NEWS
author wenzelm
Wed Jan 22 23:51:26 2014 +0100 (2014-01-22)
changeset 55122 3eb7bcca5b90
parent 55114 0ee5c17f2207
child 55139 4d899933a51a
permissions -rw-r--r--
NEWS;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.
    25 
    26 
    27 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    28 
    29 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    30 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    31 
    32 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
    33 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
    34 
    35 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
    36 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
    37 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
    38 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
    39 
    40 
    41 *** Pure ***
    42 
    43 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
    44 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
    45 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
    46 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
    47 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
    48 
    49 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
    50 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
    51 differently).
    52 
    53 
    54 *** HOL ***
    55 
    56 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
    57   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
    58   "primrec_new", "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" command are now part of
    59   "Main".
    60   INCOMPATIBILITY.
    61   Theory renamings:
    62     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
    63     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
    64     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
    65     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
    66     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
    67     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
    68     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
    69     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
    70     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
    71     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
    72     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
    73     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
    74     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
    75     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
    76     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
    77     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
    78     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
    79     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
    80     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
    81     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
    82     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
    83     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
    84   New theories:
    85     List_Prefix.thy (split from Library/Sublist.thy)
    86     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
    87     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
    88     Library/BNF_Decl.thy
    89     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
    90     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
    91   Discontinued theory:
    92     BNF/BNF.thy
    93     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
    94 
    95 * New theory:
    96     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
    97 
    98 * Theory reorganizations:
    99   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   100 
   101 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   102 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   103 
   104 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   105 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   106 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   107 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   108 
   109 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   110 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   111 
   112 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   113 with the given constants.
   114 
   115 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   116 
   117 Fact consolidations:
   118     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   119     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   120     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   121     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   122     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   123     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   124     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   125     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   126     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   127     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   128     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   129     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   130     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   131     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   132     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   133     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   134     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   135     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   136     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   137     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   138     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   139     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   140     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   141     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   142     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   143     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   144     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   145     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   146     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   147     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   148     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   149     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   150     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   151     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   152     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   153     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   154     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   155     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   156     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   157     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   158 
   159 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   160 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   161 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   162 
   163 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   164 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   165 
   166 For min_ac or max_ac, prefor more general collection ac_simps.
   167 
   168 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   169 
   170 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   171 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   172 
   173 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   174 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   175 
   176 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   177 operations on records.
   178 
   179 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   180 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   181 
   182 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   183     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   184 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   185 
   186 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   187     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   188     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   189 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   190 
   191 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   192   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   193   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   194   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   195     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   196   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   197     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   198   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   199 INCOMPATBILITY.
   200 
   201 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   202     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   203     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   204     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   205     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   206 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   207 
   208 * Fact name consolidation:
   209     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   210     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   211     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   212     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   213     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   214 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   215 
   216 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   217 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   218 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   219 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   220 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   221 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   222 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   223 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   224 
   225 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   226 
   227 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   228 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   229 
   230 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   231 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   232 
   233 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   234 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   235 or the brute way with
   236 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   237 
   238 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   239 
   240 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   241 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   242 
   243 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   244 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   245 
   246 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   247 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   248 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   249 INCOMPATIBILITY
   250 
   251 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   252 
   253 * Nitpick:
   254   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   255     infinite values.
   256 
   257 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   258   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   259   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   260     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   261     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   262     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   263     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   264     intervals.
   265 
   266 
   267 *** ML ***
   268 
   269 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   270 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   271 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   272 formal context.
   273 
   274 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   275 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   276 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   277 actually belongs to it).
   278 
   279 
   280 *** System ***
   281 
   282 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   283 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   284 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   285 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   286 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   287 
   288 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   289 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   290 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   291 
   292 
   293 
   294 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   295 -------------------------------------
   296 
   297 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   298 
   299 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   300 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   301 
   302 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   303 after edits surrounding the command location.
   304 
   305 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   306 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   307 e.g. out-of-memory).
   308 
   309 
   310 *** System ***
   311 
   312 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   313 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   314 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   315 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   316 
   317 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   318 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   319 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   320 
   321 
   322 
   323 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   324 -------------------------------------
   325 
   326 *** General ***
   327 
   328 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   329 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   330 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   331 
   332 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   333 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   334 
   335 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   336 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   337 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   338 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   339 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   340 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   341 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   342 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   343 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   344 syntax.
   345 
   346 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   347 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   348 
   349 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   350 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   351 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   352 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   353 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   354 
   355 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   356 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   357 
   358 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   359 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   360 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   361 
   362 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   363 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   364 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   365 
   366 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   367 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   368 
   369 
   370 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   371 
   372 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   373 Documentation panel.
   374 
   375 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   376 documentation.
   377 
   378 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   379 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   380 
   381 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   382 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   383 normal editing and checking process.
   384 
   385 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   386 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   387 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   388 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   389 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   390 
   391 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   392 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   393 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   394 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   395 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   396 
   397 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   398 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   399 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   400 
   401 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   402 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   403 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   404 to resolve conflict.
   405 
   406 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   407 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   408 
   409 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   410 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   411 such command executions while editing.
   412 
   413 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   414 document content.
   415 
   416 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   417 toplevel theorem statements.
   418 
   419 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   420 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   421 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   422 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   423 
   424 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   425 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   426 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   427 
   428 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   429 / Global Options / Appearance".
   430 
   431 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   432 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   433 
   434 
   435 *** Pure ***
   436 
   437 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   438 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   439 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   440 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   441 details.
   442 
   443 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   444 
   445 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   446 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   447 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   448 
   449 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   450 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   451 
   452 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   453 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   454 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   455 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   456 
   457 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   458 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   459 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   460 
   461 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   462 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   463 
   464 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   465 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   466 situations.
   467 
   468 
   469 *** HOL ***
   470 
   471 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   472 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   473 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   474 
   475 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   476 
   477 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   478 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   479 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   480 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   481 
   482   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   483 
   484 * Code generator:
   485   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   486     'code_instance'.
   487   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   488     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   489 
   490 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   491 examples.
   492 
   493 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   494 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   495 to distinguish both when desired.
   496 
   497 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   498 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   499 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   500 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   501 
   502 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   503 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   504 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   505 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   506 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   507 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   508 
   509 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   510 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   511 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   512 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   513 
   514 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   515 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   516 
   517 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   518 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   519 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   520 
   521 * Lifting:
   522   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   523     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   524       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   525       transfer rules
   526     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   527       correspondence relation can be generated
   528     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   529       parametricity
   530     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   531   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   532   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   533     copies
   534   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   535     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   536     anonymous context)
   537   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   538     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   539   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   540     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   541   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   542     INCOMPATIBILITY
   543 
   544 * Transfer:
   545   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   546     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   547   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   548   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   549     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   550   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   551 
   552 * Reification and reflection:
   553   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   554     "Reification".
   555   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   556   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   557 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   558 
   559 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   560   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   561     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   562     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   563   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   564     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   565   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   566     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   567     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   568     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   569     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   570     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   571     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   572     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   573   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   574     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   575   - Fact renames:
   576       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   577       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   578 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   579 
   580 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   581 
   582 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   583 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   584 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   585 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   586 
   587 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   588 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   589 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   590 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   591 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   592 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   593 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   594 lemmas.
   595 
   596 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   597 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   598 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   599 
   600 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   601 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   602 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   603 
   604 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   605 top and bottom elements.
   606 
   607 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   608 
   609 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   610 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   611 
   612  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   613    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   614    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   615 
   616  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   617    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   618    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   619 
   620    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   621    arbitrary filter.
   622 
   623  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   624    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   625    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   626    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   627    on a compact set.
   628 
   629  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   630    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   631    linear_continuum_topology).
   632 
   633  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   634    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   635    on all sequences converging to x.
   636 
   637  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   638    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   639    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   640    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   641    left or right.
   642 
   643  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   644 
   645      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   646 
   647  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   648    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   649 
   650  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   651    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   652    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   653    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   654    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   655    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   656 
   657  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   658 
   659    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   660 
   661    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   662      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   663 
   664    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   665 
   666    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   667      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   668 
   669    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   670 
   671    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   672 
   673  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   674 
   675 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   676 
   677 * Nitpick:
   678   - Added option "spy"
   679   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   680 
   681 * Sledgehammer:
   682   - Renamed option:
   683       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   684     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   685   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   686   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   687   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   688 
   689 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   690 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   691 
   692 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   693   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   694   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   695     generated code.
   696   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   697   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   698   - Fact renames:
   699     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   700     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   701     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   702 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   703 
   704 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   705 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   706 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   707 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   708 
   709 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   710 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   711 
   712 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   713 
   714 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   715 
   716     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   717     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   718 
   719 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   720 
   721 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   722 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   723 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   724 
   725 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   726 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   727 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   728 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   729 
   730 * HOL-BNF:
   731   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   732     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   733     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   734     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   735   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   736     coinduct).
   737   - Renamed keywords:
   738     data ~> datatype_new
   739     codata ~> codatatype
   740     bnf_def ~> bnf
   741   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   742     discs ~> disc
   743     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   744     map_id' ~> map_id
   745     sels ~> sel
   746     set_map' ~> set_map
   747     sets ~> set
   748 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   749 
   750 
   751 *** ML ***
   752 
   753 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   754 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   755 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   756 Examples.thy in particular.
   757 
   758 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   759 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   760 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   761 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   762 
   763 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   764 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   765 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   766 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   767 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   768 
   769 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   770 
   771     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   772     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   773 
   774 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   775 
   776 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   777 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   778 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   779 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   780 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   781 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   782 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   783 
   784 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   785 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   786 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   787 clasets separately from the context.
