NEWS
author krauss
Mon Apr 23 21:31:52 2012 +0200 (2012-04-23)
changeset 47703 400fccb77ec8
parent 47694 05663f75964c
child 47706 3eef88e8496b
permissions -rw-r--r--
NEWS
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
     5 ------------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
    10 
    11   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
    12     command line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
    13   - markup for bound variables
    14   - markup for types of term variables (e.g. displayed as tooltips)
    15   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
    16   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
    17     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
    18 
    19 * Updated and extended reference manuals ("isar-ref" and
    20 "implementation"); reduced remaining material in old "ref" manual.
    21 
    22 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
    23 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
    24 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
    25 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
    26 etc. was exploited.
    27 
    28 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
    29 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
    30 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
    31 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
    32 indices of schematic variables.
    33 
    34 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
    35 
    36     num ~> num_token
    37     xnum ~> xnum_token
    38     xstr ~> str_token
    39 
    40 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
    41 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
    42 position information via constraints).
    43 
    44 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
    45 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
    46 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    47 
    48 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
    49 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
    50 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
    51 
    52 
    53 *** Pure ***
    54 
    55 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
    56 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
    57 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
    58 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
    59 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
    60 
    61   context
    62     fixes x y z :: 'a
    63     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
    64   begin
    65 
    66   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
    67 
    68   end
    69 
    70   thm my_trans
    71 
    72 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
    73 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
    74 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
    75 
    76 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
    77 ... begin ... end" block as well.
    78 
    79 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
    80 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
    81 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
    82 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.
    83 
    84 See commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref
    85 manual.
    86 
    87 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
    88 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
    89 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
    90 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
    91 
    92 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
    93 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
    94 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
    95 
    96 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
    97 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
    98 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
    99 undocumented feature.)
   100 
   101 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   102 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   103 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   104 
   105 * Obsolete command 'types' has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   106 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   107 
   108 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   109 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   110 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   111 
   112 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   113 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   114 
   115 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   116 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   117 
   118   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   119 
   120 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   121 
   122 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   123 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   124 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   125 
   126   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   127 
   128   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   129     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   130 
   131 
   132 *** HOL ***
   133 
   134 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL" ("prog-prove").
   135 It completely supercedes "A Tutorial Introduction to Structured Isar Proofs",
   136 which has been removed. It supercedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant
   137 for Higher-Order Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial
   138 but does not cover all of the material of that old tutorial.
   139 
   140 * Discontinued old Tutorial on Isar ("isar-overview");
   141 
   142 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   143 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   144 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   145 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase sets S accidentally
   146 used as predicates by "%x. x : S" and predicates P accidentally used
   147 as sets by "{x. P x}".  Corresponding proofs in a first step should be
   148 pruned from any tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def
   149 as far as possible.
   150 
   151 For developments which deliberately mixed predicates and sets, a
   152 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   153 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   154 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   155 
   156 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   157 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   158 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   159 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively. (See definitions
   160 in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.) Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some user theories
   161 may require adaptations as follows:
   162 
   163   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   164     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   165 
   166   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   167     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   168     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   169 
   170   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   171     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   172 
   173   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   174     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   175     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   176 
   177   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   178     Redefine using other integer operations.
   179 
   180 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   181 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   182 
   183 * New proof import from HOL Light: Faster, simpler, and more scalable.
   184 Requires a proof bundle, which is available as an external component.
   185 Discontinued old (and mostly dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.
   186 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   187 
   188 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   189 
   190 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   191 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   192 of some relation theorems:
   193 
   194   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   195   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   196   symp_def ~> (dropped, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   197   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   198   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   199   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   200 
   201 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   202 
   203 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   204 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   205 
   206 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   207 
   208 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   209 to match the constant's name:
   210 
   211   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   212   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   213   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   214   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   215   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   216   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   217   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   218   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   219   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   220   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   221   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   222   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   223   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   224   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   225   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   226   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   227   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   228   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   229   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   230   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   231   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   232   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   233   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   234   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   235 
   236 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   237 
   238 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   239 and corresponding theorem names:
   240 
   241   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   242 
   243   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   244 
   245   - Renamed theorems:
   246 
   247     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   248     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   249     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   250     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   251     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   252     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   253     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   254     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   255     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   256     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   257     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   258     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   259     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   260     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   261     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   262     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   263     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   264     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   265     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   266     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   267     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   268     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   269     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   270 
   271     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   272 
   273     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   274 
   275 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   276 
   277 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   278 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   279 
   280   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   281   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   282   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   283   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   284   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   285   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   286   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   287   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   288   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   289   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   290   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   291   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   292   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   293   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   294   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   295   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   296   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   297   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   298   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   299   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   300   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   301 
   302 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   303 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   304 
   305 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   306 
   307 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   308 
   309   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   310   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   311   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   312   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   313   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   314   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   315   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   316   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   317   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   318   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   319   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   320   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   321   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   322   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   323   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   324   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   325   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   326   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   327 
   328 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   329 
   330 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   331 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   332 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   333 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   334 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   335 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   336 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   337 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   338 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   339 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   340 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   341 
   342 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   343 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   344 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   345 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   346 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   347 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   348 
   349 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   350 through option types.
   351 
   352 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   353 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   354 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   355 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   356 one_case.
   357 
   358 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   359 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   360 
   361 * HOL/Library/Set_Algebras.thy: Addition and multiplication on sets
   362 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
   363 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
   364 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
   365 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   366 
   367 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
   368 association lists with distinct keys.
   369 
   370 * 'datatype' specifications allow explicit sort constraints.
   371 
   372 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   373 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   374 
   375 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
   376 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
   377 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
   378 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
   379 follows:
   380 
   381   Operations:
   382   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
   383   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
   384   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
   385   del -> rbt_del
   386   delete -> rbt_delete
   387   ins -> rbt_ins
   388   insert -> rbt_insert
   389   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
   390   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
   391   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
   392   lookup -> rbt_lookup
   393   sorted -> rbt_sorted
   394   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
   395   tree_less -> rbt_less
   396   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
   397   union -> rbt_union
   398   union_with -> rbt_union_with
   399   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
   400 
   401   Lemmas:
   402   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
   403   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
   404   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
   405   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
   406   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
   407   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
   408   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
   409   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
   410   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
   411   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
   412   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
   413   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
   414   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
   415   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
   416   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
   417   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
   418   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
   419   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
   420   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
   421   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
   422   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
   423   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
   424   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
   425   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
   426   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
   427   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
   428   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
   429   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
   430   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
   431   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
   432   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
   433   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
   434   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
   435   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
   436   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
   437   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
   438   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
   439   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
   440   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
   441   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
   442   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
   443   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
   444   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
   445   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
   446   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
   447   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
   448   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
   449   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
   450   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
   451   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
   452   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
   453   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
   454   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
   455   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
   456   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
   457   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
   458   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
   459   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
   460   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
   461   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
   462   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
   463   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
   464   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
   465   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
   466   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
   467   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
   468   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
   469   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
   470   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
   471   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
   472   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
   473   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
   474   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
   475   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
   476   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
   477   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
   478   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
   479   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
   480   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
   481   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
   482   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
   483   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
   484   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
   485 
   486 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as a
   487 subset of the real numbers. All operations are defined using the
   488 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.
   489 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   490 
   491   Changed Operations:
   492   float_abs -> abs
   493   float_nprt -> nprt
   494   float_pprt -> pprt
   495   pow2 -> use powr
   496   round_down -> float_round_down
   497   round_up -> float_round_up
   498   scale -> exponent
   499 
   500   Removed Operations:
   501   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
   502 
   503   Renamed Lemmas:
   504   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
   505   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
   506   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
   507   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
   508   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
   509   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
   510   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
   511   float_power -> real_of_float_power
   512   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
   513   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
   514   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
   515   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
   516   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
   517   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
   518   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
   519   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
   520   normfloat -> normfloat_def
   521   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
   522   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
   523   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
   524   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
   525   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
   526   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
   527   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
   528   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
   529   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
   530   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
   531   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
   532   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
   533   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
   534   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
   535   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
   536   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
   537   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
   538   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
   539   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
   540 
   541   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
   542   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
   543   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
   544   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
   545   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
   546   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
   547   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
   548   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
   549   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
   550   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
   551 
   552 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
   553 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
   554 instead.
   555 
   556   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
   557   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
   558   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
   559   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
   560   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
   561   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
   562   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
   563   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
   564   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   565   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   566   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
   567   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
   568   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   569   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
   570   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   571   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
   572   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
   573   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
   574   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
   575   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
   576   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
   577   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
   578   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
   579   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
   580   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
   581   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
   582   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
   583   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
   584   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
   585   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
   586   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
   587   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
   588   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
   589   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
   590   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
   591   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
   592   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
   593   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
   594   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
   595   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
   596   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
   597 
   598 * New tactic "word_bitwise" for splitting machine word equalities and
   599 inequalities into logical circuits. Requires theory "WordBitwise" from HOL-Word
   600 session. Supports addition, subtraction, multiplication, shifting by
   601 constants, bitwise operators and numeric constants. Requires fixed-length word
   602 types, cannot operate on 'a word. Solves many standard word identies outright
   603 and converts more into first order problems amenable to blast or similar. See
   604 HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy and examples in HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
   605 
   606 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   607 the result of the fact expression.
   608 
   609 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   610 relations.
