real
   900 
   901   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
   902 
   903     . Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
   904       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
   905 
   906     . Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
   907 
   908   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal
   909     distributed random variables.
   910 
   911 * Removed theory src/HOL/Library/Kleene_Algebra.thy; it is subsumed by
   912 session Kleene_Algebra in AFP.
   913 
   914 
   915 *** Scala ***
   916 
   917 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
   918 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
   919 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
   920 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
   921 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   922 
   923 * Substantial reworking of internal PIDE protocol communication
   924 channels.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   925 
   926 
   927 *** ML ***
   928 
   929 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
   930 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   931 
   932 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
   933 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context
   934 via "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   935 
   936 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
   937 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   938 
   939 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
   940 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
   941 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
   942 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   943 
   944 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   945 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   946 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   947 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   948 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   949 of schematic variables.
   950 
   951 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   952 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   953 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   954 formal context.
   955 
   956 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   957 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   958 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   959 actually belongs to it).
   960 
   961 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
   962 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
   963 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
   964 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
   965 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
   966 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
   967 
   968 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
   969 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   970 
   971 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
   972 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
   973 
   974 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
   975 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
   976 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
   977 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
   978 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
   979 
   980 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
   981 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
   982 purposes.
   983 
   984 
   985 *** System ***
   986 
   987 * Proof General with its traditional helper scripts is now an optional
   988 Isabelle component, e.g. ProofGeneral-4.2-2 from the Isabelle
   989 component repository http://isabelle.in.tum.de/components/.  See also
   990 the "system" manual for general explanations about add-on components,
   991 notably those that are not bundled with the normal release.
   992 
   993 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
   994 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
   995 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
   996 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
   997 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the $ISABELLE_PROCESS
   998 settings variable yet.
   999 
  1000 * Former "isabelle tty" has been superseded by "isabelle console",
  1001 with implicit build like "isabelle jedit", and without the mostly
  1002 obsolete Isar TTY loop.
  1003 
  1004 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
  1005 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
  1006 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
  1007 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
  1008 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
  1009 
  1010 * Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize".  Note that the usual format
  1011 for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,
  1012 as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.
  1013 
  1014 * Removed obsolete tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality may be
  1015 integrated into Isabelle/jEdit eventually.
  1016 
  1017 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
  1018 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
  1019 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
  1020 
  1021 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
  1022 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
  1023 
  1024 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
  1025 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
  1026 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
  1027 processing is started.
  1028 
  1029 
  1030 
  1031 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
  1032 -------------------------------------
  1033 
  1034 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1035 
  1036 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
  1037 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
  1038 
  1039 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
  1040 after edits surrounding the command location.
  1041 
  1042 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
  1043 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
  1044 e.g. out-of-memory).
  1045 
  1046 
  1047 *** System ***
  1048 
  1049 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
  1050 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
  1051 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
  1052 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
  1053 
  1054 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
  1055 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
  1056 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
  1057 
  1058 
  1059 
  1060 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
  1061 -------------------------------------
  1062 
  1063 *** General ***
  1064 
  1065 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
  1066 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
  1067 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1068 
  1069 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
  1070 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1071 
  1072 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
  1073 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
  1074 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
  1075 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
  1076 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
  1077 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
  1078 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
  1079 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
  1080 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
  1081 syntax.
  1082 
  1083 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
  1084 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1085 
  1086 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
  1087 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
  1088 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
  1089 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
  1090 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
  1091 
  1092 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
  1093 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1094 
  1095 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
  1096 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
  1097 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
  1098 
  1099 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
  1100 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
  1101 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
  1102 
  1103 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
  1104 eliminated old "ref" manual.
  1105 
  1106 
  1107 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1108 
  1109 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
  1110 Documentation panel.
  1111 
  1112 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
  1113 documentation.
  1114 
  1115 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
  1116 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
  1117 
  1118 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
  1119 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
  1120 normal editing and checking process.
  1121 
  1122 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
  1123 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
  1124 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
  1125 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
  1126 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
  1127 
  1128 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
  1129 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
  1130 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
  1131 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
  1132 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
  1133 
  1134 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
  1135 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
  1136 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
  1137 
  1138 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
  1139 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
  1140 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
  1141 to resolve conflict.
  1142 
  1143 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
  1144 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
  1145 
  1146 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
  1147 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
  1148 such command executions while editing.
  1149 
  1150 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
  1151 document content.
  1152 
  1153 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
  1154 toplevel theorem statements.
  1155 
  1156 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
  1157 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
  1158 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
  1159 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
  1160 
  1161 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
  1162 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
  1163 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
  1164 
  1165 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  1166 / Global Options / Appearance".
  1167 
  1168 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  1169 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  1170 
  1171 
  1172 *** Pure ***
  1173 
  1174 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  1175 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  1176 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  1177 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  1178 details.
  1179 
  1180 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  1181 
  1182 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  1183 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  1184 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  1185 
  1186 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  1187 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1188 
  1189 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  1190 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  1191 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  1192 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1193 
  1194 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  1195 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  1196 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1197 
  1198 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  1199 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  1200 
  1201 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  1202 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  1203 situations.
  1204 
  1205 
  1206 *** HOL ***
  1207 
  1208 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  1209 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  1210 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1211 
  1212 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  1213 
  1214 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  1215 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  1216 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  1217 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  1218 
  1219   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  1220 
  1221 * Code generator:
  1222   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  1223     'code_instance'.
  1224   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  1225     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  1226 
  1227 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  1228 examples.
  1229 
  1230 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  1231 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  1232 to distinguish both when desired.
  1233 
  1234 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  1235 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  1236 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  1237 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1238 
  1239 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  1240 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  1241 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  1242 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  1243 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  1244 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1245 
  1246 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  1247 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  1248 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1249 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  1250 
  1251 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  1252 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  1253 
  1254 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  1255 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  1256 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  1257 
  1258 * Lifting:
  1259   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  1260     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  1261       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  1262       transfer rules
  1263     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  1264       correspondence relation can be generated
  1265     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  1266       parametricity
  1267     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  1268   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  1269   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  1270     copies
  1271   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  1272     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  1273     anonymous context)
  1274   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  1275     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1276   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  1277     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  1278   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  1279     INCOMPATIBILITY
  1280 
  1281 * Transfer:
  1282   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  1283     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  1284   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  1285   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  1286     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  1287   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  1288 
  1289 * Reification and reflection:
  1290   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  1291     "Reification".
  1292   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  1293   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  1294 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1295 
  1296 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  1297   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  1298     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  1299     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  1300   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  1301     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  1302   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  1303     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  1304     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  1305     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  1306     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  1307     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  1308     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  1309     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  1310   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  1311     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  1312   - Fact renames:
  1313       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  1314       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  1315 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1316 
  1317 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  1318 
  1319 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  1320 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  1321 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  1322 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1323 
  1324 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  1325 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  1326 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  1327 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  1328 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  1329 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  1330 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  1331 lemmas.
  1332 
  1333 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  1334 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  1335 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1336 
  1337 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  1338 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  1339 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  1340 
  1341 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  1342 top and bottom elements.
  1343 
  1344 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  1345 
  1346 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  1347 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  1348 
  1349  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  1350    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  1351    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  1352 
  1353  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  1354    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  1355    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  1356 
  1357    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  1358    arbitrary filter.
  1359 
  1360  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  1361    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  1362    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  1363    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  1364    on a compact set.
  1365 
  1366  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  1367    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  1368    linear_continuum_topology).
  1369 
  1370  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  1371    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  1372    on all sequences converging to x.
  1373 
  1374  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  1375    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  1376    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  1377    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  1378    left or right.
  1379 
  1380  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  1381 
  1382      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  1383 
  1384  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  1385    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  1386 
  1387  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  1388    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  1389    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  1390    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  1391    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  1392    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  1393 
  1394  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  1395 
  1396    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  1397 
  1398    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  1399      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  1400 
  1401    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  1402 
  1403    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  1404      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  1405 
  1406    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  1407 
  1408    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  1409 
  1410  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  1411 
  1412 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1413 
  1414 * Nitpick:
  1415   - Added option "spy".
  1416   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  1417 
  1418 * Sledgehammer:
  1419   - Renamed option:
  1420       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  1421     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1422   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  1423   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  1424   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  1425 
  1426 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  1427 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  1428 
  1429 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  1430   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  1431   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  1432     generated code.
  1433   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  1434   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  1435   - Fact renames:
  1436     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  1437     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  1438     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  1439 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1440 
  1441 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  1442 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  1443 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  1444 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  1445 
  1446 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  1447 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  1448 
  1449 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1450 
  1451 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  1452 
  1453     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  1454     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  1455 
  1456 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1457 
  1458 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  1459 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  1460 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  1461 
  1462 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  1463 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  1464 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  1465 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1466 
  1467 * HOL-BNF:
  1468   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  1469     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  1470     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  1471     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  1472   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  1473     coinduct).