   788 
   789 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   790 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   791 
   792 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   793 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   794 
   795 
   796 *** System ***
   797 
   798 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   799 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   800 
   801 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   802 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   803 
   804 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   805 settings variable.
   806 
   807 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   808 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   809 always pdf.
   810 
   811 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   812 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   813 
   814 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   815 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   816 
   817 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   818 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   819 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   820 
   821 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   822 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   823 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   824 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   825 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   826 for HTML presentation of theories.
   827 
   828 
   829 
   830 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   831 -----------------------------------
   832 
   833 *** General ***
   834 
   835 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   836 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   837 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   838 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   839 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   840 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   841 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   842 
   843 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   844 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   845 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   846 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   847 
   848 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   849 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   850 
   851 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   852 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   853 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   854 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   855 dependencies properly.
   856 
   857 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   858 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   859 
   860 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   861 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   862 
   863 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   864 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   865 and "class ... context ...".
   866 
   867 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   868 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   869 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   870 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   871 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   872 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   873 
   874 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   875 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   876 
   877 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   878 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   879 
   880 
   881 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   882 
   883 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   884 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   885 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   886 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   887 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   888 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   889 
   890 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   891 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   892 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   893 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   894 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   895 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   896 
   897 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   898 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   899 browser on demand.
   900 
   901 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   902 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   903 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   904 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   905 
   906 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   907 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   908 
   909 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   910 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   911 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   912 potentially infinite message streams.
   913 
   914 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   915 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   916 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   917 schemes.
   918 
   919 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   920 symbols.
   921 
   922 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   923 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   924 
   925 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   926 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   927 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   928 
   929 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   930 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   931 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   932 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   933 
   934 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   935 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   936 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   937 
   938 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   939 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   940 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   941 Isabelle distribution.
   942 
   943 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   944 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   945 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   946 
   947 
   948 *** Pure ***
   949 
   950 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   951 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   952 
   953 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   954 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   955 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   956 
   957 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   958 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   959 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   960 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   961 with some care where this is really required.
   962 
   963 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   964 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   965 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   966 
   967   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   968 
   969 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   970 a Hasse diagram.
   971 
   972 
   973 *** HOL ***
   974 
   975 * Sledgehammer:
   976 
   977   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   978     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   979   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   980   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   981   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   982   - Renamed options:
   983       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   984       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   985       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   986       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   987 
   988 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   989 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   990 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   991 
   992 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   993 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   994 
   995 * Lifting:
   996   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   997   - quot_del attribute
   998   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   999 
  1000 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1001 expressions.
  1002 
  1003 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1004 pointfree expressions.
  1005 
  1006 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1007 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1008 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1009 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1010 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1011 
  1012 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1013 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1014 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1015 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1016 accordingly.
  1017 
  1018 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1019 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1020 
  1021 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1022 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1023 
  1024 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1025 
  1026 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1027 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1028 
  1029 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1030 
  1031 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1032 
  1033   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1034   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1035 
  1036 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1037 
  1038 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1039 
  1040   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1041   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1042 
  1043 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1044 
  1045 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1046 
  1047   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1048     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1049     output f x converges to G.
  1050 
  1051   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1052     infinity (at_bot).
  1053 
  1054   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1055     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1056 
  1057   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1058     at_top".
  1059 
  1060 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1061 
  1062 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1063 lattice type classes.
  1064 
  1065 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1066 
  1067     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1068     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1069 
  1070 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1071 
  1072 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1073 changes as follows.
  1074 
  1075   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1076 
  1077       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1078       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1079 
  1080   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1081     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1082     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1083     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1084 
  1085   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1086     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1087     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1088 
  1089   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1090     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1091     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1092     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1093 
  1094   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1095     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1096 
  1097       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1098       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1099       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1100       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1101       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1102       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1103       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1104       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1105       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1106       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1107       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1108       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1109       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1110       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1111       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1112       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1113 
  1114 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1115 
  1116 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1117 
  1118 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1119 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1120 
  1121 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1122 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1123 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1124 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1125 
  1126   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1127   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1128   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1129   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1130   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1131   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1132   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1133   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1134   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1135   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1136 
  1137 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1138 
  1139 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1140 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1141 Data").
  1142 
  1143 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1144 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1145 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1146 code.
  1147 
  1148 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1149 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1150 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1151 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1152 
  1153 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1154 
  1155 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1156 
  1157 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1158 
  1159   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1160   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1161 
  1162 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1163 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1164 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1165 
  1166   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1167 
  1168     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1169     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1170     cart_base i  removed
  1171     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1172 
  1173   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1174 
  1175   Renamed lemmas:
  1176 
  1177     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1178     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1179     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1180     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1181     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1182     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1183     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1184     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1185     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1186     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1187 
  1188 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1189 
  1190 * HOL/Probability:
  1191 
  1192   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1193 
  1194   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1195     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1196     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1197 
  1198   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1199     projective family).
  1200 
  1201 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1202 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1203 
  1204 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1205 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1206 datatypes.
  1207 
  1208 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1209 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1210 
  1211 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1212 trees for the code generator.
  1213 
  1214 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1215 Lifting/Transfer.
  1216 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1217 
  1218 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1219 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1220 
  1221 
  1222 *** Document preparation ***
  1223 
  1224 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1225 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1226 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1227 
  1228 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1229 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1230 
  1231 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1232 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1233 document/root.tex.
  1234 
  1235 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1236 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1237 
  1238 
  1239 *** ML ***
  1240 
  1241 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1242 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1243 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1244 
  1245 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1246 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1247 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1248 
  1249 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1250 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1251 necessarily printing visible text.
  1252 
  1253 
  1254 *** System ***
  1255 
  1256 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1257 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1258 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1259 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1260 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1261 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1262 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1263 
  1264 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1265 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1266 
  1267   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1268 
  1269 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1270 
  1271 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1272 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1273 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1274 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1275 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1276 
  1277 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1278 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1279 
  1280 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1281 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1282 
  1283 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1284 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1285 
  1286 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1287 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1288 version of Isabelle.
  1289 
  1290 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1291 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1292 
  1293 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1294 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1295 for home-made settings.
  1296 
  1297 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1298 
  1299 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1300 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1301 configuration.
  1302 
  1303 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1304 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1305 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1306 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1307 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1308 
  1309 
  1310 
  1311 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1312 ------------------------------
  1313 
  1314 *** General ***
  1315 
  1316 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1317 
  1318   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1319     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1320   - markup for bound variables
  1321   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1322   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1323   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1324     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1325 
  1326 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1327 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1328 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1329 
  1330 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1331 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1332 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1333 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1334 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1335 
  1336   context
  1337     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1338     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1339   begin
  1340 
  1341   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1342 
  1343   end
  1344 
  1345   thm my_trans
  1346 
  1347 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1348 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1349 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1350 
  1351 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1352 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1353 
  1354 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1355 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1356 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1357 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1358 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1359 
  1360 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1361 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1362 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1363 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1364 indices of schematic variables.
  1365 
  1366 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1367 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1368 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1369 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1370 etc. was exploited.
  1371 
  1372 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1373 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1374 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1375 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1376 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1377 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1378 
  1379 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1380 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1381 manual.
  1382 
  1383 
  1384 *** Pure ***
  1385 
  1386 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1387 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1388 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1389 
  1390 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1391 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1392 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1393 undocumented feature.)
  1394 
  1395 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1396 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1397 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1398 
  1399   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1400 
  1401   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1402     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1403 
  1404 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1405 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1406 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1407 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1408 
  1409 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1410 
  1411     num ~> num_token
  1412     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1413     xstr ~> str_token
  1414 
  1415 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1416 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1417 position information via constraints).
  1418 
  1419 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1420 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1421 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1422 
  1423 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1424 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1425 
  1426 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1427 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1428 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1429 
  1430 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1431 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1432 
  1433 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1434 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1435 
  1436   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1437 
  1438 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1439 
  1440 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1441 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1442 
  1443 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1444 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1445 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1446 
  1447 
  1448 *** HOL ***
  1449 
  1450 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1451 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1452 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1453 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1454 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1455 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1456 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1457 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1458 possible.
  1459 
  1460 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1461 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1462 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1463 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1464 
  1465 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1466 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1467 
  1468 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1469 
  1470 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1471 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1472 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1473 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1474 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1475 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1476 
  1477   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1478     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1479 
  1480   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1481     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1482     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1483 
  1484   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1485     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1486 
  1487   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1488     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1489     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1490 
  1491   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1492     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1493 
  1494 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1495 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1496 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1497 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1498 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1499 
  1500   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1501     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1502     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1503     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1504     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1505 
  1506     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1507     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1508 
  1509   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1510     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1511     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1512     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1513     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1514     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1515     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1516     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1517 
  1518   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1519     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1520     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1521     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1522 
  1523   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1524     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1525     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1526     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1527 
  1528   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1529     from type nat to type int.
  1530 
  1531 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1532 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1533 
  1534   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1535     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1536     type.  Example syntax:
  1537 
  1538     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1539       is List.insert
  1540 
  1541     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1542     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1543     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1544     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1545     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1546     by the package.
  1547 
  1548   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1549     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1550     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1551     code generation for each constant.