   611 
   612 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   613 
   614 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   615 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   616 
   617   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   618   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   619   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   620   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   621   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   622   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   623   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   624   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   625   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   626   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   627   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   628   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   629   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   630   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   631   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   632   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   633   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   634   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   635   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   636   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   637   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   638   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   639   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   640   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   641   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   642   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   643   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   644   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   645   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   646   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   647   zless_le ~> less_le
   648   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   649   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   650   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   651 
   652 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   653 
   654   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   655 
   656 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
   657 
   658 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to represent
   659 measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a measure_space. The
   660 locales based on subset_class now have two locale-parameters the space
   661 \<Omega> and the set of measurables sets M. The product of probability spaces
   662 uses now the same constant as the finite product of sigma-finite measure
   663 spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a) measure". Most constants are defined now
   664 outside of locales and gain an additional parameter, like null_sets,
   665 almost_eventually or \<mu>'. Measure space constructions for distributions
   666 and densities now got their own constants distr and density. Instead of
   667 using locales to describe measure spaces with a finite space, the
   668 measure count_space and point_measure is introduced. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   669 
   670   Renamed constants:
   671   measure -> emeasure
   672   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
   673   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
   674   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
   675   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
   676 
   677   Removed locales:
   678   completeable_measure_space
   679   finite_measure_space
   680   finite_prob_space
   681   finite_product_finite_prob_space
   682   finite_product_sigma_algebra
   683   finite_sigma_algebra
   684   measure_space
   685   pair_finite_prob_space
   686   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
   687   pair_finite_space
   688   pair_sigma_algebra
   689   product_sigma_algebra
   690 
   691   Removed constants:
   692   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
   693   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
   694   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
   695   subvimage
   696   image_space
   697   conditional_space
   698   pair_measure_generator
   699 
   700   Replacement theorems:
   701   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
   702   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
   703   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
   704   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
   705   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
   706   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
   707   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
   708   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
   709   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
   710   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
   711   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
   712   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
   713   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
   714   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
   715   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
   716   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
   717   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
   718   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
   719   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
   720   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
   721   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
   722   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
   723   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
   724   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
   725   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
   726   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
   727   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
   728   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
   729   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
   730   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
   731   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
   732   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
   733   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
   734   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
   735   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
   736   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
   737   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
   738   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
   739   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
   740   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
   741   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
   742   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
   743   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
   744   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
   745   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
   746   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
   747   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
   748   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
   749   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
   750   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
   751   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
   752   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
   753   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
   754   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
   755   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
   756   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
   757   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
   758   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
   759   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
   760   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
   761   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
   762   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
   763   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
   764   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
   765   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
   766   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
   767   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
   768   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
   769   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
   770   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
   771   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
   772   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
   773   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
   774   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
   775   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
   776   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
   777   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
   778   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
   779   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
   780   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
   781   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
   782   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
   783   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
   784   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
   785   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
   786   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
   787   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
   788   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
   789   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
   790   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
   791   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
   792   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
   793   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
   794   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
   795   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
   796   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
   797   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
   798   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
   799   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
   800   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
   801   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
   802   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
   803   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
   804   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
   805   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
   806   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
   807   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
   808   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
   809   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
   810   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
   811   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
   812   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
   813   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
   814   conditional_entropy_positive -> conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
   815   conditional_entropy_eq -> conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
   816   conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
   817   conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
   818   conditional_mutual_information_positive -> conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
   819   entropy_commute -> entropy_commute_simple
   820   entropy_eq -> entropy_simple_distributed
   821   entropy_generic_eq -> entropy_simple_distributed
   822   entropy_positive -> entropy_nonneg_simple
   823   entropy_uniform_max -> entropy_uniform
   824   KL_eq_0 -> KL_same_eq_0
   825   KL_eq_0_imp -> KL_eq_0_iff_eq
   826   KL_ge_0 -> KL_nonneg
   827   mutual_information_eq -> mutual_information_simple_distributed
   828   mutual_information_positive -> mutual_information_nonneg_simple
   829 
   830 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   831 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   832 
   833   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   834 
   835 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   836 a list and a nat.
   837 
   838 * New Transfer package:
   839 
   840   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   841     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   842     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   843     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   844     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   845 
   846     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   847     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   848 
   849   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   850     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   851     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   852     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   853     necessary for variables whose types changes, but can be overridden
   854     for specific variables with e.g. 'transfer fixing: x y z'.
   855     The variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with
   856     one that is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   857 
   858   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   859     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)". The
   860     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   861     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   862 
   863   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   864     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   865     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   866     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   867 
   868   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   869     from type nat to type int.
   870 
   871 * New Lifting package:
   872 
   873   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   874     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation type. Example
   875     syntax:
   876 
   877     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   878       is List.insert
   879 
   880     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   881     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   882     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   883     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   884     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   885     by the package.
   886 
   887   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   888     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   889     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   890     code generation for each constant.
   891 
   892   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with
   893     a user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient
   894     theorem or a type_definition theorem. The package configures
   895     transfer rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets
   896     up the lift_definition command to work with the type.
   897 
   898   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   899     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Word/Word.thy and
   900     Library/Float.thy.
   901 
   902 * Quotient package:
   903 
   904   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   905     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   906 
   907   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   908     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   909 
   910   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   911     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   912     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   913 
   914   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   915     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   916 
   917 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   918 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   919 
   920 * Quickcheck:
   921 
   922   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   923     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   924     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   925     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   926     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   927 
   928     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   929     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   930     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   931 
   932     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   933     continues searching for genuine ones.
   934 
   935     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   936     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   937     show genuine counterexamples.
   938 
   939   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   940     value generators for a given type and operations.
   941 
   942     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   943     constructors of that type.
   944 
   945   - Support for multisets.
   946 
   947   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   948 
   949   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   950     conjectures in a locale context.
   951 
   952 * Nitpick:
   953   - Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option and
   954     affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   955 
   956 * Sledgehammer:
   957   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012 paper "More
   958     SPASS with Isabelle".
   959   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   960   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and TFF1),
   961     iProver, iProver-Eq.
   962   - Replaced remote E-SInE with remote Satallax in the default setup.
   963   - Sped up the minimizer.
   964   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   965   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   966   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   967 
   968 * Metis:
   969   - Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   970     parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   971 
   972 * SMT:
   973   - Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   974 
   975 * Command 'try0':
   976   - Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   977 
   978 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   979 eventually_elim* rules. Supports structured proofs.
   980 
   981 * HOL/TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all languages)
   982 into Isabelle/HOL.
   983 
   984 
   985 *** FOL ***
   986 
   987 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
   988 
   989 
   990 *** ZF ***
   991 
   992 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
   993 analysis.
   994 
   995 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
   996 
   997 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   998 
   999 
  1000 *** ML ***
  1001 
  1002 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1003 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1004 
  1005 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1006 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1007 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1008 
  1009 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1010 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1011 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1012 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1013 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1014 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1015 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1016 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1017 
  1018 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1019 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1020 
  1021 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1022 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1023 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1024 
  1025 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1026 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1027 
  1028 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1029 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1030 context as well.
  1031 
  1032 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1033 
  1034   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1035   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1036   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1037   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1038   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1039   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1040   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1041   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1042   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1043   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1044   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1045   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1046 
  1047 
  1048 *** System ***
  1049 
  1050 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1051 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1052 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1053 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1054 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1055 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1056 the generic user home was intended.
  1057 
  1058 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1059 (not just JRE).
  1060 
  1061 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1062 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1063 
  1064 
  1065 
  1066 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1067 ------------------------------------
  1068 
  1069 *** General ***
  1070 
  1071 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1072 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1073 
  1074   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1075     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1076     files for checking).
  1077 
  1078   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1079     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1080     positions.
  1081 
  1082   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1083     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1084     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1085 
  1086   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1087     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1088     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1089 
  1090   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1091     cores.
  1092 
  1093   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1094     versions (garbage collection).
  1095 
  1096 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1097 including some remaining limitations.
  1098 
  1099 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1100 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1101 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1102 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1103 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1104 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1105 
  1106 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1107 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1108 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1109 
  1110 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1111 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1112 usedir option -Q.
  1113 
  1114 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1115 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1116 
  1117   long_names   ~> names_long
  1118   short_names  ~> names_short
  1119   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1120 
  1121 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1122 
  1123   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1124 
  1125 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1126 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1127 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1128 
  1129 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1130 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1131 
  1132 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1133   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1134   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1135   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1136     "Classical Reasoner".
  1137 
  1138 
  1139 *** HOL ***
  1140 
  1141 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1142 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1143 
  1144 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1145 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1146 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1147 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1148 class complete_linorder.
  1149 
  1150 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1151 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1152 
  1153 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1154 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1155 
  1156   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1157   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1158   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1159   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1160   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1161   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1162   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1163   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1164   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1165   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1166   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1167 
  1168 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1169 
  1170   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1171   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1172   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1173   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1174   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1175   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1176   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1177   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1178   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1179   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1180   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1181   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1182   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1183   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1184   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1185   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1186 
  1187 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1188 
  1189 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1190 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1191 
  1192 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1193 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1194 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1195 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1196 
  1197 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1198 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1199 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1200 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1201 
  1202 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1203 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1204 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1205 
  1206 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1207 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1208 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1209 
  1210 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1211 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1212 
  1213 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1214 
  1215     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1216     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1217 
  1218 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1219 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1220 
  1221 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1222 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1223 
  1224 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1225 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1226 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1227 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1228 
  1229   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1230   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1231   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1232   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1233   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1234   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1235   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1236 
  1237 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1238 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1239 
  1240   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1241   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1242   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1243   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1244   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1245   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1246   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1247   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1248   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1249   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1250   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1251   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1252   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1253   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1254   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1255   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1256   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1257   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1258   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1259   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1260   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1261   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1262   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1263   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1264   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1265   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1266   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1267   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1268   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1269   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1270   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1271   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1272   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1273   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1274   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1275   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1276   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1277   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1278   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1279   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1280   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1281   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1282   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1283   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1284   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1285   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1286   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1287   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1288   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1289   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1290   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1291   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1292   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1293   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1294   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1295   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1296   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1297   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1298   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1299   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1300   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1301   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1302   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1303   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1304   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1305   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1306   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1307   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1308   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1309   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1310   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1311   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1312   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1313   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1314   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1315   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1316   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1317   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1318   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1319   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1320   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1321   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1322 
  1323 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1324 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1325 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1326 
  1327 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1328 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1329 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1330 
  1331 * Code generation:
  1332 
  1333   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1334     characters in the target language.