  1474   - Renamed keywords:
  1475     data ~> datatype_new
  1476     codata ~> codatatype
  1477     bnf_def ~> bnf
  1478   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  1479     discs ~> disc
  1480     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  1481     map_id' ~> map_id
  1482     sels ~> sel
  1483     set_map' ~> set_map
  1484     sets ~> set
  1485 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1486 
  1487 
  1488 *** ML ***
  1489 
  1490 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  1491 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  1492 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  1493 Examples.thy in particular.
  1494 
  1495 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  1496 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  1497 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  1498 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  1499 
  1500 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  1501 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  1502 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  1503 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  1504 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1505 
  1506 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  1507 
  1508     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  1509     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  1510 
  1511 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1512 
  1513 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  1514 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  1515 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  1516 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  1517 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  1518 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  1519 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  1520 
  1521 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  1522 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  1523 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  1524 clasets separately from the context.
  1525 
  1526 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  1527 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  1528 
  1529 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  1530 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  1531 
  1532 
  1533 *** System ***
  1534 
  1535 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  1536 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1537 
  1538 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  1539 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1540 
  1541 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  1542 settings variable.
  1543 
  1544 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  1545 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  1546 always pdf.
  1547 
  1548 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  1549 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  1550 
  1551 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  1552 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  1553 
  1554 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  1555 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  1556 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  1557 
  1558 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  1559 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  1560 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  1561 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  1562 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1563 for HTML presentation of theories.
  1564 
  1565 
  1566 
  1567 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  1568 -----------------------------------
  1569 
  1570 *** General ***
  1571 
  1572 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  1573 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  1574 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  1575 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  1576 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  1577 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  1578 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  1579 
  1580 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  1581 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  1582 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  1583 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  1584 
  1585 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  1586 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  1587 
  1588 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  1589 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  1590 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  1591 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  1592 dependencies properly.
  1593 
  1594 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  1595 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  1596 
  1597 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  1598 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  1599 
  1600 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  1601 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  1602 and "class ... context ...".
  1603 
  1604 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  1605 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  1606 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  1607 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  1608 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  1609 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  1610 
  1611 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  1612 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  1613 
  1614 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  1615 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  1616 
  1617 
  1618 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1619 
  1620 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  1621 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  1622 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  1623 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  1624 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  1625 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  1626 
  1627 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  1628 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  1629 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  1630 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  1631 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  1632 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  1633 
  1634 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  1635 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  1636 browser on demand.
  1637 
  1638 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  1639 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  1640 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  1641 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  1642 
  1643 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  1644 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  1645 
  1646 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  1647 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  1648 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  1649 potentially infinite message streams.
  1650 
  1651 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  1652 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  1653 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  1654 schemes.
  1655 
  1656 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1657 symbols.
  1658 
  1659 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1660 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1661 
  1662 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1663 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1664 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1665 
  1666 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1667 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1668 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1669 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1670 
  1671 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1672 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1673 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1674 
  1675 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1676 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1677 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1678 Isabelle distribution.
  1679 
  1680 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1681 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1682 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1683 
  1684 
  1685 *** Pure ***
  1686 
  1687 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1688 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1689 
  1690 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1691 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1692 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1693 
  1694 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1695 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1696 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1697 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1698 with some care where this is really required.
  1699 
  1700 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1701 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1702 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1703 
  1704   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1705 
  1706 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1707 a Hasse diagram.
  1708 
  1709 
  1710 *** HOL ***
  1711 
  1712 * Sledgehammer:
  1713 
  1714   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1715     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1716   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1717   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1718   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1719   - Renamed options:
  1720       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1721       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1722       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1723       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1724 
  1725 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1726 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1727 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1728 
  1729 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1730 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1731 
  1732 * Lifting:
  1733   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1734   - quot_del attribute
  1735   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1736 
  1737 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1738 expressions.
  1739 
  1740 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1741 pointfree expressions.
  1742 
  1743 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1744 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1745 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1746 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1747 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1748 
  1749 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1750 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1751 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1752 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1753 accordingly.
  1754 
  1755 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1756 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1757 
  1758 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1759 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1760 
  1761 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1762 
  1763 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1764 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1765 
  1766 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1767 
  1768 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1769 
  1770   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1771   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1772 
  1773 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1774 
  1775 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1776 
  1777   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1778   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1779 
  1780 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1781 
  1782 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1783 
  1784   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1785     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1786     output f x converges to G.
  1787 
  1788   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1789     infinity (at_bot).
  1790 
  1791   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1792     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1793 
  1794   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1795     at_top".
  1796 
  1797 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1798 
  1799 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1800 lattice type classes.
  1801 
  1802 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1803 
  1804     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1805     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1806 
  1807 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1808 
  1809 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1810 changes as follows.
  1811 
  1812   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1813 
  1814       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1815       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1816 
  1817   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1818     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1819     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1820     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1821 
  1822   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1823     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1824     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1825 
  1826   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1827     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1828     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1829     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1830 
  1831   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1832     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1833 
  1834       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1835       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1836       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1837       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1838       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1839       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1840       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1841       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1842       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1843       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1844       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1845       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1846       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1847       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1848       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1849       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1850 
  1851 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1852 
  1853 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1854 
  1855 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1856 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1857 
  1858 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1859 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1860 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1861 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1862 
  1863   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1864   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1865   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1866   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1867   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1868   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1869   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1870   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1871   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1872   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1873 
  1874 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1875 
  1876 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1877 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1878 Data").
  1879 
  1880 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1881 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1882 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1883 code.
  1884 
  1885 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1886 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1887 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1888 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1889 
  1890 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1891 
  1892 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1893 
  1894 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1895 
  1896   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1897   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1898 
  1899 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1900 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1901 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1902 
  1903   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1904 
  1905     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1906     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1907     cart_base i  removed
  1908     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1909 
  1910   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1911 
  1912   Renamed lemmas:
  1913 
  1914     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1915     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1916     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1917     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1918     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1919     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1920     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1921     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1922     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1923     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1924 
  1925 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1926 
  1927 * HOL/Probability:
  1928 
  1929   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1930 
  1931   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1932     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1933     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1934 
  1935   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1936     projective family).
  1937 
  1938 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1939 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1940 
  1941 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1942 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1943 datatypes.
  1944 
  1945 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1946 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1947 
  1948 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1949 trees for the code generator.
  1950 
  1951 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1952 Lifting/Transfer.
  1953 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1954 
  1955 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1956 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1957 
  1958 
  1959 *** Document preparation ***
  1960 
  1961 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1962 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1963 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1964 
  1965 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1966 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1967 
  1968 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1969 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1970 document/root.tex.
  1971 
  1972 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1973 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1974 
  1975 
  1976 *** ML ***
  1977 
  1978 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1979 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1980 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1981 
  1982 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1983 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1984 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1985 
  1986 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1987 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1988 necessarily printing visible text.
  1989 
  1990 
  1991 *** System ***
  1992 
  1993 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1994 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1995 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1996 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1997 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1998 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1999 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  2000 
  2001 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  2002 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  2003 
  2004   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  2005 
  2006 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  2007 
  2008 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  2009 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  2010 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  2011 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  2012 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  2013 
  2014 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  2015 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  2016 
  2017 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  2018 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  2019 
  2020 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  2021 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2022 
  2023 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  2024 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  2025 version of Isabelle.
  2026 
  2027 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  2028 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  2029 
  2030 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  2031 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  2032 for home-made settings.
  2033 
  2034 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  2035 
  2036 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  2037 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  2038 configuration.
  2039 
  2040 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  2041 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  2042 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  2043 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  2044 bundled as Isabelle component.
  2045 
  2046 
  2047 
  2048 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  2049 ------------------------------
  2050 
  2051 *** General ***
  2052 
  2053 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  2054 
  2055   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  2056     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  2057   - markup for bound variables
  2058   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  2059   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  2060   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  2061     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  2062 
  2063 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  2064 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  2065 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  2066 
  2067 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  2068 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  2069 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  2070 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  2071 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  2072 
  2073   context
  2074     fixes x y z :: 'a
  2075     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  2076   begin
  2077 
  2078   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  2079 
  2080   end
  2081 
  2082   thm my_trans
  2083 
  2084 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  2085 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  2086 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  2087 
  2088 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  2089 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  2090 
  2091 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  2092 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  2093 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  2094 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  2095 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  2096 
  2097 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  2098 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  2099 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  2100 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  2101 indices of schematic variables.
  2102 
  2103 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  2104 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  2105 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  2106 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  2107 etc. was exploited.
  2108 
  2109 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  2110 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  2111 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  2112 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  2113 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  2114 of the material of that old tutorial.
  2115 
  2116 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  2117 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  2118 manual.
  2119 
  2120 
  2121 *** Pure ***
  2122 
  2123 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  2124 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  2125 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  2126 
  2127 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  2128 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  2129 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  2130 undocumented feature.)
  2131 
  2132 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  2133 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  2134 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  2135 
  2136   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  2137 
  2138   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  2139     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  2140 
  2141 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  2142 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  2143 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  2144 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  2145 
  2146 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  2147 
  2148     num ~> num_token
  2149     xnum ~> xnum_token
  2150     xstr ~> str_token
  2151 
  2152 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  2153 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  2154 position information via constraints).