  1552 
  1553   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1554     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1555     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1556     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1557     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1558 
  1559   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1560     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1561     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1562 
  1563 * Quotient package:
  1564 
  1565   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1566     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1567 
  1568   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1569     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1570 
  1571   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1572     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1573     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1574 
  1575   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1576     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1577 
  1578 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1579 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1580 
  1581 * Quickcheck:
  1582 
  1583   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1584     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1585     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1586     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1587     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1588 
  1589     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1590     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1591     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1592 
  1593     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1594     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1595 
  1596     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1597     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1598     show genuine counterexamples.
  1599 
  1600   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1601     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1602 
  1603     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1604     constructors of that type.
  1605 
  1606   - Support for multisets.
  1607 
  1608   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1609 
  1610   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1611     conjectures in a locale context.
  1612 
  1613 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1614 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1615 
  1616 * Sledgehammer:
  1617   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1618     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1619   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1620   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1621     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1622   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1623   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1624   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1625   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1626 
  1627 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1628 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1629 
  1630 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1631 
  1632 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1633 
  1634 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1635 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1636 
  1637   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1638 
  1639 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1640 a list and a nat.
  1641 
  1642 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1643 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1644 
  1645 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1646 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1647 default.
  1648 
  1649 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1650 
  1651   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1652 
  1653 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1654 
  1655 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1656 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1657 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1658 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1659 one_case.
  1660 
  1661 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1662 the result of the fact expression.
  1663 
  1664 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1665 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1666 of some relation theorems:
  1667 
  1668   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1669   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1670   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1671   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1672   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1673   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1674 
  1675 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1676 
  1677 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1678 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1679 
  1680 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1681 
  1682 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1683 to match the constant's name:
  1684 
  1685   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1686   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1687   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1688   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1689   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1690   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1691   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1692   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1693   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1694   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1695   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1696   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1697   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1698   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1699   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1700   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1701   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1702   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1703   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1704   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1705   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1706   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1707   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1708   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1709 
  1710 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1711 
  1712 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1713 and corresponding theorem names:
  1714 
  1715   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1716 
  1717   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1718 
  1719   - Renamed theorems:
  1720 
  1721     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1722     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1723     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1724     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1725     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1726     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1727     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1728     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1729     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1730     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1731     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1732     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1733     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1734     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1735     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1736     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1737     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1738     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1739     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1740     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1741     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1742     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1743     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1744 
  1745     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1746 
  1747     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1748 
  1749 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1750 
  1751 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1752 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1753 
  1754   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1755   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1756   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1757   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1758   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1759   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1760   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1761   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1762   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1763   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1764   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1765   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1766   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1767   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1768   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1769   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1770   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1771   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1772   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1773   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1774   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1775 
  1776 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1777 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1778 
  1779 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1780 
  1781 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1782 
  1783   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1784   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1785   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1786   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1787   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1788   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1789   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1790   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1791   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1792   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1793   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1794   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1795   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1796   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1797   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1798   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1799   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1800   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1801 
  1802 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1803 
  1804 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1805 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1806 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1807 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1808 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1809 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1810 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1811 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1812 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1813 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1814 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1815 
  1816 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1817 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1818 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1819 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1820 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1821 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1822 
  1823 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1824 through option types.
  1825 
  1826 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1827 relations.
  1828 
  1829 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1830 
  1831 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1832 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1833 
  1834   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1835   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1836   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1837   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1838   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1839   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1840   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1841   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1842   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1843   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1844   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1845   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1846   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1847   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1848   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1849   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1850   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1851   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1852   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1853   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1854   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1855   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1856   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1857   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1858   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1859   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1860   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1861   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1862   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1863   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1864   zless_le ~> less_le
  1865   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1866   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1867   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1868 
  1869 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1870 
  1871   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1872 
  1873 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1874 
  1875 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1876 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1877 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1878 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1879 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1880 
  1881 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1882 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1883 
  1884 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1885 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1886 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1887 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1888 follows:
  1889 
  1890   Operations:
  1891   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1892   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1893   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1894   del -> rbt_del
  1895   delete -> rbt_delete
  1896   ins -> rbt_ins
  1897   insert -> rbt_insert
  1898   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1899   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1900   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1901   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1902   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1903   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1904   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1905   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1906   union -> rbt_union
  1907   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1908   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1909 
  1910   Lemmas:
  1911   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1912   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1913   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1914   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1915   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1916   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1917   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1918   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1919   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1920   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1921   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1922   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1923   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1924   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1925   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1926   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1927   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1928   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1929   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1930   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1931   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1932   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1933   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1934   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1935   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1936   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1937   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1938   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1939   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1940   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1941   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1942   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1943   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1944   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1945   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1946   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1947   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1948   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1949   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1950   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1951   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1952   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1953   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1954   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1955   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1956   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1957   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1958   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1959   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1960   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1961   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1962   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1963   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1964   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1965   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1966   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1967   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1968   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1969   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1970   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1971   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1972   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1973   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1974   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1975   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1976   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1977   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1978   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1979   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1980   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1981   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1982   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1983   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1984   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1985   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1986   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1987   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1988   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1989   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1990   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1991   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1992   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1993   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1994 
  1995 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1996 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1997 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1998 
  1999   Changed Operations:
  2000   float_abs -> abs
  2001   float_nprt -> nprt
  2002   float_pprt -> pprt
  2003   pow2 -> use powr
  2004   round_down -> float_round_down
  2005   round_up -> float_round_up
  2006   scale -> exponent
  2007 
  2008   Removed Operations:
  2009   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2010 
  2011   Renamed Lemmas:
  2012   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2013   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2014   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2015   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2016   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2017   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2018   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2019   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2020   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2021   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2022   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2023   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2024   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2025   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2026   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2027   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2028   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2029   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2030   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2031   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2032   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2033   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2034   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2035   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2036   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2037   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2038   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2039   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2040   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2041   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2042   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2043   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2044   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2045   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2046   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2047   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2048 
  2049   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2050   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2051   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2052   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2053   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2054   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2055   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2056   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2057   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2058   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2059 
  2060 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2061 association lists with distinct keys.
  2062 
  2063 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2064 annotated commands.
  2065 
  2066 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2067 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2068 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2069 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2070 
  2071 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2072 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2073 instead.
  2074 
  2075   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2076   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2077   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2078   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2079   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2080   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2081   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2082   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2083   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2084   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2085   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2086   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2087   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2088   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2089   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2090   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2091   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2092   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2093   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2094   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2095   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2096   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2097   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2098   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2099   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2100   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2101   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2102   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2103   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2104   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2105   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2106   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2107   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2108   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2109   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2110   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2111   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2112   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2113   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2114   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2115   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2116 
  2117 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2118 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2119 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2120 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2121 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2122 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2123 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2124 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2125 
  2126 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2127 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2128 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2129 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2130 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2131 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2132 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2133 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2134 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2135 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2136 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2137 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2138 
  2139   Renamed constants:
  2140   measure -> emeasure
  2141   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2142   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2143   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2144   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2145 
  2146   Removed locales:
  2147   completeable_measure_space
  2148   finite_measure_space
  2149   finite_prob_space
  2150   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2151   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2152   finite_sigma_algebra
  2153   measure_space
  2154   pair_finite_prob_space
  2155   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2156   pair_finite_space
  2157   pair_sigma_algebra
  2158   product_sigma_algebra
  2159 
  2160   Removed constants:
  2161   conditional_space
  2162   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2163   image_space
  2164   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2165   pair_measure_generator
  2166   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2167   subvimage
  2168 
  2169   Replacement theorems:
  2170   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2171   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2172   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2173   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2174   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2175   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2176   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2177   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2178   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2179   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2180   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2181   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2182   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2183   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2184   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2185   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2186   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2187   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2188   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2189   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2190   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2191   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2192   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2193   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2194   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2195   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2196   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2197   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2198   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2199   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2200   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2201   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2202   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2203   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2204   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2205   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2206   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2207   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2208   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2209   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2210   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2211   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2212   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2213   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2214   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2215   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2216   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2217   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2218   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2219   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2220   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2221   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2222   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2223   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2224   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2225   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2226   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2227   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2228   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2229   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2230   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2231   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2232   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2233   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2234   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2235   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2236   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2237   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2238   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2239   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2240   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2241   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2242   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2243   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2244   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2245   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2246   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2247   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2248   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2249   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2250   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2251   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2252   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2253   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2254   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2255   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2256   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2257   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2258   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2259   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2260   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2261   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2262   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2263   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2264   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2265   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2266   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2267   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2268   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2269   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2270   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2271   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2272   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2273   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2274   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2275   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2276   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2277   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2278   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2279   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2280   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2281   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2282   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2283   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2284   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2285   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2286   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2287   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2288   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2289   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2290   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2291   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2292   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2293   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2294   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2295   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2296   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2297   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2298 
  2299 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2300 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2301 
  2302 
  2303 *** FOL ***
  2304 
  2305 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2306 
  2307 
  2308 *** ZF ***
  2309 
  2310 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2311 analysis.
  2312 
  2313 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2314 
  2315 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2316 
  2317 
  2318 *** ML ***
  2319 
  2320 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2321 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2322 
  2323 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2324 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2325 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2326 
  2327 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2328 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2329 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2330 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2331 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2332 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2333 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2334 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2335 
  2336 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2337 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2338 
  2339 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2340 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2341 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2342 
  2343 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2344 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2345 
  2346 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2347 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2348 context as well.
  2349 
  2350 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2351 
  2352   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2353   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2354   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2355   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2356   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2357   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2358   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2359   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2360   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2361   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2362   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2363   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2364 
  2365 
  2366 *** System ***
  2367 
  2368 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2369 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2370 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2371 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2372 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2373 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2374 the generic user home was intended.
