NEWS
author wenzelm
Thu Apr 04 23:01:07 2019 +0200 (5 months ago)
changeset 70060 3e9394adcccd
parent 70057 0403b5127da1
child 70061 5b75480f371a
permissions -rw-r--r--
tuned;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history of user-relevant changes
     2 =================================================
     3 
     4 (Note: Isabelle/jEdit shows a tree-view of the NEWS file in Sidekick.)
     5 
     6 
     7 New in Isabelle2019 (June 2019)
     8 -------------------------------
     9 
    10 *** General ***
    11 
    12 * The font collection "Isabelle DejaVu" is systematically derived from
    13 the existing "DejaVu" fonts, with variants "Sans Mono", "Sans", "Serif"
    14 and styles "Normal", "Bold", "Italic/Oblique", "Bold-Italic/Oblique".
    15 The DejaVu base fonts are retricted to well-defined Unicode ranges and
    16 augmented by special Isabelle symbols, taken from the former
    17 "IsabelleText" font (which is no longer provided separately). The line
    18 metrics and overall rendering quality is closer to original DejaVu.
    19 INCOMPATIBILITY with display configuration expecting the old
    20 "IsabelleText" font: use e.g. "Isabelle DejaVu Sans Mono" instead.
    21 
    22 * The Isabelle fonts render "\<inverse>" properly as superscript "-1".
    23 
    24 * Old-style inner comments (* ... *) within the term language are no
    25 longer supported (legacy feature in Isabelle2018).
    26 
    27 * Old-style {* verbatim *} tokens are explicitly marked as legacy
    28 feature and will be removed soon. Use \<open>cartouche\<close> syntax instead, e.g.
    29 via "isabelle update_cartouches -t" (available since Isabelle2015).
    30 
    31 * Infix operators that begin or end with a "*" can now be paranthesized
    32 without additional spaces, eg "(*)" instead of "( * )". Minor
    33 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    34 
    35 * Mixfix annotations may use cartouches instead of old-style double
    36 quotes, e.g. (infixl \<open>+\<close> 60). The command-line tool "isabelle update -u
    37 mixfix_cartouches" allows to update existing theory sources
    38 automatically.
    39 
    40 * ML setup commands (e.g. 'setup', 'method_setup', 'parse_translation')
    41 need to provide a closed expression -- without trailing semicolon. Minor
    42 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    43 
    44 * Commands 'generate_file', 'export_generated_files', and
    45 'compile_generated_files' support a stateless (PIDE-conformant) model
    46 for generated sources and compiled binaries of other languages. The
    47 compilation process is managed in Isabelle/ML, and results exported to
    48 the session database for further use (e.g. with "isabelle export" or
    49 "isabelle build -e").
    50 
    51 
    52 *** Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE ***
    53 
    54 * Fonts for the text area, gutter, GUI elements etc. use the "Isabelle
    55 DejaVu" collection by default, which provides uniform rendering quality
    56 with the usual Isabelle symbols. Line spacing no longer needs to be
    57 adjusted: properties for the old IsabelleText font had "Global Options /
    58 Text Area / Extra vertical line spacing (in pixels): -2", now it
    59 defaults to 0.
    60 
    61 * The jEdit File Browser is more prominent in the default GUI layout of
    62 Isabelle/jEdit: various virtual file-systems provide access to Isabelle
    63 resources, notably via "favorites:" (or "Edit Favorites").
    64 
    65 * Action "isabelle-export-browser" points the File Browser to the theory
    66 exports of the current buffer, based on the "isabelle-export:" virtual
    67 file-system. The directory view needs to be reloaded manually to follow
    68 ongoing document processing.
    69 
    70 * Action "isabelle-session-browser" points the File Browser to session
    71 information, based on the "isabelle-session:" virtual file-system. Its
    72 entries are structured according to chapter / session names, the open
    73 operation is redirected to the session ROOT file.
    74 
    75 * Support for user-defined file-formats via class isabelle.File_Format
    76 in Isabelle/Scala (e.g. see isabelle.Bibtex.File_Format), configured via
    77 the shell function "isabelle_file_format" in etc/settings (e.g. of an
    78 Isabelle component).
    79 
    80 * System option "jedit_text_overview" allows to disable the text
    81 overview column.
    82 
    83 * Command-line options "-s" and "-u" of "isabelle jedit" override the
    84 default for system option "system_heaps" that determines the heap
    85 storage directory for "isabelle build". Option "-n" is now clearly
    86 separated from option "-s".
    87 
    88 * OpenJDK 11 has quite different font rendering, with better glyph
    89 shapes and improved sub-pixel anti-aliasing. In some situations results
    90 might be *worse* than Oracle Java 8, though.
    91 
    92 
    93 *** Document preparation ***
    94 
    95 * Document markers are formal comments of the form \<^marker>\<open>marker_body\<close> that
    96 are stripped from document output: the effect is to modify the semantic
    97 presentation context or to emit markup to the PIDE document. Some
    98 predefined markers are taken from the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative,
    99 e.g. \<^marker>\<open>contributor arg\<close> or \<^marker>\<open>license arg\<close> and produce PIDE markup that
   100 can retrieved from the document database.
   101 
   102 * Old-style command tags %name are re-interpreted as markers \<^marker>\<open>tag name\<close>
   103 and produce LaTeX environments as before. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
   104 multiple markers are composed in canonical order, resulting in a
   105 reversed list of tags in the presentation context.
   106 
   107 
   108 *** Isar ***
   109 
   110 * Implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc. have been discontinued
   111 (legacy feature since Isabelle2016).
   112 
   113 * More robust treatment of structural errors: begin/end blocks take
   114 precedence over goal/proof. This is particularly relevant for the
   115 headless PIDE session and server.
   116 
   117 * Command keywords of kind thy_decl / thy_goal may be more specifically
   118 fit into the traditional document model of "definition-statement-proof"
   119 via thy_defn / thy_stmt / thy_goal_defn / thy_goal_stmt.
   120 
   121 
   122 *** HOL ***
   123 
   124 * Command 'export_code' produces output as logical files within the
   125 theory context, as well as formal session exports that can be
   126 materialized via command-line tools "isabelle export" or "isabelle build
   127 -e" (with 'export_files' in the session ROOT). Isabelle/jEdit also
   128 provides a virtual file-system "isabelle-export:" that can be explored
   129 in the regular file-browser. A 'file_prefix' argument allows to specify
   130 an explicit name prefix for the target file (SML, OCaml, Scala) or
   131 directory (Haskell); the default is "export" with a consecutive number
   132 within each theory.
   133 
   134 * Command 'export_code': the 'file' argument is now legacy and will be
   135 removed soon: writing to the physical file-system is not well-defined in
   136 a reactive/parallel application like Isabelle. The empty 'file' argument
   137 has been discontinued already: it is superseded by the file-browser in
   138 Isabelle/jEdit on "isabelle-export:". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   139 
   140 * Command 'code_reflect' no longer supports the 'file' argument: it has
   141 been superseded by 'file_prefix' for stateless file management as in
   142 'export_code'. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   143 
   144 * Code generation for OCaml: proper strings are used for literals.
   145 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   146 
   147 * Code generation for OCaml: Zarith supersedes Nums as library for
   148 proper integer arithmetic. The library is located via standard
   149 invocations of "ocamlfind" (via ISABELLE_OCAMLFIND settings variable).
   150 The environment provided by "isabelle ocaml_setup" already contains this
   151 tool and the required packages. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   152 
   153 * Code generation for Haskell: code includes for Haskell must contain
   154 proper module frame, nothing is added magically any longer.
   155 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   156 
   157 * Code generation: slightly more conventional syntax for 'code_stmts'
   158 antiquotation. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   159 
   160 * Theory List: the precedence of the list_update operator has changed:
   161 "f a [n := x]" now needs to be written "(f a)[n := x]".
   162 
   163 * The functions \<Union>, \<Inter>, \<Squnion>, \<Sqinter> (not the corresponding binding operators)
   164 now have the same precedence as any other prefix function symbol. Minor
   165 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   166 
   167 * Simplified syntax setup for big operators under image. In rare
   168 situations, type conversions are not inserted implicitly any longer
   169 and need to be given explicitly. Auxiliary abbreviations INFIMUM,
   170 SUPREMUM, UNION, INTER should now rarely occur in output and are just
   171 retained as migration auxiliary. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   172 
   173 * The simplifier uses image_cong_simp as a congruence rule. The historic
   174 and not really well-formed congruence rules INF_cong*, SUP_cong*, are
   175 not used by default any longer. INCOMPATIBILITY; consider using declare
   176 image_cong_simp [cong del] in extreme situations.
   177 
   178 * INF_image and SUP_image are no default simp rules any longer.
   179 INCOMPATIBILITY, prefer image_comp as simp rule if needed.
   180 
   181 * Strong congruence rules (with =simp=> in the premises) for constant f
   182 are now uniformly called f_cong_simp, in accordance with congruence
   183 rules produced for mappers by the datatype package. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   184 
   185 * Retired lemma card_Union_image; use the simpler card_UN_disjoint
   186 instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   187 
   188 * Facts sum_mset.commute and prod_mset.commute have been renamed to
   189 sum_mset.swap and prod_mset.swap, similarly to sum.swap and prod.swap.
   190 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   191 
   192 * ML structure Inductive: slightly more conventional naming schema.
   193 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   194 
   195 * ML: Various _global variants of specification tools have been removed.
   196 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, prefer combinators
   197 Named_Target.theory_map[_result] to lift specifications to the global
   198 theory level.
   199 
   200 * Theory HOL-Library.Simps_Case_Conv: 'case_of_simps' now supports
   201 overlapping and non-exhaustive patterns and handles arbitrarily nested
   202 patterns. It uses on the same algorithm as HOL-Library.Code_Lazy, which
   203 assumes sequential left-to-right pattern matching. The generated
   204 equation no longer tuples the arguments on the right-hand side.
   205 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   206 
   207 * Theory HOL-Library.Multiset: the <Union># operator now has the same
   208 precedence as any other prefix function symbol.
   209 
   210 * Session HOL-Library and HOL-Number_Theory: Exponentiation by squaring,
   211 used for computing powers in class "monoid_mult" and modular
   212 exponentiation.
   213 
   214 * Session HOL-Computational_Algebra: Formal Laurent series and overhaul
   215 of Formal power series.
   216 
   217 * Session HOL-Number_Theory: More material on residue rings in
   218 Carmichael's function, primitive roots, more properties for "ord".
   219 
   220 * Session HOL-Analysis: More material and better organization.
   221 
   222 * Session HOL-SPARK: .prv files are no longer written to the
   223 file-system, but exported to the session database. Results may be
   224 retrieved via "isabelle build -e HOL-SPARK-Examples" on the
   225 command-line.
   226 
   227 * Sledgehammer:
   228   - The URL for SystemOnTPTP, which is used by remote provers, has been
   229     updated.
   230   - The machine-learning-based filter MaSh has been optimized to take
   231     less time (in most cases).
   232 
   233 * SMT: reconstruction is now possible using the SMT solver veriT.
   234 
   235 
   236 *** ML ***
   237 
   238 * Command 'generate_file' allows to produce sources for other languages,
   239 with antiquotations in the Isabelle context (only the control-cartouche
   240 form). The default "cartouche" antiquotation evaluates an ML expression
   241 of type string and inlines the result as a string literal of the target
   242 language. For example, this works for Haskell as follows:
   243 
   244   generate_file "Pure.hs" = \<open>
   245   module Isabelle.Pure where
   246     allConst, impConst, eqConst :: String
   247     allConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.all\<close>\<close>
   248     impConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.imp\<close>\<close>
   249     eqConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.eq\<close>\<close>
   250   \<close>
   251 
   252 The ML function Generate_File.generate writes all generated files from a
   253 given theory to the file-system, e.g. a temporary directory where some
   254 external compiler is applied.
   255 
   256 * ML evaluation (notably via commands 'ML' and 'ML_file') is subject to
   257 option ML_environment to select a named environment, such as "Isabelle"
   258 for Isabelle/ML, or "SML" for official Standard ML. It is also possible
   259 to move toplevel bindings between environments, using a notation with
   260 ">" as separator. For example:
   261 
   262   declare [[ML_environment = "Isabelle>SML"]]
   263   ML \<open>val println = writeln\<close>
   264 
   265   declare [[ML_environment = "SML"]]
   266   ML \<open>println "test"\<close>
   267 
   268   declare [[ML_environment = "Isabelle"]]
   269   ML \<open>println\<close>  \<comment> \<open>not present\<close>
   270 
   271 The Isabelle/ML function ML_Env.setup defines new ML environments. This
   272 is useful to incorporate big SML projects in an isolated name space, and
   273 potentially with variations on ML syntax (existing ML_Env.SML_operations
   274 observes the official standard).
   275 
   276 * ML antiquotation @{master_dir} refers to the master directory of the
   277 underlying theory, i.e. the directory of the theory file.
   278 
   279 * ML antiquotation @{verbatim} inlines its argument as string literal,
   280 preserving newlines literally. The short form \<^verbatim>\<open>abc\<close> is particularly
   281 useful.
   282 
   283 * Local_Theory.reset is no longer available in user space. Regular
   284 definitional packages should use balanced blocks of
   285 Local_Theory.open_target versus Local_Theory.close_target instead, or
   286 the Local_Theory.subtarget(_result) combinator. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   287 
   288 * Original PolyML.pointerEq is retained as a convenience for tools that
   289 don't use Isabelle/ML (where this is called "pointer_eq").
   290 
   291 
   292 *** System ***
   293 
   294 * Update to OpenJDK 11: the current long-term support version of Java.
   295 
   296 * Update to Poly/ML 5.8 allows to use the native x86_64 platform without
   297 the full overhead of 64-bit values everywhere. This special x86_64_32
   298 mode provides up to 16GB ML heap, while program code and stacks are
   299 allocated elsewhere. Thus approx. 5 times more memory is available for
   300 applications compared to old x86 mode (which is no longer used by
   301 Isabelle). The switch to the x86_64 CPU architecture also avoids
   302 compatibility problems with Linux and macOS, where 32-bit applications
   303 are gradually phased out.
   304 
   305 * System option "checkpoint" has been discontinued: obsolete thanks to
   306 improved memory management in Poly/ML.
   307 
   308 * System option "system_heaps" determines where to store the session
   309 image of "isabelle build" (and other tools using that internally).
   310 Former option "-s" is superseded by option "-o system_heaps".
   311 INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line syntax.
   312 
   313 * Session directory $ISABELLE_HOME/src/Tools/Haskell provides some
   314 source modules for Isabelle tools implemented in Haskell, notably for
   315 Isabelle/PIDE.
   316 
   317 * The command-line tool "isabelle build -e" retrieves theory exports
   318 from the session build database, using 'export_files' in session ROOT
   319 entries.
   320 
   321 * The command-line tool "isabelle update" uses Isabelle/PIDE in
   322 batch-mode to update theory sources based on semantic markup produced in
   323 Isabelle/ML. Actual updates depend on system options that may be enabled
   324 via "-u OPT" (for "update_OPT"), see also $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/options
   325 section "Theory update". Theory sessions are specified as in "isabelle
   326 dump".
   327 
   328 * The command-line tool "isabelle update -u control_cartouches" changes
   329 antiquotations into control-symbol format (where possible): @{NAME}
   330 becomes \<^NAME> and @{NAME ARG} becomes \<^NAME>\<open>ARG\<close>.
   331 
   332 * Support for Isabelle command-line tools defined in Isabelle/Scala.
   333 Instances of class Isabelle_Scala_Tools may be configured via the shell
   334 function "isabelle_scala_tools" in etc/settings (e.g. of an Isabelle
   335 component).
   336 
   337 * Isabelle Server command "use_theories" supports "nodes_status_delay"
   338 for continuous output of node status information. The time interval is
   339 specified in seconds; a negative value means it is disabled (default).
   340 
   341 * Isabelle Server command "use_theories" terminates more robustly in the
   342 presence of structurally broken sources: full consolidation of theories
   343 is no longer required.
   344 
   345 * OCaml tools and libraries are now accesed via ISABELLE_OCAMLFIND,
   346 which needs to point to a suitable version of "ocamlfind" (e.g. via
   347 OPAM, see below). INCOMPATIBILITY: settings variables ISABELLE_OCAML and
   348 ISABELLE_OCAMLC are no longer supported.
   349 
   350 * Support for managed installations of Glasgow Haskell Compiler and
   351 OCaml via the following command-line tools:
   352 
   353   isabelle ghc_setup
   354   isabelle ghc_stack
   355 
   356   isabelle ocaml_setup
   357   isabelle ocaml_opam
   358 
   359 The global installation state is determined by the following settings
   360 (and corresponding directory contents):
   361 
   362   ISABELLE_STACK_ROOT
   363   ISABELLE_STACK_RESOLVER
   364   ISABELLE_GHC_VERSION
   365 
   366   ISABELLE_OPAM_ROOT
   367   ISABELLE_OCAML_VERSION
   368 
   369 After setup, the following Isabelle settings are automatically
   370 redirected (overriding existing user settings):
   371 
   372   ISABELLE_GHC
   373 
   374   ISABELLE_OCAMLFIND
   375 
   376 The old meaning of these settings as locally installed executables may
   377 be recovered by purging the directories ISABELLE_STACK_ROOT /
   378 ISABELLE_OPAM_ROOT, or by resetting these variables in
   379 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings.
   380 
   381 
   382 
   383 New in Isabelle2018 (August 2018)
   384 ---------------------------------
   385 
   386 *** General ***
   387 
   388 * Session-qualified theory names are mandatory: it is no longer possible
   389 to refer to unqualified theories from the parent session.
   390 INCOMPATIBILITY for old developments that have not been updated to
   391 Isabelle2017 yet (using the "isabelle imports" tool).
   392 
   393 * Only the most fundamental theory names are global, usually the entry
   394 points to major logic sessions: Pure, Main, Complex_Main, HOLCF, IFOL,
   395 FOL, ZF, ZFC etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified names for
   396 formerly global "HOL-Probability.Probability" and "HOL-SPARK.SPARK".
   397 
   398 * Global facts need to be closed: no free variables and no hypotheses.
   399 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   400 
   401 * Facts stemming from locale interpretation are subject to lazy
   402 evaluation for improved performance. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY: errors
   403 stemming from interpretation morphisms might be deferred and thus
   404 difficult to locate; enable system option "strict_facts" temporarily to
   405 avoid this.
   406 
   407 * Marginal comments need to be written exclusively in the new-style form
   408 "\<comment> \<open>text\<close>", old ASCII variants like "-- {* ... *}" are no longer
   409 supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the command-line tool "isabelle
   410 update_comments" to update existing theory files.
   411 
   412 * Old-style inner comments (* ... *) within the term language are legacy
   413 and will be discontinued soon: use formal comments "\<comment> \<open>...\<close>" or "\<^cancel>\<open>...\<close>"
   414 instead.
   415 
   416 * The "op <infix-op>" syntax for infix operators has been replaced by
   417 "(<infix-op>)". If <infix-op> begins or ends with a "*", there needs to
   418 be a space between the "*" and the corresponding parenthesis.
   419 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the command-line tool "isabelle update_op" to
   420 convert theory and ML files to the new syntax. Because it is based on
   421 regular expression matching, the result may need a bit of manual
   422 postprocessing. Invoking "isabelle update_op" converts all files in the
   423 current directory (recursively). In case you want to exclude conversion
   424 of ML files (because the tool frequently also converts ML's "op"
   425 syntax), use option "-m".
   426 
   427 * Theory header 'abbrevs' specifications need to be separated by 'and'.
   428 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   429 
   430 * Command 'external_file' declares the formal dependency on the given
   431 file name, such that the Isabelle build process knows about it, but
   432 without specific Prover IDE management.
   433 
   434 * Session ROOT entries no longer allow specification of 'files'. Rare
   435 INCOMPATIBILITY, use command 'external_file' within a proper theory
   436 context.
   437 
   438 * Session root directories may be specified multiple times: each
   439 accessible ROOT file is processed only once. This facilitates
   440 specification of $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/ROOTS or command-line options like
   441 -d or -D for "isabelle build" and "isabelle jedit". Example:
   442 
   443   isabelle build -D '~~/src/ZF'
   444 
   445 * The command 'display_drafts' has been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   446 use action "isabelle.draft" (or "print") in Isabelle/jEdit instead.
   447 
   448 * In HTML output, the Isabelle symbol "\<hyphen>" is rendered as explicit
   449 Unicode hyphen U+2010, to avoid unclear meaning of the old "soft hyphen"
   450 U+00AD. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, e.g. copy-paste of historic Isabelle HTML
   451 output.
   452 
   453 
   454 *** Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE ***
   455 
   456 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" provides more flexible options
   457 for session management:
   458 
   459   - option -R builds an auxiliary logic image with all theories from
   460     other sessions that are not already present in its parent
   461 
   462   - option -S is like -R, with a focus on the selected session and its
   463     descendants (this reduces startup time for big projects like AFP)
   464 
   465   - option -A specifies an alternative ancestor session for options -R
   466     and -S
   467 
   468   - option -i includes additional sessions into the name-space of
   469     theories
   470 
   471   Examples:
   472     isabelle jedit -R HOL-Number_Theory
   473     isabelle jedit -R HOL-Number_Theory -A HOL
   474     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL
   475     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL-Analysis
   476     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL-Analysis -i CryptHOL
   477 
   478 * PIDE markup for session ROOT files: allows to complete session names,
   479 follow links to theories and document files etc.
   480 
   481 * Completion supports theory header imports, using theory base name.
   482 E.g. "Prob" may be completed to "HOL-Probability.Probability".
   483 
   484 * Named control symbols (without special Unicode rendering) are shown as
   485 bold-italic keyword. This is particularly useful for the short form of
   486 antiquotations with control symbol: \<^name>\<open>argument\<close>. The action
   487 "isabelle.antiquoted_cartouche" turns an antiquotation with 0 or 1
   488 arguments into this format.
   489 
   490 * Completion provides templates for named symbols with arguments,
   491 e.g. "\<comment> \<open>ARGUMENT\<close>" or "\<^emph>\<open>ARGUMENT\<close>".
   492 
   493 * Slightly more parallel checking, notably for high priority print
   494 functions (e.g. State output).
   495 
   496 * The view title is set dynamically, according to the Isabelle
   497 distribution and the logic session name. The user can override this via
   498 set-view-title (stored persistently in $JEDIT_SETTINGS/perspective.xml).
   499 
   500 * System options "spell_checker_include" and "spell_checker_exclude"
   501 supersede former "spell_checker_elements" to determine regions of text
   502 that are subject to spell-checking. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   503 
   504 * Action "isabelle.preview" is able to present more file formats,
   505 notably bibtex database files and ML files.
   506 
   507 * Action "isabelle.draft" is similar to "isabelle.preview", but shows a
   508 plain-text document draft. Both are available via the menu "Plugins /
   509 Isabelle".
   510 
   511 * When loading text files, the Isabelle symbols encoding UTF-8-Isabelle
   512 is only used if there is no conflict with existing Unicode sequences in
   513 the file. Otherwise, the fallback encoding is plain UTF-8 and Isabelle
   514 symbols remain in literal \<symbol> form. This avoids accidental loss of
   515 Unicode content when saving the file.
   516 
   517 * Bibtex database files (.bib) are semantically checked.
   518 
   519 * Update to jedit-5.5.0, the latest release.
   520 
   521 
   522 *** Isabelle/VSCode Prover IDE ***
   523 
   524 * HTML preview of theories and other file-formats similar to
   525 Isabelle/jEdit.
   526 
   527 * Command-line tool "isabelle vscode_server" accepts the same options
   528 -A, -R, -S, -i for session selection as "isabelle jedit". This is
   529 relevant for isabelle.args configuration settings in VSCode. The former
   530 option -A (explore all known session files) has been discontinued: it is
   531 enabled by default, unless option -S is used to focus on a particular
   532 spot in the session structure. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   533 
   534 
   535 *** Document preparation ***
   536 
   537 * Formal comments work uniformly in outer syntax, inner syntax (term
   538 language), Isabelle/ML and some other embedded languages of Isabelle.
   539 See also "Document comments" in the isar-ref manual. The following forms
   540 are supported:
   541 
   542   - marginal text comment: \<comment> \<open>\<dots>\<close>
   543   - canceled source: \<^cancel>\<open>\<dots>\<close>
   544   - raw LaTeX: \<^latex>\<open>\<dots>\<close>
   545 
   546 * Outside of the inner theory body, the default presentation context is
   547 theory Pure. Thus elementary antiquotations may be used in markup
   548 commands (e.g. 'chapter', 'section', 'text') and formal comments.
   549 
   550 * System option "document_tags" specifies alternative command tags. This
   551 is occasionally useful to control the global visibility of commands via
   552 session options (e.g. in ROOT).
   553 
   554 * Document markup commands ('section', 'text' etc.) are implicitly
   555 tagged as "document" and visible by default. This avoids the application
   556 of option "document_tags" to these commands.
   557 
   558 * Isabelle names are mangled into LaTeX macro names to allow the full
   559 identifier syntax with underscore, prime, digits. This is relevant for
   560 antiquotations in control symbol notation, e.g. \<^const_name> becomes
   561 \isactrlconstUNDERSCOREname.
   562 
   563 * Document preparation with skip_proofs option now preserves the content
   564 more accurately: only terminal proof steps ('by' etc.) are skipped.
   565 
   566 * Document antiquotation @{theory name} requires the long
   567 session-qualified theory name: this is what users reading the text
   568 normally need to import.
   569 
   570 * Document antiquotation @{session name} checks and prints the given
   571 session name verbatim.
   572 
   573 * Document antiquotation @{cite} now checks the given Bibtex entries
   574 against the Bibtex database files -- only in batch-mode session builds.
   575 
   576 * Command-line tool "isabelle document" has been re-implemented in
   577 Isabelle/Scala, with simplified arguments and explicit errors from the
   578 latex and bibtex process. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   579 
   580 * Session ROOT entry: empty 'document_files' means there is no document
   581 for this session. There is no need to specify options [document = false]
   582 anymore.
   583 
   584 
   585 *** Isar ***
   586 
   587 * Command 'interpret' no longer exposes resulting theorems as literal
   588 facts, notably for the \<open>prop\<close> notation or the "fact" proof method. This
   589 improves modularity of proofs and scalability of locale interpretation.
   590 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, need to refer to explicitly named facts instead
   591 (e.g. use 'find_theorems' or 'try' to figure this out).
   592 
   593 * The old 'def' command has been discontinued (legacy since
   594 Isbelle2016-1). INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'define' instead -- usually with
   595 object-logic equality or equivalence.