  2155 
  2156 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  2157 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  2158 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2159 
  2160 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  2161 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  2162 
  2163 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  2164 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  2165 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2166 
  2167 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  2168 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2169 
  2170 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  2171 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  2172 
  2173   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  2174 
  2175 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2176 
  2177 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  2178 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2179 
  2180 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  2181 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  2182 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  2183 
  2184 
  2185 *** HOL ***
  2186 
  2187 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  2188 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  2189 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  2190 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  2191 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  2192 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  2193 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  2194 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  2195 possible.
  2196 
  2197 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  2198 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  2199 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  2200 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  2201 
  2202 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  2203 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2204 
  2205 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  2206 
  2207 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  2208 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  2209 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  2210 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  2211 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  2212 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  2213 
  2214   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  2215     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  2216 
  2217   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  2218     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  2219     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  2220 
  2221   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  2222     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  2223 
  2224   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  2225     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  2226     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  2227 
  2228   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  2229     Redefine using other integer operations.
  2230 
  2231 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  2232 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  2233 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  2234 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  2235 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  2236 
  2237   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  2238     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  2239     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  2240     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  2241     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  2242 
  2243     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  2244     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  2245 
  2246   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  2247     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  2248     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  2249     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  2250     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  2251     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  2252     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  2253     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  2254 
  2255   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  2256     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  2257     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  2258     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  2259 
  2260   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  2261     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  2262     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  2263     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  2264 
  2265   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  2266     from type nat to type int.
  2267 
  2268 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  2269 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  2270 
  2271   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  2272     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  2273     type.  Example syntax:
  2274 
  2275     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  2276       is List.insert
  2277 
  2278     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  2279     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  2280     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  2281     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  2282     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  2283     by the package.
  2284 
  2285   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  2286     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  2287     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  2288     code generation for each constant.
  2289 
  2290   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  2291     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  2292     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  2293     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  2294     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  2295 
  2296   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  2297     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  2298     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  2299 
  2300 * Quotient package:
  2301 
  2302   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  2303     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  2304 
  2305   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  2306     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  2307 
  2308   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  2309     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  2310     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2311 
  2312   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  2313     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2314 
  2315 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  2316 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  2317 
  2318 * Quickcheck:
  2319 
  2320   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  2321     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  2322     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  2323     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  2324     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  2325 
  2326     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  2327     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  2328     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  2329 
  2330     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  2331     continues searching for genuine ones.
  2332 
  2333     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  2334     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  2335     show genuine counterexamples.
  2336 
  2337   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  2338     value generators for a given type and operations.
  2339 
  2340     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  2341     constructors of that type.
  2342 
  2343   - Support for multisets.
  2344 
  2345   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  2346 
  2347   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  2348     conjectures in a locale context.
  2349 
  2350 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  2351 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  2352 
  2353 * Sledgehammer:
  2354   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  2355     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  2356   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  2357   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  2358     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  2359   - Sped up the minimizer.
  2360   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  2361   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  2362   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  2363 
  2364 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  2365 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  2366 
  2367 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  2368 
  2369 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2370 
  2371 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  2372 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  2373 
  2374   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  2375 
  2376 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  2377 a list and a nat.
  2378 
  2379 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  2380 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  2381 
  2382 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  2383 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  2384 default.
  2385 
  2386 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  2387 
  2388   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  2389 
  2390 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  2391 
  2392 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  2393 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  2394 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  2395 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  2396 one_case.
  2397 
  2398 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  2399 the result of the fact expression.
  2400 
  2401 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  2402 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  2403 of some relation theorems:
  2404 
  2405   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  2406   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2407   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  2408   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  2409   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  2410   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  2411 
  2412 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  2413 
  2414 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  2415 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  2416 
  2417 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2418 
  2419 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  2420 to match the constant's name:
  2421 
  2422   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  2423   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  2424   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  2425   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  2426   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  2427   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  2428   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  2429   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  2430   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  2431   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  2432   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  2433   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  2434   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  2435   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  2436   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  2437   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  2438   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  2439   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  2440   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  2441   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  2442   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  2443   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2444   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2445   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  2446 
  2447 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2448 
  2449 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  2450 and corresponding theorem names:
  2451 
  2452   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  2453 
  2454   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  2455 
  2456   - Renamed theorems:
  2457 
  2458     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  2459     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  2460     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  2461     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  2462     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  2463     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  2464     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  2465     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  2466     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  2467     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  2468     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  2469     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  2470     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2471     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  2472     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  2473     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  2474     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  2475     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  2476     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  2477     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  2478     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  2479     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  2480     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  2481 
  2482     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  2483 
  2484     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  2485 
  2486 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2487 
  2488 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  2489 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2490 
  2491   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  2492   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  2493   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  2494   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  2495   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  2496   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  2497   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  2498   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  2499   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  2500   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  2501   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  2502   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  2503   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  2504   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  2505   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  2506   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  2507   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  2508   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  2509   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  2510   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  2511   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  2512 
  2513 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  2514 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2515 
  2516 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2517 
  2518 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  2519 
  2520   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  2521   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  2522   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  2523   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  2524   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  2525   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  2526   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  2527   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  2528   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  2529   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  2530   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  2531   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  2532   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  2533   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  2534   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  2535   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  2536   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  2537   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  2538 
  2539 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2540 
  2541 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  2542 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  2543 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  2544 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  2545 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  2546 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  2547 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  2548 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  2549 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  2550 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  2551 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  2552 
  2553 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  2554 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  2555 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  2556 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  2557 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  2558 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  2559 
  2560 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  2561 through option types.
  2562 
  2563 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  2564 relations.
  2565 
  2566 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2567 
  2568 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  2569 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2570 
  2571   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  2572   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  2573   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  2574   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  2575   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2576   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2577   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  2578   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2579   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  2580   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2581   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  2582   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  2583   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2584   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2585   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2586   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  2587   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  2588   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  2589   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2590   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2591   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  2592   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  2593   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2594   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2595   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  2596   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2597   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  2598   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  2599   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  2600   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  2601   zless_le ~> less_le
  2602   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  2603   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  2604   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  2605 
  2606 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  2607 
  2608   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  2609 
  2610 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  2611 
  2612 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  2613 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  2614 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  2615 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  2616 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2617 
  2618 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2619 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  2620 
  2621 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  2622 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  2623 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  2624 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  2625 follows:
  2626 
  2627   Operations:
  2628   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  2629   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  2630   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  2631   del -> rbt_del
  2632   delete -> rbt_delete
  2633   ins -> rbt_ins
  2634   insert -> rbt_insert
  2635   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  2636   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  2637   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  2638   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  2639   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  2640   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  2641   tree_less -> rbt_less
  2642   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  2643   union -> rbt_union
  2644   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  2645   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  2646 
  2647   Lemmas:
  2648   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  2649   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  2650   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  2651   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  2652   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  2653   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  2654   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2655   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2656   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2657   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2658   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2659   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2660   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2661   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2662   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2663   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2664   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2665   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2666   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2667   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2668   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2669   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2670   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2671   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2672   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2673   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2674   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2675   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2676   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2677   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2678   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2679   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2680   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2681   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2682   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2683   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2684   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2685   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2686   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2687   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2688   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2689   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2690   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2691   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2692   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2693   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2694   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2695   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2696   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2697   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2698   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2699   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2700   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2701   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2702   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2703   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2704   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2705   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2706   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2707   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2708   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2709   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2710   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2711   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2712   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2713   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2714   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2715   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2716   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2717   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2718   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2719   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2720   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2721   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2722   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2723   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2724   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2725   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2726   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2727   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2728   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2729   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2730   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2731 
  2732 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2733 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2734 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2735 
  2736   Changed Operations:
  2737   float_abs -> abs
  2738   float_nprt -> nprt
  2739   float_pprt -> pprt
  2740   pow2 -> use powr
  2741   round_down -> float_round_down
  2742   round_up -> float_round_up
  2743   scale -> exponent
  2744 
  2745   Removed Operations:
  2746   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2747 
  2748   Renamed Lemmas:
  2749   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2750   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2751   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2752   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2753   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2754   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2755   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2756   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2757   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2758   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2759   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2760   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2761   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2762   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2763   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2764   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2765   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2766   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2767   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2768   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2769   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2770   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2771   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2772   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2773   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2774   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2775   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2776   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2777   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2778   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2779   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2780   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2781   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2782   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2783   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2784   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2785 
  2786   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2787   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2788   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2789   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2790   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2791   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2792   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2793   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2794   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2795   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2796 
  2797 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2798 association lists with distinct keys.
  2799 
  2800 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2801 annotated commands.
  2802 
  2803 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2804 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2805 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2806 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2807 
  2808 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2809 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2810 instead.