  2375 
  2376 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2377 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2378 
  2379 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2380 (not just JRE).
  2381 
  2382 
  2383 
  2384 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2385 ------------------------------------
  2386 
  2387 *** General ***
  2388 
  2389 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2390 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2391 
  2392   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2393     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2394     files for checking).
  2395 
  2396   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2397     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2398     positions.
  2399 
  2400   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2401     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2402     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2403 
  2404   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2405     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2406     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2407 
  2408   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2409     cores.
  2410 
  2411   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2412     versions (garbage collection).
  2413 
  2414 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2415 including some remaining limitations.
  2416 
  2417 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2418 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2419 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2420 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2421 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2422 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2423 
  2424 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2425 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2426 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2427 
  2428 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2429 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2430 usedir option -Q.
  2431 
  2432 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2433 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2434 
  2435   long_names   ~> names_long
  2436   short_names  ~> names_short
  2437   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2438 
  2439 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2440 
  2441   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2442 
  2443 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2444 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2445 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2446 
  2447 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2448 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2449 
  2450 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2451   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2452   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2453   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2454     "Classical Reasoner".
  2455 
  2456 
  2457 *** HOL ***
  2458 
  2459 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2460 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2461 
  2462 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2463 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2464 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2465 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2466 class complete_linorder.
  2467 
  2468 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2469 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2470 
  2471 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2472 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2473 
  2474   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2475   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2476   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2477   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2478   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2479   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2480   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2481   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2482   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2483   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2484   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2485 
  2486 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2487 
  2488   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2489   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2490   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2491   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2492   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2493   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2494   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2495   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2496   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2497   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2498   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2499   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2500   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2501   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2502   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2503   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2504 
  2505 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2506 
  2507 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2508 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2509 
  2510 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2511 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2512 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2513 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2514 
  2515 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2516 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2517 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2518 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2519 
  2520 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2521 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2522 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2523 
  2524 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2525 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2526 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2527 
  2528 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2529 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2530 
  2531 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2532 
  2533     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2534     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2535 
  2536 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2537 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2538 
  2539 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2540 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2541 
  2542 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2543 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2544 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2545 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2546 
  2547   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2548   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2549   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2550   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2551   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2552   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2553   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2554 
  2555 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2556 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2557 
  2558   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2559   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2560   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2561   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2562   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2563   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2564   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2565   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2566   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2567   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2568   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2569   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2570   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2571   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2572   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2573   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2574   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2575   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2576   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2577   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2578   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2579   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2580   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2581   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2582   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2583   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2584   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2585   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2586   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2587   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2588   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2589   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2590   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2591   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2592   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2593   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2594   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2595   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2596   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2597   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2598   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2599   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2600   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2601   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2602   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2603   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2604   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2605   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2606   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2607   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2608   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2609   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2610   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2611   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2612   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2613   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2614   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2615   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2616   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2617   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2618   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2619   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2620   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2621   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2622   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2623   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2624   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2625   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2626   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2627   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2628   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2629   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2630   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2631   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2632   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2633   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2634   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2635   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2636   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2637   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2638   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2639   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2640 
  2641 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2642 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2643 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2644 
  2645 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2646 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2647 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2648 
  2649 * Code generation:
  2650 
  2651   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2652     characters in the target language.
  2653 
  2654   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2655     instead.
  2656 
  2657   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2658 
  2659   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2660     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2661 
  2662       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2663 
  2664 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2665 
  2666 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2667 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2668 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2669 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2670 syntax.
  2671 
  2672 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2673 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2674 
  2675 * Nitpick:
  2676   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2677   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2678   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2679     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2680 
  2681 * Sledgehammer:
  2682   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2683   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2684     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2685   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2686     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2687   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2688     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2689   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2690     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2691   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2692     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2693 
  2694 * Metis:
  2695   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2696   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2697     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2698 
  2699 * Command 'try':
  2700   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2701     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2702   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2703     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2704 
  2705 * Quickcheck:
  2706   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2707     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2708   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2709     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2710   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2711     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2712     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2713     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2714   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2715     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2716 
  2717 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2718 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2719 
  2720 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2721 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2722 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2723 
  2724 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2725 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2726 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2727 
  2728 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2729 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2730 
  2731 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2732 arithmetic.
  2733 
  2734 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2735 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2736 and lattice type classes.
  2737 
  2738 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2739 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2740 
  2741 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2742 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2743 
  2744 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2745 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2746 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2747 
  2748   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2749   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2750   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2751   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2752 
  2753 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2754 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2755 constants:
  2756 
  2757   type inat   ~> type enat
  2758   Fin         ~> enat
  2759   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2760   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2761   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2762 
  2763 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2764 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2765 
  2766 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2767 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2768 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2769 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2770 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2771 
  2772 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2773 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2774 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2775 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2776 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2777 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2778 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2779 
  2780   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2781   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2782   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2783   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2784 
  2785 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2786 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2787 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2788 
  2789   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2790   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2791   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2792   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2793   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2794   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2795   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2796   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2797   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2798   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2799   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2800   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2801   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2802   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2803   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2804   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2805   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2806   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2807   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2808   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2809   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2810   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2811   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2812   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2813   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2814   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2815   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2816   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2817   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2818   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2819   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2820   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2821   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2822   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2823   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2824   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2825   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2826   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2827   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2828   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2829   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2830   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2831   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2832   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2833   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2834   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2835   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2836   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2837   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2838   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2839   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2840 
  2841 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2842   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2843   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2844   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2845   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2846     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2847 
  2848 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2849 
  2850   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2851   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2852   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2853   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2854   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2855   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2856   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2857   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2858   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2859   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2860   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2861   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2862   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2863   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2864   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2865   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2866   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2867   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2868   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2869   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2870   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2871   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2872   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2873   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2874   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2875 
  2876 
  2877 *** Document preparation ***
  2878 
  2879 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2880 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2881 same.
  2882 
  2883 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2884 result.
  2885 
  2886 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2887 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2888 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2889 
  2890 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2891 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2892 
  2893 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2894 like this:
  2895 
  2896   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2897   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2898 
  2899 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2900 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2901 layouts.
  2902 
  2903 
  2904 *** ML ***
  2905 
  2906 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2907 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2908 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2909 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2910 under external program control.
  2911 
  2912 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2913 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2914 
  2915 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2916 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2917 (better known as Proof General).
  2918 
  2919 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2920 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2921 
  2922 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2923 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2924 
  2925 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2926 (including quotes etc.).
  2927 
  2928 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2929 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2930 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2931 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2932 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2933 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2934 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2935 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2936 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2937 
  2938 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2939 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2940 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2941 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2942 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2943 
  2944 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2945 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2946 
  2947 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2948 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2949 
  2950 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2951 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2952 
  2953 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2954 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2955 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2956 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2957 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2958 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2959 proper Proof.context.
  2960 
  2961 
  2962 *** System ***
  2963 
  2964 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2965 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2966 
  2967 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2968 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2969 
  2970 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2971 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2972 
  2973   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2974   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2975   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2976   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2977   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2978 
  2979 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2980 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2981 
  2982 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2983 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2984 example:
  2985 
  2986   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2987 
  2988 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2989 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2990 
  2991 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2992 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2993 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2994 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2995 
  2996 
  2997 
  2998 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2999 ----------------------------------
  3000 
  3001 *** General ***
  3002 
  3003 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3004 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3005 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3006 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3007 like this:
  3008 
  3009   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3010 
  3011 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3012 
  3013 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3014 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3015 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3016 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3017 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3018 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3019 
  3020 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3021 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3022 the following package declarations:
  3023 
  3024   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3025   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3026 
  3027 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3028 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3029 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3030 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3031 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3032 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3033 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3034 
  3035 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3036 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3037 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3038 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3039 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3040 
  3041 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3042 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3043 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3044 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3045 
  3046 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3047 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3048 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3049 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3050 
  3051   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3052 
  3053   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3054   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3055   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3056   show_types                    show_types
  3057   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3058   show_consts                   show_consts
  3059   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3060 
  3061   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3062   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3063   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3064 
  3065   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3066   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3067 
  3068   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3069 
  3070   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3071   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3072   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3073   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3074   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3075 
  3076 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3077 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3078 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3079 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3080 
  3081 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3082 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3083 
  3084   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3085   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3086 
  3087 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3088 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3089 float_token.
  3090 
  3091 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3092 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3093 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3094 
  3095 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3096 DejaVu Sans.
  3097 
  3098 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3099 
  3100 
  3101 *** Pure ***
  3102 
  3103 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3104 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3105 time.
  3106 
  3107 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3108 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3109 
  3110 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3111 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3112 
  3113 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3114 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3115 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3116 command already provided this functionality.
  3117 
  3118 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3119 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3120 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3121 without interpretations.
  3122 
  3123 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3124 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3125 
  3126 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3127 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3128 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3129 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3130 
  3131 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3132 'definition' instead.
  3133 
  3134 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3135 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3136 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3137 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3138 
  3139 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3140 constructors.
  3141 
  3142 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3143 the local file system.
  3144 
  3145 
  3146 *** HOL ***
  3147 
  3148 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3149 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3150 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3151 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3152 
  3153   declare [[coercion f]]
  3154 
  3155 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3156 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3157 
  3158   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3159 
  3160 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3161 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3162 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3163 other theories like this:
  3164 
  3165   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3166 
  3167 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3168 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3169 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3170 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3171 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3172 for examples.