   596 
   597 
   598 *** Pure ***
   599 
   600 * The inner syntax category "sort" now includes notation "_" for the
   601 dummy sort: it is effectively ignored in type-inference.
   602 
   603 * Rewrites clauses (keyword 'rewrites') were moved into the locale
   604 expression syntax, where they are part of locale instances. In
   605 interpretation commands rewrites clauses now need to occur before 'for'
   606 and 'defines'. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY; definitions immediately subject to
   607 rewriting may need to be pulled up into the surrounding theory.
   608 
   609 * For 'rewrites' clauses, if activating a locale instance fails, fall
   610 back to reading the clause first. This helps avoid qualification of
   611 locale instances where the qualifier's sole purpose is avoiding
   612 duplicate constant declarations.
   613 
   614 * Proof method "simp" now supports a new modifier "flip:" followed by a
   615 list of theorems. Each of these theorems is removed from the simpset
   616 (without warning if it is not there) and the symmetric version of the
   617 theorem (i.e. lhs and rhs exchanged) is added to the simpset. For "auto"
   618 and friends the modifier is "simp flip:".
   619 
   620 
   621 *** HOL ***
   622 
   623 * Sledgehammer: bundled version of "vampire" (for non-commercial users)
   624 helps to avoid fragility of "remote_vampire" service.
   625 
   626 * Clarified relationship of characters, strings and code generation:
   627 
   628   - Type "char" is now a proper datatype of 8-bit values.
   629 
   630   - Conversions "nat_of_char" and "char_of_nat" are gone; use more
   631     general conversions "of_char" and "char_of" with suitable type
   632     constraints instead.
   633 
   634   - The zero character is just written "CHR 0x00", not "0" any longer.
   635 
   636   - Type "String.literal" (for code generation) is now isomorphic to
   637     lists of 7-bit (ASCII) values; concrete values can be written as
   638     "STR ''...''" for sequences of printable characters and "STR 0x..."
   639     for one single ASCII code point given as hexadecimal numeral.
   640 
   641   - Type "String.literal" supports concatenation "... + ..." for all
   642     standard target languages.
   643 
   644   - Theory HOL-Library.Code_Char is gone; study the explanations
   645     concerning "String.literal" in the tutorial on code generation to
   646     get an idea how target-language string literals can be converted to
   647     HOL string values and vice versa.
   648 
   649   - Session Imperative-HOL: operation "raise" directly takes a value of
   650     type "String.literal" as argument, not type "string".
   651 
   652 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   653 
   654 * Code generation: Code generation takes an explicit option
   655 "case_insensitive" to accomodate case-insensitive file systems.
   656 
   657 * Abstract bit operations as part of Main: push_bit, take_bit, drop_bit.
   658 
   659 * New, more general, axiomatization of complete_distrib_lattice. The
   660 former axioms:
   661 
   662   "sup x (Inf X) = Inf (sup x ` X)" and "inf x (Sup X) = Sup (inf x ` X)"
   663 
   664 are replaced by:
   665 
   666   "Inf (Sup ` A) <= Sup (Inf ` {f ` A | f . (! Y \<in> A . f Y \<in> Y)})"
   667 
   668 The instantiations of sets and functions as complete_distrib_lattice are
   669 moved to Hilbert_Choice.thy because their proofs need the Hilbert choice
   670 operator. The dual of this property is also proved in theory
   671 HOL.Hilbert_Choice.
   672 
   673 * New syntax for the minimum/maximum of a function over a finite set:
   674 MIN x\<in>A. B and even MIN x. B (only useful for finite types), also MAX.
   675 
   676 * Clarifed theorem names:
   677 
   678   Min.antimono ~> Min.subset_imp
   679   Max.antimono ~> Max.subset_imp
   680 
   681 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   682 
   683 * SMT module:
   684 
   685   - The 'smt_oracle' option is now necessary when using the 'smt' method
   686     with a solver other than Z3. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   687 
   688   - The encoding to first-order logic is now more complete in the
   689     presence of higher-order quantifiers. An 'smt_explicit_application'
   690     option has been added to control this. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   691 
   692 * Facts sum.commute(_restrict) and prod.commute(_restrict) renamed to
   693 sum.swap(_restrict) and prod.swap(_restrict), to avoid name clashes on
   694 interpretation of abstract locales. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   695 
   696 * Predicate coprime is now a real definition, not a mere abbreviation.
   697 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   698 
   699 * Predicate pairwise_coprime abolished, use "pairwise coprime" instead.
   700 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   701 
   702 * The relator rel_filter on filters has been strengthened to its
   703 canonical categorical definition with better properties.
   704 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   705 
   706 * Generalized linear algebra involving linear, span, dependent, dim
   707 from type class real_vector to locales module and vector_space.
   708 Renamed:
   709 
   710   span_inc ~> span_superset
   711   span_superset ~> span_base
   712   span_eq ~> span_eq_iff
   713 
   714 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   715 
   716 * Class linordered_semiring_1 covers zero_less_one also, ruling out
   717 pathologic instances. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   718 
   719 * Theory HOL.List: functions "sorted_wrt" and "sorted" now compare every
   720 element in a list to all following elements, not just the next one.
   721 
   722 * Theory HOL.List syntax:
   723 
   724   - filter-syntax "[x <- xs. P]" is no longer output syntax, but only
   725     input syntax
   726 
   727   - list comprehension syntax now supports tuple patterns in "pat <- xs"
   728 
   729 * Theory Map: "empty" must now be qualified as "Map.empty".
   730 
   731 * Removed nat-int transfer machinery. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   732 
   733 * Fact mod_mult_self4 (on nat) renamed to Suc_mod_mult_self3, to avoid
   734 clash with fact mod_mult_self4 (on more generic semirings).
   735 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   736 
   737 * Eliminated some theorem aliasses:
   738   even_times_iff ~> even_mult_iff
   739   mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_nat ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   740   even_of_nat ~> even_int_iff
   741 
   742 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   743 
   744 * Eliminated some theorem duplicate variations:
   745 
   746   - dvd_eq_mod_eq_0_numeral can be replaced by dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
   747   - mod_Suc_eq_Suc_mod can be replaced by mod_Suc
   748   - mod_Suc_eq_Suc_mod [symmetrict] can be replaced by mod_simps
   749   - mod_eq_0_iff can be replaced by mod_eq_0_iff_dvd and dvd_def
   750   - the witness of mod_eqD can be given directly as "_ div _"
   751 
   752 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   753 
   754 * Classical setup: Assumption "m mod d = 0" (for m d :: nat) is no
   755 longer aggresively destroyed to "\<exists>q. m = d * q". INCOMPATIBILITY, adding
   756 "elim!: dvd" to classical proof methods in most situations restores
   757 broken proofs.
   758 
   759 * Theory HOL-Library.Conditional_Parametricity provides command
   760 'parametric_constant' for proving parametricity of non-recursive
   761 definitions. For constants that are not fully parametric the command
   762 will infer conditions on relations (e.g., bi_unique, bi_total, or type
   763 class conditions such as "respects 0") sufficient for parametricity. See
   764 theory HOL-ex.Conditional_Parametricity_Examples for some examples.
   765 
   766 * Theory HOL-Library.Code_Lazy provides a new preprocessor for the code
   767 generator to generate code for algebraic types with lazy evaluation
   768 semantics even in call-by-value target languages. See the theories
   769 HOL-ex.Code_Lazy_Demo and HOL-Codegenerator_Test.Code_Lazy_Test for some
   770 examples.
   771 
   772 * Theory HOL-Library.Landau_Symbols has been moved here from AFP.
   773 
   774 * Theory HOL-Library.Old_Datatype no longer provides the legacy command
   775 'old_datatype'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   776 
   777 * Theory HOL-Computational_Algebra.Polynomial_Factorial does not provide
   778 instances of rat, real, complex as factorial rings etc. Import
   779 HOL-Computational_Algebra.Field_as_Ring explicitly in case of need.
   780 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   781 
   782 * Session HOL-Algebra: renamed (^) to [^] to avoid conflict with new
   783 infix/prefix notation.
   784 
   785 * Session HOL-Algebra: revamped with much new material. The set of
   786 isomorphisms between two groups is now denoted iso rather than iso_set.
   787 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   788 
   789 * Session HOL-Analysis: the Arg function now respects the same interval
   790 as Ln, namely (-pi,pi]; the old Arg function has been renamed Arg2pi.
   791 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   792 
   793 * Session HOL-Analysis: the functions zorder, zer_poly, porder and
   794 pol_poly have been redefined. All related lemmas have been reworked.
   795 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   796 
   797 * Session HOL-Analysis: infinite products, Moebius functions, the
   798 Riemann mapping theorem, the Vitali covering theorem,
   799 change-of-variables results for integration and measures.
   800 
   801 * Session HOL-Real_Asymp: proof method "real_asymp" proves asymptotics
   802 or real-valued functions (limits, "Big-O", etc.) automatically.
   803 See also ~~/src/HOL/Real_Asymp/Manual for some documentation.
   804 
   805 * Session HOL-Types_To_Sets: more tool support (unoverload_type combines
   806 internalize_sorts and unoverload) and larger experimental application
   807 (type based linear algebra transferred to linear algebra on subspaces).
   808 
   809 
   810 *** ML ***
   811 
   812 * Operation Export.export emits theory exports (arbitrary blobs), which
   813 are stored persistently in the session build database.
   814 
   815 * Command 'ML_export' exports ML toplevel bindings to the global
   816 bootstrap environment of the ML process. This allows ML evaluation
   817 without a formal theory context, e.g. in command-line tools like
   818 "isabelle process".
   819 
   820 
   821 *** System ***
   822 
   823 * Mac OS X 10.10 Yosemite is now the baseline version; Mavericks is no
   824 longer supported.
   825 
   826 * Linux and Windows/Cygwin is for x86_64 only, old 32bit platform
   827 support has been discontinued.
   828 
   829 * Java runtime is for x86_64 only. Corresponding Isabelle settings have
   830 been renamed to ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS and JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS,
   831 instead of former 32/64 variants. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   832 
   833 * Old settings ISABELLE_PLATFORM and ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM should be
   834 phased out due to unclear preference of 32bit vs. 64bit architecture.
   835 Explicit GNU bash expressions are now preferred, for example (with
   836 quotes):
   837 
   838   #Posix executables (Unix or Cygwin), with preference for 64bit
   839   "${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}"
   840 
   841   #native Windows or Unix executables, with preference for 64bit
   842   "${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM64:-${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32:-${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}}}"
   843 
   844   #native Windows (32bit) or Unix executables (preference for 64bit)
   845   "${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32:-${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}}"
   846 
   847 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" supports new options:
   848   - option -B NAME: include session NAME and all descendants
   849   - option -S: only observe changes of sources, not heap images
   850   - option -f: forces a fresh build
   851 
   852 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" options -c -x -B refer to
   853 descendants wrt. the session parent or import graph. Subtle
   854 INCOMPATIBILITY: options -c -x used to refer to the session parent graph
   855 only.
   856 
   857 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" takes "condition" options with the
   858 corresponding environment values into account, when determining the
   859 up-to-date status of a session.
   860 
   861 * The command-line tool "dump" dumps information from the cumulative
   862 PIDE session database: many sessions may be loaded into a given logic
   863 image, results from all loaded theories are written to the output
   864 directory.
   865 
   866 * Command-line tool "isabelle imports -I" also reports actual session
   867 imports. This helps to minimize the session dependency graph.
   868 
   869 * The command-line tool "export" and 'export_files' in session ROOT
   870 entries retrieve theory exports from the session build database.
   871 
   872 * The command-line tools "isabelle server" and "isabelle client" provide
   873 access to the Isabelle Server: it supports responsive session management
   874 and concurrent use of theories, based on Isabelle/PIDE infrastructure.
   875 See also the "system" manual.
   876 
   877 * The command-line tool "isabelle update_comments" normalizes formal
   878 comments in outer syntax as follows: \<comment> \<open>text\<close> (whith a single space to
   879 approximate the appearance in document output). This is more specific
   880 than former "isabelle update_cartouches -c": the latter tool option has
   881 been discontinued.
   882 
   883 * The command-line tool "isabelle mkroot" now always produces a document
   884 outline: its options have been adapted accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   885 
   886 * The command-line tool "isabelle mkroot -I" initializes a Mercurial
   887 repository for the generated session files.
   888 
   889 * Settings ISABELLE_HEAPS + ISABELLE_BROWSER_INFO (or
   890 ISABELLE_HEAPS_SYSTEM + ISABELLE_BROWSER_INFO_SYSTEM in "system build
   891 mode") determine the directory locations of the main build artefacts --
   892 instead of hard-wired directories in ISABELLE_HOME_USER (or
   893 ISABELLE_HOME).
   894 
   895 * Settings ISABELLE_PATH and ISABELLE_OUTPUT have been discontinued:
   896 heap images and session databases are always stored in
   897 $ISABELLE_HEAPS/$ML_IDENTIFIER (command-line default) or
   898 $ISABELLE_HEAPS_SYSTEM/$ML_IDENTIFIER (main Isabelle application or
   899 "isabelle jedit -s" or "isabelle build -s").
   900 
   901 * ISABELLE_LATEX and ISABELLE_PDFLATEX now include platform-specific
   902 options for improved error reporting. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY with
   903 unusual LaTeX installations, may have to adapt these settings.
   904 
   905 * Update to Poly/ML 5.7.1 with slightly improved performance and PIDE
   906 markup for identifier bindings. It now uses The GNU Multiple Precision
   907 Arithmetic Library (libgmp) on all platforms, notably Mac OS X with
   908 32/64 bit.
   909 
   910 
   911 
   912 New in Isabelle2017 (October 2017)
   913 ----------------------------------
   914 
   915 *** General ***
   916 
   917 * Experimental support for Visual Studio Code (VSCode) as alternative
   918 Isabelle/PIDE front-end, see also
   919 https://marketplace.visualstudio.com/items?itemName=makarius.Isabelle2017
   920 
   921 VSCode is a new type of application that continues the concepts of
   922 "programmer's editor" and "integrated development environment" towards
   923 fully semantic editing and debugging -- in a relatively light-weight
   924 manner. Thus it fits nicely on top of the Isabelle/PIDE infrastructure.
   925 Technically, VSCode is based on the Electron application framework
   926 (Node.js + Chromium browser + V8), which is implemented in JavaScript
   927 and TypeScript, while Isabelle/VSCode mainly consists of Isabelle/Scala
   928 modules around a Language Server implementation.
   929 
   930 * Theory names are qualified by the session name that they belong to.
   931 This affects imports, but not the theory name space prefix (which is
   932 just the theory base name as before).
   933 
   934 In order to import theories from other sessions, the ROOT file format
   935 provides a new 'sessions' keyword. In contrast, a theory that is
   936 imported in the old-fashioned manner via an explicit file-system path
   937 belongs to the current session, and might cause theory name conflicts
   938 later on. Theories that are imported from other sessions are excluded
   939 from the current session document. The command-line tool "isabelle
   940 imports" helps to update theory imports.
   941 
   942 * The main theory entry points for some non-HOL sessions have changed,
   943 to avoid confusion with the global name "Main" of the session HOL. This
   944 leads to the follow renamings:
   945 
   946   CTT/Main.thy    ~>  CTT/CTT.thy
   947   ZF/Main.thy     ~>  ZF/ZF.thy
   948   ZF/Main_ZF.thy  ~>  ZF/ZF.thy
   949   ZF/Main_ZFC.thy ~>  ZF/ZFC.thy
   950   ZF/ZF.thy       ~>  ZF/ZF_Base.thy
   951 
   952 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   953 
   954 * Commands 'alias' and 'type_alias' introduce aliases for constants and
   955 type constructors, respectively. This allows adhoc changes to name-space
   956 accesses within global or local theory contexts, e.g. within a 'bundle'.
   957 
   958 * Document antiquotations @{prf} and @{full_prf} output proof terms
   959 (again) in the same way as commands 'prf' and 'full_prf'.
   960 
   961 * Computations generated by the code generator can be embedded directly
   962 into ML, alongside with @{code} antiquotations, using the following
   963 antiquotations:
   964 
   965   @{computation ... terms: ... datatypes: ...} :
   966     ((term -> term) -> 'ml option -> 'a) -> Proof.context -> term -> 'a
   967   @{computation_conv ... terms: ... datatypes: ...} :
   968     (Proof.context -> 'ml -> conv) -> Proof.context -> conv
   969   @{computation_check terms: ... datatypes: ...} : Proof.context -> conv
   970 
   971 See src/HOL/ex/Computations.thy,
   972 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Commutative_Ring.thy and
   973 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Reflective_Field.thy for examples and the
   974 tutorial on code generation.
   975 
   976 
   977 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   978 
   979 * Session-qualified theory imports allow the Prover IDE to process
   980 arbitrary theory hierarchies independently of the underlying logic
   981 session image (e.g. option "isabelle jedit -l"), but the directory
   982 structure needs to be known in advance (e.g. option "isabelle jedit -d"
   983 or a line in the file $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/ROOTS).
   984 
   985 * The PIDE document model maintains file content independently of the
   986 status of jEdit editor buffers. Reloading jEdit buffers no longer causes
   987 changes of formal document content. Theory dependencies are always
   988 resolved internally, without the need for corresponding editor buffers.
   989 The system option "jedit_auto_load" has been discontinued: it is
   990 effectively always enabled.
   991 
   992 * The Theories dockable provides a "Purge" button, in order to restrict
   993 the document model to theories that are required for open editor
   994 buffers.
   995 
   996 * The Theories dockable indicates the overall status of checking of each
   997 entry. When all forked tasks of a theory are finished, the border is
   998 painted with thick lines; remaining errors in this situation are
   999 represented by a different border color.
  1000 
  1001 * Automatic indentation is more careful to avoid redundant spaces in
  1002 intermediate situations. Keywords are indented after input (via typed
  1003 characters or completion); see also option "jedit_indent_input".
  1004 
  1005 * Action "isabelle.preview" opens an HTML preview of the current theory
  1006 document in the default web browser.
  1007 
  1008 * Command-line invocation "isabelle jedit -R -l LOGIC" opens the ROOT
  1009 entry of the specified logic session in the editor, while its parent is
  1010 used for formal checking.
  1011 
  1012 * The main Isabelle/jEdit plugin may be restarted manually (using the
  1013 jEdit Plugin Manager), as long as the "Isabelle Base" plugin remains
  1014 enabled at all times.
  1015 
  1016 * Update to current jedit-5.4.0.
  1017 
  1018 
  1019 *** Pure ***
  1020 
  1021 * Deleting the last code equations for a particular function using
  1022 [code del] results in function with no equations (runtime abort) rather
  1023 than an unimplemented function (generation time abort). Use explicit
  1024 [[code drop:]] to enforce the latter. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1025 
  1026 * Proper concept of code declarations in code.ML:
  1027   - Regular code declarations act only on the global theory level, being
  1028     ignored with warnings if syntactically malformed.
  1029   - Explicitly global code declarations yield errors if syntactically
  1030     malformed.
  1031   - Default code declarations are silently ignored if syntactically
  1032     malformed.
  1033 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1034 
  1035 * Clarified and standardized internal data bookkeeping of code
  1036 declarations: history of serials allows to track potentially
  1037 non-monotonous declarations appropriately. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1038 
  1039 
  1040 *** HOL ***
  1041 
  1042 * The Nunchaku model finder is now part of "Main".
  1043 
  1044 * SMT module:
  1045   - A new option, 'smt_nat_as_int', has been added to translate 'nat' to
  1046     'int' and benefit from the SMT solver's theory reasoning. It is
  1047     disabled by default.
  1048   - The legacy module "src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy" has been removed.
  1049   - Several small issues have been rectified in the 'smt' command.
  1050 
  1051 * (Co)datatype package: The 'size_gen_o_map' lemma is no longer
  1052 generated for datatypes with type class annotations. As a result, the
  1053 tactic that derives it no longer fails on nested datatypes. Slight
  1054 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1055 
  1056 * Command and antiquotation "value" with modified default strategy:
  1057 terms without free variables are always evaluated using plain evaluation
  1058 only, with no fallback on normalization by evaluation. Minor
  1059 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1060 
  1061 * Theories "GCD" and "Binomial" are already included in "Main" (instead
  1062 of "Complex_Main").
  1063 
  1064 * Constant "surj" is a full input/output abbreviation (again).
  1065 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1066 
  1067 * Dropped aliasses RangeP, DomainP for Rangep, Domainp respectively.
  1068 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1069 
  1070 * Renamed ii to imaginary_unit in order to free up ii as a variable
  1071 name. The syntax \<i> remains available. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1072 
  1073 * Dropped abbreviations transP, antisymP, single_valuedP; use constants
  1074 transp, antisymp, single_valuedp instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1075 
  1076 * Constant "subseq" in Topological_Spaces has been removed -- it is
  1077 subsumed by "strict_mono". Some basic lemmas specific to "subseq" have
  1078 been renamed accordingly, e.g. "subseq_o" -> "strict_mono_o" etc.
  1079 
  1080 * Theory List: "sublist" renamed to "nths" in analogy with "nth", and
  1081 "sublisteq" renamed to "subseq". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1082 
  1083 * Theory List: new generic function "sorted_wrt".
  1084 
  1085 * Named theorems mod_simps covers various congruence rules concerning
  1086 mod, replacing former zmod_simps. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1087 
  1088 * Swapped orientation of congruence rules mod_add_left_eq,
  1089 mod_add_right_eq, mod_add_eq, mod_mult_left_eq, mod_mult_right_eq,
  1090 mod_mult_eq, mod_minus_eq, mod_diff_left_eq, mod_diff_right_eq,
  1091 mod_diff_eq. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1092 
  1093 * Generalized some facts:
  1094     measure_induct_rule
  1095     measure_induct
  1096     zminus_zmod ~> mod_minus_eq
  1097     zdiff_zmod_left ~> mod_diff_left_eq
  1098     zdiff_zmod_right ~> mod_diff_right_eq
  1099     zmod_eq_dvd_iff ~> mod_eq_dvd_iff
  1100 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1101 
  1102 * Algebraic type class hierarchy of euclidean (semi)rings in HOL:
  1103 euclidean_(semi)ring, euclidean_(semi)ring_cancel,
  1104 unique_euclidean_(semi)ring; instantiation requires provision of a
  1105 euclidean size.
  1106 
  1107 * Theory "HOL-Number_Theory.Euclidean_Algorithm" has been reworked:
  1108   - Euclidean induction is available as rule eucl_induct.
  1109   - Constants Euclidean_Algorithm.gcd, Euclidean_Algorithm.lcm,
  1110     Euclidean_Algorithm.Gcd and Euclidean_Algorithm.Lcm allow
  1111     easy instantiation of euclidean (semi)rings as GCD (semi)rings.
  1112   - Coefficients obtained by extended euclidean algorithm are
  1113     available as "bezout_coefficients".
  1114 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1115 
  1116 * Theory "Number_Theory.Totient" introduces basic notions about Euler's
  1117 totient function previously hidden as solitary example in theory
  1118 Residues. Definition changed so that "totient 1 = 1" in agreement with
  1119 the literature. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1120 
  1121 * New styles in theory "HOL-Library.LaTeXsugar":
  1122   - "dummy_pats" for printing equations with "_" on the lhs;
  1123   - "eta_expand" for printing eta-expanded terms.
  1124 
  1125 * Theory "HOL-Library.Permutations": theorem bij_swap_ompose_bij has
  1126 been renamed to bij_swap_compose_bij. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1127 
  1128 * New theory "HOL-Library.Going_To_Filter" providing the "f going_to F"
  1129 filter for describing points x such that f(x) is in the filter F.
  1130 
  1131 * Theory "HOL-Library.Formal_Power_Series": constants X/E/L/F have been
  1132 renamed to fps_X/fps_exp/fps_ln/fps_hypergeo to avoid polluting the name
  1133 space. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1134 
  1135 * Theory "HOL-Library.FinFun" has been moved to AFP (again).
  1136 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1137 
  1138 * Theory "HOL-Library.FuncSet": some old and rarely used ASCII
  1139 replacement syntax has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax
  1140 with symbols should be used instead. The subsequent commands help to
  1141 reproduce the old forms, e.g. to simplify porting old theories:
  1142 
  1143 syntax (ASCII)
  1144   "_PiE" :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'b set \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) set"  ("(3PIE _:_./ _)" 10)
  1145   "_Pi"  :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'b set \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) set"  ("(3PI _:_./ _)" 10)
  1146   "_lam" :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'a \<Rightarrow> 'b \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b)"  ("(3%_:_./ _)" [0,0,3] 3)
  1147 
  1148 * Theory "HOL-Library.Multiset": the simprocs on subsets operators of
  1149 multisets have been renamed:
  1150 
  1151   msetless_cancel_numerals ~> msetsubset_cancel
  1152   msetle_cancel_numerals ~> msetsubset_eq_cancel
  1153 
  1154 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1155 
  1156 * Theory "HOL-Library.Pattern_Aliases" provides input and output syntax
  1157 for pattern aliases as known from Haskell, Scala and ML.
  1158 
  1159 * Theory "HOL-Library.Uprod" formalizes the type of unordered pairs.
  1160 
  1161 * Session HOL-Analysis: more material involving arcs, paths, covering
  1162 spaces, innessential maps, retracts, infinite products, simplicial
  1163 complexes. Baire Category theorem. Major results include the Jordan
  1164 Curve Theorem and the Great Picard Theorem.
  1165 
  1166 * Session HOL-Algebra has been extended by additional lattice theory:
  1167 the Knaster-Tarski fixed point theorem and Galois Connections.
  1168 
  1169 * Sessions HOL-Computational_Algebra and HOL-Number_Theory: new notions
  1170 of squarefreeness, n-th powers, and prime powers.
  1171 
  1172 * Session "HOL-Computional_Algebra" covers many previously scattered
  1173 theories, notably Euclidean_Algorithm, Factorial_Ring,
  1174 Formal_Power_Series, Fraction_Field, Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra,
  1175 Normalized_Fraction, Polynomial_FPS, Polynomial, Primes. Minor
  1176 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1177 
  1178 
  1179 *** System ***
  1180 
  1181 * Isabelle/Scala: the SQL module supports access to relational
  1182 databases, either as plain file (SQLite) or full-scale server
  1183 (PostgreSQL via local port or remote ssh connection).
  1184 
  1185 * Results of "isabelle build" are recorded as SQLite database (i.e.
  1186 "Application File Format" in the sense of
  1187 https://www.sqlite.org/appfileformat.html). This allows systematic
  1188 access via operations from module Sessions.Store in Isabelle/Scala.
  1189 
  1190 * System option "parallel_proofs" is 1 by default (instead of more
  1191 aggressive 2). This requires less heap space and avoids burning parallel
  1192 CPU cycles, while full subproof parallelization is enabled for repeated
  1193 builds (according to parallel_subproofs_threshold).