  2811 
  2812   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2813   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2814   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2815   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2816   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2817   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2818   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2819   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2820   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2821   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2822   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2823   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2824   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2825   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2826   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2827   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2828   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2829   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2830   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2831   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2832   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2833   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2834   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2835   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2836   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2837   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2838   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2839   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2840   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2841   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2842   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2843   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2844   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2845   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2846   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2847   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2848   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2849   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2850   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2851   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2852   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2853 
  2854 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2855 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2856 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2857 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2858 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2859 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2860 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2861 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2862 
  2863 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2864 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2865 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2866 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2867 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2868 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2869 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2870 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2871 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2872 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2873 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2874 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2875 
  2876   Renamed constants:
  2877   measure -> emeasure
  2878   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2879   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2880   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2881   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2882 
  2883   Removed locales:
  2884   completeable_measure_space
  2885   finite_measure_space
  2886   finite_prob_space
  2887   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2888   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2889   finite_sigma_algebra
  2890   measure_space
  2891   pair_finite_prob_space
  2892   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2893   pair_finite_space
  2894   pair_sigma_algebra
  2895   product_sigma_algebra
  2896 
  2897   Removed constants:
  2898   conditional_space
  2899   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2900   image_space
  2901   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2902   pair_measure_generator
  2903   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2904   subvimage
  2905 
  2906   Replacement theorems:
  2907   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2908   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2909   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2910   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2911   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2912   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2913   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2914   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2915   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2916   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2917   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2918   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2919   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2920   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2921   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2922   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2923   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2924   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2925   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2926   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2927   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2928   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2929   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2930   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2931   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2932   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2933   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2934   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2935   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2936   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2937   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2938   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2939   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2940   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2941   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2942   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2943   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2944   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2945   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2946   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2947   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2948   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2949   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2950   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2951   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2952   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2953   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2954   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2955   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2956   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2957   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2958   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2959   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2960   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2961   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2962   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2963   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2964   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2965   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2966   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2967   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2968   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2969   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2970   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2971   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2972   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2973   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2974   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2975   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2976   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2977   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2978   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2979   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2980   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2981   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2982   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2983   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2984   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2985   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2986   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2987   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2988   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2989   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2990   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2991   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2992   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2993   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2994   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2995   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2996   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2997   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2998   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2999   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  3000   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  3001   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  3002   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  3003   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  3004   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  3005   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  3006   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  3007   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  3008   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  3009   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  3010   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  3011   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  3012   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  3013   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  3014   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  3015   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  3016   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  3017   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  3018   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  3019   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  3020   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  3021   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  3022   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  3023   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  3024   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  3025   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  3026   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  3027   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  3028   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  3029   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  3030   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  3031   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  3032   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  3033   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  3034   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  3035 
  3036 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  3037 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  3038 
  3039 
  3040 *** FOL ***
  3041 
  3042 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  3043 
  3044 
  3045 *** ZF ***
  3046 
  3047 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  3048 analysis.
  3049 
  3050 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  3051 
  3052 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3053 
  3054 
  3055 *** ML ***
  3056 
  3057 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  3058 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  3059 
  3060 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  3061 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  3062 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  3063 
  3064 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  3065 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  3066 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  3067 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  3068 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  3069 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  3070 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  3071 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  3072 
  3073 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  3074 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  3075 
  3076 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  3077 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  3078 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  3079 
  3080 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3081 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3082 
  3083 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  3084 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  3085 context as well.
  3086 
  3087 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  3088 
  3089   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  3090   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  3091   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  3092   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  3093   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  3094   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  3095   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  3096   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  3097   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  3098   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  3099   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  3100   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  3101 
  3102 
  3103 *** System ***
  3104 
  3105 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  3106 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  3107 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  3108 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  3109 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  3110 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  3111 the generic user home was intended.
  3112 
  3113 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  3114 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  3115 
  3116 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  3117 (not just JRE).
  3118 
  3119 
  3120 
  3121 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  3122 ------------------------------------
  3123 
  3124 *** General ***
  3125 
  3126 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  3127 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  3128 
  3129   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  3130     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  3131     files for checking).
  3132 
  3133   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  3134     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  3135     positions.
  3136 
  3137   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  3138     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  3139     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  3140 
  3141   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  3142     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  3143     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  3144 
  3145   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  3146     cores.
  3147 
  3148   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  3149     versions (garbage collection).
  3150 
  3151 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  3152 including some remaining limitations.
  3153 
  3154 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  3155 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3156 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  3157 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  3158 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  3159 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3160 
  3161 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  3162 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  3163 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  3164 
  3165 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  3166 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  3167 usedir option -Q.
  3168 
  3169 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  3170 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  3171 
  3172   long_names   ~> names_long
  3173   short_names  ~> names_short
  3174   unique_names ~> names_unique
  3175 
  3176 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  3177 
  3178   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  3179 
  3180 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  3181 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  3182 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  3183 
  3184 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  3185 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  3186 
  3187 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  3188   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  3189   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  3190   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  3191     "Classical Reasoner".
  3192 
  3193 
  3194 *** HOL ***
  3195 
  3196 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  3197 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3198 
  3199 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  3200 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  3201 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  3202 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  3203 class complete_linorder.
  3204 
  3205 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  3206 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  3207 
  3208 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  3209 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  3210 
  3211   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  3212   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  3213   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3214   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3215   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  3216   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  3217   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  3218   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  3219   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  3220   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  3221   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  3222 
  3223 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  3224 
  3225   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  3226   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  3227   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  3228   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  3229   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  3230   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  3231   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  3232   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  3233   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  3234   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  3235   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  3236   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  3237   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  3238   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  3239   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  3240   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  3241 
  3242 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3243 
  3244 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  3245 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3246 
  3247 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  3248 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  3249 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  3250 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3251 
  3252 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  3253 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  3254 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  3255 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3256 
  3257 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  3258 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  3259 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  3260 
  3261 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  3262 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  3263 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3264 
  3265 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  3266 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  3267 
  3268 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  3269 
  3270     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  3271     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  3272 
  3273 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  3274 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3275 
  3276 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  3277 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3278 
  3279 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  3280 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  3281 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  3282 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3283 
  3284   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  3285   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  3286   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  3287   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  3288   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  3289   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  3290   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  3291 
  3292 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  3293 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3294 
  3295   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  3296   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  3297   real_less_def ~> less_le
  3298   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  3299   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  3300   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3301   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3302   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3303   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3304   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  3305   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  3306   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  3307   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  3308   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3309   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  3310   real_le_linear ~> linear
  3311   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  3312   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  3313   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  3314   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  3315   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  3316   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  3317   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  3318   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  3319   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  3320   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  3321   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  3322   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  3323   expi_add ~> exp_add
  3324   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  3325   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  3326   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  3327   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  3328   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3329   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  3330   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3331   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  3332   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3333   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3334   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3335   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3336   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3337   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  3338   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  3339   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  3340   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  3341   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3342   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3343   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3344   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  3345   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3346   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3347   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  3348   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  3349   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  3350   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  3351   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  3352   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3353   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3354   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3355   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  3356   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  3357   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3358   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3359   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  3360   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  3361   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3362   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  3363   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3364   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3365   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  3366   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  3367   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3368   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  3369   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  3370   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3371   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  3372   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3373   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  3374   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  3375   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  3376   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  3377 
  3378 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  3379 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  3380 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  3381 
  3382 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  3383 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  3384 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  3385 
  3386 * Code generation:
  3387 
  3388   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  3389     characters in the target language.
  3390 
  3391   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  3392     instead.
  3393 
  3394   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  3395 
  3396   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  3397     reactivated by the following theory command:
  3398 
  3399       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  3400 
  3401 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3402 
  3403 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  3404 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  3405 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  3406 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  3407 syntax.
  3408 
  3409 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  3410 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  3411 
  3412 * Nitpick:
  3413   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  3414   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  3415   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  3416     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3417 
  3418 * Sledgehammer:
  3419   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  3420   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  3421     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  3422   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  3423     this can be done within reasonable time.
  3424   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  3425     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3426   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  3427     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  3428   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  3429     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3430 
  3431 * Metis:
  3432   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3433   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  3434     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3435 
  3436 * Command 'try':
  3437   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  3438     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3439   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  3440     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  3441 
  3442 * Quickcheck:
  3443   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  3444     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3445   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  3446     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3447   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  3448     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  3449     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  3450     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  3451   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  3452     (formly in HOL/Library).
  3453 
  3454 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3455 use 'partial_function' instead.
  3456 
  3457 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  3458 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  3459 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  3460 
  3461 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  3462 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  3463 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3464 
  3465 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  3466 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3467 
  3468 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  3469 arithmetic.
  3470 
  3471 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  3472 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  3473 and lattice type classes.