  3173 
  3174 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3175 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3176 
  3177 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3178 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3179 
  3180 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3181 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3182 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3183 
  3184 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3185 functorial structure of types.
  3186 
  3187 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3188 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3189 
  3190 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3191 languages.
  3192 
  3193 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3194 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3195 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3196 
  3197 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3198 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3199 
  3200 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3201 combinators any longer.
  3202 
  3203 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3204 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3205 
  3206 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3207 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3208 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3209 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3210 
  3211   record 'a foo = ...
  3212   ...
  3213   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3214 
  3215 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3216 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3217 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3218 
  3219 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3220 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3221 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3222 
  3223 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3224 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3225 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3226 
  3227 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3228 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3229 
  3230 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3231 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3232 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3233 independently.
  3234 
  3235 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3236 counter example search.
  3237 
  3238 * Sledgehammer:
  3239   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3240     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3241     sledgehammer").
  3242   - Renamed commands:
  3243     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3244     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3245     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3246     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3247   - Renamed options:
  3248     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3249     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3250     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3251     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3252     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3253 
  3254 * Nitpick:
  3255   - Renamed options:
  3256     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3257     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3258     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3259   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3260   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3261   - Added "whack" option.
  3262   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3263   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3264   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3265   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3266     higher cardinalities.
  3267   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3268 
  3269 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3270 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3271 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3272 
  3273     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3274 
  3275 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3276 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3277 
  3278 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3279 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3280 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3281 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3282 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3283 "smt_solver".
  3284 
  3285 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3286 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3287 
  3288 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3289 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3290 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3291 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3292 
  3293 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3294   - Renamed:
  3295     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3296     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3297     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3298   - Added:
  3299     smt_verbose
  3300     smt_random_seed
  3301     smt_datatypes
  3302     smt_infer_triggers
  3303     smt_monomorph_limit
  3304     cvc3_options
  3305     remote_cvc3_options
  3306     remote_z3_options
  3307     yices_options
  3308 
  3309 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3310 header.
  3311 
  3312 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3313 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3314 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3315 
  3316   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3317 
  3318 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3319 
  3320 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3321 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3322 
  3323 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3324 
  3325 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3326 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3327 
  3328 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3329 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3330 
  3331 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3332 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3333 
  3334 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3335 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3336 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3337 
  3338 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3339 
  3340 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3341 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3342 
  3343 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3344 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3345 
  3346 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3347 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3348 for congruent(2)).
  3349 
  3350 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3351 
  3352   types
  3353     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3354     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3355 
  3356   constants
  3357     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3358     True ~> HOL.True
  3359     False ~> HOL.False
  3360     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3361     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3362     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3363     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3364     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3365     The ~> HOL.The
  3366     All ~> HOL.All
  3367     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3368     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3369     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3370     If ~> HOL.If
  3371     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3372     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3373     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3374     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3375     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3376     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3377     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3378     op : ~> Set.member
  3379     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3380 
  3381 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3382 
  3383 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3384 
  3385     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3386     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3387     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3388     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3389     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3390     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3391     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3392     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3393 
  3394 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3395 
  3396 * More stylized fact names:
  3397 
  3398   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3399   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3400   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3401   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3402 
  3403 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3404 
  3405 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3406 
  3407   constants
  3408     null ~> List.null
  3409 
  3410   facts
  3411     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3412     null_empty ~> null_def
  3413 
  3414 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3415 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3416 generation.
  3417 
  3418 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3419 Haskell code.
  3420 
  3421 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3422 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3423 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3424 
  3425 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3426 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3427 
  3428 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3429 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3430 
  3431 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3432 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3433 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3434 
  3435 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3436 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3437 
  3438 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3439 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3440 
  3441 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3442 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3443 referred to by its qualified name.
  3444 
  3445   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3446   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3447   product ~>  Enum.product
  3448 
  3449 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3450 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3451 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3452 
  3453 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3454 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3455 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3456 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3457 
  3458 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3459 sort_key.
  3460 
  3461 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3462 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3463 
  3464 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3465 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3466 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3467 
  3468   types
  3469     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3470               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3471               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3472         (depends on your needs)
  3473 
  3474   constants
  3475      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3476      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3477      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3478 
  3479 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3480 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3481 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3482 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3483 
  3484 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3485 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3486 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3487 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3488 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3489 
  3490 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3491 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3492 
  3493 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3494 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3495 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3496 
  3497 
  3498 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3499 
  3500 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3501 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3502 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3503 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3504 compatibility.
  3505 
  3506 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3507 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3508 
  3509 
  3510 *** HOLCF ***
  3511 
  3512 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3513 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3514 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3515 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3516 
  3517 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3518 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3519 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3520 
  3521   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3522   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3523   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3524 
  3525 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3526 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3527 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3528 
  3529 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3530 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3531 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3532 domain definition now works:
  3533 
  3534   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3535 
  3536 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3537 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3538 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3539 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3540 
  3541   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3542     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3543 
  3544   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3545 
  3546 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3547 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3548 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3549 
  3550 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3551 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3552 
  3553 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3554 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3555 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3556 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3557 
  3558 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3559 
  3560 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3561 
  3562 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3563 
  3564 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3565 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3566 
  3567 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3568 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3569 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3570 
  3571 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3572 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3573 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3574 
  3575 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3576 still supported as an input translation.
  3577 
  3578 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3579 
  3580   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3581   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3582   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3583   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3584   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3585   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3586   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3587 
  3588 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3589 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3590 
  3591   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3592   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3593   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3594   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3595   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3596   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3597 
  3598 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3599 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3600 
  3601 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3602 
  3603   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3604   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3605   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3606   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3607 
  3608 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3609 
  3610 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3611 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3612 
  3613 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3614 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3615 
  3616   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3617   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3618   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3619   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3620   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3621   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3622   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3623   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3624   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3625   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3626   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3627   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3628   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3629   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3630   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3631   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3632   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3633   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3634   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3635   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3636 
  3637 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3638 
  3639   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3640   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3641   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3642   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3643   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3644   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3645   box_less             ~> box_below
  3646   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3647   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3648   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3649   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3650   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3651   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3652   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3653   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3654   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3655   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3656   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3657   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3658   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3659   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3660   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3661   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3662   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3663   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3664   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3665   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3666   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3667   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3668   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3669   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3670   up_less              ~> up_below
  3671   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3672   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3673   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3674   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3675   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3676   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3677   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3678   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3679   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3680   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3681   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3682   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3683   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3684 
  3685 
  3686 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3687 
  3688 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3689 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3690 
  3691 
  3692 *** ML ***
  3693 
  3694 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3695 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3696 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3697 
  3698 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3699 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3700 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3701 
  3702 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3703 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3704 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3705 
  3706 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3707 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3708 
  3709 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3710 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3711 
  3712 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3713 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3714 
  3715 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3716 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3717 
  3718 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3719 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3720 almost all situations.
  3721 
  3722 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3723 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3724 Isabelle/ML.
  3725 
  3726 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3727 meaning.
  3728 
  3729 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3730 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3731 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3732 
  3733 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3734 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3735 
  3736 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3737 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3738 
  3739 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3740 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3741 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3742 
  3743 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3744 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3745 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3746 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3747 configuration options.
  3748 
  3749 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3750 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3751 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3752 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3753 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3754 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3755 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3756 
  3757 
  3758 
  3759 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3760 ---------------------------------
  3761 
  3762 *** General ***
  3763 
  3764 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3765 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3766 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3767 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3768 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3769 their full internal name.
  3770 
  3771 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3772 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3773 Some hints on upgrading:
  3774 
  3775   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3776     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3777     which are independent of this issue.
  3778 
  3779   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3780     provides the following special forms:
  3781 
  3782       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3783       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3784       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3785 
  3786     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3787     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3788     extra variables".
  3789 
  3790     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3791     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3792     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3793     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3794     "logic".
  3795 
  3796   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3797     antiquotations:
  3798 
  3799       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3800       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3801       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3802       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3803 
  3804   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3805     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3806     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3807     antiquotations.
  3808 
  3809 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3810 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3811 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3812 diagnose syntax problems.
  3813 
  3814 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3815 
  3816 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3817 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3818 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3819 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3820 
  3821 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3822 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3823 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3824 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3825 
  3826 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3827 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3828 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3829 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3830 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3831 
  3832 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3833 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3834 
  3835 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3836 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3837 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3838 
  3839   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3840 
  3841 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3842 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3843 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3844 
  3845 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3846 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3847 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3848 
  3849 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3850 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3851 
  3852 
  3853 *** Pure ***
  3854 
  3855 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3856 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3857 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3858 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3859 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3860 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3861 inspect proof terms.
  3862 
  3863 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3864 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3865 are added internally.  For example:
  3866 
  3867   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3868 
  3869 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3870 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3871 
  3872 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3873 
  3874 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3875 'class' instead.
  3876 
  3877 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3878 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3879 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3880 
  3881 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3882 invariants.
  3883 
  3884 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3885 user space functionality any longer.