  1335 
  1336   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1337     instead.
  1338 
  1339   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1340 
  1341   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1342     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1343 
  1344       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1345 
  1346 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1347 
  1348 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1349 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1350 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1351 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1352 syntax.
  1353 
  1354 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1355 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1356 
  1357 * Nitpick:
  1358   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1359   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1360   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1361     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1362 
  1363 * Sledgehammer:
  1364   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1365   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1366     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1367   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1368     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1369   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1370     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1371   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1372     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1373   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1374     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1375 
  1376 * Metis:
  1377   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1378   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1379     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1380 
  1381 * Command 'try':
  1382   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1383     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1384   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1385     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1386 
  1387 * Quickcheck:
  1388   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1389     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1390   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1391     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1392   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1393     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1394     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1395     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1396   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1397     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1398 
  1399 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1400 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1401 
  1402 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1403 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1404 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1405 
  1406 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1407 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1408 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1409 
  1410 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1411 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1412 
  1413 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1414 arithmetic.
  1415 
  1416 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1417 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1418 and lattice type classes.
  1419 
  1420 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1421 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1422 
  1423 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1424 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1425 
  1426 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1427 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1428 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1429 
  1430   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1431   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1432   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1433   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1434 
  1435 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1436 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1437 constants:
  1438 
  1439   type inat   ~> type enat
  1440   Fin         ~> enat
  1441   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1442   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1443   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1444 
  1445 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1446 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1447 
  1448 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1449 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1450 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1451 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1452 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1453 
  1454 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1455 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1456 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1457 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1458 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1459 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1460 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1461 
  1462   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1463   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1464   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1465   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1466 
  1467 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1468 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1469 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1470 
  1471   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1472   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1473   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1474   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1475   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1476   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1477   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1478   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1479   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1480   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1481   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1482   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1483   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1484   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1485   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1486   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1487   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1488   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1489   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1490   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1491   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1492   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1493   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1494   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1495   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1496   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1497   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1498   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1499   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1500   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1501   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1502   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1503   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1504   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1505   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1506   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1507   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1508   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1509   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1510   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1511   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1512   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1513   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1514   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1515   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1516   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1517   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1518   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1519   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1520   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1521   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1522 
  1523 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1524   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1525   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1526   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1527   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1528     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1529 
  1530 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1531 
  1532   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1533   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1534   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1535   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1536   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1537   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1538   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1539   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1540   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1541   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1542   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1543   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1544   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1545   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1546   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1547   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1548   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1549   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1550   UU_I ~> bottomI
  1551   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  1552   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1553   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1554   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  1555   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  1556   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  1557 
  1558 
  1559 *** Document preparation ***
  1560 
  1561 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1562 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1563 same.
  1564 
  1565 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  1566 result.
  1567 
  1568 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  1569 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  1570 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  1571 
  1572 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  1573 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  1574 
  1575 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  1576 like this:
  1577 
  1578   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  1579   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  1580 
  1581 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  1582 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  1583 layouts.
  1584 
  1585 
  1586 *** ML ***
  1587 
  1588 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  1589 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  1590 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  1591 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  1592 under external program control.
  1593 
  1594 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  1595 data, which requires explicit setup.
  1596 
  1597 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  1598 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  1599 (better known as Proof General).
  1600 
  1601 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1602 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  1603 
  1604 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  1605 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  1606 
  1607 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  1608 (including quotes etc.).
  1609 
  1610 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  1611 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  1612 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  1613 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  1614 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  1615 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  1616 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  1617 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  1618 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  1619 
  1620 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  1621 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  1622 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1623 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  1624 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  1625 
  1626 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  1627 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  1628 
  1629 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  1630 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  1631 
  1632 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  1633 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  1634 
  1635 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  1636 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  1637 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  1638 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  1639 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  1640 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  1641 proper Proof.context.
  1642 
  1643 
  1644 *** System ***
  1645 
  1646 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  1647 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  1648 
  1649 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  1650 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  1651 
  1652 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  1653 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  1654 
  1655   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  1656   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  1657   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  1658   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  1659   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  1660 
  1661 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  1662 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1663 
  1664 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  1665 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  1666 example:
  1667 
  1668   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  1669 
  1670 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  1671 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  1672 
  1673 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  1674 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  1675 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  1676 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  1677 
  1678 
  1679 
  1680 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  1681 ----------------------------------
  1682 
  1683 *** General ***
  1684 
  1685 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  1686 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  1687 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  1688 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  1689 like this:
  1690 
  1691   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  1692 
  1693 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  1694 
  1695 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  1696 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  1697 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  1698 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  1699 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  1700 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  1701 
  1702 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  1703 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  1704 the following package declarations:
  1705 
  1706   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  1707   \usepackage{textcomp}
  1708 
  1709 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  1710 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  1711 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  1712 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  1713 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  1714 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  1715 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  1716 
  1717 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  1718 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1719 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  1720 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  1721 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  1722 
  1723 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  1724 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  1725 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  1726 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  1727 
  1728 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  1729 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  1730 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  1731 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  1732 
  1733   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  1734 
  1735   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  1736   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  1737   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  1738   show_types                    show_types
  1739   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  1740   show_consts                   show_consts
  1741   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  1742 
  1743   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  1744   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  1745   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  1746 
  1747   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  1748   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  1749 
  1750   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  1751 
  1752   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  1753   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  1754   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  1755   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  1756   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  1757 
  1758 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  1759 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  1760 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  1761 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  1762 
  1763 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  1764 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1765 
  1766   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  1767   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  1768 
  1769 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  1770 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  1771 float_token.
  1772 
  1773 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  1774 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  1775 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1776 
  1777 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  1778 DejaVu Sans.
  1779 
  1780 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  1781 
  1782 
  1783 *** Pure ***
  1784 
  1785 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  1786 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  1787 time.
  1788 
  1789 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  1790 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1791 
  1792 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  1793 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1794 
  1795 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  1796 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  1797 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  1798 command already provided this functionality.
  1799 
  1800 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  1801 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  1802 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  1803 without interpretations.
  1804 
  1805 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  1806 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  1807 
  1808 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  1809 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  1810 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  1811 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  1812 
  1813 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  1814 'definition' instead.
  1815 
  1816 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  1817 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  1818 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  1819 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  1820 
  1821 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  1822 constructors.
  1823 
  1824 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  1825 the local file system.
  1826 
  1827 
  1828 *** HOL ***
  1829 
  1830 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  1831 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  1832 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  1833 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  1834 
  1835   declare [[coercion f]]
  1836 
  1837 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  1838 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  1839 
  1840   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  1841 
  1842 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  1843 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  1844 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  1845 other theories like this:
  1846 
  1847   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  1848 
  1849 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  1850 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  1851 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  1852 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  1853 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  1854 for examples.
  1855 
  1856 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  1857 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1858 
  1859 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  1860 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  1861 
  1862 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  1863 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  1864 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  1865 
  1866 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  1867 functorial structure of types.
  1868 
  1869 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  1870 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  1871 
  1872 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  1873 languages.
  1874 
  1875 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  1876 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  1877 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1878 
  1879 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  1880 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1881 
  1882 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  1883 combinators any longer.
  1884 
  1885 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  1886 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  1887 
  1888 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  1889 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  1890 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  1891 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  1892 
  1893   record 'a foo = ...
  1894   ...
  1895   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  1896 
  1897 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  1898 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  1899 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1900 
  1901 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  1902 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  1903 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  1904 
  1905 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  1906 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  1907 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  1908 
  1909 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  1910 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1911 
  1912 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  1913 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  1914 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  1915 independently.
  1916 
  1917 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  1918 counter example search.
  1919 
  1920 * Sledgehammer:
  1921   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  1922     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  1923     sledgehammer").
  1924   - Renamed commands:
  1925     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  1926     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  1927     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  1928     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1929   - Renamed options:
  1930     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  1931     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  1932     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  1933     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  1934     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1935 
  1936 * Nitpick:
  1937   - Renamed options:
  1938     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  1939     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  1940     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1941   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  1942   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  1943   - Added "whack" option.
  1944   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  1945   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  1946   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  1947   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  1948     higher cardinalities.
  1949   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  1950 
  1951 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  1952 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  1953 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  1954 
  1955     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  1956 
  1957 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  1958 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  1959 
  1960 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  1961 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  1962 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  1963 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  1964 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  1965 "smt_solver".
  1966 
  1967 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  1968 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  1969 
  1970 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  1971 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  1972 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  1973 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1974 
  1975 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  1976   - Renamed:
  1977     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  1978     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  1979     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1980   - Added:
  1981     smt_verbose
  1982     smt_random_seed
  1983     smt_datatypes
  1984     smt_infer_triggers
  1985     smt_monomorph_limit
  1986     cvc3_options
  1987     remote_cvc3_options
  1988     remote_z3_options
  1989     yices_options
  1990 
  1991 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  1992 header.
  1993 
  1994 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  1995 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  1996 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  1997 
  1998   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  1999 
  2000 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2001 
  2002 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2003 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2004 
  2005 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2006 
  2007 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2008 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2009 
  2010 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2011 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2012 
  2013 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2014 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2015 
  2016 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2017 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2018 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2019 
  2020 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2021 
  2022 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2023 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2024 
  2025 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2026 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2027 
  2028 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2029 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2030 for congruent(2)).