  3474 
  3475 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  3476 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  3477 
  3478 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  3479 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  3480 
  3481 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  3482 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  3483 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3484 
  3485   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  3486   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  3487   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  3488   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  3489 
  3490 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  3491 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  3492 constants:
  3493 
  3494   type inat   ~> type enat
  3495   Fin         ~> enat
  3496   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  3497   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  3498   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  3499 
  3500 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  3501 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3502 
  3503 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  3504 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  3505 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  3506 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  3507 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  3508 
  3509 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  3510 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  3511 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  3512 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  3513 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  3514 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  3515 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3516 
  3517   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  3518   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  3519   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  3520   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  3521 
  3522 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  3523 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  3524 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3525 
  3526   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  3527   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  3528   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  3529   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  3530   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  3531   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  3532   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  3533   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  3534   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  3535   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  3536   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  3537   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  3538   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3539   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3540   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  3541   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3542   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  3543   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  3544   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  3545   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  3546   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  3547   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  3548   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  3549   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  3550   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  3551   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  3552   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  3553   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  3554   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  3555   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3556   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3557   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  3558   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  3559   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  3560   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  3561   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  3562   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  3563   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  3564   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  3565   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  3566   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  3567   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  3568   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  3569   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  3570   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  3571   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  3572   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  3573   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  3574   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  3575   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  3576   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  3577 
  3578 * Session HOL-Probability:
  3579   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  3580   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  3581   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  3582   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  3583     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3584 
  3585 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3586 
  3587   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  3588   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  3589   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3590   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  3591   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  3592   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  3593   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  3594   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  3595   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  3596   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  3597   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3598   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  3599   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  3600   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  3601   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  3602   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  3603   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  3604   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  3605   UU_I ~> bottomI
  3606   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  3607   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3608   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3609   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  3610   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  3611   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  3612 
  3613 
  3614 *** Document preparation ***
  3615 
  3616 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  3617 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  3618 same.
  3619 
  3620 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  3621 result.
  3622 
  3623 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  3624 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  3625 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  3626 
  3627 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  3628 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  3629 
  3630 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  3631 like this:
  3632 
  3633   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  3634   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  3635 
  3636 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  3637 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  3638 layouts.
  3639 
  3640 
  3641 *** ML ***
  3642 
  3643 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  3644 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  3645 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  3646 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  3647 under external program control.
  3648 
  3649 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  3650 data, which requires explicit setup.
  3651 
  3652 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  3653 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  3654 (better known as Proof General).
  3655 
  3656 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3657 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3658 
  3659 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3660 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3661 
  3662 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3663 (including quotes etc.).
  3664 
  3665 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3666 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3667 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3668 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3669 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3670 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3671 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3672 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3673 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3674 
  3675 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3676 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3677 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3678 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3679 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3680 
  3681 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3682 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3683 
  3684 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3685 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3686 
  3687 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3688 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3689 
  3690 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3691 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3692 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3693 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3694 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3695 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3696 proper Proof.context.
  3697 
  3698 
  3699 *** System ***
  3700 
  3701 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3702 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3703 
  3704 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3705 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3706 
  3707 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3708 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3709 
  3710   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3711   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3712   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3713   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3714   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3715 
  3716 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3717 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3718 
  3719 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3720 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3721 example:
  3722 
  3723   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3724 
  3725 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3726 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3727 
  3728 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3729 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3730 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3731 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3732 
  3733 
  3734 
  3735 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3736 ----------------------------------
  3737 
  3738 *** General ***
  3739 
  3740 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3741 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3742 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3743 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3744 like this:
  3745 
  3746   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3747 
  3748 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3749 
  3750 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3751 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3752 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3753 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3754 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3755 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3756 
  3757 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3758 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3759 the following package declarations:
  3760 
  3761   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3762   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3763 
  3764 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3765 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3766 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3767 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3768 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3769 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3770 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3771 
  3772 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3773 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3774 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3775 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3776 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3777 
  3778 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3779 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3780 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3781 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3782 
  3783 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3784 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3785 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3786 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3787 
  3788   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3789 
  3790   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3791   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3792   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3793   show_types                    show_types
  3794   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3795   show_consts                   show_consts
  3796   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3797 
  3798   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3799   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3800   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3801 
  3802   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3803   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3804 
  3805   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3806 
  3807   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3808   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3809   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3810   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3811   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3812 
  3813 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3814 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3815 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3816 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3817 
  3818 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3819 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3820 
  3821   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3822   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3823 
  3824 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3825 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3826 float_token.
  3827 
  3828 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3829 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3830 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3831 
  3832 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3833 DejaVu Sans.
  3834 
  3835 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3836 
  3837 
  3838 *** Pure ***
  3839 
  3840 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3841 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3842 time.
  3843 
  3844 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3845 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3846 
  3847 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3848 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3849 
  3850 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3851 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3852 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3853 command already provided this functionality.
  3854 
  3855 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3856 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3857 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3858 without interpretations.
  3859 
  3860 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3861 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3862 
  3863 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3864 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3865 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3866 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3867 
  3868 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3869 'definition' instead.
  3870 
  3871 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3872 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3873 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3874 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3875 
  3876 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3877 constructors.
  3878 
  3879 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3880 the local file system.
  3881 
  3882 
  3883 *** HOL ***
  3884 
  3885 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3886 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3887 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3888 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3889 
  3890   declare [[coercion f]]
  3891 
  3892 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3893 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3894 
  3895   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3896 
  3897 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3898 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3899 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3900 other theories like this:
  3901 
  3902   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3903 
  3904 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3905 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3906 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3907 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3908 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3909 for examples.
  3910 
  3911 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3912 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3913 
  3914 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3915 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3916 
  3917 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3918 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3919 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3920 
  3921 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3922 functorial structure of types.
  3923 
  3924 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3925 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3926 
  3927 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3928 languages.
  3929 
  3930 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3931 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3932 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3933 
  3934 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3935 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3936 
  3937 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3938 combinators any longer.
  3939 
  3940 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3941 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3942 
  3943 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3944 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3945 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3946 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3947 
  3948   record 'a foo = ...
  3949   ...
  3950   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3951 
  3952 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3953 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3954 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3955 
  3956 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3957 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3958 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3959 
  3960 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3961 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3962 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3963 
  3964 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3965 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3966 
  3967 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3968 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3969 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3970 independently.
  3971 
  3972 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3973 counter example search.
  3974 
  3975 * Sledgehammer:
  3976   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3977     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3978     sledgehammer").
  3979   - Renamed commands:
  3980     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3981     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3982     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3983     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3984   - Renamed options:
  3985     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3986     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3987     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3988     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3989     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3990 
  3991 * Nitpick:
  3992   - Renamed options:
  3993     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3994     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3995     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3996   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3997   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3998   - Added "whack" option.
  3999   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  4000   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  4001   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  4002   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  4003     higher cardinalities.
  4004   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  4005 
  4006 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  4007 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  4008 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  4009 
  4010     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  4011 
  4012 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  4013 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  4014 
  4015 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  4016 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  4017 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  4018 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  4019 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  4020 "smt_solver".
  4021 
  4022 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  4023 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  4024 
  4025 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  4026 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  4027 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  4028 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4029 
  4030 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  4031   - Renamed:
  4032     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  4033     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  4034     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4035   - Added:
  4036     smt_verbose
  4037     smt_random_seed
  4038     smt_datatypes
  4039     smt_infer_triggers
  4040     smt_monomorph_limit
  4041     cvc3_options
  4042     remote_cvc3_options
  4043     remote_z3_options
  4044     yices_options
  4045 
  4046 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  4047 header.
  4048 
  4049 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  4050 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  4051 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  4052 
  4053   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  4054 
  4055 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4056 
  4057 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  4058 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4059 
  4060 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4061 
  4062 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  4063 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4064 
  4065 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  4066 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  4067 
  4068 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  4069 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4070 
  4071 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  4072 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  4073 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4074 
  4075 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4076 
  4077 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  4078 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4079 
  4080 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  4081 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4082 
  4083 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  4084 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  4085 for congruent(2)).
  4086 
  4087 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  4088 
  4089   types
  4090     bool ~> HOL.bool
  4091     nat ~> Nat.nat
  4092 
  4093   constants
  4094     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  4095     True ~> HOL.True
  4096     False ~> HOL.False
  4097     op & ~> HOL.conj
  4098     op | ~> HOL.disj
  4099     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  4100     op = ~> HOL.eq
  4101     Not ~> HOL.Not
  4102     The ~> HOL.The
  4103     All ~> HOL.All
  4104     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  4105     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  4106     Let ~> HOL.Let
  4107     If ~> HOL.If
  4108     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  4109     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  4110     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  4111     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  4112     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  4113     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  4114     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  4115     op : ~> Set.member
  4116     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  4117 
  4118 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4119 
  4120 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  4121 
  4122     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  4123     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  4124     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  4125     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  4126     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  4127     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  4128     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  4129     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  4130 
  4131 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4132 
  4133 * More stylized fact names:
  4134 
  4135   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  4136   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  4137   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  4138   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  4139 
  4140 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4141 
  4142 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  4143 
  4144   constants
  4145     null ~> List.null
  4146 
  4147   facts
  4148     mem_iff ~> member_def
  4149     null_empty ~> null_def
  4150 
  4151 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  4152 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  4153 generation.
  4154 
  4155 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  4156 Haskell code.
  4157 
  4158 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  4159 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  4160 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4161 
  4162 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  4163 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4164 
  4165 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  4166 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  4167 
  4168 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  4169 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  4170 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4171 
  4172 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  4173 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4174 
  4175 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  4176 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4177 
  4178 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  4179 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  4180 referred to by its qualified name.