  3886 
  3887 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3888 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3889 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3890 
  3891 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3892 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3893 
  3894 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3895 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3896 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3897 
  3898 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3899 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3900 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3901 
  3902 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3903 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3904 
  3905 
  3906 *** HOL ***
  3907 
  3908 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3909 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3910 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3911 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3912 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3913 
  3914 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3915 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3916 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3917 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3918 
  3919   fun
  3920     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3921   where
  3922     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3923 
  3924   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3925     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3926 
  3927   quotient_definition
  3928     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3929 
  3930 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3931 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3932 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3933 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3934 
  3935 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3936 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3937 
  3938 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3939 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3940 
  3941 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3942 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3943 
  3944 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3945 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3946 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3947 
  3948 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3949 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3950 
  3951 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3952 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3953 
  3954 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3955 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3956 
  3957 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3958 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3959 
  3960 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3961 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3962 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3963 
  3964   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3965   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3966   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3967   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3968   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3969   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3970   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3971   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3972   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3973   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3974   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3975   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3976   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3977   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3978   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3979   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3980   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3981   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3982   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3983   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3984   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3985   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3986   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3987   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3988   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3989   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3990   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3991   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3992   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3993   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3994 
  3995 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3996 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3997 
  3998 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3999 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4000 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4001 
  4002 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4003 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4004 
  4005 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4006 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4007 
  4008 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4009 
  4010 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4011 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4012 
  4013 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4014 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4015 
  4016 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4017 
  4018 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4019 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4020 
  4021 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4022 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4023 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4024 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4025 
  4026 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4027   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4028   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4029   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4030 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4031 
  4032 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4033 lattices):
  4034 
  4035     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4036     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4037 
  4038     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4039 
  4040     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4041     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4042     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4043     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4044     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4045     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4046     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4047     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4048     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4049     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4050     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4051     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4052     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4053 
  4054     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4055     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4056     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4057     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4058     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4059     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4060     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4061     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4062     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4063     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4064     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4065     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4066     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4067     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4068     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4069     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4070     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4071     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4072 
  4073   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4074   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4075 
  4076     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4077     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4078     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4079     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4080     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4081 
  4082 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4083 
  4084 * Refined field classes:
  4085   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4086     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4087     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4088   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4089 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4090 
  4091 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4092   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4093   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4094   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4095     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4096   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4097     equal_neg_zero.
  4098 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4099 
  4100 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4101 sets to lattices:
  4102 
  4103   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4104   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4105   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4106   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4107   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4108   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4109   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4110   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4111   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4112   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4113 
  4114 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4115 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4116 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4117 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4118 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4119 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4120 
  4121 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4122 multiset order:
  4123 
  4124   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4125     <= and <;
  4126   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4127     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4128     multiset_order;
  4129   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4130     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4131     generation;
  4132   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4133     if needed.
  4134 
  4135 Renamed:
  4136 
  4137   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4138   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4139   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4140 
  4141 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4142 
  4143 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4144 
  4145 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4146 
  4147 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4148 
  4149 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4150 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4151 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4152 
  4153   Constants:
  4154   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4155   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4156   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4157   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4158   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4159   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4160   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4161   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4162   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4163   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4164   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4165   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4166   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4167 
  4168   Lemmas:
  4169   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4170   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4171   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4172   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4173   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4174   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4175   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4176   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4177   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4178   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4179   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4180   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4181   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4182 
  4183 * Sledgehammer:
  4184   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4185     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4186     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4187     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4188     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4189     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4190     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4191   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4192   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4193     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4194   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4195     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4196     is still experimental.)
  4197   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4198     full-typed mode.
  4199   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4200 
  4201 * Nitpick:
  4202   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4203   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4204   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4205     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4206   - Added support for quotient types.
  4207   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4208     constructs.
  4209   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4210     "termination" proofs).
  4211   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4212   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4213   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4214   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4215     record getters.
  4216   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4217   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4218   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4219   - Added "atoms" option.
  4220   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4221     problems.
  4222   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4223     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4224     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4225   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4226     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4227   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4228 
  4229 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4230   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4231   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4232   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4233   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4234   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4235   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4236   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4237   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4238   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4239 
  4240 
  4241 *** HOLCF ***
  4242 
  4243 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4244 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4245 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4246 
  4247 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4248 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4249 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4250 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4251 
  4252 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4253 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4254 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4255 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4256 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4257 
  4258 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4259 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4260 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4261 
  4262 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4263 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4264 
  4265   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4266   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4267 
  4268 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4269 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4270 
  4271   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4272   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4273   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4274   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4275   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4276 
  4277 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4278 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4279 
  4280   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4281   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4282   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4283 
  4284 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4285 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4286 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4287 
  4288 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4289 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4290 
  4291 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4292 
  4293 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4294 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4295 
  4296 
  4297 *** ML ***
  4298 
  4299 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4300 
  4301     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4302     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4303 
  4304     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4305     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4306     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4307     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4308 
  4309     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4310     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4311     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4312 
  4313 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4314 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4315 
  4316 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4317 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4318 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4319 
  4320 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4321 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4322 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4323 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4324 
  4325 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4326 the context or even global references.
  4327 
  4328 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4329 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4330 
  4331 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4332 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4333 
  4334   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4335   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4336   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4337   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4338   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4339   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4340   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4341   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4342   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4343   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4344 
  4345 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4346 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4347 
  4348 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4349 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4350 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4351 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4352 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4353 
  4354 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4355 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4356 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4357 Theory_Data version.
  4358 
  4359 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4360 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4361 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4362 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4363 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4364 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4365 explicitly in rare situations.
  4366 
  4367 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4368 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4369 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4370 
  4371 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4372 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4373 
  4374 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4375 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4376 quite rare).
  4377 
  4378 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4379 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4380 
  4381 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4382 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4383 terms.
  4384 
  4385 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4386 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4387 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4388 
  4389 
  4390 *** System ***
  4391 
  4392 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4393 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4394 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4395 
  4396 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4397 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4398 respectively.
  4399 
  4400 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4401 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4402 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4403 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4404 
  4405   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4406 
  4407 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4408 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4409 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4410 component.
  4411 
  4412 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4413 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4414 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4415 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4416 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4417 the user for manual installation.
  4418 
  4419 
  4420 
  4421 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4422 -------------------------------------
  4423 
  4424 *** General ***
  4425 
  4426 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4427 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4428 
  4429 
  4430 *** Pure ***
  4431 
  4432 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4433 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4434 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4435 
  4436 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4437 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4438 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4439 
  4440 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4441 interpretation.
  4442 
  4443 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4444 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4445 
  4446 
  4447 *** Document preparation ***
  4448 
  4449 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4450 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4451 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4452 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4453 
  4454 
  4455 *** HOL ***
  4456 
  4457 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4458 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4459 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4460 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4461 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4462 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4463 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4464 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4465 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4466 
  4467 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4468 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4469 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4470 
  4471 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4472 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4473 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4474 
  4475 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4476 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4477 
  4478 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4479 
  4480 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4481 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4482 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4483 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4484 
  4485 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4486 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4487 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4488 "mirabelle" utility.
  4489 
  4490 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4491 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4492 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4493 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4494 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4495 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4496 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4497 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4498 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4499 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4500 
  4501 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4502 procedure only.
  4503 
  4504 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4505 
  4506 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4507 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4508 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4509 that fail later.
  4510 
  4511 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4512 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4513 
  4514 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4515 the same method as the approximation method.
  4516 
  4517 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4518 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4519 series expansion.
  4520 
  4521 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4522 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4523 
  4524 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4525 reals.
  4526 
  4527 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4528 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4529 
  4530 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4531 fixpoint theorem.
  4532 
  4533 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4534   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4535     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4536   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4537     accordingly
  4538   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4539     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4540   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4541     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4542 
  4543 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4544 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4545 lattice.
  4546 
  4547 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4548 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4549 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4550 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4551 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4552 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4553 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4554 
  4555 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4556   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4557     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4558   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4559     le_inf_iff
  4560   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4561     sup_aci)
  4562   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4563   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4564   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4565     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4566     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4567     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4568     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4569     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4570     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4571     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4572     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4573     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4574     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4575   - authentic syntax for
  4576     Set.Pow
  4577     Set.image
  4578   - mere abbreviations:
  4579     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4580     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4581     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4582     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4583     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4584     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4585     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4586     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4587   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4588 
  4589 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4590 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4591 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4592 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4593 
  4594 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4595 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4596 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4597 
  4598 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4599 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4600 
  4601 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4602 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4603 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4604 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4605 
  4606 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4607 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4608 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4609 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4610 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4611 
  4612 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4613 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4614 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4615 
  4616 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4617 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4618 
  4619 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4620 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4621 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4622 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4623 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4624 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4625 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4626 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4627 
  4628 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4629     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4630     code_post       replaces    code post
  4631     etc.
  4632   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4633 
  4634 * Renamed methods:
  4635     sizechange -> size_change
  4636     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4637   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4638 
  4639 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4640 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4641 
  4642 * Renamed theorems:
  4643     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4644     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4645     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4646     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4647     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4648   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4649 
  4650 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4651 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4652 
  4653 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4654 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4655 
  4656 
  4657 *** HOLCF ***
  4658 
  4659 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4660 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4661 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4662 
  4663 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4664 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4665 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4666 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4667 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4668 
  4669 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4670 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4671 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4672 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4673 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4674 
  4675 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4676 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4677 constructor are pre-configured.
  4678 
  4679 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4680 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4681 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4682 
  4683 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4684 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4685 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4686 as well.)
  4687 
  4688 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4689 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4690 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4691 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4692 examples.
  4693 
  4694 
  4695 *** ML ***
  4696 
  4697 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4698 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4699 
  4700 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4701 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4702 position, logical grouping etc.
  4703 
  4704 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4705 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4706 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4707 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4708 
  4709 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4710 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4711 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4712 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4713 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4714 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4715 
  4716 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4717 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4718 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4719 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4720 experiments with references.