  2031 
  2032 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2033 
  2034   types
  2035     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2036     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2037 
  2038   constants
  2039     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2040     True ~> HOL.True
  2041     False ~> HOL.False
  2042     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2043     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2044     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2045     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2046     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2047     The ~> HOL.The
  2048     All ~> HOL.All
  2049     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2050     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2051     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2052     If ~> HOL.If
  2053     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2054     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2055     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2056     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2057     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2058     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2059     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2060     op : ~> Set.member
  2061     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2062 
  2063 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2064 
  2065 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2066 
  2067     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2068     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2069     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2070     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2071     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2072     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2073     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2074     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2075 
  2076 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2077 
  2078 * More stylized fact names:
  2079 
  2080   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2081   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2082   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2083   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2084 
  2085 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2086 
  2087 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2088 
  2089   constants
  2090     null ~> List.null
  2091 
  2092   facts
  2093     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2094     null_empty ~> null_def
  2095 
  2096 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2097 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2098 generation.
  2099 
  2100 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2101 Haskell code.
  2102 
  2103 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2104 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2105 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2106 
  2107 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2108 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2109 
  2110 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2111 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2112 
  2113 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2114 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2115 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2116 
  2117 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2118 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2119 
  2120 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2121 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2122 
  2123 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2124 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2125 referred to by its qualified name.
  2126 
  2127   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2128   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2129   product ~>  Enum.product
  2130 
  2131 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2132 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2133 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2134 
  2135 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2136 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2137 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2138 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2139 
  2140 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2141 sort_key.
  2142 
  2143 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2144 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2145 
  2146 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2147 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2148 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2149 
  2150   types
  2151     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2152               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2153               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2154         (depends on your needs)
  2155 
  2156   constants
  2157      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2158      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2159      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2160 
  2161 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2162 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2163 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2164 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2165 
  2166 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2167 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2168 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2169 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2170 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2171 
  2172 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2173 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2174 
  2175 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2176 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2177 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2178 
  2179 
  2180 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2181 
  2182 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2183 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2184 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2185 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2186 compatibility.
  2187 
  2188 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2189 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2190 
  2191 
  2192 *** HOLCF ***
  2193 
  2194 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2195 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2196 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2197 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2198 
  2199 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2200 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2201 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2202 
  2203   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2204   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2205   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2206 
  2207 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2208 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2209 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2210 
  2211 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2212 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2213 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2214 domain definition now works:
  2215 
  2216   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2217 
  2218 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2219 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2220 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2221 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2222 
  2223   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2224     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2225 
  2226   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2227 
  2228 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2229 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2230 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2231 
  2232 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2233 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2234 
  2235 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2236 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2237 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2238 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2239 
  2240 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2241 
  2242 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2243 
  2244 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2245 
  2246 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2247 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2248 
  2249 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2250 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2251 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2252 
  2253 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2254 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2255 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2256 
  2257 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2258 still supported as an input translation.
  2259 
  2260 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2261 
  2262   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2263   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2264   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2265   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2266   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2267   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2268   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2269 
  2270 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2271 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2272 
  2273   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2274   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2275   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2276   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2277   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2278   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2279 
  2280 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2281 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2282 
  2283 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2284 
  2285   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2286   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2287   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2288   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2289 
  2290 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2291 
  2292 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2293 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2294 
  2295 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2296 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2297 
  2298   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2299   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2300   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2301   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2302   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2303   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2304   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2305   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2306   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2307   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2308   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2309   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2310   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2311   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2312   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2313   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2314   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2315   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2316   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2317   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2318 
  2319 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2320 
  2321   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2322   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2323   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2324   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2325   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2326   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2327   box_less             ~> box_below
  2328   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2329   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2330   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2331   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2332   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2333   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2334   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2335   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2336   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2337   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2338   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2339   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2340   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2341   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2342   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2343   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2344   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2345   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2346   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2347   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2348   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2349   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2350   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2351   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2352   up_less              ~> up_below
  2353   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2354   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2355   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2356   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2357   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2358   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2359   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2360   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2361   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2362   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2363   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2364   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2365   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2366 
  2367 
  2368 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2369 
  2370 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2371 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2372 
  2373 
  2374 *** ML ***
  2375 
  2376 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2377 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2378 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2379 
  2380 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2381 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2382 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2383 
  2384 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2385 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2386 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2387 
  2388 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2389 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2390 
  2391 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2392 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2393 
  2394 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2395 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2396 
  2397 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2398 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2399 
  2400 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2401 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2402 almost all situations.
  2403 
  2404 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2405 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2406 Isabelle/ML.
  2407 
  2408 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2409 meaning.
  2410 
  2411 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2412 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2413 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2414 
  2415 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2416 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2417 
  2418 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2419 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2420 
  2421 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2422 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2423 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2424 
  2425 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2426 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2427 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2428 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2429 configuration options.
  2430 
  2431 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2432 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2433 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2434 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2435 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2436 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2437 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2438 
  2439 
  2440 
  2441 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2442 ---------------------------------
  2443 
  2444 *** General ***
  2445 
  2446 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2447 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2448 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2449 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2450 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2451 their full internal name.
  2452 
  2453 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2454 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2455 Some hints on upgrading:
  2456 
  2457   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2458     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2459     which are independent of this issue.
  2460 
  2461   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2462     provides the following special forms:
  2463 
  2464       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2465       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2466       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2467 
  2468     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2469     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2470     extra variables".
  2471 
  2472     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2473     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2474     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2475     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2476     "logic".
  2477 
  2478   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2479     antiquotations:
  2480 
  2481       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2482       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2483       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2484       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2485 
  2486   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2487     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2488     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2489     antiquotations.
  2490 
  2491 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2492 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2493 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2494 diagnose syntax problems.
  2495 
  2496 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2497 
  2498 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2499 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2500 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2501 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2502 
  2503 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2504 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2505 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2506 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2507 
  2508 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2509 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2510 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2511 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2512 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2513 
  2514 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2515 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2516 
  2517 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2518 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2519 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2520 
  2521   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2522 
  2523 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2524 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2525 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2526 
  2527 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2528 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2529 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2530 
  2531 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2532 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2533 
  2534 
  2535 *** Pure ***
  2536 
  2537 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2538 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2539 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2540 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2541 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2542 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2543 inspect proof terms.
  2544 
  2545 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2546 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2547 are added internally.  For example:
  2548 
  2549   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2550 
  2551 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  2552 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2553 
  2554 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2555 
  2556 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2557 'class' instead.
  2558 
  2559 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2560 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2561 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2562 
  2563 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2564 invariants.
  2565 
  2566 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  2567 user space functionality any longer.
  2568 
  2569 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  2570 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  2571 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2572 
  2573 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  2574 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  2575 
  2576 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  2577 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  2578 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  2579 
  2580 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  2581 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  2582 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  2583 
  2584 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  2585 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2586 
  2587 
  2588 *** HOL ***
  2589 
  2590 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  2591 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  2592 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  2593 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  2594 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  2595 
  2596 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  2597 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  2598 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  2599 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  2600 
  2601   fun
  2602     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  2603   where
  2604     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  2605 
  2606   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  2607     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  2608 
  2609   quotient_definition
  2610     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  2611 
  2612 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  2613 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  2614 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  2615 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  2616 
  2617 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  2618 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  2619 
  2620 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  2621 separate HOL-SMT session.
  2622 
  2623 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  2624 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2625 
  2626 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  2627 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  2628 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  2629 
  2630 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  2631 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2632 
  2633 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  2634 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2635 
  2636 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  2637 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2638 
  2639 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  2640 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2641 
  2642 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  2643 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  2644 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2645 
  2646   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  2647   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  2648   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  2649   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  2650   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  2651   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  2652   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  2653   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  2654   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  2655   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  2656   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  2657   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  2658   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  2659   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  2660   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  2661   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  2662   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  2663   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  2664   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  2665   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  2666   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  2667   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  2668   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  2669   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  2670   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  2671   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  2672   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  2673   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  2674   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  2675   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  2676 
  2677 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  2678 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  2679 
  2680 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  2681 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  2682 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2683 
  2684 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  2685 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  2686 
  2687 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  2688 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2689 
  2690 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  2691 
  2692 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  2693 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2694 
  2695 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  2696 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2697 
  2698 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2699 
  2700 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  2701 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  2702 
  2703 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  2704 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  2705 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  2706 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2707 
  2708 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  2709   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  2710   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  2711   - inverse, divide: Rings
  2712 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2713 
  2714 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  2715 lattices):
  2716 
  2717     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  2718     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  2719 
  2720     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  2721 
  2722     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  2723     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  2724     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2725     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  2726     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2727     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  2728     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  2729     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  2730     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  2731     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  2732     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  2733     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  2734     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  2735 
  2736     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  2737     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2738     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2739     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  2740     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  2741     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  2742     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  2743     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  2744     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  2745     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  2746     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  2747     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  2748     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  2749     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  2750     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  2751     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  2752     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  2753     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  2754 
  2755   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  2756   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  2757 
  2758     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  2759     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  2760     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  2761     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  2762     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  2763 
  2764 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2765 
  2766 * Refined field classes:
  2767   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  2768     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  2769     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  2770   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  2771 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2772 
  2773 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  2774   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  2775   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  2776   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  2777     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  2778   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  2779     equal_neg_zero.
  2780 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2781 
  2782 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  2783 sets to lattices:
  2784 
  2785   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  2786   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  2787   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  2788   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  2789   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  2790   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  2791   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  2792   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  2793   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  2794   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  2795 
  2796 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  2797 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  2798 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  2799 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  2800 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  2801 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2802 
  2803 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  2804 multiset order:
  2805 
  2806   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  2807     <= and <;
  2808   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  2809     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  2810     multiset_order;
  2811   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  2812     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  2813     generation;
  2814   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  2815     if needed.
  2816 
  2817 Renamed:
  2818 
  2819   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  2820   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  2821   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  2822 
  2823 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2824 
  2825 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  2826 
  2827 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  2828 
  2829 * Theory List: added transpose.