  4181 
  4182   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  4183   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  4184   product ~>  Enum.product
  4185 
  4186 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  4187 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  4188 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4189 
  4190 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  4191 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  4192 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  4193 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4194 
  4195 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  4196 sort_key.
  4197 
  4198 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  4199 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4200 
  4201 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  4202 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  4203 instead of finite cartesian products.
  4204 
  4205   types
  4206     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  4207               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  4208               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  4209         (depends on your needs)
  4210 
  4211   constants
  4212      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  4213      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  4214      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  4215 
  4216 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  4217 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  4218 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  4219 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4220 
  4221 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  4222 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  4223 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  4224 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  4225 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4226 
  4227 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  4228 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4229 
  4230 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  4231 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  4232 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  4233 
  4234 
  4235 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4236 
  4237 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  4238 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  4239 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  4240 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  4241 compatibility.
  4242 
  4243 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  4244 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  4245 
  4246 
  4247 *** HOLCF ***
  4248 
  4249 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  4250 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  4251 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  4252 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4253 
  4254 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  4255 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  4256 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4257 
  4258   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  4259   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  4260   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  4261 
  4262 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  4263 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  4264 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4265 
  4266 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  4267 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  4268 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  4269 domain definition now works:
  4270 
  4271   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  4272 
  4273 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  4274 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  4275 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  4276 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  4277 
  4278   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  4279     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  4280 
  4281   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  4282 
  4283 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  4284 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  4285 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4286 
  4287 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  4288 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4289 
  4290 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  4291 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  4292 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  4293 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  4294 
  4295 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  4296 
  4297 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4298 
  4299 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4300 
  4301 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  4302 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4303 
  4304 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  4305 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  4306 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  4307 
  4308 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  4309 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  4310 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4311 
  4312 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  4313 still supported as an input translation.
  4314 
  4315 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  4316 
  4317   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  4318   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  4319   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  4320   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  4321   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  4322   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  4323   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  4324 
  4325 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  4326 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4327 
  4328   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  4329   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  4330   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  4331   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  4332   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  4333   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  4334 
  4335 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  4336 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4337 
  4338 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  4339 
  4340   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  4341   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  4342   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  4343   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  4344 
  4345 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4346 
  4347 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  4348 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4349 
  4350 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  4351 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4352 
  4353   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  4354   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  4355   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  4356   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  4357   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  4358   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  4359   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  4360   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  4361   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  4362   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  4363   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  4364   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  4365   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  4366   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  4367   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  4368   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  4369   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  4370   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  4371   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  4372   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  4373 
  4374 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4375 
  4376   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  4377   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  4378   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  4379   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  4380   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  4381   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  4382   box_less             ~> box_below
  4383   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  4384   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  4385   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  4386   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  4387   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  4388   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  4389   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  4390   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  4391   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  4392   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  4393   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  4394   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  4395   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  4396   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  4397   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  4398   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  4399   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  4400   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  4401   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  4402   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  4403   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  4404   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  4405   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  4406   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  4407   up_less              ~> up_below
  4408   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  4409   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  4410   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  4411   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  4412   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  4413   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  4414   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  4415   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  4416   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  4417   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  4418   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  4419   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  4420   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  4421 
  4422 
  4423 *** FOL and ZF ***
  4424 
  4425 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  4426 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4427 
  4428 
  4429 *** ML ***
  4430 
  4431 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  4432 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  4433 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  4434 
  4435 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  4436 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  4437 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  4438 
  4439 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  4440 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  4441 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  4442 
  4443 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  4444 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  4445 
  4446 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  4447 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  4448 
  4449 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  4450 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  4451 
  4452 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  4453 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  4454 
  4455 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  4456 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  4457 almost all situations.
  4458 
  4459 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  4460 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  4461 Isabelle/ML.
  4462 
  4463 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  4464 meaning.
  4465 
  4466 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  4467 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  4468 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  4469 
  4470 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  4471 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  4472 
  4473 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  4474 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  4475 
  4476 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  4477 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  4478 @{thms} for most purposes.
  4479 
  4480 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  4481 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  4482 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  4483 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  4484 configuration options.
  4485 
  4486 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  4487 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  4488 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  4489 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  4490 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  4491 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  4492 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  4493 
  4494 
  4495 
  4496 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  4497 ---------------------------------
  4498 
  4499 *** General ***
  4500 
  4501 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  4502 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  4503 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  4504 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  4505 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  4506 their full internal name.
  4507 
  4508 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  4509 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  4510 Some hints on upgrading:
  4511 
  4512   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  4513     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  4514     which are independent of this issue.
  4515 
  4516   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  4517     provides the following special forms:
  4518 
  4519       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  4520       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  4521       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  4522 
  4523     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  4524     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  4525     extra variables".
  4526 
  4527     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  4528     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  4529     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  4530     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  4531     "logic".
  4532 
  4533   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  4534     antiquotations:
  4535 
  4536       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  4537       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  4538       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  4539       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  4540 
  4541   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  4542     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  4543     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  4544     antiquotations.
  4545 
  4546 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  4547 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  4548 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  4549 diagnose syntax problems.
  4550 
  4551 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  4552 
  4553 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  4554 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  4555 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  4556 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  4557 
  4558 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  4559 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  4560 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  4561 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4562 
  4563 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  4564 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  4565 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  4566 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  4567 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4568 
  4569 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  4570 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  4571 
  4572 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  4573 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  4574 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  4575 
  4576   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  4577 
  4578 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  4579 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  4580 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  4581 
  4582 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  4583 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  4584 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4585 
  4586 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  4587 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  4588 
  4589 
  4590 *** Pure ***
  4591 
  4592 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  4593 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  4594 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  4595 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  4596 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  4597 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  4598 inspect proof terms.
  4599 
  4600 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  4601 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  4602 are added internally.  For example:
  4603 
  4604   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  4605 
  4606 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  4607 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4608 
  4609 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4610 
  4611 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4612 'class' instead.
  4613 
  4614 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  4615 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  4616 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4617 
  4618 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  4619 invariants.
  4620 
  4621 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  4622 user space functionality any longer.
  4623 
  4624 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  4625 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  4626 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4627 
  4628 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  4629 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  4630 
  4631 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  4632 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  4633 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  4634 
  4635 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  4636 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  4637 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  4638 
  4639 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  4640 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4641 
  4642 
  4643 *** HOL ***
  4644 
  4645 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  4646 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  4647 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  4648 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  4649 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  4650 
  4651 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  4652 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  4653 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  4654 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4655 
  4656   fun
  4657     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4658   where
  4659     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4660 
  4661   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4662     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4663 
  4664   quotient_definition
  4665     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4666 
  4667 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4668 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4669 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4670 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4671 
  4672 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4673 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4674 
  4675 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4676 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4677 
  4678 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4679 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4680 
  4681 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4682 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4683 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4684 
  4685 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4686 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4687 
  4688 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4689 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4690 
  4691 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4692 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4693 
  4694 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4695 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4696 
  4697 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4698 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4699 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4700 
  4701   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4702   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4703   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4704   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4705   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4706   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4707   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4708   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4709   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4710   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4711   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4712   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4713   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4714   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4715   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4716   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4717   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4718   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4719   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4720   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4721   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4722   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4723   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4724   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4725   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4726   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4727   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4728   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4729   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4730   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4731 
  4732 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4733 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4734 
  4735 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4736 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4737 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4738 
  4739 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4740 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4741 
  4742 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4743 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4744 
  4745 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4746 
  4747 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4748 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4749 
  4750 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4751 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4752 
  4753 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4754 
  4755 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4756 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4757 
  4758 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4759 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4760 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4761 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4762 
  4763 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4764   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4765   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4766   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4767 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4768 
  4769 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4770 lattices):
  4771 
  4772     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4773     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4774 
  4775     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4776 
  4777     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4778     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4779     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4780     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4781     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4782     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4783     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4784     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4785     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4786     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4787     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4788     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4789     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4790 
  4791     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4792     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4793     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4794     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4795     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4796     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4797     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4798     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4799     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4800     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4801     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4802     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4803     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4804     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4805     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4806     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4807     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4808     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4809 
  4810   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4811   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4812 
  4813     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4814     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4815     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4816     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4817     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4818 
  4819 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4820 
  4821 * Refined field classes:
  4822   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4823     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4824     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4825   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4826 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4827 
  4828 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4829   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4830   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4831   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4832     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4833   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4834     equal_neg_zero.
  4835 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4836 
  4837 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4838 sets to lattices:
  4839 
  4840   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4841   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4842   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4843   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4844   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4845   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4846   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4847   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4848   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4849   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4850 
  4851 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4852 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4853 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4854 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4855 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4856 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4857 
  4858 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4859 multiset order:
  4860 
  4861   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4862     <= and <;
  4863   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4864     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4865     multiset_order;
  4866   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4867     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4868     generation;
  4869   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4870     if needed.