  4721 
  4722 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4723 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4724 
  4725 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4726 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4727 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4728 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4729 
  4730 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4731 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4732 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4733 
  4734 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4735 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4736 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4737 
  4738 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4739 
  4740 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4741 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4742 
  4743 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4744 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4745 
  4746 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4747 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4748 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4749 
  4750 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4751 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4752 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4753 
  4754 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4755 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4756 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4757 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4758 
  4759 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4760 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4761 instead of global theory.
  4762 
  4763 
  4764 *** System ***
  4765 
  4766 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4767 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4768 usedir option -q.
  4769 
  4770 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4771 also the system manual.
  4772 
  4773 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4774 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4775 
  4776 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4777 this is always enabled.
  4778 
  4779 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4780 
  4781 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4782 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4783 currently supported on Linux only.
  4784 
  4785 
  4786 
  4787 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4788 --------------------------------
  4789 
  4790 *** General ***
  4791 
  4792 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4793 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4794 
  4795   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4796     "isatool."
  4797 
  4798   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4799     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4800 
  4801   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4802     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4803 
  4804 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4805 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4806 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4807 
  4808 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4809 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4810 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4811 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4812 via "isabelle emacs".
  4813 
  4814 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4815 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4816 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4817 
  4818 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4819 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4820 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4821 
  4822 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4823 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4824 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4825 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4826 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4827 
  4828 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4829 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4830 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4831 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4832 
  4833 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4834 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4835 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4836 
  4837 
  4838 *** Pure ***
  4839 
  4840 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4841 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4842 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4843 
  4844 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4845 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4846 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4847 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4848 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4849 
  4850 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4851 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4852 useful in locale declarations.
  4853 
  4854 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4855 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4856 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4857 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4858 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4859 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4860 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4861 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4862 no longer generated.
  4863 
  4864 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4865 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4866 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4867 
  4868 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4869 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4870 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4871 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4872 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4873 
  4874 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4875 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4876 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4877 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4878 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4879 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4880 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4881 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4882 
  4883 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4884 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4885 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4886 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4887 
  4888 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4889 
  4890 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4891 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4892 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4893 
  4894 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4895 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4896 
  4897 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4898 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4899 in HOL, write
  4900 
  4901     class foo = ...
  4902 
  4903 instead of
  4904 
  4905     class foo = type + ...
  4906 
  4907 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4908 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4909 
  4910 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4911 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4912 
  4913 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4914 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4915 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4916 
  4917 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4918 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4919 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4920 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4921 directly in regular applications.
  4922 
  4923 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4924 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4925 
  4926 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4927 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4928 
  4929 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4930 theory context.
  4931 
  4932 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4933 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4934 
  4935 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4936 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4937 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4938 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4939 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4940 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4941 
  4942   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4943 
  4944 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4945 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4946 normalization.
  4947 
  4948 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4949 addressing etc.
  4950 
  4951 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4952 
  4953   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4954   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4955 
  4956 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4957 
  4958   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4959      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4960      parts of the code generator framework).
  4961 
  4962   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4963      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4964      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4965 
  4966 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4967 
  4968 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4969 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4970 
  4971 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4972 patterns, e.g.
  4973 
  4974     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4975 
  4976 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4977 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4978 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4979 hyphen:
  4980 
  4981     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4982 
  4983 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4984 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4985 
  4986 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4987 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4988 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4989 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4990 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4991 higher-order unification.
  4992 
  4993 
  4994 *** Document preparation ***
  4995 
  4996 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4997 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4998 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4999 
  5000 
  5001 *** HOL ***
  5002 
  5003 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5004 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5005 
  5006 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5007 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5008 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5009 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5010 Main, as before.
  5011 
  5012 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5013 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5014 
  5015 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5016 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5017 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5018 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5019 
  5020 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5021 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5022 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5023 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5024 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5025 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5026 
  5027 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5028 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5029 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5030 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5031 
  5032 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5033 menu.
  5034 
  5035 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5036 (contains the empty clause).
  5037 
  5038 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5039 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5040 
  5041 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5042 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5043 
  5044 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5045 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5046 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5047 
  5048 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5049 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5050 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5051 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5052 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5053 
  5054 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5055 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5056 
  5057 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5058 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5059 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5060 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5061 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5062 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5063 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5064 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5065 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5066 
  5067 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5068 
  5069 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5070 
  5071 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5072 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5073 
  5074 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5075 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5076 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5077 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5078 
  5079 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5080 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5081 
  5082     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5083     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5084     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5085     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5086     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5087     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5088     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5089     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5090 
  5091 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5092 theory Set.
  5093 
  5094 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5095 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5096 
  5097 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5098 
  5099 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5100 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5101 
  5102 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5103 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5104 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5105 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5106 allowed. For examples see
  5107 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5108 
  5109 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5110 
  5111 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5112 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5113 
  5114 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5115 structure:
  5116 
  5117     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5118     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5119     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5120     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5121     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5122     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5123     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5124     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5125     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5126     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5127     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5128     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5129     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5130     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5131     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5132     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5133     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5134     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5135     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5136     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5137     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5138     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5139     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5140     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5141     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5142     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5143     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5144     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5145     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5146     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5147     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5148     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5149     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5150 
  5151     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5152     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5153     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5154     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5155     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5156     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5157     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5158     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5159     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5160     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5161 
  5162     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5163     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5164     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5165     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5166     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5167     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5168 
  5169 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5170 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5171 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5172 
  5173 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5174 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5175 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5176 
  5177 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5178 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5179 
  5180 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5181 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5182 
  5183 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5184 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5185 proofs, e.g.
  5186 
  5187   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5188 
  5189 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5190 
  5191 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5192 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5193 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5194 
  5195 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5196 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5197 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5198 
  5199 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5200 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5201 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5202 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5203 
  5204 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5205 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5206 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5207 preorder_class.*.
  5208 
  5209 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5210 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5211 
  5212 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5213 
  5214   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5215 
  5216 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5217 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5218 fold_image.
  5219 
  5220 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5221 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5222 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5223 the former will disappear at some point.
  5224 
  5225 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5226 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5227 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5228 
  5229 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5230 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5231 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5232 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5233 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5234 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5235 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5236 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5237 
  5238 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5239 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5240 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5241 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5242 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5243 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5244 
  5245     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5246     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5247     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5248     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5249     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5250     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5251     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5252 
  5253 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5254 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5255 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5256 
  5257 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5258 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5259 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5260 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5261 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5262 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5263 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5264 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5265 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5266 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5267 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5268 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5269 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5270 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5271 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5272 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5273 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5274 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5275 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5276 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5277 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5278 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5279 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5280 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5281 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5282 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5283 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5284 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5285 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5286 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5287 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5288 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5289 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5290 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5291 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5292 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5293 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5294 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5295 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5296 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5297 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5298 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5299 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5300 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5301 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5302 
  5303 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5304 
  5305 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5306 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5307 
  5308 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5309 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5310 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5311 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5312 
  5313 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5314 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5315 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5316 theory RealVector.
  5317 
  5318 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5319 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5320 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5321 and inner products are included.
  5322 
  5323 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5324 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5325 supported.
  5326 
  5327 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5328 first diagonalization argument.
  5329 
  5330 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5331 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5332 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5333 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5334 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5335 
  5336     hide (open) const gcd
  5337     abbreviation gcd where
  5338       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5339     notation (output)
  5340       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5341 
  5342 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5343 
  5344 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5345 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5346 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5347 
  5348 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5349 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5350 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5351 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5352 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5353 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5354 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5355 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5356 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5357 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5358 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5359 cases.
  5360 
  5361 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5362 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5363 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5364 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5365 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5366 
  5367     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5368     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5369     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5370     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5371     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5372 
  5373 
  5374 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5375 
  5376 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5377 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5378 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5379 
  5380 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5381 
  5382 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5383 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5384 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5385 
  5386 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5387 
  5388 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5389 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5390 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5391 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5392 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5393 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5394 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5395 
  5396 
  5397 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5398 
  5399 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5400 
  5401 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5402 theory targets.
  5403 
  5404 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5405 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5406 'inductive' etc.
  5407 
  5408 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5409 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5410 
  5411 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5412 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5413 
  5414 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5415 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5416 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5417 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5418 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5419 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5420 the algorithm W:
  5421 
  5422  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5423  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5424          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5425 
  5426 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5427 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5428 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5429 
  5430 
  5431 *** HOLCF ***
  5432 
  5433 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5434 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5435 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5436 
  5437 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5438 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5439 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5440 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5441 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5442 
  5443 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5444 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5445 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5446 
  5447 
  5448 *** ZF ***
  5449 
  5450 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5451 
  5452 
  5453 *** ML ***
  5454 
  5455 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5456 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5457 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5458 5.2.1!
  5459 
  5460 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5461 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5462 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5463 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5464 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5465 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5466 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5467 
  5468 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5469 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5470 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5471 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5472 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5473 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5474 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5475 
  5476 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5477 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5478 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5479 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5480 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5481 
  5482 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5483 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5484 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5485 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5486 Method.add_method.
  5487 
  5488 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5489 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5490 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5491 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5492 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5493 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5494 
  5495 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5496 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5497 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5498 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5499 examples.
  5500 
  5501 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5502 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5503 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5504 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5505 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5506 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5507 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5508 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5509 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5510 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5511 
  5512 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5513 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5514 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5515 
  5516 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5517 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5518 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5519 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5520 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5521 resort for legacy applications.
  5522 
  5523 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5524 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5525 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5526 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5527 explicit runtime argument.