  2830 
  2831 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  2832 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  2833 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2834 
  2835   Constants:
  2836   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  2837   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  2838   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  2839   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  2840   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  2841   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  2842   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  2843   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  2844   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  2845   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  2846   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  2847   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  2848   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  2849 
  2850   Lemmas:
  2851   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2852   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  2853   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  2854   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  2855   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  2856   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  2857   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  2858   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  2859   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  2860   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  2861   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  2862   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  2863   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2864 
  2865 * Sledgehammer:
  2866   - Renamed ATP commands:
  2867     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  2868     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  2869     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  2870     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  2871     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  2872     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2873   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  2874   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  2875     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  2876   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  2877     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  2878     is still experimental.)
  2879   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  2880     full-typed mode.
  2881   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  2882 
  2883 * Nitpick:
  2884   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  2885   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  2886   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  2887     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  2888   - Added support for quotient types.
  2889   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  2890     constructs.
  2891   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  2892     "termination" proofs).
  2893   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  2894   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  2895   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  2896   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  2897     record getters.
  2898   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  2899   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  2900   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  2901   - Added "atoms" option.
  2902   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  2903     problems.
  2904   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  2905     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  2906     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2907   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  2908     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2909   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2910 
  2911 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  2912   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  2913   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  2914   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  2915   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  2916   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  2917   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  2918   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  2919   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  2920   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2921 
  2922 
  2923 *** HOLCF ***
  2924 
  2925 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  2926 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  2927 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2928 
  2929 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  2930 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  2931 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  2932 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2933 
  2934 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  2935 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  2936 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  2937 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  2938 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2939 
  2940 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  2941 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  2942 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2943 
  2944 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  2945 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2946 
  2947   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  2948   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  2949 
  2950 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  2951 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2952 
  2953   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  2954   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  2955   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  2956   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  2957   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  2958 
  2959 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  2960 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2961 
  2962   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  2963   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  2964   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  2965 
  2966 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  2967 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  2968 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2969 
  2970 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  2971 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2972 
  2973 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2974 
  2975 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  2976 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2977 
  2978 
  2979 *** ML ***
  2980 
  2981 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  2982 
  2983     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  2984     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  2985 
  2986     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  2987     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  2988     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  2989     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  2990 
  2991     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  2992     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  2993     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  2994 
  2995 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  2996 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  2997 
  2998 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  2999 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3000 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3001 
  3002 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3003 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3004 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3005 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3006 
  3007 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3008 the context or even global references.
  3009 
  3010 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3011 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3012 
  3013 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3014 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3015 
  3016   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3017   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3018   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3019   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3020   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3021   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3022   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3023   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3024   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3025   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3026 
  3027 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3028 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3029 
  3030 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3031 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3032 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3033 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3034 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3035 
  3036 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3037 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3038 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3039 Theory_Data version.
  3040 
  3041 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3042 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3043 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3044 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3045 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3046 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3047 explicitly in rare situations.
  3048 
  3049 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3050 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3051 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3052 
  3053 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3054 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3055 
  3056 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3057 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3058 quite rare).
  3059 
  3060 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3061 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3062 
  3063 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3064 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3065 terms.
  3066 
  3067 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3068 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3069 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3070 
  3071 
  3072 *** System ***
  3073 
  3074 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3075 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3076 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3077 
  3078 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3079 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3080 respectively.
  3081 
  3082 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3083 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3084 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3085 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3086 
  3087   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3088 
  3089 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3090 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3091 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3092 component.
  3093 
  3094 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3095 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3096 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3097 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3098 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3099 the user for manual installation.
  3100 
  3101 
  3102 
  3103 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3104 -------------------------------------
  3105 
  3106 *** General ***
  3107 
  3108 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3109 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3110 
  3111 
  3112 *** Pure ***
  3113 
  3114 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3115 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3116 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3117 
  3118 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3119 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3120 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3121 
  3122 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3123 interpretation.
  3124 
  3125 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3126 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3127 
  3128 
  3129 *** Document preparation ***
  3130 
  3131 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3132 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3133 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3134 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3135 
  3136 
  3137 *** HOL ***
  3138 
  3139 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3140 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3141 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3142 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3143 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3144 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3145 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3146 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3147 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3148 
  3149 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3150 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3151 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3152 
  3153 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3154 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3155 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3156 
  3157 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3158 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3159 
  3160 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3161 
  3162 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3163 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3164 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3165 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3166 
  3167 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3168 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3169 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3170 "mirabelle" utility.
  3171 
  3172 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3173 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3174 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3175 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3176 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3177 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3178 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3179 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3180 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3181 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3182 
  3183 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3184 procedure only.
  3185 
  3186 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3187 
  3188 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3189 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3190 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3191 that fail later.
  3192 
  3193 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3194 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3195 
  3196 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3197 the same method as the approximation method.
  3198 
  3199 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3200 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3201 series expansion.
  3202 
  3203 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3204 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3205 
  3206 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3207 reals.
  3208 
  3209 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3210 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3211 
  3212 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3213 fixpoint theorem.
  3214 
  3215 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3216   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3217     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3218   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3219     accordingly
  3220   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3221     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3222   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3223     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3224 
  3225 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3226 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3227 lattice.
  3228 
  3229 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3230 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3231 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3232 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3233 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3234 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3235 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3236 
  3237 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3238   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3239     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3240   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3241     le_inf_iff
  3242   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3243     sup_aci)
  3244   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3245   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3246   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3247     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3248     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3249     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3250     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3251     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3252     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3253     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3254     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3255     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3256     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3257   - authentic syntax for
  3258     Set.Pow
  3259     Set.image
  3260   - mere abbreviations:
  3261     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3262     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3263     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3264     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3265     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3266     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3267     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3268     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3269   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3270 
  3271 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3272 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3273 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3274 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3275 
  3276 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3277 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3278 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3279 
  3280 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3281 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3282 
  3283 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3284 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3285 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3286 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3287 
  3288 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3289 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3290 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3291 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3292 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3293 
  3294 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3295 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3296 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3297 
  3298 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3299 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3300 
  3301 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3302 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3303 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3304 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3305 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3306 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3307 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3308 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3309 
  3310 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3311     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3312     code_post       replaces    code post
  3313     etc.
  3314   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3315 
  3316 * Renamed methods:
  3317     sizechange -> size_change
  3318     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3319   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3320 
  3321 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3322 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3323 
  3324 * Renamed theorems:
  3325     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3326     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3327     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3328     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3329     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3330   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3331 
  3332 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3333 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3334 
  3335 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3336 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3337 
  3338 
  3339 *** HOLCF ***
  3340 
  3341 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3342 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3343 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3344 
  3345 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3346 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3347 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3348 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3349 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3350 
  3351 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3352 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3353 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3354 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3355 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3356 
  3357 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3358 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3359 constructor are pre-configured.
  3360 
  3361 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3362 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3363 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3364 
  3365 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3366 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3367 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3368 as well.)
  3369 
  3370 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3371 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3372 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3373 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3374 examples.
  3375 
  3376 
  3377 *** ML ***
  3378 
  3379 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3380 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3381 
  3382 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3383 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3384 position, logical grouping etc.
  3385 
  3386 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3387 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3388 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3389 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3390 
  3391 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3392 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3393 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3394 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3395 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3396 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3397 
  3398 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3399 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3400 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3401 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3402 experiments with references.
  3403 
  3404 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3405 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3406 
  3407 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3408 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3409 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3410 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3411 
  3412 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3413 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3414 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3415 
  3416 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3417 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3418 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3419 
  3420 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3421 
  3422 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3423 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3424 
  3425 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3426 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3427 
  3428 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3429 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3430 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3431 
  3432 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3433 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3434 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3435 
  3436 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3437 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3438 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3439 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3440 
  3441 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3442 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3443 instead of global theory.
  3444 
  3445 
  3446 *** System ***
  3447 
  3448 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3449 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3450 usedir option -q.
  3451 
  3452 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3453 also the system manual.
  3454 
  3455 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3456 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3457 
  3458 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3459 this is always enabled.
  3460 
  3461 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3462 
  3463 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3464 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3465 currently supported on Linux only.
  3466 
  3467 
  3468 
  3469 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3470 --------------------------------
  3471 
  3472 *** General ***
  3473 
  3474 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3475 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3476 
  3477   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3478     "isatool."
  3479 
  3480   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3481     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3482 
  3483   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3484     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3485 
  3486 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3487 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3488 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3489 
  3490 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3491 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3492 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3493 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3494 via "isabelle emacs".
  3495 
  3496 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3497 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3498 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3499 
  3500 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3501 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3502 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3503 
  3504 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3505 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3506 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3507 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3508 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3509 
  3510 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3511 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3512 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3513 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3514 
  3515 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3516 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3517 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3518 
  3519 
  3520 *** Pure ***
  3521 
  3522 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3523 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3524 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3525 
  3526 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3527 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3528 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3529 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3530 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3531 
  3532 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3533 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3534 useful in locale declarations.
  3535 
  3536 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3537 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3538 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3539 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3540 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3541 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3542 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3543 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3544 no longer generated.
  3545 
  3546 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3547 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3548 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3549 
  3550 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  3551 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  3552 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  3553 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3554 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3555 
  3556 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3557 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3558 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3559 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3560 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3561 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3562 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3563 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3564 
  3565 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  3566 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  3567 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  3568 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  3569 
  3570 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3571 
  3572 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  3573 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  3574 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  3575 
  3576 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  3577 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3578 
  3579 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  3580 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  3581 in HOL, write
  3582 
  3583     class foo = ...
  3584 
  3585 instead of
  3586 
  3587     class foo = type + ...
  3588 
  3589 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  3590 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3591 
  3592 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  3593 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  3594 
  3595 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  3596 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  3597 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  3598 
  3599 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  3600 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  3601 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  3602 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  3603 directly in regular applications.
  3604 
  3605 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  3606 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  3607 
  3608 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  3609 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  3610 
  3611 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  3612 theory context.