  1194 
  1195 * System option "record_proofs" allows to change the global
  1196 Proofterm.proofs variable for a session. Regular values are are 0, 1, 2;
  1197 a negative value means the current state in the ML heap image remains
  1198 unchanged.
  1199 
  1200 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_SCALA_BUILD_OPTIONS has been
  1201 renamed to ISABELLE_SCALAC_OPTIONS. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1202 
  1203 * Isabelle settings variables ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM,
  1204 ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32, ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM64 indicate the
  1205 native Windows platform (independently of the Cygwin installation). This
  1206 is analogous to ISABELLE_PLATFORM, ISABELLE_PLATFORM32,
  1207 ISABELLE_PLATFORM64.
  1208 
  1209 * Command-line tool "isabelle build_docker" builds a Docker image from
  1210 the Isabelle application bundle for Linux. See also
  1211 https://hub.docker.com/r/makarius/isabelle
  1212 
  1213 * Command-line tool "isabelle vscode_server" provides a Language Server
  1214 Protocol implementation, e.g. for the Visual Studio Code editor. It
  1215 serves as example for alternative PIDE front-ends.
  1216 
  1217 * Command-line tool "isabelle imports" helps to maintain theory imports
  1218 wrt. session structure. Examples for the main Isabelle distribution:
  1219 
  1220   isabelle imports -I -a
  1221   isabelle imports -U -a
  1222   isabelle imports -U -i -a
  1223   isabelle imports -M -a -d '~~/src/Benchmarks'
  1224 
  1225 
  1226 
  1227 New in Isabelle2016-1 (December 2016)
  1228 -------------------------------------
  1229 
  1230 *** General ***
  1231 
  1232 * Splitter in proof methods "simp", "auto" and friends:
  1233   - The syntax "split add" has been discontinued, use plain "split",
  1234     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1235   - For situations with many conditional or case expressions, there is
  1236     an alternative splitting strategy that can be much faster. It is
  1237     selected by writing "split!" instead of "split". It applies safe
  1238     introduction and elimination rules after each split rule. As a
  1239     result the subgoal may be split into several subgoals.
  1240 
  1241 * Command 'bundle' provides a local theory target to define a bundle
  1242 from the body of specification commands (such as 'declare',
  1243 'declaration', 'notation', 'lemmas', 'lemma'). For example:
  1244 
  1245 bundle foo
  1246 begin
  1247   declare a [simp]
  1248   declare b [intro]
  1249 end
  1250 
  1251 * Command 'unbundle' is like 'include', but works within a local theory
  1252 context. Unlike "context includes ... begin", the effect of 'unbundle'
  1253 on the target context persists, until different declarations are given.
  1254 
  1255 * Simplified outer syntax: uniform category "name" includes long
  1256 identifiers. Former "xname" / "nameref" / "name reference" has been
  1257 discontinued.
  1258 
  1259 * Embedded content (e.g. the inner syntax of types, terms, props) may be
  1260 delimited uniformly via cartouches. This works better than old-fashioned
  1261 quotes when sub-languages are nested.
  1262 
  1263 * Mixfix annotations support general block properties, with syntax
  1264 "(\<open>x=a y=b z \<dots>\<close>". Notable property names are "indent", "consistent",
  1265 "unbreakable", "markup". The existing notation "(DIGITS" is equivalent
  1266 to "(\<open>indent=DIGITS\<close>". The former notation "(00" for unbreakable blocks
  1267 is superseded by "(\<open>unbreabable\<close>" --- rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1268 
  1269 * Proof method "blast" is more robust wrt. corner cases of Pure
  1270 statements without object-logic judgment.
  1271 
  1272 * Commands 'prf' and 'full_prf' are somewhat more informative (again):
  1273 proof terms are reconstructed and cleaned from administrative thm nodes.
  1274 
  1275 * Code generator: config option "code_timing" triggers measurements of
  1276 different phases of code generation. See src/HOL/ex/Code_Timing.thy for
  1277 examples.
  1278 
  1279 * Code generator: implicits in Scala (stemming from type class
  1280 instances) are generated into companion object of corresponding type
  1281 class, to resolve some situations where ambiguities may occur.
  1282 
  1283 * Solve direct: option "solve_direct_strict_warnings" gives explicit
  1284 warnings for lemma statements with trivial proofs.
  1285 
  1286 
  1287 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1288 
  1289 * More aggressive flushing of machine-generated input, according to
  1290 system option editor_generated_input_delay (in addition to existing
  1291 editor_input_delay for regular user edits). This may affect overall PIDE
  1292 reactivity and CPU usage.
  1293 
  1294 * Syntactic indentation according to Isabelle outer syntax. Action
  1295 "indent-lines" (shortcut C+i) indents the current line according to
  1296 command keywords and some command substructure. Action
  1297 "isabelle.newline" (shortcut ENTER) indents the old and the new line
  1298 according to command keywords only; see also option
  1299 "jedit_indent_newline".
  1300 
  1301 * Semantic indentation for unstructured proof scripts ('apply' etc.) via
  1302 number of subgoals. This requires information of ongoing document
  1303 processing and may thus lag behind, when the user is editing too
  1304 quickly; see also option "jedit_script_indent" and
  1305 "jedit_script_indent_limit".
  1306 
  1307 * Refined folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax: 'next' and 'qed'
  1308 are treated as delimiters for fold structure; 'begin' and 'end'
  1309 structure of theory specifications is treated as well.
  1310 
  1311 * Command 'proof' provides information about proof outline with cases,
  1312 e.g. for proof methods "cases", "induct", "goal_cases".
  1313 
  1314 * Completion templates for commands involving "begin ... end" blocks,
  1315 e.g. 'context', 'notepad'.
  1316 
  1317 * Sidekick parser "isabelle-context" shows nesting of context blocks
  1318 according to 'begin' and 'end' structure.
  1319 
  1320 * Highlighting of entity def/ref positions wrt. cursor.
  1321 
  1322 * Action "isabelle.select-entity" (shortcut CS+ENTER) selects all
  1323 occurrences of the formal entity at the caret position. This facilitates
  1324 systematic renaming.
  1325 
  1326 * PIDE document markup works across multiple Isar commands, e.g. the
  1327 results established at the end of a proof are properly identified in the
  1328 theorem statement.
  1329 
  1330 * Cartouche abbreviations work both for " and ` to accomodate typical
  1331 situations where old ASCII notation may be updated.
  1332 
  1333 * Dockable window "Symbols" also provides access to 'abbrevs' from the
  1334 outer syntax of the current theory buffer. This provides clickable
  1335 syntax templates, including entries with empty abbrevs name (which are
  1336 inaccessible via keyboard completion).
  1337 
  1338 * IDE support for the Isabelle/Pure bootstrap process, with the
  1339 following independent stages:
  1340 
  1341   src/Pure/ROOT0.ML
  1342   src/Pure/ROOT.ML
  1343   src/Pure/Pure.thy
  1344   src/Pure/ML_Bootstrap.thy
  1345 
  1346 The ML ROOT files act like quasi-theories in the context of theory
  1347 ML_Bootstrap: this allows continuous checking of all loaded ML files.
  1348 The theory files are presented with a modified header to import Pure
  1349 from the running Isabelle instance. Results from changed versions of
  1350 each stage are *not* propagated to the next stage, and isolated from the
  1351 actual Isabelle/Pure that runs the IDE itself. The sequential
  1352 dependencies of the above files are only observed for batch build.
  1353 
  1354 * Isabelle/ML and Standard ML files are presented in Sidekick with the
  1355 tree structure of section headings: this special comment format is
  1356 described in "implementation" chapter 0, e.g. (*** section ***).
  1357 
  1358 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified
  1359 within the theory header as 'abbrevs'. The theory syntax for 'keywords'
  1360 has been simplified accordingly: optional abbrevs need to go into the
  1361 new 'abbrevs' section.
  1362 
  1363 * Global abbreviations via $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and
  1364 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs are no longer supported. Minor
  1365 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'abbrevs' within theory header instead.
  1366 
  1367 * Action "isabelle.keymap-merge" asks the user to resolve pending
  1368 Isabelle keymap changes that are in conflict with the current jEdit
  1369 keymap; non-conflicting changes are always applied implicitly. This
  1370 action is automatically invoked on Isabelle/jEdit startup and thus
  1371 increases chances that users see new keyboard shortcuts when re-using
  1372 old keymaps.
  1373 
  1374 * ML and document antiquotations for file-systems paths are more uniform
  1375 and diverse:
  1376 
  1377   @{path NAME}   -- no file-system check
  1378   @{file NAME}   -- check for plain file
  1379   @{dir NAME}    -- check for directory
  1380 
  1381 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, former uses of @{file} and @{file_unchecked} may
  1382 have to be changed.
  1383 
  1384 
  1385 *** Document preparation ***
  1386 
  1387 * New symbol \<circle>, e.g. for temporal operator.
  1388 
  1389 * New document and ML antiquotation @{locale} for locales, similar to
  1390 existing antiquotation @{class}.
  1391 
  1392 * Mixfix annotations support delimiters like \<^control>\<open>cartouche\<close> --
  1393 this allows special forms of document output.
  1394 
  1395 * Raw LaTeX output now works via \<^latex>\<open>...\<close> instead of raw control
  1396 symbol \<^raw:...>. INCOMPATIBILITY, notably for LaTeXsugar.thy and its
  1397 derivatives.
  1398 
  1399 * \<^raw:...> symbols are no longer supported.
  1400 
  1401 * Old 'header' command is no longer supported (legacy since
  1402 Isabelle2015).
  1403 
  1404 
  1405 *** Isar ***
  1406 
  1407 * Many specification elements support structured statements with 'if' /
  1408 'for' eigen-context, e.g. 'axiomatization', 'abbreviation',
  1409 'definition', 'inductive', 'function'.
  1410 
  1411 * Toplevel theorem statements support eigen-context notation with 'if' /
  1412 'for' (in postfix), which corresponds to 'assumes' / 'fixes' in the
  1413 traditional long statement form (in prefix). Local premises are called
  1414 "that" or "assms", respectively. Empty premises are *not* bound in the
  1415 context: INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1416 
  1417 * Command 'define' introduces a local (non-polymorphic) definition, with
  1418 optional abstraction over local parameters. The syntax resembles
  1419 'definition' and 'obtain'. It fits better into the Isar language than
  1420 old 'def', which is now a legacy feature.
  1421 
  1422 * Command 'obtain' supports structured statements with 'if' / 'for'
  1423 context.
  1424 
  1425 * Command '\<proof>' is an alias for 'sorry', with different
  1426 typesetting. E.g. to produce proof holes in examples and documentation.
  1427 
  1428 * The defining position of a literal fact \<open>prop\<close> is maintained more
  1429 carefully, and made accessible as hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
  1430 
  1431 * Commands 'finally' and 'ultimately' used to expose the result as
  1432 literal fact: this accidental behaviour has been discontinued. Rare
  1433 INCOMPATIBILITY, use more explicit means to refer to facts in Isar.
  1434 
  1435 * Command 'axiomatization' has become more restrictive to correspond
  1436 better to internal axioms as singleton facts with mandatory name. Minor
  1437 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1438 
  1439 * Proof methods may refer to the main facts via the dynamic fact
  1440 "method_facts". This is particularly useful for Eisbach method
  1441 definitions.
  1442 
  1443 * Proof method "use" allows to modify the main facts of a given method
  1444 expression, e.g.
  1445 
  1446   (use facts in simp)
  1447   (use facts in \<open>simp add: ...\<close>)
  1448 
  1449 * The old proof method "default" has been removed (legacy since
  1450 Isabelle2016). INCOMPATIBILITY, use "standard" instead.
  1451 
  1452 
  1453 *** Pure ***
  1454 
  1455 * Pure provides basic versions of proof methods "simp" and "simp_all"
  1456 that only know about meta-equality (==). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in
  1457 theory imports that merge Pure with e.g. Main of Isabelle/HOL: the order
  1458 is relevant to avoid confusion of Pure.simp vs. HOL.simp.
  1459 
  1460 * The command 'unfolding' and proof method "unfold" include a second
  1461 stage where given equations are passed through the attribute "abs_def"
  1462 before rewriting. This ensures that definitions are fully expanded,
  1463 regardless of the actual parameters that are provided. Rare
  1464 INCOMPATIBILITY in some corner cases: use proof method (simp only:)
  1465 instead, or declare [[unfold_abs_def = false]] in the proof context.
  1466 
  1467 * Type-inference improves sorts of newly introduced type variables for
  1468 the object-logic, using its base sort (i.e. HOL.type for Isabelle/HOL).
  1469 Thus terms like "f x" or "\<And>x. P x" without any further syntactic context
  1470 produce x::'a::type in HOL instead of x::'a::{} in Pure. Rare
  1471 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide explicit type constraints for Pure
  1472 types where this is really intended.
  1473 
  1474 
  1475 *** HOL ***
  1476 
  1477 * New proof method "argo" using the built-in Argo solver based on SMT
  1478 technology. The method can be used to prove goals of quantifier-free
  1479 propositional logic, goals based on a combination of quantifier-free
  1480 propositional logic with equality, and goals based on a combination of
  1481 quantifier-free propositional logic with linear real arithmetic
  1482 including min/max/abs. See HOL/ex/Argo_Examples.thy for examples.
  1483 
  1484 * The new "nunchaku" command integrates the Nunchaku model finder. The
  1485 tool is experimental. See ~~/src/HOL/Nunchaku/Nunchaku.thy for details.
  1486 
  1487 * Metis: The problem encoding has changed very slightly. This might
  1488 break existing proofs. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1489 
  1490 * Sledgehammer:
  1491   - The MaSh relevance filter is now faster than before.
  1492   - Produce syntactically correct Vampire 4.0 problem files.
  1493 
  1494 * (Co)datatype package:
  1495   - New commands for defining corecursive functions and reasoning about
  1496     them in "~~/src/HOL/Library/BNF_Corec.thy": 'corec', 'corecursive',
  1497     'friend_of_corec', and 'corecursion_upto'; and 'corec_unique' proof
  1498     method. See 'isabelle doc corec'.
  1499   - The predicator :: ('a \<Rightarrow> bool) \<Rightarrow> 'a F \<Rightarrow> bool is now a first-class
  1500     citizen in bounded natural functors.
  1501   - 'primrec' now allows nested calls through the predicator in addition
  1502     to the map function.
  1503   - 'bnf' automatically discharges reflexive proof obligations.
  1504   - 'bnf' outputs a slightly modified proof obligation expressing rel in
  1505        terms of map and set
  1506        (not giving a specification for rel makes this one reflexive).
  1507   - 'bnf' outputs a new proof obligation expressing pred in terms of set
  1508        (not giving a specification for pred makes this one reflexive).
  1509     INCOMPATIBILITY: manual 'bnf' declarations may need adjustment.
  1510   - Renamed lemmas:
  1511       rel_prod_apply ~> rel_prod_inject
  1512       pred_prod_apply ~> pred_prod_inject
  1513     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1514   - The "size" plugin has been made compatible again with locales.
  1515   - The theorems about "rel" and "set" may have a slightly different (but
  1516     equivalent) form.
  1517     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1518 
  1519 * The 'coinductive' command produces a proper coinduction rule for
  1520 mutual coinductive predicates. This new rule replaces the old rule,
  1521 which exposed details of the internal fixpoint construction and was
  1522 hard to use. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1523 
  1524 * New abbreviations for negated existence (but not bounded existence):
  1525 
  1526   \<nexists>x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>x. P x)
  1527   \<nexists>!x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>!x. P x)
  1528 
  1529 * The print mode "HOL" for ASCII syntax of binders "!", "?", "?!", "@"
  1530 has been removed for output. It is retained for input only, until it is
  1531 eliminated altogether.
  1532 
  1533 * The unique existence quantifier no longer provides 'binder' syntax,
  1534 but uses syntax translations (as for bounded unique existence). Thus
  1535 iterated quantification \<exists>!x y. P x y with its slightly confusing
  1536 sequential meaning \<exists>!x. \<exists>!y. P x y is no longer possible. Instead,
  1537 pattern abstraction admits simultaneous unique existence \<exists>!(x, y). P x y
  1538 (analogous to existing notation \<exists>!(x, y)\<in>A. P x y). Potential
  1539 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.
  1540 
  1541 * Conventional syntax "%(). t" for unit abstractions. Slight syntactic
  1542 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1543 
  1544 * Renamed constants and corresponding theorems:
  1545 
  1546     setsum ~> sum
  1547     setprod ~> prod
  1548     listsum ~> sum_list
  1549     listprod ~> prod_list
  1550 
  1551 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1552 
  1553 * Sligthly more standardized theorem names:
  1554     sgn_times ~> sgn_mult
  1555     sgn_mult' ~> Real_Vector_Spaces.sgn_mult
  1556     divide_zero_left ~> div_0
  1557     zero_mod_left ~> mod_0
  1558     divide_zero ~> div_by_0
  1559     divide_1 ~> div_by_1
  1560     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_left ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
  1561     div_mult_self1_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
  1562     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_right ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
  1563     div_mult_self2_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
  1564     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_left ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_left
  1565     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_right ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_right
  1566     mod_div_equality ~> div_mult_mod_eq
  1567     mod_div_equality2 ~> mult_div_mod_eq
  1568     mod_div_equality3 ~> mod_div_mult_eq
  1569     mod_div_equality4 ~> mod_mult_div_eq
  1570     minus_div_eq_mod ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod
  1571     minus_div_eq_mod2 ~> minus_mult_div_eq_mod
  1572     minus_mod_eq_div ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult
  1573     minus_mod_eq_div2 ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div
  1574     div_mod_equality' ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult [symmetric]
  1575     mod_div_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
  1576     zmod_zdiv_equality ~> mult_div_mod_eq [symmetric]
  1577     zmod_zdiv_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
  1578     Divides.mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1579     mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1580     zmult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1581     div_1 ~> div_by_Suc_0
  1582     mod_1 ~> mod_by_Suc_0
  1583 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1584 
  1585 * New type class "idom_abs_sgn" specifies algebraic properties
  1586 of sign and absolute value functions.  Type class "sgn_if" has
  1587 disappeared.  Slight INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1588 
  1589 * Dedicated syntax LENGTH('a) for length of types.
  1590 
  1591 * Characters (type char) are modelled as finite algebraic type
  1592 corresponding to {0..255}.
  1593 
  1594   - Logical representation:
  1595     * 0 is instantiated to the ASCII zero character.
  1596     * All other characters are represented as "Char n"
  1597       with n being a raw numeral expression less than 256.
  1598     * Expressions of the form "Char n" with n greater than 255
  1599       are non-canonical.
  1600   - Printing and parsing:
  1601     * Printable characters are printed and parsed as "CHR ''\<dots>''"
  1602       (as before).
  1603     * The ASCII zero character is printed and parsed as "0".
  1604     * All other canonical characters are printed as "CHR 0xXX"
  1605       with XX being the hexadecimal character code.  "CHR n"
  1606       is parsable for every numeral expression n.
  1607     * Non-canonical characters have no special syntax and are
  1608       printed as their logical representation.
  1609   - Explicit conversions from and to the natural numbers are
  1610     provided as char_of_nat, nat_of_char (as before).
  1611   - The auxiliary nibble type has been discontinued.
  1612 
  1613 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1614 
  1615 * Type class "div" with operation "mod" renamed to type class "modulo"
  1616 with operation "modulo", analogously to type class "divide". This
  1617 eliminates the need to qualify any of those names in the presence of
  1618 infix "mod" syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1619 
  1620 * Statements and proofs of Knaster-Tarski fixpoint combinators lfp/gfp
  1621 have been clarified. The fixpoint properties are lfp_fixpoint, its
  1622 symmetric lfp_unfold (as before), and the duals for gfp. Auxiliary items
  1623 for the proof (lfp_lemma2 etc.) are no longer exported, but can be
  1624 easily recovered by composition with eq_refl. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1625 
  1626 * Constant "surj" is a mere input abbreviation, to avoid hiding an
  1627 equation in term output. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1628 
  1629 * Command 'code_reflect' accepts empty constructor lists for datatypes,
  1630 which renders those abstract effectively.
  1631 
  1632 * Command 'export_code' checks given constants for abstraction
  1633 violations: a small guarantee that given constants specify a safe
  1634 interface for the generated code.
  1635 
  1636 * Code generation for Scala: ambiguous implicts in class diagrams are
  1637 spelt out explicitly.
  1638 
  1639 * Static evaluators (Code_Evaluation.static_* in Isabelle/ML) rely on
  1640 explicitly provided auxiliary definitions for required type class
  1641 dictionaries rather than half-working magic. INCOMPATIBILITY, see the
  1642 tutorial on code generation for details.
  1643 
  1644 * Theory Set_Interval: substantial new theorems on indexed sums and
  1645 products.
  1646 
  1647 * Locale bijection establishes convenient default simp rules such as
  1648 "inv f (f a) = a" for total bijections.
  1649 
  1650 * Abstract locales semigroup, abel_semigroup, semilattice,
  1651 semilattice_neutr, ordering, ordering_top, semilattice_order,
  1652 semilattice_neutr_order, comm_monoid_set, semilattice_set,
  1653 semilattice_neutr_set, semilattice_order_set,
  1654 semilattice_order_neutr_set monoid_list, comm_monoid_list,
  1655 comm_monoid_list_set, comm_monoid_mset, comm_monoid_fun use boldified
  1656 syntax uniformly that does not clash with corresponding global syntax.
  1657 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1658 
  1659 * Former locale lifting_syntax is now a bundle, which is easier to
  1660 include in a local context or theorem statement, e.g. "context includes
  1661 lifting_syntax begin ... end". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1662 
  1663 * Some old / obsolete theorems have been renamed / removed, potential
  1664 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1665 
  1666   nat_less_cases  --  removed, use linorder_cases instead
  1667   inv_image_comp  --  removed, use image_inv_f_f instead
  1668   image_surj_f_inv_f  ~>  image_f_inv_f
  1669 
  1670 * Some theorems about groups and orders have been generalised from
  1671   groups to semi-groups that are also monoids:
  1672     le_add_same_cancel1
  1673     le_add_same_cancel2
  1674     less_add_same_cancel1
  1675     less_add_same_cancel2
  1676     add_le_same_cancel1
  1677     add_le_same_cancel2
  1678     add_less_same_cancel1
  1679     add_less_same_cancel2
  1680 
  1681 * Some simplifications theorems about rings have been removed, since
  1682   superseeded by a more general version:
  1683     less_add_cancel_left_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel1
  1684     less_add_cancel_right_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel2
  1685     less_eq_add_cancel_left_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel1
  1686     less_eq_add_cancel_right_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel2
  1687     less_eq_add_cancel_left_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel1
  1688     less_eq_add_cancel_right_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel2
  1689     less_add_cancel_left_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel1
  1690     less_add_cancel_right_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel2
  1691 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1692 
  1693 * Renamed split_if -> if_split and split_if_asm -> if_split_asm to
  1694 resemble the f.split naming convention, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1695 
  1696 * Added class topological_monoid.
  1697 
  1698 * The following theorems have been renamed:
  1699 
  1700   setsum_left_distrib ~> sum_distrib_right
  1701   setsum_right_distrib ~> sum_distrib_left
  1702 
  1703 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1704 
  1705 * Compound constants INFIMUM and SUPREMUM are mere abbreviations now.
  1706 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1707 
  1708 * "Gcd (f ` A)" and "Lcm (f ` A)" are printed with optional
  1709 comprehension-like syntax analogously to "Inf (f ` A)" and "Sup (f `
  1710 A)".
  1711 
  1712 * Class semiring_Lcd merged into semiring_Gcd. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1713 
  1714 * The type class ordered_comm_monoid_add is now called
  1715 ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add. A new type class ordered_comm_monoid_add
  1716 is introduced as the combination of ordered_ab_semigroup_add +
  1717 comm_monoid_add. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1718 
  1719 * Introduced the type classes canonically_ordered_comm_monoid_add and
  1720 dioid.