  5528 
  5529 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5530 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5531 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5532 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5533 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5534 
  5535 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5536 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5537 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5538 theory state.
  5539 
  5540 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5541 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5542 
  5543   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5544   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5545   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5546   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5547   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5548   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5549   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5550   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5551   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5552   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5553 
  5554 
  5555 *** System ***
  5556 
  5557 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5558 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5559 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5560 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5561 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5562 
  5563 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5564 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5565 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5566 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5567 
  5568 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5569 
  5570 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5571 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5572 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5573 prover operations.
  5574 
  5575 
  5576 
  5577 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5578 -------------------------------
  5579 
  5580 *** General ***
  5581 
  5582 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5583 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5584 
  5585 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5586 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5587 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5588 provides a proper context already.
  5589 
  5590 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5591 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5592 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5593 
  5594 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5595 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5596 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5597 swap theory imports.
  5598 
  5599 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5600 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5601 
  5602 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5603 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5604 white space without escapes.
  5605 
  5606 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5607 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5608 "foo_bar".
  5609 
  5610 
  5611 *** Pure ***
  5612 
  5613 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5614 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5615 
  5616 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5617 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5618 
  5619 (1) unused_thms
  5620      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5621 
  5622 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5623      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5624      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5625 
  5626 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5627      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5628      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5629      their ancestors.
  5630 
  5631 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5632 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5633 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5634 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5635 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5636 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5637 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5638 
  5639 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5640 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5641 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5642 
  5643 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5644 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5645 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5646 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5647 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5648 
  5649 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5650 
  5651 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5652 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5653 update of theories within ML code.
  5654 
  5655 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5656 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5657 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5658 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5659 
  5660 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5661 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5662 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5663 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5664 
  5665 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5666 
  5667 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5668 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5669 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5670 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5671 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5672 
  5673 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5674 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5675 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5676 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5677 situations.
  5678 
  5679 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5680 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5681 proof text.
  5682 
  5683 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5684 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5685 
  5686 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5687 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5688 predicates.
  5689 
  5690 
  5691 *** Document preparation ***
  5692 
  5693 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5694 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5695 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5696 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5697 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5698 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5699 
  5700 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5701 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5702 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5703 
  5704 
  5705 *** HOL ***
  5706 
  5707 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5708 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5709 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5710 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5711 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5712 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5713 
  5714 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5715 with multithreading.
  5716 
  5717 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5718 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5719 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5720 
  5721 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5722 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5723 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5724 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5725 
  5726 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5727 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5728 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5729 and makes them available separately.  See
  5730 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5731 
  5732 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5733 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5734 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5735 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5736 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5737 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5738 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5739 the declared rules.
  5740 
  5741 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5742 
  5743   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5744 
  5745 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5746 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5747 
  5748 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5749 
  5750   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5751 
  5752   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5753     definitions on => and bool.
  5754 
  5755   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5756     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5757     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5758 
  5759       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5760       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5761       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5762       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5763       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5764       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5765       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5766       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5767 
  5768   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5769     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5770     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5771 
  5772   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5773     The proof pattern
  5774 
  5775       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5776       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5777 
  5778     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5779     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5780 
  5781       have "EX S. P S"
  5782       proof
  5783         show "P S" <...>
  5784       qed
  5785 
  5786   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5787     The proof pattern
  5788 
  5789       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5790       also have "S = T" <...>
  5791       finally have "P T" .
  5792 
  5793     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5794     must be replaced by something like
  5795 
  5796       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5797       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5798       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5799 
  5800   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5801     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5802 
  5803       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5804 
  5805     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5806     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5807     type of the form
  5808 
  5809       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5810 
  5811     rather than
  5812 
  5813       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5814 
  5815 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5816 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5817 
  5818 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5819 
  5820 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5821 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5822 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5823 
  5824 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5825 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5826 
  5827 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5828 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5829 
  5830 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5831 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5832 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5833 
  5834 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5835 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5836 
  5837   less_trans
  5838   less_linear
  5839   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5840   le_less_trans
  5841   less_le_trans
  5842   less_not_sym
  5843   less_asym
  5844 
  5845 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5846 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5847 and different variable names.
  5848 
  5849 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5850 
  5851 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5852 finite maps.
  5853 
  5854 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5855 
  5856 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5857 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5858 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5859 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5860 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5861 accordingly.
  5862 
  5863 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5864 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5865 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5866 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5867 
  5868 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5869 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5870 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5871 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5872 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5873 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5874 
  5875 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5876 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5877 
  5878 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5879 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5880 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5881 
  5882 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5883 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5884 
  5885 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5886 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5887 
  5888 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5889 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5890 
  5891 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5892 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5893 
  5894 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5895 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5896 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5897 
  5898 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5899 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5900 
  5901 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5902 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5903 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5904 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5905 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5906 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5907 
  5908 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5909 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5910 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5911 
  5912 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5913 
  5914 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5915 
  5916 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5917 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5918 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5919 
  5920 
  5921 *** ZF ***
  5922 
  5923 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5924 same session:
  5925 
  5926   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5927   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5928   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5929   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5930   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5931   List      -> List_ZF
  5932   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5933 
  5934 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5935 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5936 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5937 
  5938 
  5939 *** ML ***
  5940 
  5941 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5942 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5943 
  5944 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5945 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5946 
  5947 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5948 
  5949 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5950 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5951 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5952 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5953 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5954 
  5955 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5956 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5957 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5958 
  5959 
  5960 *** System ***
  5961 
  5962 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5963 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5964 
  5965 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5966 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5967 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5968 
  5969 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5970 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5971 
  5972 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5973 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5974 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5975 
  5976 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5977 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5978 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5979 
  5980 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5981 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5982 
  5983 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5984 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5985 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5986 script.
  5987 
  5988 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5989 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5990 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5991 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5992 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5993 
  5994 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5995 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5996 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5997 
  5998 
  5999 
  6000 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  6001 -----------------------------------
  6002 
  6003 *** General ***
  6004 
  6005 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  6006 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  6007 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6008 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  6009 
  6010 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  6011 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  6012 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6013 
  6014 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  6015 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  6016 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  6017 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6018 
  6019 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  6020 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  6021 quotes.
  6022 
  6023 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  6024 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  6025 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  6026 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  6027 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  6028 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  6029 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  6030 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  6031 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  6032 
  6033 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  6034 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  6035 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  6036 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  6037 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  6038 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  6039 
  6040 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  6041 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  6042 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  6043 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  6044 
  6045 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  6046 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  6047 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  6048 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  6049 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  6050 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  6051 
  6052 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  6053 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  6054 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  6055 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  6056 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  6057 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  6058 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  6059 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  6060 
  6061 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  6062 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  6063 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  6064 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  6065 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  6066 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  6067 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  6068 
  6069 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  6070 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  6071 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  6072 
  6073 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  6074 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  6075 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  6076 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  6077 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  6078 limit is imposed.
  6079 
  6080 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  6081 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  6082 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  6083 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  6084 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  6085 and scalability.
  6086 
  6087 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  6088 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  6089 
  6090 
  6091 *** Document preparation ***
  6092 
  6093 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  6094 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  6095 current context.
  6096 
  6097 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  6098 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  6099 
  6100 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  6101 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  6102 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  6103 
  6104 
  6105 *** Pure ***
  6106 
  6107 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  6108 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  6109 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  6110 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  6111 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  6112 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  6113 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  6114 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  6115 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  6116 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  6117 
  6118 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  6119 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  6120 sketch:
  6121 
  6122     internal compilation:
  6123         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  6124     writing SML code to a file:
  6125         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  6126     writing OCaml code to a file:
  6127         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  6128     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  6129         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  6130 
  6131     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  6132         method ``eval''
  6133 
  6134 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  6135 
  6136 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  6137 
  6138     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  6139     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  6140     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  6141     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  6142 
  6143 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  6144 
  6145     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  6146       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  6147 
  6148     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  6149       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  6150 
  6151     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  6152       {(target)}+
  6153         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  6154 
  6155     code_class <and_list of classes>
  6156       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  6157         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  6158 
  6159 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  6160 
  6161 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  6162 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  6163 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  6164 codegen".
  6165 
  6166 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  6167 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  6168 annotations).
  6169 
  6170 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  6171 syntax.
  6172 
  6173 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  6174 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  6175 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  6176 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  6177 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  6178 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  6179 
  6180 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  6181 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  6182 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  6183 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  6184 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  6185 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  6186 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  6187 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  6188 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  6189 equations, see section "definitions".
  6190 
  6191 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  6192 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  6193 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  6194 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  6195 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  6196 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  6197 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  6198 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  6199 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  6200 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  6201 
  6202 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  6203 configuration options:
  6204 
  6205   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  6206   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  6207   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  6208   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  6209   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  6210   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  6211   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  6212   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  6213   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  6214 
  6215 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  6216 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  6217 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  6218 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  6219 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  6220 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  6221 order.
  6222 
  6223 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  6224 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  6225 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  6226 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  6227 context encountered later on.
  6228 
  6229 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  6230 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  6231 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  6232 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  6233 
  6234 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  6235 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  6236 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  6237 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  6238 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  6239 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  6240 
  6241 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  6242 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  6243 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  6244 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  6245 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  6246 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  6247 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  6248 more permissive.
  6249 
  6250 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  6251 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  6252 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  6253 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  6254 maintainability of proof texts.
  6255 
  6256 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  6257 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  6258 
  6259   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  6260   then guess x and y by clarify
  6261 
  6262 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  6263 proof tools being involved here.
  6264 
  6265 * Isar: known facts from