  3613 
  3614 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  3615 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3616 
  3617 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  3618 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  3619 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  3620 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  3621 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  3622 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  3623 
  3624   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  3625 
  3626 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  3627 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  3628 normalization.
  3629 
  3630 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  3631 addressing etc.
  3632 
  3633 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  3634 
  3635   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  3636   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  3637 
  3638 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3639 
  3640   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  3641      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  3642      parts of the code generator framework).
  3643 
  3644   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  3645      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  3646      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  3647 
  3648 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3649 
  3650 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  3651 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3652 
  3653 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  3654 patterns, e.g.
  3655 
  3656     find_consts "_ => bool"
  3657 
  3658 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  3659 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  3660 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  3661 hyphen:
  3662 
  3663     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  3664 
  3665 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  3666 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  3667 
  3668 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  3669 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  3670 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  3671 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  3672 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  3673 higher-order unification.
  3674 
  3675 
  3676 *** Document preparation ***
  3677 
  3678 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  3679 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  3680 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  3681 
  3682 
  3683 *** HOL ***
  3684 
  3685 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  3686 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  3687 
  3688 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  3689 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  3690 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  3691 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  3692 Main, as before.
  3693 
  3694 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  3695 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  3696 
  3697 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  3698 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  3699 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  3700 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  3701 
  3702 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  3703 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  3704 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  3705 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  3706 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  3707 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  3708 
  3709 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  3710 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  3711 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  3712 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  3713 
  3714 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  3715 menu.
  3716 
  3717 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  3718 (contains the empty clause).
  3719 
  3720 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  3721 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  3722 
  3723 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  3724 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  3725 
  3726 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  3727 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  3728 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3729 
  3730 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  3731 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  3732 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  3733 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  3734 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  3735 
  3736 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  3737 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  3738 
  3739 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  3740 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  3741 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  3742 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  3743 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  3744 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  3745 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  3746 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  3747 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  3748 
  3749 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  3750 
  3751 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  3752 
  3753 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  3754 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3755 
  3756 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  3757 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  3758 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  3759 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  3760 
  3761 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  3762 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3763 
  3764     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  3765     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  3766     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  3767     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  3768     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  3769     Union ~>    Set.Union
  3770     {} ~>       Set.empty
  3771     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  3772 
  3773 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  3774 theory Set.
  3775 
  3776 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  3777 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  3778 
  3779 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  3780 
  3781 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  3782 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  3783 
  3784 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  3785 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  3786 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  3787 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  3788 allowed. For examples see
  3789 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  3790 
  3791 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  3792 
  3793 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  3794 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3795 
  3796 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  3797 structure:
  3798 
  3799     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  3800     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3801     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3802     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3803     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3804     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3805     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3806     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3807     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3808     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3809     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3810     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3811     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3812     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3813     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3814     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3815     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3816     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3817     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3818     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3819     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3820     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3821     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3822     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3823     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3824     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3825     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3826     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3827     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3828     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3829     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3830     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  3831     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3832 
  3833     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3834     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3835     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3836     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  3837     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3838     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3839     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3840     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3841     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3842     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3843 
  3844     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3845     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3846     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3847     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3848     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3849     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3850 
  3851 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  3852 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  3853 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  3854 
  3855 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  3856 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  3857 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  3858 
  3859 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  3860 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3861 
  3862 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  3863 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  3864 
  3865 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  3866 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  3867 proofs, e.g.
  3868 
  3869   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  3870 
  3871 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  3872 
  3873 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  3874 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  3875 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3876 
  3877 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  3878 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  3879 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3880 
  3881 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  3882 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  3883 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  3884 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3885 
  3886 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  3887 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  3888 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  3889 preorder_class.*.
  3890 
  3891 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  3892 "diag" to "Id_on".
  3893 
  3894 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  3895 
  3896   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  3897 
  3898 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  3899 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  3900 fold_image.
  3901 
  3902 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  3903 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  3904 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  3905 the former will disappear at some point.
  3906 
  3907 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  3908 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  3909 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  3910 
  3911 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  3912 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  3913 realpow_0      -> power_0
  3914 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  3915 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  3916 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  3917 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  3918 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  3919 
  3920 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  3921 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  3922 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  3923 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  3924 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  3925 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  3926 
  3927     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  3928     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  3929     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  3930     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  3931     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  3932     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  3933     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  3934 
  3935 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  3936 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3937 rename old lemmas as follows:
  3938 
  3939 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  3940 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  3941 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  3942 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  3943 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  3944 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  3945 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  3946 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  3947 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  3948 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  3949 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  3950 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  3951 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  3952 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  3953 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  3954 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  3955 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  3956 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  3957 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  3958 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  3959 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  3960 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  3961 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  3962 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  3963 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  3964 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  3965 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  3966 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  3967 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  3968 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  3969 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  3970 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  3971 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  3972 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  3973 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  3974 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  3975 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  3976 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  3977 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  3978 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  3979 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  3980 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  3981 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  3982 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  3983 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  3984 
  3985 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3986 
  3987 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  3988 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  3989 
  3990 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  3991 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  3992 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  3993 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  3994 
  3995 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  3996 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  3997 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  3998 theory RealVector.
  3999 
  4000 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4001 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4002 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4003 and inner products are included.
  4004 
  4005 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4006 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4007 supported.
  4008 
  4009 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4010 first diagonalization argument.
  4011 
  4012 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4013 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4014 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4015 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4016 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4017 
  4018     hide (open) const gcd
  4019     abbreviation gcd where
  4020       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4021     notation (output)
  4022       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4023 
  4024 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4025 
  4026 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4027 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4028 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4029 
  4030 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4031 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4032 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4033 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4034 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4035 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4036 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4037 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4038 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4039 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4040 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4041 cases.
  4042 
  4043 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4044 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4045 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4046 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4047 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4048 
  4049     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4050     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4051     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4052     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4053     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4054 
  4055 
  4056 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4057 
  4058 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4059 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4060 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4061 
  4062 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4063 
  4064 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4065 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4066 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4067 
  4068 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4069 
  4070 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4071 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4072 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4073 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4074 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4075 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4076 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4077 
  4078 
  4079 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4080 
  4081 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4082 
  4083 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4084 theory targets.
  4085 
  4086 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4087 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4088 'inductive' etc.
  4089 
  4090 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4091 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4092 
  4093 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4094 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4095 
  4096 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4097 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4098 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4099 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4100 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4101 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4102 the algorithm W:
  4103 
  4104  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4105  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4106          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4107 
  4108 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4109 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4110 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4111 
  4112 
  4113 *** HOLCF ***
  4114 
  4115 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4116 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4117 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4118 
  4119 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4120 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4121 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4122 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4123 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4124 
  4125 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4126 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4127 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4128 
  4129 
  4130 *** ZF ***
  4131 
  4132 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4133 
  4134 
  4135 *** ML ***
  4136 
  4137 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4138 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4139 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4140 5.2.1!
  4141 
  4142 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4143 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4144 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4145 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4146 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4147 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4148 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4149 
  4150 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4151 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4152 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4153 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4154 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4155 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4156 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4157 
  4158 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4159 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4160 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4161 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4162 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4163 
  4164 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4165 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4166 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4167 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4168 Method.add_method.
  4169 
  4170 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4171 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4172 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4173 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4174 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4175 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4176 
  4177 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4178 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4179 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4180 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4181 examples.
  4182 
  4183 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4184 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4185 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4186 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4187 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4188 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4189 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4190 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4191 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4192 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4193 
  4194 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4195 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4196 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4197 
  4198 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4199 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4200 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4201 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4202 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4203 resort for legacy applications.
  4204 
  4205 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4206 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4207 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4208 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4209 explicit runtime argument.
  4210 
  4211 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4212 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4213 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4214 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4215 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4216 
  4217 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4218 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4219 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4220 theory state.
  4221 
  4222 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4223 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4224 
  4225   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4226   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4227   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4228   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4229   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4230   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4231   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4232   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4233   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4234   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4235 
  4236 
  4237 *** System ***
  4238 
  4239 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4240 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4241 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4242 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4243 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4244 
  4245 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4246 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4247 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4248 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4249 
  4250 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4251 
  4252 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4253 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4254 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4255 prover operations.
  4256 
  4257 
  4258 
  4259 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4260 -------------------------------
  4261 
  4262 *** General ***
  4263 
  4264 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4265 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4266 
  4267 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4268 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4269 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4270 provides a proper context already.
  4271 
  4272 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4273 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4274 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4275 
  4276 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4277 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4278 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4279 swap theory imports.
  4280 
  4281 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4282 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4283 
  4284 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4285 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4286 white space without escapes.
  4287 
  4288 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4289 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4290 "foo_bar".
  4291 
  4292 
  4293 *** Pure ***
  4294 
  4295 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4296 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4297 
  4298 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4299 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4300 
  4301 (1) unused_thms
  4302      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4303 
  4304 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4305      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4306      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4307 
  4308 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4309      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4310      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4311      their ancestors.
  4312 
  4313 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4314 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4315 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4316 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4317 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4318 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4319 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4320 
  4321 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4322 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4323 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4324 
  4325 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4326 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4327 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4328 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4329 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4330 
  4331 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4332 
  4333 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4334 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4335 update of theories within ML code.
  4336 
  4337 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4338 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4339 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4340 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4341 
  4342 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4343 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4344 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4345 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4346 
  4347 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4348 
  4349 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4350 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4351 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4352 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4353 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4354 
  4355 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4356 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4357 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4358 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4359 situations.
  4360 
  4361 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4362 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4363 proof text.
  4364 
  4365 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4366 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4367 
  4368 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4369 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4370 predicates.
  4371 
  4372 
  4373 *** Document preparation ***
  4374 
  4375 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4376 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4377 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4378 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4379 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4380 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4381 
  4382 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4383 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4384 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4385 
  4386 
  4387 *** HOL ***
  4388 
  4389 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4390 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4391 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4392 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4393 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4394 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4395 
  4396 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4397 with multithreading.