  4871 
  4872 Renamed:
  4873 
  4874   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4875   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4876   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4877 
  4878 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4879 
  4880 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4881 
  4882 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4883 
  4884 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4885 
  4886 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4887 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4888 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4889 
  4890   Constants:
  4891   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4892   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4893   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4894   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4895   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4896   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4897   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4898   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4899   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4900   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4901   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4902   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4903   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4904 
  4905   Lemmas:
  4906   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4907   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4908   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4909   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4910   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4911   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4912   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4913   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4914   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4915   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4916   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4917   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4918   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4919 
  4920 * Sledgehammer:
  4921   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4922     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4923     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4924     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4925     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4926     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4927     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4928   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4929   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4930     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4931   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4932     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4933     is still experimental.)
  4934   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4935     full-typed mode.
  4936   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4937 
  4938 * Nitpick:
  4939   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4940   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4941   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4942     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4943   - Added support for quotient types.
  4944   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4945     constructs.
  4946   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4947     "termination" proofs).
  4948   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4949   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4950   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4951   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4952     record getters.
  4953   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4954   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4955   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4956   - Added "atoms" option.
  4957   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4958     problems.
  4959   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4960     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4961     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4962   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4963     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4964   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4965 
  4966 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4967   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4968   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4969   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4970   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4971   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4972   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4973   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4974   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4975   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4976 
  4977 
  4978 *** HOLCF ***
  4979 
  4980 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4981 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4982 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4983 
  4984 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4985 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4986 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4987 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4988 
  4989 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4990 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4991 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4992 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4993 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4994 
  4995 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4996 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4997 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4998 
  4999 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  5000 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5001 
  5002   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  5003   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  5004 
  5005 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  5006 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5007 
  5008   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  5009   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  5010   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  5011   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  5012   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  5013 
  5014 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  5015 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5016 
  5017   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  5018   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  5019   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  5020 
  5021 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  5022 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  5023 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5024 
  5025 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  5026 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5027 
  5028 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5029 
  5030 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  5031 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5032 
  5033 
  5034 *** ML ***
  5035 
  5036 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  5037 
  5038     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  5039     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  5040 
  5041     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  5042     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  5043     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  5044     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  5045 
  5046     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  5047     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  5048     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  5049 
  5050 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  5051 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  5052 
  5053 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  5054 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  5055 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  5056 
  5057 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  5058 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  5059 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  5060 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  5061 
  5062 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  5063 the context or even global references.
  5064 
  5065 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  5066 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  5067 
  5068 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  5069 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  5070 
  5071   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  5072   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  5073   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  5074   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  5075   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  5076   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  5077   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  5078   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  5079   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  5080   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  5081 
  5082 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  5083 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  5084 
  5085 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  5086 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  5087 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  5088 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  5089 pass the proper local context through the code!
  5090 
  5091 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  5092 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  5093 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  5094 Theory_Data version.
  5095 
  5096 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  5097 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  5098 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  5099 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  5100 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  5101 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  5102 explicitly in rare situations.
  5103 
  5104 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  5105 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  5106 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5107 
  5108 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  5109 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5110 
  5111 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  5112 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  5113 quite rare).
  5114 
  5115 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  5116 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5117 
  5118 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  5119 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  5120 terms.
  5121 
  5122 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  5123 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  5124 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  5125 
  5126 
  5127 *** System ***
  5128 
  5129 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  5130 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  5131 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  5132 
  5133 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  5134 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  5135 respectively.
  5136 
  5137 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  5138 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  5139 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  5140 prefers 64 bit if available:
  5141 
  5142   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  5143 
  5144 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  5145 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  5146 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  5147 component.
  5148 
  5149 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  5150 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  5151 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  5152 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  5153 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  5154 the user for manual installation.
  5155 
  5156 
  5157 
  5158 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  5159 -------------------------------------
  5160 
  5161 *** General ***
  5162 
  5163 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  5164 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  5165 
  5166 
  5167 *** Pure ***
  5168 
  5169 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  5170 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  5171 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  5172 
  5173 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  5174 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  5175 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  5176 
  5177 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  5178 interpretation.
  5179 
  5180 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  5181 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5182 
  5183 
  5184 *** Document preparation ***
  5185 
  5186 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  5187 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  5188 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  5189 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  5190 
  5191 
  5192 *** HOL ***
  5193 
  5194 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  5195 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  5196 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  5197 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  5198 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  5199 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  5200 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  5201 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  5202 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  5203 
  5204 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  5205 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  5206 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  5207 
  5208 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  5209 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  5210 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  5211 
  5212 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  5213 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  5214 
  5215 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  5216 
  5217 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  5218 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  5219 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  5220 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  5221 
  5222 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  5223 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  5224 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  5225 "mirabelle" utility.
  5226 
  5227 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  5228 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  5229 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  5230 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  5231 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  5232 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  5233 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  5234 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  5235 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  5236 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  5237 
  5238 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  5239 procedure only.
  5240 
  5241 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  5242 
  5243 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  5244 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  5245 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  5246 that fail later.
  5247 
  5248 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  5249 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  5250 
  5251 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  5252 the same method as the approximation method.
  5253 
  5254 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  5255 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  5256 series expansion.
  5257 
  5258 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  5259 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  5260 
  5261 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  5262 reals.
  5263 
  5264 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  5265 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  5266 
  5267 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  5268 fixpoint theorem.
  5269 
  5270 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5271   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  5272     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  5273   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  5274     accordingly
  5275   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  5276     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  5277   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  5278     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  5279 
  5280 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  5281 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  5282 lattice.
  5283 
  5284 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  5285 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  5286 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  5287 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  5288 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  5289 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  5290 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5291 
  5292 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  5293   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  5294     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  5295   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  5296     le_inf_iff
  5297   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  5298     sup_aci)
  5299   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  5300   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  5301   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  5302     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  5303     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  5304     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  5305     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  5306     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  5307     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  5308     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  5309     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  5310     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  5311     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  5312   - authentic syntax for
  5313     Set.Pow
  5314     Set.image
  5315   - mere abbreviations:
  5316     Set.empty               (for bot)
  5317     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  5318     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  5319     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  5320     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  5321     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  5322     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  5323     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  5324   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  5325 
  5326 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  5327 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  5328 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  5329 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  5330 
  5331 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  5332 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  5333 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5334 
  5335 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  5336 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5337 
  5338 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  5339 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  5340 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  5341 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5342 
  5343 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  5344 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5345 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  5346 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  5347 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  5348 
  5349 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  5350 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  5351 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5352 
  5353 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  5354 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5355 
  5356 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  5357 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  5358 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  5359 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  5360 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  5361 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  5362 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  5363 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5364 
  5365 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  5366     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  5367     code_post       replaces    code post
  5368     etc.
  5369   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5370 
  5371 * Renamed methods:
  5372     sizechange -> size_change
  5373     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  5374   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5375 
  5376 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  5377 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  5378 
  5379 * Renamed theorems:
  5380     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5381     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  5382     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5383     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  5384     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  5385   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5386 
  5387 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  5388 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5389 
  5390 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  5391 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5392 
  5393 
  5394 *** HOLCF ***
  5395 
  5396 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  5397 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  5398 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  5399 
  5400 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  5401 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  5402 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  5403 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  5404 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  5405 
  5406 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  5407 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  5408 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  5409 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  5410 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  5411 
  5412 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  5413 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  5414 constructor are pre-configured.
  5415 
  5416 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  5417 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  5418 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  5419 
  5420 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  5421 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  5422 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  5423 as well.)
  5424 
  5425 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  5426 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  5427 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  5428 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5429 examples.
  5430 
  5431 
  5432 *** ML ***
  5433 
  5434 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  5435 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  5436 
  5437 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  5438 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  5439 position, logical grouping etc.
  5440 
  5441 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  5442 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  5443 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  5444 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  5445 
  5446 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  5447 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  5448 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  5449 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  5450 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  5451 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  5452 
  5453 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  5454 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  5455 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  5456 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  5457 experiments with references.
  5458 
  5459 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  5460 parallel tactical reasoning.
  5461 
  5462 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  5463 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  5464 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  5465 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  5466 
  5467 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  5468 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  5469 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  5470 
  5471 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  5472 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  5473 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5474 
  5475 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5476 
  5477 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  5478 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5479 
  5480 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  5481 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  5482 
  5483 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  5484 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  5485 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  5486 
  5487 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  5488 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  5489 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5490 
  5491 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  5492 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  5493 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  5494 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5495 
  5496 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5497 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  5498 instead of global theory.
  5499 
  5500 
  5501 *** System ***
  5502 
  5503 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  5504 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  5505 usedir option -q.
  5506 
  5507 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  5508 also the system manual.
  5509 
  5510 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  5511 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  5512 
  5513 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  5514 this is always enabled.
  5515 
  5516 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  5517 
  5518 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  5519 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  5520 currently supported on Linux only.
  5521 
  5522 
  5523 
  5524 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  5525 --------------------------------
  5526 
  5527 *** General ***
  5528 
  5529 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  5530 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5531 
  5532   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  5533     "isatool."
  5534 
  5535   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  5536     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  5537 
  5538   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  5539     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  5540 
  5541 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  5542 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  5543 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  5544 
  5545 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  5546 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  5547 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  5548 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  5549 via "isabelle emacs".