  1721 
  1722 * Introduced the type class ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. When
  1723 instantiating linordered_semiring_strict and ordered_ab_group_add, an
  1724 explicit instantiation of ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le might
  1725 be required. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1726 
  1727 * Dropped various legacy fact bindings, whose replacements are often
  1728 of a more general type also:
  1729   lcm_left_commute_nat ~> lcm.left_commute
  1730   lcm_left_commute_int ~> lcm.left_commute
  1731   gcd_left_commute_nat ~> gcd.left_commute
  1732   gcd_left_commute_int ~> gcd.left_commute
  1733   gcd_greatest_iff_nat ~> gcd_greatest_iff
  1734   gcd_greatest_iff_int ~> gcd_greatest_iff
  1735   coprime_dvd_mult_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult
  1736   coprime_dvd_mult_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult
  1737   zpower_numeral_even ~> power_numeral_even
  1738   gcd_mult_cancel_nat ~> gcd_mult_cancel
  1739   gcd_mult_cancel_int ~> gcd_mult_cancel
  1740   div_gcd_coprime_nat ~> div_gcd_coprime
  1741   div_gcd_coprime_int ~> div_gcd_coprime
  1742   zpower_numeral_odd ~> power_numeral_odd
  1743   zero_less_int_conv ~> of_nat_0_less_iff
  1744   gcd_greatest_nat ~> gcd_greatest
  1745   gcd_greatest_int ~> gcd_greatest
  1746   coprime_mult_nat ~> coprime_mult
  1747   coprime_mult_int ~> coprime_mult
  1748   lcm_commute_nat ~> lcm.commute
  1749   lcm_commute_int ~> lcm.commute
  1750   int_less_0_conv ~> of_nat_less_0_iff
  1751   gcd_commute_nat ~> gcd.commute
  1752   gcd_commute_int ~> gcd.commute
  1753   Gcd_insert_nat ~> Gcd_insert
  1754   Gcd_insert_int ~> Gcd_insert
  1755   of_int_int_eq ~> of_int_of_nat_eq
  1756   lcm_least_nat ~> lcm_least
  1757   lcm_least_int ~> lcm_least
  1758   lcm_assoc_nat ~> lcm.assoc
  1759   lcm_assoc_int ~> lcm.assoc
  1760   int_le_0_conv ~> of_nat_le_0_iff
  1761   int_eq_0_conv ~> of_nat_eq_0_iff
  1762   Gcd_empty_nat ~> Gcd_empty
  1763   Gcd_empty_int ~> Gcd_empty
  1764   gcd_assoc_nat ~> gcd.assoc
  1765   gcd_assoc_int ~> gcd.assoc
  1766   zero_zle_int ~> of_nat_0_le_iff
  1767   lcm_dvd2_nat ~> dvd_lcm2
  1768   lcm_dvd2_int ~> dvd_lcm2
  1769   lcm_dvd1_nat ~> dvd_lcm1
  1770   lcm_dvd1_int ~> dvd_lcm1
  1771   gcd_zero_nat ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
  1772   gcd_zero_int ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
  1773   gcd_dvd2_nat ~> gcd_dvd2
  1774   gcd_dvd2_int ~> gcd_dvd2
  1775   gcd_dvd1_nat ~> gcd_dvd1
  1776   gcd_dvd1_int ~> gcd_dvd1
  1777   int_numeral ~> of_nat_numeral
  1778   lcm_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
  1779   lcm_ac_int ~> ac_simps
  1780   gcd_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
  1781   gcd_ac_int ~> ac_simps
  1782   abs_int_eq ~> abs_of_nat
  1783   zless_int ~> of_nat_less_iff
  1784   zdiff_int ~> of_nat_diff
  1785   zadd_int ~> of_nat_add
  1786   int_mult ~> of_nat_mult
  1787   int_Suc ~> of_nat_Suc
  1788   inj_int ~> inj_of_nat
  1789   int_1 ~> of_nat_1
  1790   int_0 ~> of_nat_0
  1791   Lcm_empty_nat ~> Lcm_empty
  1792   Lcm_empty_int ~> Lcm_empty
  1793   Lcm_insert_nat ~> Lcm_insert
  1794   Lcm_insert_int ~> Lcm_insert
  1795   comp_fun_idem_gcd_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
  1796   comp_fun_idem_gcd_int ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
  1797   comp_fun_idem_lcm_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
  1798   comp_fun_idem_lcm_int ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
  1799   Lcm_eq_0 ~> Lcm_eq_0_I
  1800   Lcm0_iff ~> Lcm_0_iff
  1801   Lcm_dvd_int ~> Lcm_least
  1802   divides_mult_nat ~> divides_mult
  1803   divides_mult_int ~> divides_mult
  1804   lcm_0_nat ~> lcm_0_right
  1805   lcm_0_int ~> lcm_0_right
  1806   lcm_0_left_nat ~> lcm_0_left
  1807   lcm_0_left_int ~> lcm_0_left
  1808   dvd_gcd_D1_nat ~> dvd_gcdD1
  1809   dvd_gcd_D1_int ~> dvd_gcdD1
  1810   dvd_gcd_D2_nat ~> dvd_gcdD2
  1811   dvd_gcd_D2_int ~> dvd_gcdD2
  1812   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
  1813   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
  1814   realpow_minus_mult ~> power_minus_mult
  1815   realpow_Suc_le_self ~> power_Suc_le_self
  1816   dvd_Gcd, dvd_Gcd_nat, dvd_Gcd_int removed in favour of Gcd_greatest
  1817 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1818 
  1819 * Renamed HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy to
  1820 HOL/Quotient_Examples/Quotient_FSet.thy INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1821 
  1822 * Session HOL-Library: theory FinFun bundles "finfun_syntax" and
  1823 "no_finfun_syntax" allow to control optional syntax in local contexts;
  1824 this supersedes former theory FinFun_Syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, e.g. use
  1825 "unbundle finfun_syntax" to imitate import of
  1826 "~~/src/HOL/Library/FinFun_Syntax".
  1827 
  1828 * Session HOL-Library: theory Multiset_Permutations (executably) defines
  1829 the set of permutations of a given set or multiset, i.e. the set of all
  1830 lists that contain every element of the carrier (multi-)set exactly
  1831 once.
  1832 
  1833 * Session HOL-Library: multiset membership is now expressed using
  1834 set_mset rather than count.
  1835 
  1836   - Expressions "count M a > 0" and similar simplify to membership
  1837     by default.
  1838 
  1839   - Converting between "count M a = 0" and non-membership happens using
  1840     equations count_eq_zero_iff and not_in_iff.
  1841 
  1842   - Rules count_inI and in_countE obtain facts of the form
  1843     "count M a = n" from membership.
  1844 
  1845   - Rules count_in_diffI and in_diff_countE obtain facts of the form
  1846     "count M a = n + count N a" from membership on difference sets.
  1847 
  1848 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1849 
  1850 * Session HOL-Library: theory LaTeXsugar uses new-style "dummy_pats" for
  1851 displaying equations in functional programming style --- variables
  1852 present on the left-hand but not on the righ-hand side are replaced by
  1853 underscores.
  1854 
  1855 * Session HOL-Library: theory Combinator_PER provides combinator to
  1856 build partial equivalence relations from a predicate and an equivalence
  1857 relation.
  1858 
  1859 * Session HOL-Library: theory Perm provides basic facts about almost
  1860 everywhere fix bijections.
  1861 
  1862 * Session HOL-Library: theory Normalized_Fraction allows viewing an
  1863 element of a field of fractions as a normalized fraction (i.e. a pair of
  1864 numerator and denominator such that the two are coprime and the
  1865 denominator is normalized wrt. unit factors).
  1866 
  1867 * Session HOL-NSA has been renamed to HOL-Nonstandard_Analysis.
  1868 
  1869 * Session HOL-Multivariate_Analysis has been renamed to HOL-Analysis.
  1870 
  1871 * Session HOL-Analysis: measure theory has been moved here from
  1872 HOL-Probability. When importing HOL-Analysis some theorems need
  1873 additional name spaces prefixes due to name clashes. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1874 
  1875 * Session HOL-Analysis: more complex analysis including Cauchy's
  1876 inequality, Liouville theorem, open mapping theorem, maximum modulus
  1877 principle, Residue theorem, Schwarz Lemma.
  1878 
  1879 * Session HOL-Analysis: Theory of polyhedra: faces, extreme points,
  1880 polytopes, and the Krein–Milman Minkowski theorem.
  1881 
  1882 * Session HOL-Analysis: Numerous results ported from the HOL Light
  1883 libraries: homeomorphisms, continuous function extensions, invariance of
  1884 domain.
  1885 
  1886 * Session HOL-Probability: the type of emeasure and nn_integral was
  1887 changed from ereal to ennreal, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1888 
  1889   emeasure :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> ennreal
  1890   nn_integral :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> ennreal) \<Rightarrow> ennreal
  1891 
  1892 * Session HOL-Probability: Code generation and QuickCheck for
  1893 Probability Mass Functions.
  1894 
  1895 * Session HOL-Probability: theory Random_Permutations contains some
  1896 theory about choosing a permutation of a set uniformly at random and
  1897 folding over a list in random order.
  1898 
  1899 * Session HOL-Probability: theory SPMF formalises discrete
  1900 subprobability distributions.
  1901 
  1902 * Session HOL-Library: the names of multiset theorems have been
  1903 normalised to distinguish which ordering the theorems are about
  1904 
  1905     mset_less_eqI ~> mset_subset_eqI
  1906     mset_less_insertD ~> mset_subset_insertD
  1907     mset_less_eq_count ~> mset_subset_eq_count
  1908     mset_less_diff_self ~> mset_subset_diff_self
  1909     mset_le_exists_conv ~> mset_subset_eq_exists_conv
  1910     mset_le_mono_add_right_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel
  1911     mset_le_mono_add_left_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel
  1912     mset_le_mono_add ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add
  1913     mset_le_add_left ~> mset_subset_eq_add_left
  1914     mset_le_add_right ~> mset_subset_eq_add_right
  1915     mset_le_single ~> mset_subset_eq_single
  1916     mset_le_multiset_union_diff_commute ~> mset_subset_eq_multiset_union_diff_commute
  1917     diff_le_self ~> diff_subset_eq_self
  1918     mset_leD ~> mset_subset_eqD
  1919     mset_lessD ~> mset_subsetD
  1920     mset_le_insertD ~> mset_subset_eq_insertD
  1921     mset_less_of_empty ~> mset_subset_of_empty
  1922     mset_less_size ~> mset_subset_size
  1923     wf_less_mset_rel ~> wf_subset_mset_rel
  1924     count_le_replicate_mset_le ~> count_le_replicate_mset_subset_eq
  1925     mset_remdups_le ~> mset_remdups_subset_eq
  1926     ms_lesseq_impl ~> subset_eq_mset_impl
  1927 
  1928 Some functions have been renamed:
  1929     ms_lesseq_impl -> subset_eq_mset_impl
  1930 
  1931 * HOL-Library: multisets are now ordered with the multiset ordering
  1932     #\<subseteq># ~> \<le>
  1933     #\<subset># ~> <
  1934     le_multiset ~> less_eq_multiset
  1935     less_multiset ~> le_multiset
  1936 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1937 
  1938 * Session HOL-Library: the prefix multiset_order has been discontinued:
  1939 the theorems can be directly accessed. As a consequence, the lemmas
  1940 "order_multiset" and "linorder_multiset" have been discontinued, and the
  1941 interpretations "multiset_linorder" and "multiset_wellorder" have been
  1942 replaced by instantiations. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1943 
  1944 * Session HOL-Library: some theorems about the multiset ordering have
  1945 been renamed:
  1946 
  1947     le_multiset_def ~> less_eq_multiset_def
  1948     less_multiset_def ~> le_multiset_def
  1949     less_eq_imp_le_multiset ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
  1950     mult_less_not_refl ~> mset_le_not_refl
  1951     mult_less_trans ~> mset_le_trans
  1952     mult_less_not_sym ~> mset_le_not_sym
  1953     mult_less_asym ~> mset_le_asym
  1954     mult_less_irrefl ~> mset_le_irrefl
  1955     union_less_mono2{,1,2} ~> union_le_mono2{,1,2}
  1956 
  1957     le_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O ~> less_eq_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O
  1958     le_multiset_total ~> less_eq_multiset_total
  1959     less_multiset_right_total ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
  1960     le_multiset_empty_left ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_left
  1961     le_multiset_empty_right ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_right
  1962     less_multiset_empty_right ~> le_multiset_empty_left
  1963     less_multiset_empty_left ~> le_multiset_empty_right
  1964     union_less_diff_plus ~> union_le_diff_plus
  1965     ex_gt_count_imp_less_multiset ~> ex_gt_count_imp_le_multiset
  1966     less_multiset_plus_left_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_left_nonempty
  1967     le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty
  1968 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1969 
  1970 * Session HOL-Library: the lemma mset_map has now the attribute [simp].
  1971 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1972 
  1973 * Session HOL-Library: some theorems about multisets have been removed.
  1974 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the following replacements:
  1975 
  1976     le_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
  1977     less_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
  1978     le_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
  1979     less_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
  1980     add_eq_self_empty_iff ~> add_cancel_left_right
  1981     mset_subset_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  1982     mset_less_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  1983     mset_le_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  1984     empty_inter ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_left
  1985     inter_empty ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_right
  1986     empty_sup ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_left
  1987     sup_empty ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_right
  1988     bdd_below_multiset ~> subset_mset.bdd_above_bot
  1989     subset_eq_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
  1990     le_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
  1991     mset_subset_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
  1992     mset_less_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
  1993 
  1994 * Session HOL-Library: some typeclass constraints about multisets have
  1995 been reduced from ordered or linordered to preorder. Multisets have the
  1996 additional typeclasses order_bot, no_top,
  1997 ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le, ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add,
  1998 linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add, and
  1999 ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2000 
  2001 * Session HOL-Library: there are some new simplification rules about
  2002 multisets, the multiset ordering, and the subset ordering on multisets.
  2003 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2004 
  2005 * Session HOL-Library: the subset ordering on multisets has now the
  2006 interpretations ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le and
  2007 bounded_lattice_bot. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2008 
  2009 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: single has been removed in favor
  2010 of add_mset that roughly corresponds to Set.insert. Some theorems have
  2011 removed or changed:
  2012 
  2013   single_not_empty ~> add_mset_not_empty or empty_not_add_mset
  2014   fold_mset_insert ~> fold_mset_add_mset
  2015   image_mset_insert ~> image_mset_add_mset
  2016   union_single_eq_diff
  2017   multi_self_add_other_not_self
  2018   diff_single_eq_union
  2019 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2020 
  2021 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: some theorems have been changed
  2022 to use add_mset instead of single:
  2023 
  2024   mset_add
  2025   multi_self_add_other_not_self
  2026   diff_single_eq_union
  2027   union_single_eq_diff
  2028   union_single_eq_member
  2029   add_eq_conv_diff
  2030   insert_noteq_member
  2031   add_eq_conv_ex
  2032   multi_member_split
  2033   multiset_add_sub_el_shuffle
  2034   mset_subset_eq_insertD
  2035   mset_subset_insertD
  2036   insert_subset_eq_iff
  2037   insert_union_subset_iff
  2038   multi_psub_of_add_self
  2039   inter_add_left1
  2040   inter_add_left2
  2041   inter_add_right1
  2042   inter_add_right2
  2043   sup_union_left1
  2044   sup_union_left2
  2045   sup_union_right1
  2046   sup_union_right2
  2047   size_eq_Suc_imp_eq_union
  2048   multi_nonempty_split
  2049   mset_insort
  2050   mset_update
  2051   mult1I
  2052   less_add
  2053   mset_zip_take_Cons_drop_twice
  2054   rel_mset_Zero
  2055   msed_map_invL
  2056   msed_map_invR
  2057   msed_rel_invL
  2058   msed_rel_invR
  2059   le_multiset_right_total
  2060   multiset_induct
  2061   multiset_induct2_size
  2062   multiset_induct2
  2063 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2064 
  2065 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the definitions of some
  2066 constants have changed to use add_mset instead of adding a single
  2067 element:
  2068 
  2069   image_mset
  2070   mset
  2071   replicate_mset
  2072   mult1
  2073   pred_mset
  2074   rel_mset'
  2075   mset_insort
  2076 
  2077 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2078 
  2079 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: due to the above changes, the
  2080 attributes of some multiset theorems have been changed:
  2081 
  2082   insert_DiffM  [] ~> [simp]
  2083   insert_DiffM2 [simp] ~> []
  2084   diff_add_mset_swap [simp]
  2085   fold_mset_add_mset [simp]
  2086   diff_diff_add [simp] (for multisets only)
  2087   diff_cancel [simp] ~> []
  2088   count_single [simp] ~> []
  2089   set_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  2090   size_multiset_single [simp] ~> []
  2091   size_single [simp] ~> []
  2092   image_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  2093   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel [simp] ~> []
  2094   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel [simp] ~> []
  2095   fold_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  2096   subset_eq_empty [simp] ~> []
  2097   empty_sup [simp] ~> []
  2098   sup_empty [simp] ~> []
  2099   inter_empty [simp] ~> []
  2100   empty_inter [simp] ~> []
  2101 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2102 
  2103 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the order of the variables in
  2104 the second cases of multiset_induct, multiset_induct2_size,
  2105 multiset_induct2 has been changed (e.g. Add A a ~> Add a A).
  2106 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2107 
  2108 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: there is now a simplification
  2109 procedure on multisets. It mimics the behavior of the procedure on
  2110 natural numbers. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2111 
  2112 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: renamed sums and products of
  2113 multisets:
  2114 
  2115   msetsum ~> sum_mset
  2116   msetprod ~> prod_mset
  2117 
  2118 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the notation for intersection
  2119 and union of multisets have been changed:
  2120 
  2121   #\<inter> ~> \<inter>#
  2122   #\<union> ~> \<union>#
  2123 
  2124 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2125 
  2126 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the lemma
  2127 one_step_implies_mult_aux on multisets has been removed, use
  2128 one_step_implies_mult instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2129 
  2130 * Session HOL-Library: theory Complete_Partial_Order2 provides reasoning
  2131 support for monotonicity and continuity in chain-complete partial orders
  2132 and about admissibility conditions for fixpoint inductions.
  2133 
  2134 * Session HOL-Library: theory Library/Polynomial contains also
  2135 derivation of polynomials (formerly in Library/Poly_Deriv) but not
  2136 gcd/lcm on polynomials over fields. This has been moved to a separate
  2137 theory Library/Polynomial_GCD_euclidean.thy, to pave way for a possible
  2138 future different type class instantiation for polynomials over factorial
  2139 rings. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2140 
  2141 * Session HOL-Library: theory Sublist provides function "prefixes" with
  2142 the following renaming
  2143 
  2144   prefixeq -> prefix
  2145   prefix -> strict_prefix
  2146   suffixeq -> suffix
  2147   suffix -> strict_suffix
  2148 
  2149 Added theory of longest common prefixes.
  2150 
  2151 * Session HOL-Number_Theory: algebraic foundation for primes:
  2152 Generalisation of predicate "prime" and introduction of predicates
  2153 "prime_elem", "irreducible", a "prime_factorization" function, and the
  2154 "factorial_ring" typeclass with instance proofs for nat, int, poly. Some
  2155 theorems now have different names, most notably "prime_def" is now
  2156 "prime_nat_iff". INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2157 
  2158 * Session Old_Number_Theory has been removed, after porting remaining
  2159 theories.
  2160 
  2161 * Session HOL-Types_To_Sets provides an experimental extension of
  2162 Higher-Order Logic to allow translation of types to sets.
  2163 
  2164 
  2165 *** ML ***
  2166 
  2167 * Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm use efficient operations from the Poly/ML
  2168 library (notably for big integers). Subtle change of semantics:
  2169 Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm both normalize the sign, results are never
  2170 negative. This coincides with the definitions in HOL/GCD.thy.
  2171 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2172 
  2173 * Structure Rat for rational numbers is now an integral part of
  2174 Isabelle/ML, with special notation @int/nat or @int for numerals (an
  2175 abbreviation for antiquotation @{Pure.rat argument}) and ML pretty
  2176 printing. Standard operations on type Rat.rat are provided via ad-hoc
  2177 overloading of + - * / < <= > >= ~ abs. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  2178 use + instead of +/ etc. Moreover, exception Rat.DIVZERO has been
  2179 superseded by General.Div.
  2180 
  2181 * ML antiquotation @{path} is superseded by @{file}, which ensures that
  2182 the argument is a plain file. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2183 
  2184 * Antiquotation @{make_string} is available during Pure bootstrap --
  2185 with approximative output quality.
  2186 
  2187 * Low-level ML system structures (like PolyML and RunCall) are no longer
  2188 exposed to Isabelle/ML user-space. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2189 
  2190 * The ML function "ML" provides easy access to run-time compilation.
  2191 This is particularly useful for conditional compilation, without
  2192 requiring separate files.
  2193 
  2194 * Option ML_exception_debugger controls detailed exception trace via the
  2195 Poly/ML debugger. Relevant ML modules need to be compiled beforehand
  2196 with ML_file_debug, or with ML_file and option ML_debugger enabled. Note
  2197 debugger information requires consirable time and space: main
  2198 Isabelle/HOL with full debugger support may need ML_system_64.
  2199 
  2200 * Local_Theory.restore has been renamed to Local_Theory.reset to
  2201 emphasize its disruptive impact on the cumulative context, notably the
  2202 scope of 'private' or 'qualified' names. Note that Local_Theory.reset is
  2203 only appropriate when targets are managed, e.g. starting from a global
  2204 theory and returning to it. Regular definitional packages should use
  2205 balanced blocks of Local_Theory.open_target versus
  2206 Local_Theory.close_target instead. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2207 
  2208 * Structure TimeLimit (originally from the SML/NJ library) has been
  2209 replaced by structure Timeout, with slightly different signature.
  2210 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2211 
  2212 * Discontinued cd and pwd operations, which are not well-defined in a
  2213 multi-threaded environment. Note that files are usually located
  2214 relatively to the master directory of a theory (see also
  2215 File.full_path). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2216 
  2217 * Binding.empty_atts supersedes Thm.empty_binding and
  2218 Attrib.empty_binding. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2219 
  2220 
  2221 *** System ***
  2222 
  2223 * SML/NJ and old versions of Poly/ML are no longer supported.
  2224 
  2225 * Poly/ML heaps now follow the hierarchy of sessions, and thus require
  2226 much less disk space.
  2227 
  2228 * The Isabelle ML process is now managed directly by Isabelle/Scala, and
  2229 shell scripts merely provide optional command-line access. In
  2230 particular:
  2231 
  2232   . Scala module ML_Process to connect to the raw ML process,
  2233     with interaction via stdin/stdout/stderr or in batch mode;
  2234   . command-line tool "isabelle console" as interactive wrapper;
  2235   . command-line tool "isabelle process" as batch mode wrapper.
  2236 
  2237 * The executable "isabelle_process" has been discontinued. Tools and
  2238 prover front-ends should use ML_Process or Isabelle_Process in
  2239 Isabelle/Scala. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2240 
  2241 * New command-line tool "isabelle process" supports ML evaluation of
  2242 literal expressions (option -e) or files (option -f) in the context of a
  2243 given heap image. Errors lead to premature exit of the ML process with
  2244 return code 1.
  2245 
  2246 * The command-line tool "isabelle build" supports option -N for cyclic
  2247 shuffling of NUMA CPU nodes. This may help performance tuning on Linux
  2248 servers with separate CPU/memory modules.
  2249 
  2250 * System option "threads" (for the size of the Isabelle/ML thread farm)
  2251 is also passed to the underlying ML runtime system as --gcthreads,
  2252 unless there is already a default provided via ML_OPTIONS settings.
  2253 
  2254 * System option "checkpoint" helps to fine-tune the global heap space
  2255 management of isabelle build. This is relevant for big sessions that may
  2256 exhaust the small 32-bit address space of the ML process (which is used
  2257 by default).
  2258 
  2259 * System option "profiling" specifies the mode for global ML profiling
  2260 in "isabelle build". Possible values are "time", "allocations". The
  2261 command-line tool "isabelle profiling_report" helps to digest the
  2262 resulting log files.
  2263 
  2264 * System option "ML_process_policy" specifies an optional command prefix
  2265 for the underlying ML process, e.g. to control CPU affinity on
  2266 multiprocessor systems. The "isabelle jedit" tool allows to override the
  2267 implicit default via option -p.
  2268 
  2269 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" provides option -r to help to
  2270 bootstrapping Isabelle/Pure interactively.
  2271 
  2272 * Command-line tool "isabelle yxml" has been discontinued.
  2273 INCOMPATIBILITY, use operations from the modules "XML" and "YXML" in
  2274 Isabelle/ML or Isabelle/Scala.
  2275 
  2276 * Many Isabelle tools that require a Java runtime system refer to the
  2277 settings ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS64,
  2278 depending on the underlying platform. The settings for "isabelle build"
  2279 ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64 have been
  2280 discontinued. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2281 
  2282 * The Isabelle system environment always ensures that the main
  2283 executables are found within the shell search $PATH: "isabelle" and
  2284 "isabelle_scala_script".
  2285 
  2286 * Isabelle tools may consist of .scala files: the Scala compiler is
  2287 invoked on the spot. The source needs to define some object that extends
  2288 Isabelle_Tool.Body.
  2289 
  2290 * File.bash_string, File.bash_path etc. represent Isabelle/ML and
  2291 Isabelle/Scala strings authentically within GNU bash. This is useful to
  2292 produce robust shell scripts under program control, without worrying
  2293 about spaces or special characters. Note that user output works via
  2294 Path.print (ML) or Path.toString (Scala). INCOMPATIBILITY, the old (and
  2295 less versatile) operations File.shell_quote, File.shell_path etc. have
  2296 been discontinued.
  2297 
  2298 * The isabelle_java executable allows to run a Java process within the
  2299 name space of Java and Scala components that are bundled with Isabelle,
  2300 but without the Isabelle settings environment.
  2301 
  2302 * Isabelle/Scala: the SSH module supports ssh and sftp connections, for
  2303 remote command-execution and file-system access. This resembles
  2304 operations from module File and Isabelle_System to some extent. Note
  2305 that Path specifications need to be resolved remotely via
  2306 ssh.remote_path instead of File.standard_path: the implicit process
  2307 environment is different, Isabelle settings are not available remotely.
  2308 
  2309 * Isabelle/Scala: the Mercurial module supports repositories via the
  2310 regular hg command-line interface. The repositroy clone and working
  2311 directory may reside on a local or remote file-system (via ssh
  2312 connection).
  2313 
  2314 
  2315 
  2316 New in Isabelle2016 (February 2016)
  2317 -----------------------------------
  2318 
  2319 *** General ***
  2320 
  2321 * Eisbach is now based on Pure instead of HOL. Objects-logics may import
  2322 either the theory ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach (for HOL etc.) or
  2323 ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach_Old_Appl_Syntax (for FOL, ZF etc.). Note that
  2324 the HOL-Eisbach session located in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/ contains further
  2325 examples that do require HOL.
  2326 
  2327 * Better resource usage on all platforms (Linux, Windows, Mac OS X) for
  2328 both Isabelle/ML and Isabelle/Scala.  Slightly reduced heap space usage.
  2329 
  2330 * Former "xsymbols" syntax with Isabelle symbols is used by default,
  2331 without any special print mode. Important ASCII replacement syntax
  2332 remains available under print mode "ASCII", but less important syntax
  2333 has been removed (see below).
  2334 
  2335 * Support for more arrow symbols, with rendering in LaTeX and Isabelle
  2336 fonts: \<Lleftarrow> \<Rrightarrow> \<longlongleftarrow> \<longlongrightarrow> \<longlonglongleftarrow> \<longlonglongrightarrow>.
  2337 
  2338 * Special notation \<struct> for the first implicit 'structure' in the
  2339 context has been discontinued. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit
  2340 structure name instead, notably in indexed notation with block-subscript
  2341 (e.g. \<odot>\<^bsub>A\<^esub>).
  2342 
  2343 * The glyph for \<diamond> in the IsabelleText font now corresponds better to its
  2344 counterpart \<box> as quantifier-like symbol. A small diamond is available as
  2345 \<diamondop>; the old symbol \<struct> loses this rendering and any special
  2346 meaning.
  2347 
  2348 * Syntax for formal comments "-- text" now also supports the symbolic
  2349 form "\<comment> text". Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -c" helps
  2350 to update old sources.
  2351 
  2352 * Toplevel theorem statements have been simplified as follows:
  2353 
  2354   theorems             ~>  lemmas
  2355   schematic_lemma      ~>  schematic_goal
  2356   schematic_theorem    ~>  schematic_goal
  2357   schematic_corollary  ~>  schematic_goal
  2358 
  2359 Command-line tool "isabelle update_theorems" updates theory sources
  2360 accordingly.
  2361 
  2362 * Toplevel theorem statement 'proposition' is another alias for
  2363 'theorem'.
  2364 
  2365 * The old 'defs' command has been removed (legacy since Isabelle2014).
  2366 INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular 'definition' instead. Overloaded and/or
  2367 deferred definitions require a surrounding 'overloading' block.