  4398 
  4399 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4400 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4401 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4402 
  4403 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4404 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4405 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4406 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4407 
  4408 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4409 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4410 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4411 and makes them available separately.  See
  4412 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4413 
  4414 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4415 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4416 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4417 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4418 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4419 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4420 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4421 the declared rules.
  4422 
  4423 This setup also deals with rules like 
  4424 
  4425   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4426 
  4427 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4428 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4429 
  4430 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4431 
  4432   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4433 
  4434   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4435     definitions on => and bool.
  4436 
  4437   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4438     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4439     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4440 
  4441       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4442       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4443       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4444       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4445       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4446       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4447       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4448       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4449 
  4450   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4451     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4452     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4453 
  4454   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4455     The proof pattern
  4456 
  4457       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4458       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4459 
  4460     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4461     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4462 
  4463       have "EX S. P S"
  4464       proof
  4465         show "P S" <...>
  4466       qed
  4467 
  4468   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4469     The proof pattern
  4470 
  4471       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4472       also have "S = T" <...>
  4473       finally have "P T" .
  4474 
  4475     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4476     must be replaced by something like
  4477 
  4478       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4479       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4480       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4481 
  4482   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4483     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4484 
  4485       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4486 
  4487     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4488     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4489     type of the form
  4490 
  4491       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4492 
  4493     rather than
  4494 
  4495       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4496 
  4497 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4498 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4499 
  4500 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4501 
  4502 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4503 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4504 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4505 
  4506 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4507 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4508 
  4509 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4510 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4511 
  4512 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4513 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4514 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4515 
  4516 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4517 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4518 
  4519   less_trans
  4520   less_linear
  4521   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4522   le_less_trans
  4523   less_le_trans
  4524   less_not_sym
  4525   less_asym
  4526 
  4527 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4528 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4529 and different variable names.
  4530 
  4531 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4532 
  4533 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4534 finite maps.
  4535 
  4536 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4537 
  4538 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4539 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4540 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4541 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4542 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4543 accordingly.
  4544 
  4545 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4546 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4547 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4548 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4549 
  4550 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  4551 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  4552 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  4553 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4554 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4555 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4556 
  4557 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4558 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4559 
  4560 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4561 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4562 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4563 
  4564 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4565 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4566 
  4567 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  4568 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  4569 
  4570 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  4571 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4572 
  4573 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  4574 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4575 
  4576 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  4577 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  4578 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4579 
  4580 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  4581 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4582 
  4583 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  4584 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  4585 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  4586 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  4587 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  4588 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4589 
  4590 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  4591 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  4592 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  4593 
  4594 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  4595 
  4596 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  4597 
  4598 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  4599 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  4600 well-orders on sets and on types.
  4601 
  4602 
  4603 *** ZF ***
  4604 
  4605 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  4606 same session:
  4607 
  4608   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  4609   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  4610   Int       -> Int_ZF
  4611   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  4612   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  4613   List      -> List_ZF
  4614   Main      -> Main_ZF
  4615 
  4616 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  4617 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  4618 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  4619 
  4620 
  4621 *** ML ***
  4622 
  4623 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  4624 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  4625 
  4626 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  4627 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  4628 
  4629 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  4630 
  4631 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  4632 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  4633 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  4634 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  4635 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4636 
  4637 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  4638 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  4639 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  4640 
  4641 
  4642 *** System ***
  4643 
  4644 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  4645 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  4646 
  4647 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  4648 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  4649 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  4650 
  4651 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  4652 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  4653 
  4654 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  4655 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  4656 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  4657 
  4658 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  4659 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  4660 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  4661 
  4662 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  4663 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  4664 
  4665 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  4666 way of changing the user's settings is via
  4667 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  4668 script.
  4669 
  4670 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  4671 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  4672 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  4673 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  4674 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  4675 
  4676 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  4677 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  4678 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  4679 
  4680 
  4681 
  4682 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  4683 -----------------------------------
  4684 
  4685 *** General ***
  4686 
  4687 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  4688 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  4689 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4690 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  4691 
  4692 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  4693 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  4694 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4695 
  4696 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  4697 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  4698 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  4699 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4700 
  4701 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  4702 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  4703 quotes.
  4704 
  4705 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  4706 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  4707 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  4708 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  4709 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  4710 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  4711 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  4712 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  4713 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  4714 
  4715 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  4716 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  4717 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  4718 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  4719 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  4720 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  4721 
  4722 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4723 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  4724 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  4725 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  4726 
  4727 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  4728 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  4729 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  4730 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  4731 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  4732 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  4733 
  4734 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  4735 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  4736 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  4737 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  4738 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  4739 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  4740 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  4741 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  4742 
  4743 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  4744 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  4745 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  4746 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  4747 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  4748 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  4749 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  4750 
  4751 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  4752 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  4753 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  4754 
  4755 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  4756 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  4757 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  4758 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  4759 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  4760 limit is imposed.
  4761 
  4762 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  4763 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  4764 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  4765 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  4766 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  4767 and scalability.
  4768 
  4769 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  4770 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  4771 
  4772 
  4773 *** Document preparation ***
  4774 
  4775 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  4776 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  4777 current context.
  4778 
  4779 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  4780 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  4781 
  4782 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  4783 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  4784 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  4785 
  4786 
  4787 *** Pure ***
  4788 
  4789 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  4790 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  4791 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  4792 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  4793 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  4794 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  4795 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  4796 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  4797 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  4798 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  4799 
  4800 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  4801 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  4802 sketch:
  4803 
  4804     internal compilation:
  4805         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  4806     writing SML code to a file:
  4807         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  4808     writing OCaml code to a file:
  4809         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  4810     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  4811         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  4812 
  4813     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  4814         method ``eval''
  4815 
  4816 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  4817 
  4818 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  4819 
  4820     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4821     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4822     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4823     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4824 
  4825 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  4826 
  4827     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  4828       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  4829 
  4830     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  4831       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  4832 
  4833     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  4834       {(target)}+
  4835         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  4836 
  4837     code_class <and_list of classes>
  4838       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  4839         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  4840 
  4841 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  4842 
  4843 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  4844 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  4845 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  4846 codegen".
  4847 
  4848 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  4849 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  4850 annotations).
  4851 
  4852 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  4853 syntax.
  4854 
  4855 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  4856 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  4857 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  4858 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  4859 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  4860 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  4861 
  4862 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  4863 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  4864 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  4865 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  4866 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  4867 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  4868 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  4869 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  4870 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  4871 equations, see section "definitions".
  4872 
  4873 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  4874 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  4875 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  4876 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  4877 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  4878 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  4879 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  4880 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  4881 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  4882 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  4883 
  4884 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  4885 configuration options:
  4886 
  4887   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  4888   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  4889   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  4890   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  4891   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  4892   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  4893   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  4894   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  4895   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  4896 
  4897 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  4898 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  4899 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  4900 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  4901 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  4902 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  4903 order.
  4904 
  4905 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  4906 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  4907 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  4908 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  4909 context encountered later on.
  4910 
  4911 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  4912 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  4913 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  4914 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  4915 
  4916 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  4917 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  4918 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  4919 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  4920 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  4921 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  4922 
  4923 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  4924 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  4925 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  4926 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  4927 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  4928 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  4929 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  4930 more permissive.
  4931 
  4932 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  4933 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  4934 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  4935 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  4936 maintainability of proof texts.
  4937 
  4938 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  4939 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  4940 
  4941   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  4942   then guess x and y by clarify
  4943 
  4944 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  4945 proof tools being involved here.
  4946 
  4947 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  4948 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  4949 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  4950 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  4951 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  4952 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  4953 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  4954 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  4955 
  4956 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  4957 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  4958 certain special cases of literal facts:
  4959 
  4960   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  4961   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  4962   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  4963   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  4964 
  4965 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  4966 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  4967 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  4968 
  4969 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  4970 both named and unnamed ones.
  4971 
  4972 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  4973 
  4974   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  4975 
  4976 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  4977 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  4978 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  4979 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  4980 
  4981 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  4982 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  4983 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  4984 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  4985 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  4986 
  4987 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  4988 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  4989 
  4990 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  4991 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  4992 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  4993 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  4994 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  4995 originally first one.
  4996 
  4997 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  4998 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  4999 expected.
  5000 
  5001 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5002 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5003 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5004 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5005 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5006 
  5007   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5008     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5009     obtains x where "P x"
  5010 
  5011   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5012     assumes "A & B"
  5013     obtains A and B
  5014 
  5015   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5016     assumes "A | B"
  5017     obtains
  5018       A
  5019     | B
  5020 
  5021 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5022 explicitly:
  5023 
  5024   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5025     obtains "~ thesis"
  5026 
  5027   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5028     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5029 
  5030 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5031 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5032 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5033 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5034 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5035 case_names).
  5036 
  5037 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5038 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5039 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5040 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5041 
  5042 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5043 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5044 top-level lemma.
  5045 
  5046 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5047 introduction rule (default "that").
  5048 
  5049 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5050 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5051 to occur.
  5052 
  5053 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5054 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5055 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5056 representations independently of name spaces.
  5057 
  5058 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5059 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5060 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5061 
  5062 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5063 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5064 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5065 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5066 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5067 current context.
  5068 
  5069 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5070 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5071 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5072 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5073 
  5074   axiomatization
  5075     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5076     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5077 
  5078   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5079   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5080 
  5081   abbreviation
  5082     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5083     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5084 
  5085 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5086 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5087 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5088 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5089 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5090 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5091 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5092 
  5093 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5094 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5095 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5096 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5097 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5098 
  5099 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5100 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5101 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5102 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5103 
  5104 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5105 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5106 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5107 
  5108   definition "K x _ = x"
  5109 
  5110   inductive conj for A B
  5111   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5112 
  5113 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5114 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5115 abbreviations on output.