  5550 
  5551 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  5552 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  5553 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  5554 
  5555 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  5556 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  5557 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5558 
  5559 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  5560 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  5561 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  5562 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  5563 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  5564 
  5565 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  5566 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  5567 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  5568 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5569 
  5570 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  5571 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  5572 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  5573 
  5574 
  5575 *** Pure ***
  5576 
  5577 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  5578 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  5579 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  5580 
  5581 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  5582 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  5583 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  5584 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  5585 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  5586 
  5587 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  5588 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  5589 useful in locale declarations.
  5590 
  5591 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  5592 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  5593 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  5594 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  5595 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  5596 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  5597 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  5598 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  5599 no longer generated.
  5600 
  5601 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  5602 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  5603 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  5604 
  5605 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  5606 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  5607 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  5608 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  5609 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  5610 
  5611 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5612 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  5613 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  5614 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  5615 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  5616 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  5617 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  5618 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  5619 
  5620 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  5621 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  5622 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  5623 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  5624 
  5625 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5626 
  5627 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  5628 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  5629 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  5630 
  5631 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  5632 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5633 
  5634 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  5635 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  5636 in HOL, write
  5637 
  5638     class foo = ...
  5639 
  5640 instead of
  5641 
  5642     class foo = type + ...
  5643 
  5644 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  5645 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5646 
  5647 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  5648 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  5649 
  5650 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  5651 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  5652 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  5653 
  5654 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5655 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5656 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5657 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5658 directly in regular applications.
  5659 
  5660 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5661 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5662 
  5663 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5664 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5665 
  5666 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5667 theory context.
  5668 
  5669 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5670 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5671 
  5672 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5673 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5674 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5675 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5676 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5677 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5678 
  5679   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5680 
  5681 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5682 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5683 normalization.
  5684 
  5685 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5686 addressing etc.
  5687 
  5688 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5689 
  5690   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5691   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5692 
  5693 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5694 
  5695   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5696      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5697      parts of the code generator framework).
  5698 
  5699   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5700      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5701      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5702 
  5703 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5704 
  5705 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5706 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5707 
  5708 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5709 patterns, e.g.
  5710 
  5711     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5712 
  5713 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5714 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5715 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5716 hyphen:
  5717 
  5718     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5719 
  5720 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5721 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5722 
  5723 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5724 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5725 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5726 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5727 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5728 higher-order unification.
  5729 
  5730 
  5731 *** Document preparation ***
  5732 
  5733 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5734 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5735 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5736 
  5737 
  5738 *** HOL ***
  5739 
  5740 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5741 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5742 
  5743 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5744 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5745 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5746 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5747 Main, as before.
  5748 
  5749 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5750 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5751 
  5752 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5753 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5754 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5755 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5756 
  5757 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5758 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5759 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5760 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5761 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5762 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5763 
  5764 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5765 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5766 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5767 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5768 
  5769 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5770 menu.
  5771 
  5772 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5773 (contains the empty clause).
  5774 
  5775 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5776 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5777 
  5778 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5779 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5780 
  5781 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5782 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5783 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5784 
  5785 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5786 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5787 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5788 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5789 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5790 
  5791 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5792 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5793 
  5794 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5795 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5796 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5797 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5798 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5799 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5800 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5801 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5802 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5803 
  5804 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5805 
  5806 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5807 
  5808 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5809 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5810 
  5811 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5812 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5813 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5814 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5815 
  5816 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5817 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5818 
  5819     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5820     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5821     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5822     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5823     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5824     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5825     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5826     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5827 
  5828 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5829 theory Set.
  5830 
  5831 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5832 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5833 
  5834 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5835 
  5836 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5837 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5838 
  5839 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5840 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5841 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5842 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5843 allowed. For examples see
  5844 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5845 
  5846 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5847 
  5848 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5849 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5850 
  5851 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5852 structure:
  5853 
  5854     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5855     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5856     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5857     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5858     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5859     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5860     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5861     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5862     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5863     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5864     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5865     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5866     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5867     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5868     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5869     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5870     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5871     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5872     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5873     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5874     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5875     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5876     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5877     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5878     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5879     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5880     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5881     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5882     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5883     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5884     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5885     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5886     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5887 
  5888     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5889     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5890     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5891     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5892     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5893     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5894     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5895     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5896     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5897     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5898 
  5899     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5900     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5901     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5902     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5903     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5904     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5905 
  5906 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5907 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5908 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5909 
  5910 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5911 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5912 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5913 
  5914 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5915 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5916 
  5917 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5918 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5919 
  5920 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5921 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5922 proofs, e.g.
  5923 
  5924   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5925 
  5926 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5927 
  5928 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5929 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5930 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5931 
  5932 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5933 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5934 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5935 
  5936 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5937 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5938 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5939 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5940 
  5941 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5942 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5943 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5944 preorder_class.*.
  5945 
  5946 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5947 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5948 
  5949 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5950 
  5951   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5952 
  5953 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5954 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5955 fold_image.
  5956 
  5957 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5958 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5959 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5960 the former will disappear at some point.
  5961 
  5962 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5963 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5964 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5965 
  5966 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5967 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5968 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5969 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5970 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5971 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5972 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5973 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5974 
  5975 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5976 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5977 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5978 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5979 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5980 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5981 
  5982     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5983     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5984     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5985     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5986     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5987     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5988     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5989 
  5990 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5991 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5992 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5993 
  5994 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5995 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5996 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5997 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5998 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5999 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  6000 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  6001 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  6002 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  6003 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  6004 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  6005 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  6006 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  6007 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  6008 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  6009 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  6010 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  6011 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  6012 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  6013 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  6014 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  6015 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  6016 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  6017 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  6018 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  6019 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  6020 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  6021 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  6022 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  6023 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  6024 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  6025 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  6026 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  6027 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  6028 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  6029 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  6030 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  6031 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  6032 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  6033 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  6034 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  6035 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  6036 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  6037 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  6038 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  6039 
  6040 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6041 
  6042 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  6043 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  6044 
  6045 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  6046 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  6047 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  6048 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  6049 
  6050 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  6051 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  6052 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  6053 theory RealVector.
  6054 
  6055 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  6056 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  6057 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  6058 and inner products are included.
  6059 
  6060 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  6061 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  6062 supported.
  6063 
  6064 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  6065 first diagonalization argument.
  6066 
  6067 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  6068 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  6069 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  6070 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  6071 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  6072 
  6073     hide (open) const gcd
  6074     abbreviation gcd where
  6075       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  6076     notation (output)
  6077       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  6078 
  6079 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  6080 
  6081 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  6082 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  6083 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6084 
  6085 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  6086 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  6087 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  6088 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  6089 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  6090 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  6091 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  6092 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  6093 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  6094 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  6095 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  6096 cases.
  6097 
  6098 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  6099 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  6100 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  6101 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  6102 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  6103 
  6104     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  6105     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  6106     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  6107     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  6108     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  6109 
  6110 
  6111 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  6112 
  6113 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  6114 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  6115 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  6116 
  6117 * New theory of factorial domains.
  6118 
  6119 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  6120 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  6121 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  6122 
  6123 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6124 
  6125 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  6126 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  6127 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  6128 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  6129 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  6130 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  6131 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  6132 
  6133 
  6134 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  6135 
  6136 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  6137 
  6138 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  6139 theory targets.
  6140 
  6141 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  6142 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  6143 'inductive' etc.
  6144 
  6145 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  6146 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  6147 
  6148 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  6149 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  6150 
  6151 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  6152 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  6153 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  6154 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  6155 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  6156 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  6157 the algorithm W:
  6158 
  6159  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  6160  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  6161          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  6162 
  6163 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  6164 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  6165 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  6166 
  6167 
  6168 *** HOLCF ***
  6169 
  6170 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  6171 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  6172 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  6173 
  6174 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  6175 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  6176 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  6177 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  6178 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6179 
  6180 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  6181 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  6182 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6183 
  6184 
  6185 *** ZF ***
  6186 
  6187 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  6188 
  6189 
  6190 *** ML ***
  6191 
  6192 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  6193 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  6194 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  6195 5.2.1!
  6196 
  6197 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  6198 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  6199 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  6200 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  6201 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  6202 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  6203 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  6204 
  6205 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  6206 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  6207 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  6208 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  6209 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  6210 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  6211 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  6212 
  6213 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  6214 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  6215 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  6216 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  6217 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  6218 
  6219 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  6220 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  6221 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  6222 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  6223 Method.add_method.
  6224 
  6225 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  6226 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  6227 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  6228 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  6229 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  6230 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  6231 
  6232 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  6233 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  6234 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  6235 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  6236 examples.
  6237 
  6238 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  6239 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  6240 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  6241 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  6242 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  6243 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  6244 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  6245 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  6246 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  6247 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  6248 
  6249 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  6250 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  6251 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  6252 
  6253 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  6254 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  6255 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  6256 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  6257 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  6258 resort for legacy applications.
  6259 
  6260 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  6261 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  6262 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  6263 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  6264 explicit runtime argument.