  2368 
  2369 
  2370 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2371 
  2372 * IDE support for the source-level debugger of Poly/ML, to work with
  2373 Isabelle/ML and official Standard ML. Option "ML_debugger" and commands
  2374 'ML_file_debug', 'ML_file_no_debug', 'SML_file_debug',
  2375 'SML_file_no_debug' control compilation of sources with or without
  2376 debugging information. The Debugger panel allows to set breakpoints (via
  2377 context menu), step through stopped threads, evaluate local ML
  2378 expressions etc. At least one Debugger view needs to be active to have
  2379 any effect on the running ML program.
  2380 
  2381 * The State panel manages explicit proof state output, with dynamic
  2382 auto-update according to cursor movement. Alternatively, the jEdit
  2383 action "isabelle.update-state" (shortcut S+ENTER) triggers manual
  2384 update.
  2385 
  2386 * The Output panel no longer shows proof state output by default, to
  2387 avoid GUI overcrowding. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the State panel instead or
  2388 enable option "editor_output_state".
  2389 
  2390 * The text overview column (status of errors, warnings etc.) is updated
  2391 asynchronously, leading to much better editor reactivity. Moreover, the
  2392 full document node content is taken into account. The width of the
  2393 column is scaled according to the main text area font, for improved
  2394 visibility.
  2395 
  2396 * The main text area no longer changes its color hue in outdated
  2397 situations. The text overview column takes over the role to indicate
  2398 unfinished edits in the PIDE pipeline. This avoids flashing text display
  2399 due to ad-hoc updates by auxiliary GUI components, such as the State
  2400 panel.
  2401 
  2402 * Slightly improved scheduling for urgent print tasks (e.g. command
  2403 state output, interactive queries) wrt. long-running background tasks.
  2404 
  2405 * Completion of symbols via prefix of \<name> or \<^name> or \name is
  2406 always possible, independently of the language context. It is never
  2407 implicit: a popup will show up unconditionally.
  2408 
  2409 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified in
  2410 $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs, with
  2411 support for simple templates using ASCII 007 (bell) as placeholder.
  2412 
  2413 * Symbols \<oplus>, \<Oplus>, \<otimes>, \<Otimes>, \<odot>, \<Odot>, \<ominus>, \<oslash> no longer provide abbreviations for
  2414 completion like "+o", "*o", ".o" etc. -- due to conflicts with other
  2415 ASCII syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain backslash-completion or define
  2416 suitable abbreviations in $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs.
  2417 
  2418 * Action "isabelle-emph" (with keyboard shortcut C+e LEFT) controls
  2419 emphasized text style; the effect is visible in document output, not in
  2420 the editor.
  2421 
  2422 * Action "isabelle-reset" now uses keyboard shortcut C+e BACK_SPACE,
  2423 instead of former C+e LEFT.
  2424 
  2425 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" and the isabelle.Main
  2426 application wrapper treat the default $USER_HOME/Scratch.thy more
  2427 uniformly, and allow the dummy file argument ":" to open an empty buffer
  2428 instead.
  2429 
  2430 * New command-line tool "isabelle jedit_client" allows to connect to an
  2431 already running Isabelle/jEdit process. This achieves the effect of
  2432 single-instance applications seen on common GUI desktops.
  2433 
  2434 * The default look-and-feel for Linux is the traditional "Metal", which
  2435 works better with GUI scaling for very high-resolution displays (e.g.
  2436 4K). Moreover, it is generally more robust than "Nimbus".
  2437 
  2438 * Update to jedit-5.3.0, with improved GUI scaling and support of
  2439 high-resolution displays (e.g. 4K).
  2440 
  2441 * The main Isabelle executable is managed as single-instance Desktop
  2442 application uniformly on all platforms: Linux, Windows, Mac OS X.
  2443 
  2444 
  2445 *** Document preparation ***
  2446 
  2447 * Commands 'paragraph' and 'subparagraph' provide additional section
  2448 headings. Thus there are 6 levels of standard headings, as in HTML.
  2449 
  2450 * Command 'text_raw' has been clarified: input text is processed as in
  2451 'text' (with antiquotations and control symbols). The key difference is
  2452 the lack of the surrounding isabelle markup environment in output.
  2453 
  2454 * Text is structured in paragraphs and nested lists, using notation that
  2455 is similar to Markdown. The control symbols for list items are as
  2456 follows:
  2457 
  2458   \<^item>  itemize
  2459   \<^enum>  enumerate
  2460   \<^descr>  description
  2461 
  2462 * There is a new short form for antiquotations with a single argument
  2463 that is a cartouche: \<^name>\<open>...\<close> is equivalent to @{name \<open>...\<close>} and
  2464 \<open>...\<close> without control symbol is equivalent to @{cartouche \<open>...\<close>}.
  2465 \<^name> without following cartouche is equivalent to @{name}. The
  2466 standard Isabelle fonts provide glyphs to render important control
  2467 symbols, e.g. "\<^verbatim>", "\<^emph>", "\<^bold>".
  2468 
  2469 * Antiquotations @{noindent}, @{smallskip}, @{medskip}, @{bigskip} with
  2470 corresponding control symbols \<^noindent>, \<^smallskip>, \<^medskip>, \<^bigskip> specify spacing formally, using
  2471 standard LaTeX macros of the same names.
  2472 
  2473 * Antiquotation @{cartouche} in Isabelle/Pure is the same as @{text}.
  2474 Consequently, \<open>...\<close> without any decoration prints literal quasi-formal
  2475 text. Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -t" helps to update
  2476 old sources, by approximative patching of the content of string and
  2477 cartouche tokens seen in theory sources.
  2478 
  2479 * The @{text} antiquotation now ignores the antiquotation option
  2480 "source". The given text content is output unconditionally, without any
  2481 surrounding quotes etc. Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, put quotes into the
  2482 argument where they are really intended, e.g. @{text \<open>"foo"\<close>}. Initial
  2483 or terminal spaces are ignored.
  2484 
  2485 * Antiquotations @{emph} and @{bold} output LaTeX source recursively,
  2486 adding appropriate text style markup. These may be used in the short
  2487 form \<^emph>\<open>...\<close> and \<^bold>\<open>...\<close>.
  2488 
  2489 * Document antiquotation @{footnote} outputs LaTeX source recursively,
  2490 marked as \footnote{}. This may be used in the short form \<^footnote>\<open>...\<close>.
  2491 
  2492 * Antiquotation @{verbatim [display]} supports option "indent".
  2493 
  2494 * Antiquotation @{theory_text} prints uninterpreted theory source text
  2495 (Isar outer syntax with command keywords etc.). This may be used in the
  2496 short form \<^theory_text>\<open>...\<close>. @{theory_text [display]} supports option "indent".
  2497 
  2498 * Antiquotation @{doc ENTRY} provides a reference to the given
  2499 documentation, with a hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
  2500 
  2501 * Antiquotations @{command}, @{method}, @{attribute} print checked
  2502 entities of the Isar language.
  2503 
  2504 * HTML presentation uses the standard IsabelleText font and Unicode
  2505 rendering of Isabelle symbols like Isabelle/Scala/jEdit.  The former
  2506 print mode "HTML" loses its special meaning.
  2507 
  2508 
  2509 *** Isar ***
  2510 
  2511 * Local goals ('have', 'show', 'hence', 'thus') allow structured rule
  2512 statements like fixes/assumes/shows in theorem specifications, but the
  2513 notation is postfix with keywords 'if' (or 'when') and 'for'. For
  2514 example:
  2515 
  2516   have result: "C x y"
  2517     if "A x" and "B y"
  2518     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2519     <proof>
  2520 
  2521 The local assumptions are bound to the name "that". The result is
  2522 exported from context of the statement as usual. The above roughly
  2523 corresponds to a raw proof block like this:
  2524 
  2525   {
  2526     fix x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2527     assume that: "A x" "B y"
  2528     have "C x y" <proof>
  2529   }
  2530   note result = this
  2531 
  2532 The keyword 'when' may be used instead of 'if', to indicate 'presume'
  2533 instead of 'assume' above.
  2534 
  2535 * Assumptions ('assume', 'presume') allow structured rule statements
  2536 using 'if' and 'for', similar to 'have' etc. above. For example:
  2537 
  2538   assume result: "C x y"
  2539     if "A x" and "B y"
  2540     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2541 
  2542 This assumes "\<And>x y::'a. A x \<Longrightarrow> B y \<Longrightarrow> C x y" and produces a general
  2543 result as usual: "A ?x \<Longrightarrow> B ?y \<Longrightarrow> C ?x ?y".
  2544 
  2545 Vacuous quantification in assumptions is omitted, i.e. a for-context
  2546 only effects propositions according to actual use of variables. For
  2547 example:
  2548 
  2549   assume "A x" and "B y" for x and y
  2550 
  2551 is equivalent to:
  2552 
  2553   assume "\<And>x. A x" and "\<And>y. B y"
  2554 
  2555 * The meaning of 'show' with Pure rule statements has changed: premises
  2556 are treated in the sense of 'assume', instead of 'presume'. This means,
  2557 a goal like "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x" can be solved completely as
  2558 follows:
  2559 
  2560   show "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2561 
  2562 or:
  2563 
  2564   show "C x" if "A x" "B x" for x
  2565 
  2566 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, the old behaviour may be recovered as follows:
  2567 
  2568   show "C x" when "A x" "B x" for x
  2569 
  2570 * New command 'consider' states rules for generalized elimination and
  2571 case splitting. This is like a toplevel statement "theorem obtains" used
  2572 within a proof body; or like a multi-branch 'obtain' without activation
  2573 of the local context elements yet.
  2574 
  2575 * Proof method "cases" allows to specify the rule as first entry of
  2576 chained facts.  This is particularly useful with 'consider':
  2577 
  2578   consider (a) A | (b) B | (c) C <proof>
  2579   then have something
  2580   proof cases
  2581     case a
  2582     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2583   next
  2584     case b
  2585     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2586   next
  2587     case c
  2588     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2589   qed
  2590 
  2591 * Command 'case' allows fact name and attribute specification like this:
  2592 
  2593   case a: (c xs)
  2594   case a [attributes]: (c xs)
  2595 
  2596 Facts that are introduced by invoking the case context are uniformly
  2597 qualified by "a"; the same name is used for the cumulative fact. The old
  2598 form "case (c xs) [attributes]" is no longer supported. Rare
  2599 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt uses of case facts in exotic situations,
  2600 and always put attributes in front.
  2601 
  2602 * The standard proof method of commands 'proof' and '..' is now called
  2603 "standard" to make semantically clear what it is; the old name "default"
  2604 is still available as legacy for some time. Documentation now explains
  2605 '..' more accurately as "by standard" instead of "by rule".
  2606 
  2607 * Nesting of Isar goal structure has been clarified: the context after
  2608 the initial backwards refinement is retained for the whole proof, within
  2609 all its context sections (as indicated via 'next'). This is e.g.
  2610 relevant for 'using', 'including', 'supply':
  2611 
  2612   have "A \<and> A" if a: A for A
  2613     supply [simp] = a
  2614   proof
  2615     show A by simp
  2616   next
  2617     show A by simp
  2618   qed
  2619 
  2620 * Command 'obtain' binds term abbreviations (via 'is' patterns) in the
  2621 proof body as well, abstracted over relevant parameters.
  2622 
  2623 * Improved type-inference for theorem statement 'obtains': separate
  2624 parameter scope for of each clause.
  2625 
  2626 * Term abbreviations via 'is' patterns also work for schematic
  2627 statements: result is abstracted over unknowns.
  2628 
  2629 * Command 'subgoal' allows to impose some structure on backward
  2630 refinements, to avoid proof scripts degenerating into long of 'apply'
  2631 sequences. Further explanations and examples are given in the isar-ref
  2632 manual.
  2633 
  2634 * Command 'supply' supports fact definitions during goal refinement
  2635 ('apply' scripts).
  2636 
  2637 * Proof method "goal_cases" turns the current subgoals into cases within
  2638 the context; the conclusion is bound to variable ?case in each case. For
  2639 example:
  2640 
  2641 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2642   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  2643 proof goal_cases
  2644   case (1 x)
  2645   then show ?case using \<open>A x\<close> \<open>B x\<close> sorry
  2646 next
  2647   case (2 y z)
  2648   then show ?case using \<open>U y\<close> \<open>V z\<close> sorry
  2649 qed
  2650 
  2651 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2652   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  2653 proof goal_cases
  2654   case prems: 1
  2655   then show ?case using prems sorry
  2656 next
  2657   case prems: 2
  2658   then show ?case using prems sorry
  2659 qed
  2660 
  2661 * The undocumented feature of implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc.
  2662 is marked as legacy, and will be removed eventually. The proof method
  2663 "goals" achieves a similar effect within regular Isar; often it can be
  2664 done more adequately by other means (e.g. 'consider').
  2665 
  2666 * The vacuous fact "TERM x" may be established "by fact" or as `TERM x`
  2667 as well, not just "by this" or "." as before.
  2668 
  2669 * Method "sleep" succeeds after a real-time delay (in seconds). This is
  2670 occasionally useful for demonstration and testing purposes.
  2671 
  2672 
  2673 *** Pure ***
  2674 
  2675 * Qualifiers in locale expressions default to mandatory ('!') regardless
  2676 of the command. Previously, for 'locale' and 'sublocale' the default was
  2677 optional ('?'). The old synatx '!' has been discontinued.
  2678 INCOMPATIBILITY, remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  2679 
  2680 * Keyword 'rewrites' identifies rewrite morphisms in interpretation
  2681 commands. Previously, the keyword was 'where'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2682 
  2683 * More gentle suppression of syntax along locale morphisms while
  2684 printing terms. Previously 'abbreviation' and 'notation' declarations
  2685 would be suppressed for morphisms except term identity. Now
  2686 'abbreviation' is also kept for morphims that only change the involved
  2687 parameters, and only 'notation' is suppressed. This can be of great help
  2688 when working with complex locale hierarchies, because proof states are
  2689 displayed much more succinctly. It also means that only notation needs
  2690 to be redeclared if desired, as illustrated by this example:
  2691 
  2692   locale struct = fixes composition :: "'a => 'a => 'a" (infixl "\<cdot>" 65)
  2693   begin
  2694     definition derived (infixl "\<odot>" 65) where ...
  2695   end
  2696 
  2697   locale morphism =
  2698     left: struct composition + right: struct composition'
  2699     for composition (infix "\<cdot>" 65) and composition' (infix "\<cdot>''" 65)
  2700   begin
  2701     notation right.derived ("\<odot>''")
  2702   end
  2703 
  2704 * Command 'global_interpretation' issues interpretations into global
  2705 theories, with optional rewrite definitions following keyword 'defines'.
  2706 
  2707 * Command 'sublocale' accepts optional rewrite definitions after keyword
  2708 'defines'.
  2709 
  2710 * Command 'permanent_interpretation' has been discontinued. Use
  2711 'global_interpretation' or 'sublocale' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2712 
  2713 * Command 'print_definitions' prints dependencies of definitional
  2714 specifications. This functionality used to be part of 'print_theory'.
  2715 
  2716 * Configuration option rule_insts_schematic has been discontinued
  2717 (intermediate legacy feature in Isabelle2015). INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2718 
  2719 * Abbreviations in type classes now carry proper sort constraint. Rare
  2720 INCOMPATIBILITY in situations where the previous misbehaviour has been
  2721 exploited.
  2722 
  2723 * Refinement of user-space type system in type classes: pseudo-local
  2724 operations behave more similar to abbreviations. Potential
  2725 INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  2726 
  2727 
  2728 *** HOL ***
  2729 
  2730 * The 'typedef' command has been upgraded from a partially checked
  2731 "axiomatization", to a full definitional specification that takes the
  2732 global collection of overloaded constant / type definitions into
  2733 account. Type definitions with open dependencies on overloaded
  2734 definitions need to be specified as "typedef (overloaded)". This
  2735 provides extra robustness in theory construction. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2736 
  2737 * Qualification of various formal entities in the libraries is done more
  2738 uniformly via "context begin qualified definition ... end" instead of
  2739 old-style "hide_const (open) ...". Consequently, both the defined
  2740 constant and its defining fact become qualified, e.g. Option.is_none and
  2741 Option.is_none_def. Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY in applications.
  2742 
  2743 * Some old and rarely used ASCII replacement syntax has been removed.
  2744 INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax with symbols should be used instead.
  2745 The subsequent commands help to reproduce the old forms, e.g. to
  2746 simplify porting old theories:
  2747 
  2748   notation iff  (infixr "<->" 25)
  2749 
  2750   notation Times  (infixr "<*>" 80)
  2751 
  2752   type_notation Map.map  (infixr "~=>" 0)
  2753   notation Map.map_comp  (infixl "o'_m" 55)
  2754 
  2755   type_notation FinFun.finfun ("(_ =>f /_)" [22, 21] 21)
  2756 
  2757   notation FuncSet.funcset  (infixr "->" 60)
  2758   notation FuncSet.extensional_funcset  (infixr "->\<^sub>E" 60)
  2759 
  2760   notation Omega_Words_Fun.conc (infixr "conc" 65)
  2761 
  2762   notation Preorder.equiv ("op ~~")
  2763     and Preorder.equiv ("(_/ ~~ _)" [51, 51] 50)
  2764 
  2765   notation (in topological_space) tendsto (infixr "--->" 55)
  2766   notation (in topological_space) LIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  2767   notation LIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  2768 
  2769   notation NSA.approx (infixl "@=" 50)
  2770   notation NSLIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----NS> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  2771   notation NSLIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --NS> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  2772 
  2773 * The alternative notation "\<Colon>" for type and sort constraints has been
  2774 removed: in LaTeX document output it looks the same as "::".
  2775 INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain "::" instead.
  2776 
  2777 * Commands 'inductive' and 'inductive_set' work better when names for
  2778 intro rules are omitted: the "cases" and "induct" rules no longer
  2779 declare empty case_names, but no case_names at all. This allows to use
  2780 numbered cases in proofs, without requiring method "goal_cases".
  2781 
  2782 * Inductive definitions ('inductive', 'coinductive', etc.) expose
  2783 low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  2784 "inductive_internals" is enabled. This refers to the internal predicate
  2785 definition and its monotonicity result. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2786 
  2787 * Recursive function definitions ('fun', 'function', 'partial_function')
  2788 expose low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  2789 "function_internals" is enabled. Its internal inductive definition is
  2790 also subject to "inductive_internals". Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2791 
  2792 * BNF datatypes ('datatype', 'codatatype', etc.) expose low-level facts
  2793 of the internal construction only if the option "bnf_internals" is
  2794 enabled. This supersedes the former option "bnf_note_all". Rare
  2795 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2796 
  2797 * Combinator to represent case distinction on products is named
  2798 "case_prod", uniformly, discontinuing any input aliasses. Very popular
  2799 theorem aliasses have been retained.
  2800 
  2801 Consolidated facts:
  2802   PairE ~> prod.exhaust
  2803   Pair_eq ~> prod.inject
  2804   pair_collapse ~> prod.collapse
  2805   Pair_fst_snd_eq ~> prod_eq_iff
  2806   split_twice ~> prod.case_distrib
  2807   split_weak_cong ~> prod.case_cong_weak
  2808   split_split ~> prod.split
  2809   split_split_asm ~> prod.split_asm
  2810   splitI ~> case_prodI
  2811   splitD ~> case_prodD
  2812   splitI2 ~> case_prodI2
  2813   splitI2' ~> case_prodI2'
  2814   splitE ~> case_prodE
  2815   splitE' ~> case_prodE'
  2816   split_pair ~> case_prod_Pair
  2817   split_eta ~> case_prod_eta
  2818   split_comp ~> case_prod_comp
  2819   mem_splitI ~> mem_case_prodI
  2820   mem_splitI2 ~> mem_case_prodI2
  2821   mem_splitE ~> mem_case_prodE
  2822   The_split ~> The_case_prod
  2823   cond_split_eta ~> cond_case_prod_eta
  2824   Collect_split_in_rel_leE ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leE
  2825   Collect_split_in_rel_leI ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leI
  2826   in_rel_Collect_split_eq ~> in_rel_Collect_case_prod_eq
  2827   Collect_split_Grp_eqD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_eqD
  2828   Collect_split_Grp_inD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_in
  2829   Domain_Collect_split ~> Domain_Collect_case_prod
  2830   Image_Collect_split ~> Image_Collect_case_prod
  2831   Range_Collect_split ~> Range_Collect_case_prod
  2832   Eps_split ~> Eps_case_prod
  2833   Eps_split_eq ~> Eps_case_prod_eq
  2834   split_rsp ~> case_prod_rsp
  2835   curry_split ~> curry_case_prod
  2836   split_curry ~> case_prod_curry
  2837 
  2838 Changes in structure HOLogic:
  2839   split_const ~> case_prod_const
  2840   mk_split ~> mk_case_prod
  2841   mk_psplits ~> mk_ptupleabs
  2842   strip_psplits ~> strip_ptupleabs
  2843 
  2844 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2845 
  2846 * The coercions to type 'real' have been reorganised. The function
  2847 'real' is no longer overloaded, but has type 'nat => real' and
  2848 abbreviates of_nat for that type. Also 'real_of_int :: int => real'
  2849 abbreviates of_int for that type. Other overloaded instances of 'real'
  2850 have been replaced by 'real_of_ereal' and 'real_of_float'.
  2851 
  2852 Consolidated facts (among others):
  2853   real_of_nat_le_iff -> of_nat_le_iff
  2854   real_of_nat_numeral of_nat_numeral
  2855   real_of_int_zero of_int_0
  2856   real_of_nat_zero of_nat_0
  2857   real_of_one of_int_1
  2858   real_of_int_add of_int_add
  2859   real_of_nat_add of_nat_add
  2860   real_of_int_diff of_int_diff
  2861   real_of_nat_diff of_nat_diff
  2862   floor_subtract floor_diff_of_int
  2863   real_of_int_inject of_int_eq_iff
  2864   real_of_int_gt_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_less_iff
  2865   real_of_int_ge_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_le_iff
  2866   real_of_nat_ge_zero of_nat_0_le_iff
  2867   real_of_int_ceiling_ge le_of_int_ceiling
  2868   ceiling_less_eq ceiling_less_iff
  2869   ceiling_le_eq ceiling_le_iff
  2870   less_floor_eq less_floor_iff
  2871   floor_less_eq floor_less_iff
  2872   floor_divide_eq_div floor_divide_of_int_eq
  2873   real_of_int_zero_cancel of_nat_eq_0_iff
  2874   ceiling_real_of_int ceiling_of_int
  2875 
  2876 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2877 
  2878 * Theory Map: lemma map_of_is_SomeD was a clone of map_of_SomeD and has
  2879 been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2880 
  2881 * Quickcheck setup for finite sets.
  2882 
  2883 * Discontinued simp_legacy_precond. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2884 
  2885 * Sledgehammer:
  2886   - The MaSh relevance filter has been sped up.
  2887   - Proof reconstruction has been improved, to minimize the incidence of
  2888     cases where Sledgehammer gives a proof that does not work.
  2889   - Auto Sledgehammer now minimizes and preplays the results.
  2890   - Handle Vampire 4.0 proof output without raising exception.
  2891   - Eliminated "MASH" environment variable. Use the "MaSh" option in
  2892     Isabelle/jEdit instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2893   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option and related subcommands.
  2894 
  2895 * Nitpick:
  2896   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "finite" predicate.
  2897   - Fixed soundness bug in "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  2898   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "rat" type.
  2899   - Removed "check_potential" and "check_genuine" options.
  2900   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option.
  2901 
  2902 * (Co)datatype package:
  2903   - New commands "lift_bnf" and "copy_bnf" for lifting (copying) a BNF
  2904     structure on the raw type to an abstract type defined using typedef.
  2905   - Always generate "case_transfer" theorem.
  2906   - For mutual types, generate slightly stronger "rel_induct",
  2907     "rel_coinduct", and "coinduct" theorems. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2908   - Allow discriminators and selectors with the same name as the type
  2909     being defined.
  2910   - Avoid various internal name clashes (e.g., 'datatype f = f').
  2911 
  2912 * Transfer: new methods for interactive debugging of 'transfer' and
  2913 'transfer_prover': 'transfer_start', 'transfer_step', 'transfer_end',
  2914 'transfer_prover_start' and 'transfer_prover_end'.
  2915 
  2916 * New diagnostic command print_record for displaying record definitions.
  2917 
  2918 * Division on integers is bootstrapped directly from division on
  2919 naturals and uses generic numeral algorithm for computations. Slight
  2920 INCOMPATIBILITY, simproc numeral_divmod replaces and generalizes former
  2921 simprocs binary_int_div and binary_int_mod
  2922 
  2923 * Tightened specification of class semiring_no_zero_divisors. Minor
  2924 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2925 
  2926 * Class algebraic_semidom introduces common algebraic notions of
  2927 integral (semi)domains, particularly units. Although logically subsumed
  2928 by fields, is is not a super class of these in order not to burden
  2929 fields with notions that are trivial there.
  2930 
  2931 * Class normalization_semidom specifies canonical representants for
  2932 equivalence classes of associated elements in an integral (semi)domain.
  2933 This formalizes associated elements as well.
  2934 
  2935 * Abstract specification of gcd/lcm operations in classes semiring_gcd,
  2936 semiring_Gcd, semiring_Lcd. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: facts gcd_nat.commute
  2937 and gcd_int.commute are subsumed by gcd.commute, as well as
  2938 gcd_nat.assoc and gcd_int.assoc by gcd.assoc.
  2939 
  2940 * Former constants Fields.divide (_ / _) and Divides.div (_ div _) are
  2941 logically unified to Rings.divide in syntactic type class Rings.divide,
  2942 with infix syntax (_ div _). Infix syntax (_ / _) for field division is
  2943 added later as abbreviation in class Fields.inverse. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2944 instantiations must refer to Rings.divide rather than the former
  2945 separate constants, hence infix syntax (_ / _) is usually not available
  2946 during instantiation.
  2947 
  2948 * New cancellation simprocs for boolean algebras to cancel complementary
  2949 terms for sup and inf. For example, "sup x (sup y (- x))" simplifies to
  2950 "top". INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2951 
  2952 * Class uniform_space introduces uniform spaces btw topological spaces
  2953 and metric spaces. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: open_<type>_def needs to be
  2954 introduced in the form of an uniformity. Some constants are more general
  2955 now, it may be necessary to add type class constraints.
  2956 
  2957   open_real_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  2958   open_complex_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  2959 
  2960 * Library/Monad_Syntax: notation uses symbols \<bind> and \<then>. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2961 
  2962 * Library/Multiset:
  2963   - Renamed multiset inclusion operators:
  2964       < ~> <#
  2965       > ~> >#
  2966       <= ~> <=#
  2967       >= ~> >=#
  2968       \<le> ~> \<le>#
  2969       \<ge> ~> \<ge>#
  2970     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2971   - Added multiset inclusion operator syntax:
  2972       \<subset>#
  2973       \<subseteq>#
  2974       \<supset>#
  2975       \<supseteq>#
  2976   - "'a multiset" is no longer an instance of the "order",
  2977     "ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le", "ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_diff",
  2978     "semilattice_inf", and "semilattice_sup" type classes. The theorems
  2979     previously provided by these type classes (directly or indirectly)
  2980     are now available through the "subset_mset" interpretation
  2981     (e.g. add_mono ~> subset_mset.add_mono).
  2982     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2983   - Renamed conversions:
  2984       multiset_of ~> mset
  2985       multiset_of_set ~> mset_set
  2986       set_of ~> set_mset
  2987     INCOMPATIBILITY
  2988   - Renamed lemmas:
  2989       mset_le_def ~> subseteq_mset_def
  2990       mset_less_def ~> subset_mset_def
  2991       less_eq_multiset.rep_eq ~> subseteq_mset_def
  2992     INCOMPATIBILITY
  2993   - Removed lemmas generated by lift_definition:
  2994     less_eq_multiset.abs_eq, less_eq_multiset.rsp,
  2995     less_eq_multiset.transfer, less_eq_multiset_def
  2996     INCOMPATIBILITY
  2997 
  2998 * Library/Omega_Words_Fun: Infinite words modeled as functions nat \<Rightarrow> 'a.
  2999 
  3000 * Library/Bourbaki_Witt_Fixpoint: Added formalisation of the
  3001 Bourbaki-Witt fixpoint theorem for increasing functions in
  3002 chain-complete partial orders.
  3003 
  3004 * Library/Old_Recdef: discontinued obsolete 'defer_recdef' command.
  3005 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'function' instead.
  3006 
  3007 * Library/Periodic_Fun: a locale that provides convenient lemmas for
  3008 periodic functions.
  3009 
  3010 * Library/Formal_Power_Series: proper definition of division (with
  3011 remainder) for formal power series; instances for Euclidean Ring and
  3012 GCD.
  3013 
  3014 * HOL-Imperative_HOL: obsolete theory Legacy_Mrec has been removed.
  3015 
  3016 * HOL-Statespace: command 'statespace' uses mandatory qualifier for
  3017 import of parent, as for general 'locale' expressions. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3018 remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  3019 
  3020 * HOL-Decision_Procs: The "approximation" method works with "powr"
  3021 (exponentiation on real numbers) again.
  3022 
  3023 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: theory Cauchy_Integral_Thm with Contour
  3024 integrals (= complex path integrals), Cauchy's integral theorem, winding
  3025 numbers and Cauchy's integral formula, Liouville theorem, Fundamental
  3026 Theorem of Algebra. Ported from HOL Light.
  3027 
  3028 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: topological concepts such as connected
  3029 components, homotopic paths and the inside or outside of a set.
  3030 
  3031 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: radius of convergence of power series and
  3032 various summability tests; Harmonic numbers and the Euler–Mascheroni
  3033 constant; the Generalised Binomial Theorem; the complex and real
  3034 Gamma/log-Gamma/Digamma/ Polygamma functions and their most important
  3035 properties.
  3036 
  3037 * HOL-Probability: The central limit theorem based on Levy's uniqueness
  3038 and continuity theorems, weak convergence, and characterisitc functions.
  3039 
  3040 * HOL-Data_Structures: new and growing session of standard data
  3041 structures.
  3042 
  3043 
  3044 *** ML ***
  3045 
  3046 * The following combinators for low-level profiling of the ML runtime
  3047 system are available:
  3048 
  3049   profile_time          (*CPU time*)
  3050   profile_time_thread   (*CPU time on this thread*)
  3051   profile_allocations   (*overall heap allocations*)
  3052 
  3053 * Antiquotation @{undefined} or \<^undefined> inlines (raise Match).
  3054 
  3055 * Antiquotation @{method NAME} inlines the (checked) name of the given
  3056 Isar proof method.
  3057 
  3058 * Pretty printing of Poly/ML compiler output in Isabelle has been
  3059 improved: proper treatment of break offsets and blocks with consistent
  3060 breaks.
  3061 
  3062 * The auxiliary module Pure/display.ML has been eliminated. Its
  3063 elementary thm print operations are now in Pure/more_thm.ML and thus
  3064 called Thm.pretty_thm, Thm.string_of_thm etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3065 
  3066 * Simproc programming interfaces have been simplified:
  3067 Simplifier.make_simproc and Simplifier.define_simproc supersede various
  3068 forms of Simplifier.mk_simproc, Simplifier.simproc_global etc. Note that
  3069 term patterns for the left-hand sides are specified with implicitly
  3070 fixed variables, like top-level theorem statements. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3071 
  3072 * Instantiation rules have been re-organized as follows:
  3073 
  3074   Thm.instantiate  (*low-level instantiation with named arguments*)
  3075   Thm.instantiate' (*version with positional arguments*)
  3076 
  3077   Drule.infer_instantiate  (*instantiation with type inference*)
  3078   Drule.infer_instantiate'  (*version with positional arguments*)
  3079 
  3080 The LHS only requires variable specifications, instead of full terms.
  3081 Old cterm_instantiate is superseded by infer_instantiate.
  3082 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to re-adjust some ML names and types accordingly.
  3083 
  3084 * Old tactic shorthands atac, rtac, etac, dtac, ftac have been
  3085 discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular assume_tac, resolve_tac etc.
  3086 instead (with proper context).
  3087 
  3088 * Thm.instantiate (and derivatives) no longer require the LHS of the
  3089 instantiation to be certified: plain variables are given directly.
  3090 
  3091 * Subgoal.SUBPROOF and Subgoal.FOCUS combinators use anonymous
  3092 quasi-bound variables (like the Simplifier), instead of accidentally
  3093 named local fixes. This has the potential to improve stability of proof
  3094 tools, but can also cause INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that don't observe
  3095 the proof context discipline.
  3096 
  3097 * Isar proof methods are based on a slightly more general type
  3098 context_tactic, which allows to change the proof context dynamically
  3099 (e.g. to update cases) and indicate explicit Seq.Error results. Former
  3100 METHOD_CASES is superseded by CONTEXT_METHOD; further combinators are
  3101 provided in src/Pure/Isar/method.ML for convenience. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3102 
  3103 
  3104 *** System ***
  3105 
  3106 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" enables print mode "ASCII".
  3107 
  3108 * Command-line tool "isabelle update_then" expands old Isar command
  3109 conflations:
  3110 
  3111     hence  ~>  then have
  3112     thus   ~>  then show
  3113 
  3114 This syntax is more orthogonal and improves readability and
  3115 maintainability of proofs.
  3116 
  3117 * Global session timeout is multiplied by timeout_scale factor. This
  3118 allows to adjust large-scale tests (e.g. AFP) to overall hardware
  3119 performance.
  3120 
  3121 * Property values in etc/symbols may contain spaces, if written with the
  3122 replacement character "␣" (Unicode point 0x2324). For example:
  3123 
  3124     \<star>  code: 0x0022c6  group: operator  font: Deja␣Vu␣Sans␣Mono
  3125 
  3126 * Java runtime environment for x86_64-windows allows to use larger heap
  3127 space.
  3128 
  3129 * Java runtime options are determined separately for 32bit vs. 64bit
  3130 platforms as follows.
  3131 
  3132   - Isabelle desktop application: platform-specific files that are
  3133     associated with the main app bundle
  3134 
  3135   - isabelle jedit: settings
  3136     JEDIT_JAVA_SYSTEM_OPTIONS
  3137     JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  3138 
  3139   - isabelle build: settings
  3140     ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  3141 
  3142 * Bash shell function "jvmpath" has been renamed to "platform_path": it
  3143 is relevant both for Poly/ML and JVM processes.
  3144 
  3145 * Poly/ML default platform architecture may be changed from 32bit to
  3146 64bit via system option ML_system_64. A system restart (and rebuild) is
  3147 required after change.
  3148 
  3149 * Poly/ML 5.6 runs natively on x86-windows and x86_64-windows, which
  3150 both allow larger heap space than former x86-cygwin.
  3151 
  3152 * Heap images are 10-15% smaller due to less wasteful persistent theory
  3153 content (using ML type theory_id instead of theory);
  3154 
  3155 
  3156 
  3157 New in Isabelle2015 (May 2015)
  3158 ------------------------------
  3159 
  3160 *** General ***
  3161 
  3162 * Local theory specification commands may have a 'private' or
  3163 'qualified' modifier to restrict name space accesses to the local scope,
  3164 as provided by some "context begin ... end" block. For example:
  3165 
  3166   context
  3167   begin
  3168 
  3169   private definition ...
  3170   private lemma ...
  3171 
  3172   qualified definition ...
  3173   qualified lemma ...
  3174 
  3175   lemma ...
  3176   theorem ...
  3177 
  3178   end
  3179 
  3180 * Command 'experiment' opens an anonymous locale context with private
  3181 naming policy.
  3182 
  3183 * Command 'notepad' requires proper nesting of begin/end and its proof
  3184 structure in the body: 'oops' is no longer supported here. Minor
  3185 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'sorry' instead.
  3186 
  3187 * Command 'named_theorems' declares a dynamic fact within the context,
  3188 together with an attribute to maintain the content incrementally. This
  3189 supersedes functor Named_Thms in Isabelle/ML, but with a subtle change
  3190 of semantics due to external visual order vs. internal reverse order.
  3191 
  3192 * 'find_theorems': search patterns which are abstractions are
  3193 schematically expanded before search. Search results match the naive
  3194 expectation more closely, particularly wrt. abbreviations.
  3195 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3196 
  3197 * Commands 'method_setup' and 'attribute_setup' now work within a local
  3198 theory context.
  3199 
  3200 * Outer syntax commands are managed authentically within the theory
  3201 context, without implicit global state. Potential for accidental
  3202 INCOMPATIBILITY, make sure that required theories are really imported.
  3203 
  3204 * Historical command-line terminator ";" is no longer accepted (and
  3205 already used differently in Isar). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle
  3206 update_semicolons" to remove obsolete semicolons from old theory
  3207 sources.
  3208 
  3209 * Structural composition of proof methods (meth1; meth2) in Isar
  3210 corresponds to (tac1 THEN_ALL_NEW tac2) in ML.
  3211 
  3212 * The Eisbach proof method language allows to define new proof methods
  3213 by combining existing ones with their usual syntax. The "match" proof
  3214 method provides basic fact/term matching in addition to
  3215 premise/conclusion matching through Subgoal.focus, and binds fact names
  3216 from matches as well as term patterns within matches. The Isabelle
  3217 documentation provides an entry "eisbach" for the Eisbach User Manual.
  3218 Sources and various examples are in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/.
  3219 
  3220 
  3221 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3222 
  3223 * Improved folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax. Alternatively,
  3224 the "sidekick" mode may be used for document structure.
  3225 
  3226 * Extended bracket matching based on Isar language structure. System
  3227 option jedit_structure_limit determines maximum number of lines to scan
  3228 in the buffer.
  3229 
  3230 * Support for BibTeX files: context menu, context-sensitive token
  3231 marker, SideKick parser.
  3232 
  3233 * Document antiquotation @{cite} provides formal markup, which is
  3234 interpreted semi-formally based on .bib files that happen to be open in
  3235 the editor (hyperlinks, completion etc.).
  3236 
  3237 * Less waste of vertical space via negative line spacing (see Global
  3238 Options / Text Area).
  3239 
  3240 * Improved graphview panel with optional output of PNG or PDF, for
  3241 display of 'thy_deps', 'class_deps' etc.
  3242 
  3243 * The commands 'thy_deps' and 'class_deps' allow optional bounds to
  3244 restrict the visualized hierarchy.
  3245 
  3246 * Improved scheduling for asynchronous print commands (e.g. provers
  3247 managed by the Sledgehammer panel) wrt. ongoing document processing.
  3248 
  3249 
  3250 *** Document preparation ***
  3251 
  3252 * Document markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection',
  3253 'subsubsection', 'text', 'txt', 'text_raw' work uniformly in any
  3254 context, even before the initial 'theory' command. Obsolete proof
  3255 commands 'sect', 'subsect', 'subsubsect', 'txt_raw' have been
  3256 discontinued, use 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection', 'text_raw'
  3257 instead. The old 'header' command is still retained for some time, but
  3258 should be replaced by 'chapter', 'section' etc. (using "isabelle
  3259 update_header"). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3260 
  3261 * Official support for "tt" style variants, via \isatt{...} or
  3262 \begin{isabellett}...\end{isabellett}. The somewhat fragile \verb or
  3263 verbatim environment of LaTeX is no longer used. This allows @{ML} etc.
  3264 as argument to other macros (such as footnotes).
  3265 
  3266 * Document antiquotation @{verbatim} prints ASCII text literally in "tt"
  3267 style.
  3268 
  3269 * Discontinued obsolete option "document_graph": session_graph.pdf is
  3270 produced unconditionally for HTML browser_info and PDF-LaTeX document.
  3271 
  3272 * Diagnostic commands and document markup commands within a proof do not
  3273 affect the command tag for output. Thus commands like 'thm' are subject
  3274 to proof document structure, and no longer "stick out" accidentally.
  3275 Commands 'text' and 'txt' merely differ in the LaTeX style, not their
  3276 tags. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  3277 
  3278 * System option "pretty_margin" is superseded by "thy_output_margin",
  3279 which is also accessible via document antiquotation option "margin".
  3280 Only the margin for document output may be changed, but not the global
  3281 pretty printing: that is 76 for plain console output, and adapted
  3282 dynamically in GUI front-ends. Implementations of document
  3283 antiquotations need to observe the margin explicitly according to
  3284 Thy_Output.string_of_margin. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3285 
  3286 * Specification of 'document_files' in the session ROOT file is
  3287 mandatory for document preparation. The legacy mode with implicit
  3288 copying of the document/ directory is no longer supported. Minor
  3289 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3290 
  3291 
  3292 *** Pure ***
  3293 
  3294 * Proof methods with explicit instantiation ("rule_tac", "subgoal_tac"
  3295 etc.) allow an optional context of local variables ('for' declaration):
  3296 these variables become schematic in the instantiated theorem; this
  3297 behaviour is analogous to 'for' in attributes "where" and "of".
  3298 Configuration option rule_insts_schematic (default false) controls use
  3299 of schematic variables outside the context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3300 declare rule_insts_schematic = true temporarily and update to use local
  3301 variable declarations or dummy patterns instead.
  3302 
  3303 * Explicit instantiation via attributes "where", "of", and proof methods
  3304 "rule_tac" with derivatives like "subgoal_tac" etc. admit dummy patterns
  3305 ("_") that stand for anonymous local variables.
  3306 
  3307 * Generated schematic variables in standard format of exported facts are
  3308 incremented to avoid material in the proof context. Rare
  3309 INCOMPATIBILITY, explicit instantiation sometimes needs to refer to
  3310 different index.
  3311 
  3312 * Lexical separation of signed and unsigned numerals: categories "num"
  3313 and "float" are unsigned. INCOMPATIBILITY: subtle change in precedence
  3314 of numeral signs, particularly in expressions involving infix syntax
  3315 like "(- 1) ^ n".
  3316 
  3317 * Old inner token category "xnum" has been discontinued.  Potential
  3318 INCOMPATIBILITY for exotic syntax: may use mixfix grammar with "num"
  3319 token category instead.
  3320 
  3321 
  3322 *** HOL ***
  3323 
  3324 * New (co)datatype package:
  3325   - The 'datatype_new' command has been renamed 'datatype'. The old
  3326     command of that name is now called 'old_datatype' and is provided
  3327     by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  3328     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  3329     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3330   - Renamed theorems:
  3331       disc_corec ~> corec_disc
  3332       disc_corec_iff ~> corec_disc_iff
  3333       disc_exclude ~> distinct_disc
  3334       disc_exhaust ~> exhaust_disc
  3335       disc_map_iff ~> map_disc_iff
  3336       sel_corec ~> corec_sel
  3337       sel_exhaust ~> exhaust_sel
  3338       sel_map ~> map_sel
  3339       sel_set ~> set_sel
  3340       sel_split ~> split_sel
  3341       sel_split_asm ~> split_sel_asm
  3342       strong_coinduct ~> coinduct_strong
  3343       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  3344     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3345   - The "no_code" option to "free_constructors", "datatype_new", and
  3346     "codatatype" has been renamed "plugins del: code".
  3347     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3348   - The rules "set_empty" have been removed. They are easy
  3349     consequences of other set rules "by auto".
  3350     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3351   - The rule "set_cases" is now registered with the "[cases set]"
  3352     attribute. This can influence the behavior of the "cases" proof
  3353     method when more than one case rule is applicable (e.g., an
  3354     assumption is of the form "w : set ws" and the method "cases w"
  3355     is invoked). The solution is to specify the case rule explicitly
  3356     (e.g. "cases w rule: widget.exhaust").
  3357     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3358   - Renamed theories:
  3359       BNF_Comp ~> BNF_Composition
  3360       BNF_FP_Base ~> BNF_Fixpoint_Base
  3361       BNF_GFP ~> BNF_Greatest_Fixpoint
  3362       BNF_LFP ~> BNF_Least_Fixpoint
  3363       BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> BNF_Wellorder_Constructions
  3364       Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> Cardinals/Wellorder_Constructions
  3365     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3366   - Lifting and Transfer setup for basic HOL types sum and prod (also
  3367     option) is now performed by the BNF package. Theories Lifting_Sum,
  3368     Lifting_Product and Lifting_Option from Main became obsolete and
  3369     were removed. Changed definitions of the relators rel_prod and
  3370     rel_sum (using inductive).
  3371     INCOMPATIBILITY: use rel_prod.simps and rel_sum.simps instead
  3372     of rel_prod_def and rel_sum_def.
  3373     Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: (rarely used by name) transfer theorem names
  3374     changed (e.g. map_prod_transfer ~> prod.map_transfer).
  3375   - Parametricity theorems for map functions, relators, set functions,
  3376     constructors, case combinators, discriminators, selectors and
  3377     (co)recursors are automatically proved and registered as transfer
  3378     rules.
  3379 
  3380 * Old datatype package:
  3381   - The old 'datatype' command has been renamed 'old_datatype', and
  3382     'rep_datatype' has been renamed 'old_rep_datatype'. They are
  3383     provided by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  3384     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  3385     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3386   - Renamed theorems:
  3387       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  3388     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3389   - Renamed theory:
  3390       ~~/src/HOL/Datatype.thy ~> ~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy
  3391     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3392 
  3393 * Nitpick:
  3394   - Fixed soundness bug related to the strict and non-strict subset
  3395     operations.
  3396 
  3397 * Sledgehammer:
  3398   - CVC4 is now included with Isabelle instead of CVC3 and run by
  3399     default.
  3400   - Z3 is now always enabled by default, now that it is fully open
  3401     source. The "z3_non_commercial" option is discontinued.
  3402   - Minimization is now always enabled by default.
  3403     Removed sub-command:
  3404       min
  3405   - Proof reconstruction, both one-liners and Isar, has been
  3406     dramatically improved.
  3407   - Improved support for CVC4 and veriT.
  3408 
  3409 * Old and new SMT modules:
  3410   - The old 'smt' method has been renamed 'old_smt' and moved to
  3411     'src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy'. It is provided for compatibility,
  3412     until applications have been ported to use the new 'smt' method. For
  3413     the method to work, an older version of Z3 (e.g. Z3 3.2 or 4.0) must
  3414     be installed, and the environment variable "OLD_Z3_SOLVER" must
  3415     point to it.
  3416     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3417   - The 'smt2' method has been renamed 'smt'.
  3418     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3419   - New option 'smt_reconstruction_step_timeout' to limit the
  3420     reconstruction time of Z3 proof steps in the new 'smt' method.
  3421   - New option 'smt_statistics' to display statistics of the new 'smt'
  3422     method, especially runtime statistics of Z3 proof reconstruction.
  3423 
  3424 * Lifting: command 'lift_definition' allows to execute lifted constants
  3425 that have as a return type a datatype containing a subtype. This
  3426 overcomes long-time limitations in the area of code generation and
  3427 lifting, and avoids tedious workarounds.
  3428 
  3429 * Command and antiquotation "value" provide different evaluation slots
  3430 (again), where the previous strategy (NBE after ML) serves as default.
  3431 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3432 
  3433 * Add NO_MATCH-simproc, allows to check for syntactic non-equality.
  3434 
  3435 * field_simps: Use NO_MATCH-simproc for distribution rules, to avoid
  3436 non-termination in case of distributing a division. With this change
  3437 field_simps is in some cases slightly less powerful, if it fails try to
  3438 add algebra_simps, or use divide_simps. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3439 
  3440 * Separate class no_zero_divisors has been given up in favour of fully
  3441 algebraic semiring_no_zero_divisors. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3442 
  3443 * Class linordered_semidom really requires no zero divisors.
  3444 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3445 
  3446 * Classes division_ring, field and linordered_field always demand
  3447 "inverse 0 = 0". Given up separate classes division_ring_inverse_zero,
  3448 field_inverse_zero and linordered_field_inverse_zero. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3449 
  3450 * Classes cancel_ab_semigroup_add / cancel_monoid_add specify explicit
  3451 additive inverse operation. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3452 
  3453 * Complex powers and square roots. The functions "ln" and "powr" are now
  3454 overloaded for types real and complex, and 0 powr y = 0 by definition.
  3455 INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be necessary.
  3456 
  3457 * The functions "sin" and "cos" are now defined for any type of sort
  3458 "{real_normed_algebra_1,banach}" type, so in particular on "real" and
  3459 "complex" uniformly. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be
  3460 needed.
  3461 
  3462 * New library of properties of the complex transcendental functions sin,
  3463 cos, tan, exp, Ln, Arctan, Arcsin, Arccos. Ported from HOL Light.
  3464 
  3465 * The factorial function, "fact", now has type "nat => 'a" (of a sort
  3466 that admits numeric types including nat, int, real and complex.
  3467 INCOMPATIBILITY: an expression such as "fact 3 = 6" may require a type
  3468 constraint, and the combination "real (fact k)" is likely to be
  3469 unsatisfactory. If a type conversion is still necessary, then use
  3470 "of_nat (fact k)" or "real_of_nat (fact k)".
  3471 
  3472 * Removed functions "natfloor" and "natceiling", use "nat o floor" and
  3473 "nat o ceiling" instead. A few of the lemmas have been retained and
  3474 adapted: in their names "natfloor"/"natceiling" has been replaced by
  3475 "nat_floor"/"nat_ceiling".
  3476 
  3477 * Qualified some duplicated fact names required for boostrapping the
  3478 type class hierarchy:
  3479   ab_add_uminus_conv_diff ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  3480   field_inverse_zero ~> inverse_zero
  3481   field_divide_inverse ~> divide_inverse
  3482   field_inverse ~> left_inverse
  3483 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3484 
  3485 * Eliminated fact duplicates:
  3486   mult_less_imp_less_right ~> mult_right_less_imp_less
  3487   mult_less_imp_less_left ~> mult_left_less_imp_less
  3488 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3489 
  3490 * Fact consolidation: even_less_0_iff is subsumed by
  3491 double_add_less_zero_iff_single_add_less_zero (simp by default anyway).
  3492 
  3493 * Generalized and consolidated some theorems concerning divsibility:
  3494   dvd_reduce ~> dvd_add_triv_right_iff
  3495   dvd_plus_eq_right ~> dvd_add_right_iff
  3496   dvd_plus_eq_left ~> dvd_add_left_iff
  3497 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3498 
  3499 * "even" and "odd" are mere abbreviations for "2 dvd _" and "~ 2 dvd _"
  3500 and part of theory Main.
  3501   even_def ~> even_iff_mod_2_eq_zero
  3502 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3503 
  3504 * Lemma name consolidation: divide_Numeral1 ~> divide_numeral_1. Minor
  3505 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3506 
  3507 * Bootstrap of listsum as special case of abstract product over lists.
  3508 Fact rename:
  3509     listsum_def ~> listsum.eq_foldr
  3510 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3511 
  3512 * Product over lists via constant "listprod".
  3513 
  3514 * Theory List: renamed drop_Suc_conv_tl and nth_drop' to
  3515 Cons_nth_drop_Suc.
  3516 
  3517 * New infrastructure for compiling, running, evaluating and testing
  3518 generated code in target languages in HOL/Library/Code_Test. See
  3519 HOL/Codegenerator_Test/Code_Test* for examples.
  3520 
  3521 * Library/Multiset:
  3522   - Introduced "replicate_mset" operation.
  3523   - Introduced alternative characterizations of the multiset ordering in
  3524     "Library/Multiset_Order".
  3525   - Renamed multiset ordering:
  3526       <# ~> #<#
  3527       <=# ~> #<=#
  3528       \<subset># ~> #\<subset>#
  3529       \<subseteq># ~> #\<subseteq>#
  3530     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3531   - Introduced abbreviations for ill-named multiset operations:
  3532       <#, \<subset># abbreviate < (strict subset)
  3533       <=#, \<le>#, \<subseteq># abbreviate <= (subset or equal)
  3534     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3535   - Renamed
  3536       in_multiset_of ~> in_multiset_in_set
  3537       Multiset.fold ~> fold_mset
  3538       Multiset.filter ~> filter_mset
  3539     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3540   - Removed mcard, is equal to size.
  3541   - Added attributes:
  3542       image_mset.id [simp]
  3543       image_mset_id [simp]
  3544       elem_multiset_of_set [simp, intro]
  3545       comp_fun_commute_plus_mset [simp]
  3546       comp_fun_commute.fold_mset_insert [OF comp_fun_commute_plus_mset, simp]
  3547       in_mset_fold_plus_iff [iff]
  3548       set_of_Union_mset [simp]
  3549       in_Union_mset_iff [iff]
  3550     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3551 
  3552 * Library/Sum_of_Squares: simplified and improved "sos" method. Always
  3553 use local CSDP executable, which is much faster than the NEOS server.
  3554 The "sos_cert" functionality is invoked as "sos" with additional
  3555 argument. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3556 
  3557 * HOL-Decision_Procs: New counterexample generator quickcheck
  3558 [approximation] for inequalities of transcendental functions. Uses
  3559 hardware floating point arithmetic to randomly discover potential
  3560 counterexamples. Counterexamples are certified with the "approximation"
  3561 method. See HOL/Decision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Quickcheck_Ex.thy for
  3562 examples.
  3563 
  3564 * HOL-Probability: Reworked measurability prover
  3565   - applies destructor rules repeatedly
  3566   - removed application splitting (replaced by destructor rule)
  3567   - added congruence rules to rewrite measure spaces under the sets
  3568     projection
  3569 
  3570 * New proof method "rewrite" (in theory ~~/src/HOL/Library/Rewrite) for
  3571 single-step rewriting with subterm selection based on patterns.
  3572 
  3573 
  3574 *** ML ***
  3575 
  3576 * Subtle change of name space policy: undeclared entries are now
  3577 considered inaccessible, instead of accessible via the fully-qualified
  3578 internal name. This mainly affects Name_Space.intern (and derivatives),
  3579 which may produce an unexpected Long_Name.hidden prefix. Note that
  3580 contemporary applications use the strict Name_Space.check (and
  3581 derivatives) instead, which is not affected by the change. Potential
  3582 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare applications of Name_Space.intern.
  3583 
  3584 * Subtle change of error semantics of Toplevel.proof_of: regular user
  3585 ERROR instead of internal Toplevel.UNDEF.
  3586 
  3587 * Basic combinators map, fold, fold_map, split_list, apply are available
  3588 as parameterized antiquotations, e.g. @{map 4} for lists of quadruples.
  3589 
  3590 * Renamed "pairself" to "apply2", in accordance to @{apply 2}.
  3591 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3592 
  3593 * Former combinators NAMED_CRITICAL and CRITICAL for central critical
  3594 sections have been discontinued, in favour of the more elementary
  3595 Multithreading.synchronized and its high-level derivative
  3596 Synchronized.var (which is usually sufficient in applications). Subtle
  3597 INCOMPATIBILITY: synchronized access needs to be atomic and cannot be
  3598 nested.
  3599 
  3600 * Synchronized.value (ML) is actually synchronized (as in Scala): subtle
  3601 change of semantics with minimal potential for INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3602 
  3603 * The main operations to certify logical entities are Thm.ctyp_of and
  3604 Thm.cterm_of with a local context; old-style global theory variants are
  3605 available as Thm.global_ctyp_of and Thm.global_cterm_of.
  3606 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3607 
  3608 * Elementary operations in module Thm are no longer pervasive.
  3609 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified Thm.prop_of, Thm.cterm_of,
  3610 Thm.term_of etc.
  3611 
  3612 * Proper context for various elementary tactics: assume_tac,
  3613 resolve_tac, eresolve_tac, dresolve_tac, forward_tac, match_tac,
  3614 compose_tac, Splitter.split_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3615 
  3616 * Tactical PARALLEL_ALLGOALS is the most common way to refer to
  3617 PARALLEL_GOALS.
  3618 
  3619 * Goal.prove_multi is superseded by the fully general Goal.prove_common,
  3620 which also allows to specify a fork priority.
  3621 
  3622 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "COMMAND"} is superseded by
  3623 @{command_keyword COMMAND} (usually without quotes and with PIDE
  3624 markup). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3625 
  3626 * Cartouches within ML sources are turned into values of type
  3627 Input.source (with formal position information).
  3628 
  3629 
  3630 *** System ***
  3631 
  3632 * The Isabelle tool "update_cartouches" changes theory files to use
  3633 cartouches instead of old-style {* verbatim *} or `alt_string` tokens.
  3634 
  3635 * The Isabelle tool "build" provides new options -X, -k, -x.
  3636 
  3637 * Discontinued old-fashioned "codegen" tool. Code generation can always
  3638 be externally triggered using an appropriate ROOT file plus a
  3639 corresponding theory. Parametrization is possible using environment
  3640 variables, or ML snippets in the most extreme cases. Minor
  3641 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3642 
  3643 * JVM system property "isabelle.threads" determines size of Scala thread
  3644 pool, like Isabelle system option "threads" for ML.
  3645 
  3646 * JVM system property "isabelle.laf" determines the default Swing
  3647 look-and-feel, via internal class name or symbolic name as in the jEdit
  3648 menu Global Options / Appearance.
  3649 
  3650 * Support for Proof General and Isar TTY loop has been discontinued.
  3651 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use standard PIDE infrastructure instead.
  3652 
  3653 
  3654 
  3655 New in Isabelle2014 (August 2014)
  3656 ---------------------------------
  3657 
  3658 *** General ***
  3659 
  3660 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
  3661 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
  3662 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
  3663 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
  3664 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
  3665 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
  3666 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
  3667 some examples.
  3668 
  3669 * Standard tactics and proof methods such as "clarsimp", "auto" and
  3670 "safe" now preserve equality hypotheses "x = expr" where x is a free
  3671 variable.  Locale assumptions and chained facts containing "x"
  3672 continue to be useful.  The new method "hypsubst_thin" and the
  3673 configuration option "hypsubst_thin" (within the attribute name space)
  3674 restore the previous behavior.  INCOMPATIBILITY, especially where
  3675 induction is done after these methods or when the names of free and
  3676 bound variables clash.  As first approximation, old proofs may be
  3677 repaired by "using [[hypsubst_thin = true]]" in the critical spot.
  3678 
  3679 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
  3680 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
  3681 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
  3682 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
  3683 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
  3684 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
  3685 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
  3686 proof tools.
  3687 
  3688 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
  3689 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
  3690 supports input via ` (backquote).
  3691 
  3692 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
  3693 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
  3694 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
  3695 
  3696 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
  3697 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
  3698 string token.  General renovation of its syntax using text cartouches.
  3699 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3700 
  3701 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary workaround for
  3702 Isabelle/ML in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
  3703 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.  Potential
  3704 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3705 
  3706 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
  3707 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
  3708 
  3709 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
  3710 not check existence within the file-system.
  3711 
  3712 * Updated and extended manuals: codegen, datatypes, implementation,
  3713 isar-ref, jedit, system.
  3714 
  3715 
  3716 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3717 
  3718 * Improved Document panel: simplified interaction where every single
  3719 mouse click (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit
  3720 buffer.
  3721 
  3722 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons), with connection
  3723 to PIDE hyperlinks.
  3724 
  3725 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
  3726 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
  3727 
  3728 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
  3729 auxiliary ML files.
  3730 
  3731 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism, with simple
  3732 templates, completion language context, name-space completion,
  3733 file-name completion, spell-checker completion.
  3734 
  3735 * Refined GUI popup for completion: more robust key/mouse event
  3736 handling and propagation to enclosing text area -- avoid loosing
  3737 keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
  3738 
  3739 * Completion popup supports both ENTER and TAB (default) to select an
  3740 item, depending on Isabelle options.
  3741 
  3742 * Refined insertion of completion items wrt. jEdit text: multiple
  3743 selections, rectangular selections, rectangular selection as "tall
  3744 caret".
  3745 
  3746 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
  3747 completion popup and context-menu.
  3748 
  3749 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
  3750 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
  3751 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
  3752 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
  3753 
  3754 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
  3755 to highlight text via regular expression.
  3756 
  3757 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
  3758 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
  3759 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
  3760 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
  3761 
  3762 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
  3763 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
  3764 
  3765 * Empty editors buffers that are no longer required (e.g.\ via theory
  3766 imports) are automatically removed from the document model.
  3767 
  3768 * Improved monitor panel.
  3769 
  3770 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
  3771 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
  3772 
  3773 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
  3774 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
  3775 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
  3776 
  3777 * New Simplifier Trace panel provides an interactive view of the
  3778 simplification process, enabled by the "simp_trace_new" attribute
  3779 within the context.
  3780 
  3781 
  3782 *** Pure ***
  3783 
  3784 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
  3785 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
  3786 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
  3787 'instance' command with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem
  3788 might be postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof
  3789 finished trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous
  3790 (without any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
  3791 Axclass.class_axiomatization, Axclass.classrel_axiomatization,
  3792 Axclass.arity_axiomatization.
  3793 
  3794 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
  3795 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
  3796 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
  3797 renaming needs to be applied:
  3798 
  3799   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
  3800   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
  3801   all            ~>  Pure.all
  3802   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
  3803   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
  3804 
  3805 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
  3806 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
  3807 old constants:
  3808 
  3809 setup {*
  3810   fn thy => thy
  3811     |> Sign.root_path
  3812     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
  3813     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
  3814     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
  3815     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
  3816 *}
  3817 
  3818 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
  3819 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
  3820 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
  3821 
  3822 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
  3823 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
  3824 instantiated theorem.
  3825 
  3826 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
  3827 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
  3828 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
  3829 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
  3830 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
  3831 
  3832   attribute_setup standard =
  3833     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
  3834 
  3835 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
  3836 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
  3837 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
  3838 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
  3839 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
  3840 
  3841 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
  3842 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
  3843 differently, e.g. via cartouches).
  3844 
  3845 * Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,
  3846 but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.
  3847 
  3848 * Code generator preprocessor: explicit control of simp tracing on a
  3849 per-constant basis.  See attribute "code_preproc".
  3850 
  3851 
  3852 *** HOL ***
  3853 
  3854 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict target
  3855 language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3856 
  3857 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
  3858 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3859 
  3860 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.  Minor
  3861 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3862 
  3863 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures"
  3864 option.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3865 
  3866 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
  3867 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3868 
  3869 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
  3870 with the given constants.
  3871 
  3872 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
  3873 operations on records.
  3874 
  3875 * Command and antiquotation "value" are now hardcoded against nbe and
  3876 ML.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3877 
  3878 * Renamed command 'enriched_type' to 'functor'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3879 
  3880 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
  3881 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
  3882 
  3883 * Qualified String.implode and String.explode.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3884 
  3885 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules can
  3886 now deal with conjunctions.  For help with converting proofs, the old
  3887 behaviour of the simplifier can be restored like this: declare/using
  3888 [[simp_legacy_precond]].  This configuration option will disappear
  3889 again in the future.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3890 
  3891 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
  3892 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3893 
  3894 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from session
  3895   "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".  The commands 'bnf', 'wrap_free_constructors',
  3896   'datatype_new', 'codatatype', 'primcorec', 'primcorecursive' are now
  3897   part of theory "Main".
  3898 
  3899   Theory renamings:
  3900     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
  3901     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
  3902     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
  3903     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
  3904     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
  3905     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
  3906     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
  3907     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
  3908     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
  3909     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
  3910     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
  3911     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
  3912     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
  3913     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
  3914     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
  3915     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
  3916     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
  3917     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
  3918     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
  3919     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
  3920     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
  3921     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
  3922 
  3923   New theories:
  3924     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
  3925     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
  3926     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
  3927     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
  3928     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
  3929 
  3930   Discontinued theories:
  3931     BNF/BNF.thy
  3932     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
  3933 
  3934 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3935 
  3936 * New (co)datatype package:
  3937   - Command 'primcorec' is fully implemented.
  3938   - Command 'datatype_new' generates size functions ("size_xxx" and
  3939     "size") as required by 'fun'.
  3940   - BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style
  3941     (co)datatypes with Transfer.
  3942   - Renamed commands:
  3943       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
  3944       primrec_new ~> primrec
  3945       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
  3946     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3947   - The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
  3948     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
  3949     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3950   - The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer
  3951     generated.  Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually
  3952     using "prim(co)rec".
  3953     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3954   - No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by
  3955     default, eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
  3956     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3957   - No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
  3958     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
  3959     "discs_sels" option is passed.
  3960     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3961 
  3962 * Old datatype package:
  3963   - The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been
  3964     renamed "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" ->
  3965     "sum.case").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3966   - The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have
  3967     been renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g.,
  3968     "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3969 
  3970 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions,
  3971   their relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new
  3972   BNF-based datatype package.
  3973 
  3974   Renamed constants:
  3975     Option.set ~> set_option
  3976     Option.map ~> map_option
  3977     option_rel ~> rel_option
  3978 
  3979   Renamed theorems:
  3980     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
  3981     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
  3982     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
  3983     option.recs ~> option.rec
  3984     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
  3985     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
  3986     map.simps ~> list.map
  3987     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
  3988     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
  3989     the.simps ~> option.sel
  3990 
  3991 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3992 
  3993 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
  3994     sum_map ~> map_sum
  3995     map_pair ~> map_prod
  3996     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
  3997     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
  3998     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
  3999     set_rel ~> rel_set
  4000     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
  4001     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "src/HOL/Library/FSet.thy")
  4002     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "src/HOL/Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
  4003     vset ~> rel_vset (in "src/HOL/Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
  4004 
  4005 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4006 
  4007 * Lifting and Transfer:
  4008   - a type variable as a raw type is supported
  4009   - stronger reflexivity prover
  4010   - rep_eq is always generated by lift_definition
  4011   - setup for Lifting/Transfer is now automated for BNFs
  4012     + holds for BNFs that do not contain a dead variable
  4013     + relator_eq, relator_mono, relator_distr, relator_domain,
  4014       relator_eq_onp, quot_map, transfer rules for bi_unique, bi_total,
  4015       right_unique, right_total, left_unique, left_total are proved
  4016       automatically
  4017     + definition of a predicator is generated automatically
  4018     + simplification rules for a predicator definition are proved
  4019       automatically for datatypes
  4020   - consolidation of the setup of Lifting/Transfer
  4021     + property that a relator preservers reflexivity is not needed any
  4022       more
  4023       Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4024     + left_total and left_unique rules are now transfer rules
  4025       (reflexivity_rule attribute not needed anymore)
  4026       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4027     + Domainp does not have to be a separate assumption in
  4028       relator_domain theorems (=> more natural statement)
  4029       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4030   - registration of code equations is more robust
  4031     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4032   - respectfulness proof obligation is preprocessed to a more readable
  4033     form
  4034     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4035   - eq_onp is always unfolded in respectfulness proof obligation
  4036     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4037   - unregister lifting setup for Code_Numeral.integer and
  4038     Code_Numeral.natural
  4039     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4040   - Lifting.invariant -> eq_onp
  4041     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4042 
  4043 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof
  4044 traces.  This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and
  4045 "dpll".  Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT
  4046 solvers should use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now
  4047 the default SAT solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and
  4048 corresponding tactics; the old default can be restored using "declare
  4049 [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4050 
  4051 * SMT module: A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called
  4052 "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2 and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g.,
  4053 4.3). The new proof method is called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also
  4054 supported as oracles. Yices is no longer supported, because no version
  4055 of the solver can handle both SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
  4056 
  4057 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
  4058 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
  4059 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
  4060 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
  4061 
  4062 * Sledgehammer:
  4063   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
  4064   - MaSh overhaul:
  4065     . New SML-based learning algorithms eliminate the dependency on
  4066       Python and increase performance and reliability.
  4067     . MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the
  4068       traditional MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable
  4069       MaSh, set the "MaSh" system option in Isabelle/jEdit Plugin
  4070       Options / Isabelle / General to "none".
  4071   - New option:
  4072       smt_proofs
  4073   - Renamed options:
  4074       isar_compress ~> compress
  4075       isar_try0 ~> try0
  4076 
  4077 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4078 
  4079 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
  4080 
  4081 * Nitpick:
  4082   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could
  4083     take infinite values.
  4084   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as
  4085     "Abs_Integ" and "Rep_Integ".
  4086   - Removed "std" option.
  4087   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
  4088     "hide_types".
  4089 
  4090 * Metis: Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis
  4091 (full_types)' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4092 
  4093 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
  4094 
  4095 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
  4096   - Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
  4097   - Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF and
  4098     SUP instead uniformly.
  4099   - More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
  4100     or SUP and Sup.
  4101   - INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
  4102   - Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
  4103   - Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong, with
  4104     simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace former
  4105     INT_cong, SUP_cong
  4106 
  4107 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4108 
  4109 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice.
  4110 
  4111 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
  4112 
  4113   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  4114   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  4115   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  4116   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  4117 
  4118 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4119 
  4120 * Theory reorganization: split of Big_Operators.thy into
  4121 Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy.
  4122 
  4123 * Consolidated some facts about big group operators:
  4124 
  4125     setsum_0' ~> setsum.neutral
  4126     setsum_0 ~> setsum.neutral_const
  4127     setsum_addf ~> setsum.distrib
  4128     setsum_cartesian_product ~> setsum.cartesian_product
  4129     setsum_cases ~> setsum.If_cases
  4130     setsum_commute ~> setsum.commute
  4131     setsum_cong ~> setsum.cong
  4132     setsum_delta ~> setsum.delta
  4133     setsum_delta' ~> setsum.delta'
  4134     setsum_diff1' ~> setsum.remove
  4135     setsum_empty ~> setsum.empty
  4136     setsum_infinite ~> setsum.infinite
  4137     setsum_insert ~> setsum.insert
  4138     setsum_inter_restrict'' ~> setsum.inter_filter
  4139     setsum_mono_zero_cong_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_left
  4140     setsum_mono_zero_cong_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_right
  4141     setsum_mono_zero_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_left
  4142     setsum_mono_zero_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_right
  4143     setsum_reindex ~> setsum.reindex
  4144     setsum_reindex_cong ~> setsum.reindex_cong
  4145     setsum_reindex_nonzero ~> setsum.reindex_nontrivial
  4146     setsum_restrict_set ~> setsum.inter_restrict
  4147     setsum_Plus ~> setsum.Plus
  4148     setsum_setsum_restrict ~> setsum.commute_restrict
  4149     setsum_Sigma ~> setsum.Sigma
  4150     setsum_subset_diff ~> setsum.subset_diff
  4151     setsum_Un_disjoint ~> setsum.union_disjoint
  4152     setsum_UN_disjoint ~> setsum.UNION_disjoint
  4153     setsum_Un_Int ~> setsum.union_inter
  4154     setsum_Union_disjoint ~> setsum.Union_disjoint
  4155     setsum_UNION_zero ~> setsum.Union_comp
  4156     setsum_Un_zero ~> setsum.union_inter_neutral
  4157     strong_setprod_cong ~> setprod.strong_cong
  4158     strong_setsum_cong ~> setsum.strong_cong
  4159     setprod_1' ~> setprod.neutral
  4160     setprod_1 ~> setprod.neutral_const
  4161     setprod_cartesian_product ~> setprod.cartesian_product
  4162     setprod_cong ~> setprod.cong
  4163     setprod_delta ~> setprod.delta
  4164     setprod_delta' ~> setprod.delta'
  4165     setprod_empty ~> setprod.empty
  4166     setprod_infinite ~> setprod.infinite
  4167     setprod_insert ~> setprod.insert
  4168     setprod_mono_one_cong_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_left
  4169     setprod_mono_one_cong_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_right
  4170     setprod_mono_one_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_left
  4171     setprod_mono_one_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_right
  4172     setprod_reindex ~> setprod.reindex
  4173     setprod_reindex_cong ~> setprod.reindex_cong
  4174     setprod_reindex_nonzero ~> setprod.reindex_nontrivial
  4175     setprod_Sigma ~> setprod.Sigma
  4176     setprod_subset_diff ~> setprod.subset_diff
  4177     setprod_timesf ~> setprod.distrib
  4178     setprod_Un2 ~> setprod.union_diff2
  4179     setprod_Un_disjoint ~> setprod.union_disjoint
  4180     setprod_UN_disjoint ~> setprod.UNION_disjoint
  4181     setprod_Un_Int ~> setprod.union_inter
  4182     setprod_Union_disjoint ~> setprod.Union_disjoint
  4183     setprod_Un_one ~> setprod.union_inter_neutral
  4184 
  4185   Dropped setsum_cong2 (simple variant of setsum.cong).
  4186   Dropped setsum_inter_restrict' (simple variant of setsum.inter_restrict)
  4187   Dropped setsum_reindex_id, setprod_reindex_id
  4188     (simple variants of setsum.reindex [symmetric], setprod.reindex [symmetric]).
  4189 
  4190 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4191 
  4192 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
  4193 
  4194   Fact consolidations:
  4195     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
  4196     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
  4197     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
  4198     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
  4199     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
  4200     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
  4201     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
  4202     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
  4203     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
  4204     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
  4205     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
  4206     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
  4207     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
  4208     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
  4209     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
  4210     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
  4211     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
  4212     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
  4213     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
  4214     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
  4215     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
  4216     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
  4217     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
  4218     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
  4219     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
  4220     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
  4221     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
  4222     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
  4223     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
  4224     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
  4225     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
  4226     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
  4227     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
  4228     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
  4229     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
  4230     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
  4231     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
  4232     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
  4233     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
  4234     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
  4235 
  4236 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
  4237 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
  4238 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
  4239 
  4240 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1,
  4241 min.cobounded2, max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
  4242 
  4243 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
  4244 
  4245 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4246 
  4247 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~>
  4248 Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4249 
  4250 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
  4251 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4252 
  4253 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
  4254     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
  4255 
  4256 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4257 
  4258 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and
  4259   consolidation:
  4260     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
  4261     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
  4262 
  4263 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4264 
  4265 * Abolished neg_numeral.
  4266   - Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
  4267   - Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
  4268   - When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
  4269     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
  4270   - HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
  4271     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
  4272   - Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
  4273 
  4274 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4275 
  4276 * Reduced name variants for rules on associativity and commutativity:
  4277 
  4278     add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  4279     add_commute ~> add.commute
  4280     add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  4281     mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  4282     mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  4283     mult_left_commute ~> mult.left_commute
  4284     nat_add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  4285     nat_add_commute ~> add.commute
  4286     nat_add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  4287     nat_mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  4288     nat_mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  4289     eq_assoc ~> iff_assoc
  4290     eq_left_commute ~> iff_left_commute
  4291 
  4292 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4293 
  4294 * Fact collections add_ac and mult_ac are considered old-fashioned.
  4295 Prefer ac_simps instead, or specify rules
  4296 (add|mult).(assoc|commute|left_commute) individually.
  4297 
  4298 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
  4299     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
  4300     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
  4301     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
  4302     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
  4303 
  4304 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4305 
  4306 * Fact name consolidation:
  4307     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  4308     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
  4309     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
  4310     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
  4311     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
  4312 
  4313 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4314 
  4315 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
  4316 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
  4317 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
  4318 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
  4319 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
  4320 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly have
  4321 been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and field_simps.
  4322 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4323 
  4324 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
  4325 
  4326 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
  4327 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
  4328 
  4329 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
  4330 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
  4331 
  4332 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
  4333 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
  4334 or the brute way with
  4335 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
  4336 
  4337 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in theory
  4338 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them instead of explicitly
  4339 stating boundedness of sets.
  4340 
  4341 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow more
  4342 syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain shows up as
  4343 additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4344 
  4345 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
  4346   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
  4347   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
  4348   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
  4349   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
  4350   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
  4351   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
  4352   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
  4353   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
  4354   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
  4355   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
  4356   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
  4357 
  4358   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
  4359 
  4360   removed auxiliary lemmas:
  4361 
  4362     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
  4363     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr,
  4364     real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded, summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2,
  4365     sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom, sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero,
  4366     summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
  4367 
  4368 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4369 
  4370 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
  4371   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
  4372 
  4373   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
  4374 
  4375   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
  4376 
  4377   - removed constant isDiff
  4378 
  4379   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as
  4380     input syntax.
  4381 
  4382   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed.
  4383 
  4384   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
  4385 
  4386   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
  4387 
  4388   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
  4389 
  4390   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which
  4391     includes now rules for DERIV, has_derivative and
  4392     has_vector_derivative.
  4393 
  4394   - Other renamings:
  4395     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
  4396     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
  4397     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
  4398     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
  4399     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
  4400     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
  4401     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
  4402 
  4403 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4404 
  4405 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the
  4406 continuous_on_intros, isCont_intros collections, these facts are now
  4407 in continuous_intros.
  4408 
  4409 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im,
  4410 the Complex constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use
  4411 primcorec to defined the behaviour of a complex-valued function.
  4412 
  4413 Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they
  4414 are available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This
  4415 especially removes
  4416 
  4417     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
  4418 
  4419 Instead the reverse direction is supported with
  4420     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
  4421 
  4422 Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
  4423 
  4424   Renamings:
  4425     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
  4426     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
  4427     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
  4428     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
  4429     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
  4430     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
  4431     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
  4432     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
  4433     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
  4434     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
  4435     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
  4436     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
  4437 
  4438     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
  4439     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
  4440     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
  4441 
  4442   Removed theorems:
  4443     complex_zero_def
  4444     complex_add_def
  4445     complex_minus_def
  4446     complex_diff_def
  4447     complex_one_def
  4448     complex_mult_def
  4449     complex_inverse_def
  4450     complex_scaleR_def
  4451 
  4452 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4453 
  4454 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
  4455 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4456 
  4457 * HOL-Library: new theory src/HOL/Library/Tree.thy.
  4458 
  4459 * HOL-Library: removed theory src/HOL/Library/Kleene_Algebra.thy; it
  4460 is subsumed by session Kleene_Algebra in AFP.
  4461 
  4462 * HOL-Library / theory RBT: various constants and facts are hidden;
  4463 lifting setup is unregistered.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4464 
  4465 * HOL-Cardinals: new theory src/HOL/Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy.
  4466 
  4467 * HOL-Word: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
  4468 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4469 
  4470 * HOL-Word:
  4471   - Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a duplicate
  4472     of "word_arith_wis".
  4473   - Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
  4474     "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
  4475     "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
  4476 
  4477 * HOL-Number_Theory:
  4478   - consolidated the proofs of the binomial theorem
  4479   - the function fib is again of type nat => nat and not overloaded
  4480   - no more references to Old_Number_Theory in the HOL libraries
  4481     (except the AFP)
  4482 
  4483 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4484 
  4485 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
  4486   - Type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces.
  4487   - New theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
  4488     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
  4489   - Changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
  4490     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
  4491     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
  4492     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
  4493     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-)open
  4494     intervals.
  4495   - removed dependencies on type class ordered_euclidean_space with
  4496     introduction of "cbox" on euclidean_space
  4497     - renamed theorems:
  4498         interval ~> box
  4499         mem_interval ~> mem_box
  4500         interval_eq_empty ~> box_eq_empty
  4501         interval_ne_empty ~> box_ne_empty
  4502         interval_sing(1) ~> cbox_sing
  4503         interval_sing(2) ~> box_sing
  4504         subset_interval_imp ~> subset_box_imp
  4505         subset_interval ~> subset_box
  4506         open_interval ~> open_box
  4507         closed_interval ~> closed_cbox
  4508         interior_closed_interval ~> interior_cbox
  4509         bounded_closed_interval ~> bounded_cbox
  4510         compact_interval ~> compact_cbox
  4511         bounded_subset_closed_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_cbox_symmetric
  4512         bounded_subset_closed_interval ~> bounded_subset_cbox
  4513         mem_interval_componentwiseI ~> mem_box_componentwiseI
  4514         convex_box ~> convex_prod
  4515         rel_interior_real_interval ~> rel_interior_real_box
  4516         convex_interval ~> convex_box
  4517         convex_hull_eq_real_interval ~> convex_hull_eq_real_cbox
  4518         frechet_derivative_within_closed_interval ~> frechet_derivative_within_cbox
  4519         content_closed_interval' ~> content_cbox'
  4520         elementary_subset_interval ~> elementary_subset_box
  4521         diameter_closed_interval ~> diameter_cbox
  4522         frontier_closed_interval ~> frontier_cbox
  4523         frontier_open_interval ~> frontier_box
  4524         bounded_subset_open_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_box_symmetric
  4525         closure_open_interval ~> closure_box
  4526         open_closed_interval_convex ~> open_cbox_convex
  4527         open_interval_midpoint ~> box_midpoint
  4528         content_image_affinity_interval ~> content_image_affinity_cbox
  4529         is_interval_interval ~> is_interval_cbox + is_interval_box + is_interval_closed_interval
  4530         bounded_interval ~> bounded_closed_interval + bounded_boxes
  4531 
  4532     - respective theorems for intervals over the reals:
  4533         content_closed_interval + content_cbox
  4534         has_integral + has_integral_real
  4535         fine_division_exists + fine_division_exists_real
  4536         has_integral_null + has_integral_null_real
  4537         tagged_division_union_interval + tagged_division_union_interval_real
  4538         has_integral_const + has_integral_const_real
  4539         integral_const + integral_const_real
  4540         has_integral_bound + has_integral_bound_real
  4541         integrable_continuous + integrable_continuous_real
  4542         integrable_subinterval + integrable_subinterval_real
  4543         has_integral_reflect_lemma + has_integral_reflect_lemma_real
  4544         integrable_reflect + integrable_reflect_real
  4545         integral_reflect + integral_reflect_real
  4546         image_affinity_interval + image_affinity_cbox
  4547         image_smult_interval + image_smult_cbox
  4548         integrable_const + integrable_const_ivl
  4549         integrable_on_subinterval + integrable_on_subcbox
  4550 
  4551   - renamed theorems:
  4552     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
  4553     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
  4554     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
  4555 
  4556 * HOL-Probability:
  4557   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
  4558 
  4559     . Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
  4560       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
  4561 
  4562     . Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
  4563 
  4564   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general
  4565     Bochner integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
  4566 
  4567     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
  4568     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
  4569     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
  4570     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
  4571     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
  4572     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
  4573     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
  4574     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
  4575     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
  4576     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
  4577     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
  4578     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  nn_integral_liminf
  4579     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
  4580     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
  4581     integral_indicator          ~>
  4582          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
  4583     positive_integral_fst       ~>  nn_integral_fst'
  4584     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> nn_integral_fst
  4585     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> nn_integral_snd
  4586 
  4587     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
  4588          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
  4589 
  4590     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
  4591          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
  4592 
  4593     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
  4594          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
  4595 
  4596     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
  4597          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
  4598          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
  4599 
  4600     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
  4601          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  4602 
  4603     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
  4604          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
  4605 
  4606     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
  4607          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
  4608          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  4609 
  4610     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
  4611          nn_integral_real_affine
  4612 
  4613     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
  4614          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
  4615 
  4616     The following theorems where removed:
  4617 
  4618     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
  4619     lebesgue_integral_uminus
  4620     lebesgue_integral_cmult
  4621     lebesgue_integral_multc
  4622     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
  4623     integral_cmul_indicator
  4624     integral_real
  4625 
  4626   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal
  4627     distributed random variables.
  4628 
  4629 * HOL-Decision_Procs: Separate command 'approximate' for approximative
  4630 computation in src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor
  4631 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4632 
  4633 
  4634 *** Scala ***
  4635 
  4636 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
  4637 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
  4638 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
  4639 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
  4640 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4641 
  4642 * Substantial reworking of internal PIDE protocol communication
  4643 channels.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4644 
  4645 
  4646 *** ML ***
  4647 
  4648 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
  4649 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
  4650 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
  4651 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
  4652 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
  4653 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
  4654 
  4655 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
  4656 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  4657 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
  4658 actually belongs to it).
  4659 
  4660 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
  4661 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
  4662 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
  4663 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
  4664 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
  4665 of schematic variables.
  4666 
  4667 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
  4668 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4669 
  4670 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
  4671 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context
  4672 via "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4673 
  4674 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
  4675 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4676 
  4677 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
  4678 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
  4679 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
  4680 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4681 
  4682 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
  4683 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4684 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
  4685 formal context.
  4686 
  4687 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
  4688 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4689 
  4690 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
  4691 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
  4692 
  4693 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
  4694 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
  4695 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
  4696 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
  4697 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
  4698 
  4699 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
  4700 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
  4701 purposes.
  4702 
  4703 
  4704 *** System ***
  4705 
  4706 * Proof General with its traditional helper scripts is now an optional
  4707 Isabelle component, e.g. see ProofGeneral-4.2-2 from the Isabelle
  4708 component repository http://isabelle.in.tum.de/components/.  Note that
  4709 the "system" manual provides general explanations about add-on
  4710 components, especially those that are not bundled with the release.
  4711 
  4712 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
  4713 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
  4714 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
  4715 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
  4716 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the ISABELLE_PROCESS
  4717 settings variable.
  4718 
  4719 * Former "isabelle tty" has been superseded by "isabelle console",
  4720 with implicit build like "isabelle jedit", and without the mostly
  4721 obsolete Isar TTY loop.
  4722 
  4723 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
  4724 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
  4725 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
  4726 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
  4727 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
  4728 
  4729 * Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize".  Note that the usual format
  4730 for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,
  4731 as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.
  4732 
  4733 * Removed obsolete tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality may be
  4734 integrated into Isabelle/jEdit eventually.
  4735 
  4736 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
  4737 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
  4738 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
  4739 
  4740 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
  4741 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
  4742 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
  4743 processing is started.
  4744 
  4745 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
  4746 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
  4747 
  4748 
  4749 
  4750 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
  4751 -------------------------------------
  4752 
  4753 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  4754 
  4755 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
  4756 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
  4757 
  4758 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
  4759 after edits surrounding the command location.
  4760 
  4761 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
  4762 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
  4763 e.g. out-of-memory).
  4764 
  4765 
  4766 *** System ***
  4767 
  4768 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
  4769 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
  4770 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
  4771 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
  4772 
  4773 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
  4774 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
  4775 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
  4776 
  4777 
  4778 
  4779 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
  4780 -------------------------------------
  4781 
  4782 *** General ***
  4783 
  4784 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
  4785 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
  4786 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4787 
  4788 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
  4789 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4790 
  4791 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
  4792 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
  4793 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
  4794 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
  4795 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
  4796 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
  4797 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
  4798 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
  4799 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
  4800 syntax.
  4801 
  4802 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
  4803 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4804 
  4805 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
  4806 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
  4807 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
  4808 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
  4809 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
  4810 
  4811 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
  4812 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4813 
  4814 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
  4815 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
  4816 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
  4817 
  4818 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
  4819 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
  4820 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
  4821 
  4822 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
  4823 eliminated old "ref" manual.
  4824 
  4825 
  4826 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  4827 
  4828 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
  4829 Documentation panel.
  4830 
  4831 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
  4832 documentation.
  4833 
  4834 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
  4835 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
  4836 
  4837 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
  4838 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
  4839 normal editing and checking process.
  4840 
  4841 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
  4842 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
  4843 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
  4844 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
  4845 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
  4846 
  4847 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
  4848 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
  4849 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
  4850 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
  4851 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
  4852 
  4853 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
  4854 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
  4855 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
  4856 
  4857 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
  4858 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
  4859 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
  4860 to resolve conflict.
  4861 
  4862 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
  4863 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
  4864 
  4865 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
  4866 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
  4867 such command executions while editing.
  4868 
  4869 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
  4870 document content.
  4871 
  4872 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
  4873 toplevel theorem statements.
  4874 
  4875 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
  4876 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
  4877 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
  4878 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
  4879 
  4880 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
  4881 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
  4882 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
  4883 
  4884 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  4885 / Global Options / Appearance".
  4886 
  4887 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  4888 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  4889 
  4890 
  4891 *** Pure ***
  4892 
  4893 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  4894 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  4895 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  4896 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  4897 details.
  4898 
  4899 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  4900 
  4901 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  4902 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  4903 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  4904 
  4905 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  4906 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4907 
  4908 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  4909 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  4910 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  4911 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4912 
  4913 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  4914 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  4915 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4916 
  4917 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  4918 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  4919 
  4920 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  4921 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  4922 situations.
  4923 
  4924 
  4925 *** HOL ***
  4926 
  4927 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  4928 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  4929 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4930 
  4931 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  4932 
  4933 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  4934 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  4935 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  4936 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  4937 
  4938   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  4939 
  4940 * Code generator:
  4941   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  4942     'code_instance'.
  4943   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  4944     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  4945 
  4946 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  4947 examples.
  4948 
  4949 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  4950 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  4951 to distinguish both when desired.
  4952 
  4953 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  4954 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  4955 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  4956 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4957 
  4958 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  4959 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  4960 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  4961 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  4962 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  4963 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4964 
  4965 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  4966 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  4967 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4968 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  4969 
  4970 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  4971 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  4972 
  4973 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  4974 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  4975 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  4976 
  4977 * Lifting:
  4978   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  4979     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  4980       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  4981       transfer rules
  4982     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  4983       correspondence relation can be generated
  4984     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  4985       parametricity
  4986     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  4987   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  4988   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  4989     copies
  4990   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  4991     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  4992     anonymous context)
  4993   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  4994     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  4995   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  4996     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  4997   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  4998     INCOMPATIBILITY
  4999 
  5000 * Transfer:
  5001   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  5002     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  5003   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  5004   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  5005     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  5006   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  5007 
  5008 * Reification and reflection:
  5009   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  5010     "Reification".
  5011   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  5012   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  5013 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5014 
  5015 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  5016   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  5017     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5018     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  5019   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  5020     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  5021   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  5022     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  5023     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  5024     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  5025     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  5026     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  5027     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  5028     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  5029   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  5030     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  5031   - Fact renames:
  5032       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  5033       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  5034 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5035 
  5036 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  5037 
  5038 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  5039 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  5040 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  5041 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5042 
  5043 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  5044 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  5045 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  5046 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  5047 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  5048 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  5049 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  5050 lemmas.
  5051 
  5052 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  5053 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  5054 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5055 
  5056 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  5057 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5058 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  5059 
  5060 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  5061 top and bottom elements.
  5062 
  5063 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  5064 
  5065 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  5066 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  5067 
  5068  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  5069    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  5070    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  5071 
  5072  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  5073    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  5074    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  5075 
  5076    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  5077    arbitrary filter.
  5078 
  5079  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  5080    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  5081    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  5082    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  5083    on a compact set.
  5084 
  5085  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  5086    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  5087    linear_continuum_topology).
  5088 
  5089  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  5090    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  5091    on all sequences converging to x.
  5092 
  5093  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  5094    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  5095    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  5096    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  5097    left or right.
  5098 
  5099  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  5100 
  5101      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  5102 
  5103  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  5104    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  5105 
  5106  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  5107    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  5108    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  5109    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  5110    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  5111    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  5112 
  5113  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  5114 
  5115    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  5116 
  5117    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  5118      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  5119 
  5120    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  5121 
  5122    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  5123      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  5124 
  5125    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  5126 
  5127    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  5128 
  5129  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  5130 
  5131 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5132 
  5133 * Nitpick:
  5134   - Added option "spy".
  5135   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  5136 
  5137 * Sledgehammer:
  5138   - Renamed option:
  5139       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  5140     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5141   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  5142   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  5143   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  5144 
  5145 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  5146 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  5147 
  5148 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  5149   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  5150   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  5151     generated code.
  5152   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  5153   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  5154   - Fact renames:
  5155     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  5156     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  5157     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  5158 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  5159 
  5160 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  5161 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  5162 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  5163 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  5164 
  5165 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  5166 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  5167 
  5168 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5169 
  5170 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  5171 
  5172     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  5173     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  5174 
  5175 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5176 
  5177 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  5178 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  5179 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  5180 
  5181 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  5182 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  5183 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  5184 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5185 
  5186 * HOL-BNF:
  5187   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  5188     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  5189     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  5190     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  5191   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  5192     coinduct).
  5193   - Renamed keywords:
  5194     data ~> datatype_new
  5195     codata ~> codatatype
  5196     bnf_def ~> bnf
  5197   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  5198     discs ~> disc
  5199     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  5200     map_id' ~> map_id
  5201     sels ~> sel
  5202     set_map' ~> set_map
  5203     sets ~> set
  5204 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  5205 
  5206 
  5207 *** ML ***
  5208 
  5209 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  5210 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  5211 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  5212 Examples.thy in particular.
  5213 
  5214 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  5215 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  5216 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  5217 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  5218 
  5219 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  5220 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  5221 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  5222 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  5223 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5224 
  5225 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  5226 
  5227     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  5228     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  5229 
  5230 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5231 
  5232 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  5233 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  5234 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  5235 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  5236 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  5237 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  5238 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  5239 
  5240 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  5241 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  5242 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  5243 clasets separately from the context.
  5244 
  5245 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  5246 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  5247 
  5248 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  5249 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  5250 
  5251 
  5252 *** System ***
  5253 
  5254 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  5255 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5256 
  5257 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  5258 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5259 
  5260 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  5261 settings variable.
  5262 
  5263 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  5264 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  5265 always pdf.
  5266 
  5267 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  5268 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  5269 
  5270 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  5271 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  5272 
  5273 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  5274 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  5275 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  5276 
  5277 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  5278 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  5279 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  5280 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  5281 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5282 for HTML presentation of theories.
  5283 
  5284 
  5285 
  5286 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  5287 -----------------------------------
  5288 
  5289 *** General ***
  5290 
  5291 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  5292 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  5293 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  5294 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  5295 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  5296 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  5297 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  5298 
  5299 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  5300 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  5301 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  5302 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  5303 
  5304 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  5305 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  5306 
  5307 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  5308 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  5309 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  5310 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  5311 dependencies properly.
  5312 
  5313 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  5314 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  5315 
  5316 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  5317 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  5318 
  5319 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  5320 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  5321 and "class ... context ...".
  5322 
  5323 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  5324 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  5325 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  5326 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  5327 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  5328 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  5329 
  5330 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  5331 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  5332 
  5333 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  5334 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  5335 
  5336 
  5337 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  5338 
  5339 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  5340 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  5341 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  5342 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  5343 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  5344 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  5345 
  5346 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  5347 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  5348 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  5349 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  5350 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  5351 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  5352 
  5353 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  5354 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  5355 browser on demand.
  5356 
  5357 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  5358 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  5359 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  5360 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  5361 
  5362 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  5363 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  5364 
  5365 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  5366 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  5367 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  5368 potentially infinite message streams.
  5369 
  5370 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  5371 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  5372 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  5373 schemes.
  5374 
  5375 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  5376 symbols.
  5377 
  5378 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  5379 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  5380 
  5381 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  5382 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  5383 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  5384 
  5385 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  5386 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  5387 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  5388 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  5389 
  5390 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  5391 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  5392 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  5393 
  5394 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  5395 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  5396 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  5397 Isabelle distribution.
  5398 
  5399 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  5400 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  5401 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  5402 
  5403 
  5404 *** Pure ***
  5405 
  5406 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  5407 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  5408 
  5409 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  5410 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  5411 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5412 
  5413 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5414 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  5415 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  5416 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  5417 with some care where this is really required.
  5418 
  5419 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  5420 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  5421 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  5422 
  5423   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  5424 
  5425 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  5426 a Hasse diagram.
  5427 
  5428 
  5429 *** HOL ***
  5430 
  5431 * Sledgehammer:
  5432 
  5433   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  5434     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  5435   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  5436   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  5437   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  5438   - Renamed options:
  5439       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  5440       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  5441       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  5442       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  5443 
  5444 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  5445 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  5446 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  5447 
  5448 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  5449 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5450 
  5451 * Lifting:
  5452   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  5453   - quot_del attribute
  5454   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  5455 
  5456 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  5457 expressions.
  5458 
  5459 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  5460 pointfree expressions.
  5461 
  5462 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  5463 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  5464 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  5465 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  5466 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5467 
  5468 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  5469 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  5470 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  5471 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  5472 accordingly.
  5473 
  5474 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  5475 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5476 
  5477 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  5478 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5479 
  5480 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5481 
  5482 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  5483 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  5484 
  5485 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  5486 
  5487 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  5488 
  5489   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  5490   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  5491 
  5492 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5493 
  5494 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  5495 
  5496   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  5497   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  5498 
  5499 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5500 
  5501 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  5502 
  5503   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  5504     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  5505     output f x converges to G.
  5506 
  5507   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  5508     infinity (at_bot).
  5509 
  5510   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  5511     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  5512 
  5513   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  5514     at_top".
  5515 
  5516 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5517 
  5518 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  5519 lattice type classes.
  5520 
  5521 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  5522 
  5523     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  5524     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  5525 
  5526 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5527 
  5528 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  5529 changes as follows.
  5530 
  5531   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  5532 
  5533       prefix ~> prefixeq
  5534       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  5535 
  5536   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  5537     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  5538     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  5539     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  5540 
  5541   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  5542     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  5543     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  5544 
  5545   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  5546     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  5547     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  5548     Library/Prefix_Order.
  5549 
  5550   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  5551     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  5552 
  5553       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  5554       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  5555       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  5556       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  5557       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  5558       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  5559       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  5560       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  5561       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  5562       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  5563       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  5564       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  5565       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  5566       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  5567       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  5568       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  5569 
  5570 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5571 
  5572 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  5573 
  5574 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  5575 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  5576 
  5577 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  5578 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  5579 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  5580 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  5581 
  5582   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  5583   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  5584   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  5585   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  5586   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  5587   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  5588   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  5589   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  5590   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  5591   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  5592 
  5593 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5594 
  5595 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  5596 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  5597 Data").
  5598 
  5599 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  5600 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  5601 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  5602 code.
  5603 
  5604 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  5605 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  5606 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  5607 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5608 
  5609 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  5610 
  5611 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  5612 
  5613 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  5614 
  5615   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  5616   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  5617 
  5618 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  5619 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  5620 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  5621 
  5622   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  5623 
  5624     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  5625     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  5626     cart_base i  removed
  5627     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  5628 
  5629   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  5630 
  5631   Renamed lemmas:
  5632 
  5633     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  5634     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  5635     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  5636     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  5637     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  5638     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  5639     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  5640     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  5641     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  5642     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  5643 
  5644 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5645 
  5646 * HOL/Probability:
  5647 
  5648   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  5649 
  5650   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  5651     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  5652     (borel_measurable_induct).
  5653 
  5654   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  5655     projective family).
  5656 
  5657 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  5658 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  5659 
  5660 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  5661 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  5662 datatypes.
  5663 
  5664 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  5665 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  5666 
  5667 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  5668 trees for the code generator.
  5669 
  5670 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  5671 Lifting/Transfer.
  5672 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5673 
  5674 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  5675 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5676 
  5677 
  5678 *** Document preparation ***
  5679 
  5680 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  5681 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  5682 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  5683 
  5684 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  5685 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  5686 
  5687 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  5688 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  5689 document/root.tex.
  5690 
  5691 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  5692 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5693 
  5694 
  5695 *** ML ***
  5696 
  5697 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  5698 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  5699 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  5700 
  5701 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  5702 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  5703 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  5704 
  5705 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  5706 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  5707 necessarily printing visible text.
  5708 
  5709 
  5710 *** System ***
  5711 
  5712 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  5713 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  5714 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  5715 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  5716 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  5717 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  5718 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  5719 
  5720 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  5721 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  5722 
  5723   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  5724 
  5725 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  5726 
  5727 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  5728 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  5729 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  5730 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  5731 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  5732 
  5733 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  5734 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  5735 
  5736 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  5737 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  5738 
  5739 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  5740 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5741 
  5742 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  5743 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  5744 version of Isabelle.
  5745 
  5746 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  5747 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  5748 
  5749 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  5750 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5751 for home-made settings.
  5752 
  5753 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  5754 
  5755 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  5756 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  5757 configuration.
  5758 
  5759 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  5760 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  5761 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  5762 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  5763 bundled as Isabelle component.
  5764 
  5765 
  5766 
  5767 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  5768 ------------------------------
  5769 
  5770 *** General ***
  5771 
  5772 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  5773 
  5774   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  5775     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  5776   - markup for bound variables
  5777   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  5778   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  5779   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  5780     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  5781 
  5782 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  5783 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  5784 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  5785 
  5786 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  5787 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  5788 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  5789 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  5790 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  5791 
  5792   context
  5793     fixes x y z :: 'a
  5794     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  5795   begin
  5796 
  5797   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  5798 
  5799   end
  5800 
  5801   thm my_trans
  5802 
  5803 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  5804 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  5805 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  5806 
  5807 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  5808 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  5809 
  5810 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  5811 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  5812 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  5813 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  5814 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  5815 
  5816 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  5817 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  5818 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  5819 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  5820 indices of schematic variables.
  5821 
  5822 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  5823 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  5824 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  5825 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  5826 etc. was exploited.
  5827 
  5828 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  5829 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  5830 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  5831 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  5832 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  5833 of the material of that old tutorial.
  5834 
  5835 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  5836 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  5837 manual.
  5838 
  5839 
  5840 *** Pure ***
  5841 
  5842 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  5843 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  5844 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  5845 
  5846 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  5847 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  5848 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  5849 undocumented feature.)
  5850 
  5851 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  5852 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  5853 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  5854 
  5855   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  5856 
  5857   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  5858     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  5859 
  5860 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  5861 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  5862 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  5863 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  5864 
  5865 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  5866 
  5867     num ~> num_token
  5868     xnum ~> xnum_token
  5869     xstr ~> str_token
  5870 
  5871 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  5872 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  5873 position information via constraints).
  5874 
  5875 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  5876 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  5877 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5878 
  5879 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  5880 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  5881 
  5882 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  5883 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  5884 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5885 
  5886 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  5887 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5888 
  5889 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  5890 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  5891 
  5892   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  5893 
  5894 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5895 
  5896 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  5897 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5898 
  5899 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  5900 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  5901 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  5902 
  5903 
  5904 *** HOL ***
  5905 
  5906 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  5907 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  5908 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  5909 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  5910 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  5911 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  5912 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  5913 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  5914 possible.
  5915 
  5916 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  5917 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  5918 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  5919 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  5920 
  5921 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  5922 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5923 
  5924 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  5925 
  5926 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  5927 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  5928 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  5929 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  5930 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  5931 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  5932 
  5933   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  5934     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  5935 
  5936   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  5937     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  5938     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  5939 
  5940   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  5941     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  5942 
  5943   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  5944     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  5945     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  5946 
  5947   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  5948     Redefine using other integer operations.
  5949 
  5950 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  5951 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  5952 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  5953 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  5954 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  5955 
  5956   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  5957     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  5958     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  5959     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  5960     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  5961 
  5962     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  5963     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  5964 
  5965   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  5966     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  5967     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  5968     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  5969     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  5970     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  5971     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  5972     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  5973 
  5974   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  5975     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  5976     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  5977     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  5978 
  5979   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  5980     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  5981     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  5982     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  5983 
  5984   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  5985     from type nat to type int.
  5986 
  5987 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  5988 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  5989 
  5990   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  5991     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  5992     type.  Example syntax:
  5993 
  5994     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  5995       is List.insert
  5996 
  5997     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  5998     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  5999     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  6000     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  6001     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  6002     by the package.
  6003 
  6004   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  6005     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  6006     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  6007     code generation for each constant.
  6008 
  6009   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  6010     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  6011     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  6012     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  6013     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  6014 
  6015   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  6016     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  6017     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  6018 
  6019 * Quotient package:
  6020 
  6021   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  6022     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  6023 
  6024   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  6025     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  6026 
  6027   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  6028     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  6029     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6030 
  6031   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  6032     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6033 
  6034 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  6035 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  6036 
  6037 * Quickcheck:
  6038 
  6039   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  6040     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  6041     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  6042     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  6043     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  6044 
  6045     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  6046     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  6047     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  6048 
  6049     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  6050     continues searching for genuine ones.
  6051 
  6052     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  6053     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  6054     show genuine counterexamples.
  6055 
  6056   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  6057     value generators for a given type and operations.
  6058 
  6059     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  6060     constructors of that type.
  6061 
  6062   - Support for multisets.
  6063 
  6064   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  6065 
  6066   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  6067     conjectures in a locale context.
  6068 
  6069 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  6070 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  6071 
  6072 * Sledgehammer:
  6073   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  6074     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  6075   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  6076   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  6077     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  6078   - Sped up the minimizer.
  6079   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  6080   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  6081   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  6082 
  6083 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  6084 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  6085 
  6086 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  6087 
  6088 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6089 
  6090 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  6091 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  6092 
  6093   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  6094 
  6095 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  6096 a list and a nat.
  6097 
  6098 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  6099 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  6100 
  6101 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  6102 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  6103 default.
  6104 
  6105 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  6106 
  6107   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  6108 
  6109 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  6110 
  6111 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  6112 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  6113 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  6114 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  6115 one_case.
  6116 
  6117 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  6118 the result of the fact expression.
  6119 
  6120 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  6121 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  6122 of some relation theorems:
  6123 
  6124   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  6125   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  6126   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  6127   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  6128   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  6129   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  6130 
  6131 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  6132 
  6133 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  6134 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  6135 
  6136 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6137 
  6138 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  6139 to match the constant's name:
  6140 
  6141   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  6142   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  6143   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  6144   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  6145   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  6146   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  6147   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  6148   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  6149   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  6150   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  6151   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  6152   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  6153   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  6154   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  6155   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  6156   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  6157   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  6158   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  6159   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  6160   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  6161   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  6162   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  6163   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  6164   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  6165 
  6166 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6167 
  6168 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  6169 and corresponding theorem names:
  6170 
  6171   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  6172 
  6173   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  6174 
  6175   - Renamed theorems:
  6176 
  6177     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  6178     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  6179     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  6180     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  6181     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  6182     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  6183     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  6184     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  6185     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  6186     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  6187     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  6188     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  6189     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  6190     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  6191     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  6192     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  6193     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  6194     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  6195     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  6196     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  6197     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  6198     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  6199     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  6200 
  6201     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  6202 
  6203     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  6204 
  6205 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6206 
  6207 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  6208 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  6209 
  6210   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  6211   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  6212   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  6213   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  6214   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  6215   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  6216   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  6217   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  6218   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  6219   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  6220   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  6221   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  6222   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  6223   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  6224   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  6225   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  6226   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  6227   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  6228   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  6229   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  6230   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  6231 
  6232 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  6233 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6234 
  6235 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6236 
  6237 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  6238 
  6239   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  6240   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  6241   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  6242   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  6243   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  6244   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  6245   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  6246   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  6247   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  6248   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  6249   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  6250   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  6251   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  6252   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  6253   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  6254   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  6255   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  6256   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  6257 
  6258 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6259 
  6260 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  6261 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  6262 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  6263 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  6264 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,