  5116 
  5117 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5118 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5119 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5120 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5121 
  5122 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5123 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5124 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5125 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5126 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5127 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5128 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5129 
  5130 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5131 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5132 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5133 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5134 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5135 
  5136 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5137 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5138 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5139 
  5140 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5141 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5142 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5143 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5144 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5145 
  5146   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5147     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5148 
  5149 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5150 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5151 partial_order.
  5152 
  5153 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5154 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5155 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5156 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5157 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5158 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5159 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5160 examples.
  5161 
  5162 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5163 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5164 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5165 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5166 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5167 
  5168 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5169 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5170 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5171 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5172 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5173 
  5174   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5175   (induct set: foo bar)
  5176   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5177   (induct type: foo bar)
  5178 
  5179 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5180 new format.
  5181 
  5182 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5183 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5184 
  5185 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5186 considered a legacy feature.
  5187 
  5188 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5189 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5190 
  5191 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5192 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5193 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5194 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5195   
  5196 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5197 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5198 manipulating the claset.
  5199 
  5200 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5201 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5202 least one premise.
  5203 
  5204 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5205 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5206 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5207 rule steps.
  5208 
  5209 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5210 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5211 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5212 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5213 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5214 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5215 
  5216 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5217 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5218 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5219 
  5220 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5221 the graph browser tool.
  5222 
  5223 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5224 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5225 
  5226 
  5227 *** HOL ***
  5228 
  5229 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5230 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5231 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5232 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5233 multi-threading.
  5234   
  5235 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5236 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5237 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5238 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5239 work with multi-threading.
  5240 
  5241 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5242 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5243 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5244 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5245 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5246 
  5247 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5248 
  5249 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5250 equality.
  5251 
  5252 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5253 the new 'class' package:
  5254 
  5255     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5256     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5257     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5258     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5259     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5260     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5261     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5262     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5263     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5264     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5265     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5266     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5267     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5268     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5269     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5270     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5271     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5272     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5273     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5274     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5275 
  5276 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5277 
  5278 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5279 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5280 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5281 names.
  5282 
  5283 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5284 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5285 
  5286 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5287 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5288 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5289 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5290 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5291 
  5292 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5293 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5294 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5295 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5296 
  5297 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5298 
  5299 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5300 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5301 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5302 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5303 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5304 
  5305 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5306 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5307 
  5308 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5309 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5310 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5311 
  5312 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5313 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5314 
  5315 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5316 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5317 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5318 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5319 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5320 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5321 in the current context.
  5322 
  5323 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5324 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5325 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5326 
  5327 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5328 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5329 
  5330 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5331 
  5332     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5333     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5334 
  5335     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5336       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5337     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5338     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5339 
  5340     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5341     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5342 
  5343   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5344 
  5345     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5346     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5347     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5348     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5349     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5350     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5351     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5352     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5353     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5354     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5355     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5356     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5357     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5358     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5359     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5360     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5361     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5362     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5363     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5364     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5365     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5366     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5367     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5368     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5369     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5370     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5371     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5372     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5373     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5374     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5375     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5376     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5377     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5378     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5379     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5380 
  5381     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5382     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5383     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5384     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5385     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5386     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5387     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5388     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5389     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5390     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5391     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5392     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5393     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5394     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5395     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5396     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5397     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5398 
  5399     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5400     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5401     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5402     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5403     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5404     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5405     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5406     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5407     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5408     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5409     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5410     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5411     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5412     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5413     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5414     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5415     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5416     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5417     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5418     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5419     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5420     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5421     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5422     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5423     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5424     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5425     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5426     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5427 
  5428     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5429     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5430     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5431     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5432     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5433     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5434 
  5435     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5436     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5437     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5438     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5439 
  5440     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5441     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5442 
  5443     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5444     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5445 
  5446 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5447 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5448 
  5449 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5450 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5451 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5452 "*.size".
  5453 
  5454 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5455 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5456 
  5457 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5458 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5459 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5460 
  5461 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5462 
  5463 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5464 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5465 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5466 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5467 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5468 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5469 numerals on all operations.
  5470 
  5471 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5472 
  5473 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5474 
  5475 * Code generator library theories:
  5476   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5477     languages.
  5478   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5479     languages.
  5480   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5481     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5482   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5483   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5484     denominator).
  5485   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5486     representable by rational numbers.
  5487   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5488     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5489     includes Code_Integer.
  5490   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5491     target-language built-in integers.
  5492   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5493     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5494 
  5495 * New package for inductive predicates
  5496 
  5497   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5498 
  5499     inductive
  5500       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5501       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5502     where
  5503       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5504     | ...
  5505 
  5506   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5507 
  5508     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5509 
  5510     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5511     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5512 
  5513     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5514     intros
  5515       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5516       ...
  5517 
  5518   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5519   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5520 
  5521     inductive_set
  5522       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5523       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5524     where
  5525       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5526     | ...
  5527 
  5528   or
  5529 
  5530     inductive_set
  5531       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5532       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5533       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5534     where
  5535       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5536     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5537     | ...
  5538 
  5539   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5540 
  5541   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5542   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5543 
  5544   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5545 
  5546   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5547     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5548     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5549     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5550     than before the actual inductive definition.
  5551 
  5552   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  5553     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5554     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5555     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5556     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5557     statements of the form
  5558 
  5559       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5560 
  5561     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5562     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5563 
  5564       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5565 
  5566   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  5567 
  5568       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  5569         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5570         ==> ... ==> P
  5571 
  5572     for predicates and
  5573 
  5574       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5575         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5576         ==> ... ==> P
  5577 
  5578     for sets rather than
  5579 
  5580       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5581         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  5582         ==> ... ==> P
  5583 
  5584     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  5585     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  5586     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  5587 
  5588   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  5589     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  5590     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  5591 
  5592 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  5593 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  5594 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  5595 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  5596 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  5597 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  5598 
  5599 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  5600 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  5601 
  5602 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  5603 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  5604 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  5605 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  5606 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  5607 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  5608 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  5609 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  5610 variable.
  5611 
  5612 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  5613 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  5614 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  5615 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5616   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  5617   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  5618 
  5619 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  5620 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  5621 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  5622 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  5623 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  5624 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  5625 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  5626 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  5627 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  5628 
  5629 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  5630 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  5631 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  5632 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  5633 rat, etc.
  5634 
  5635 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  5636 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  5637 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  5638 
  5639 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  5640 
  5641 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  5642 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  5643 
  5644 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  5645 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  5646 
  5647 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  5648 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  5649 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5650 
  5651 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  5652 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  5653 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5654 
  5655 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  5656 
  5657 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  5658 
  5659 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  5660 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  5661 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  5662 positive/negative (in inequations).
  5663 
  5664 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  5665 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  5666 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  5667 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5668 
  5669 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  5670 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  5671 algebraic operations.
  5672 
  5673 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  5674 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5675 
  5676 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  5677 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5678 
  5679 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  5680 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  5681 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  5682 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  5683 adapted.
  5684  
  5685 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  5686 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  5687 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  5688 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  5689 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  5690 
  5691 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  5692 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  5693 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  5694 
  5695 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  5696 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  5697 better use 'abbreviation'.
  5698 
  5699 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5700 
  5701 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  5702 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  5703 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  5704   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  5705       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  5706   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  5707   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  5708   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  5709 
  5710 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  5711 
  5712 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  5713 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  5714 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  5715 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  5716 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  5717 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  5718 
  5719 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  5720 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  5721 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  5722 
  5723 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  5724 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  5725 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  5726 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5727 
  5728 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  5729 
  5730 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  5731 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5732 
  5733 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  5734 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  5735 
  5736 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  5737 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  5738 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  5739 
  5740 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  5741 True/False.
  5742 
  5743 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  5744 
  5745 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  5746 
  5747 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  5748 ``rule'' method.
  5749 
  5750 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  5751 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  5752 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  5753 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  5754 
  5755 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  5756 zChaff is still supported as well.
  5757 
  5758 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  5759 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  5760 
  5761 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  5762 Library.
  5763 
  5764 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  5765 
  5766 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  5767 as greatest fixed-point.
  5768 
  5769 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  5770 association lists.
  5771 
  5772 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  5773 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  5774 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  5775 
  5776 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  5777 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  5778 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5779 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  5780 behavior.
  5781 
  5782 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  5783 
  5784 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  5785 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  5786 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  5787 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  5788 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  5789 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  5790 
  5791 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  5792 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  5793 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  5794 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  5795 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  5796 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  5797 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  5798 
  5799 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  5800 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  5801 
  5802 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  5803 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  5804 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  5805 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  5806 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  5807 
  5808 
  5809 *** HOL-Complex ***
  5810 
  5811 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  5812 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  5813 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  5814 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  5815 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5816 
  5817 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  5818 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  5819 and norm :: 'a => real.
  5820 
  5821 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  5822 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  5823 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5824 
  5825 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  5826 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  5827 
  5828 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  5829 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  5830 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  5831 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5832 
  5833   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5834   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5835   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5836   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  5837   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5838   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5839   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5840   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5841   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5842   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5843   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  5844   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5845   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  5846   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  5847   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  5848 
  5849 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  5850 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  5851 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  5852 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5853 
  5854   approx        <-- capprox
  5855   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  5856   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  5857   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  5858   monad         <-- cmonad
  5859   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  5860   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  5861   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  5862   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  5863 
  5864 
  5865 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5866 
  5867 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  5868 
  5869 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  5870 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5871 
  5872 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  5873 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5874 
  5875 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  5876 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  5877 of algebraic structures.
  5878 
  5879 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  5880 
  5881 
  5882 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5883 
  5884 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  5885 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  5886 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  5887 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  5888 
  5889 
  5890 *** ML ***
  5891 
  5892 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  5893 (even on SML/NJ).
  5894 
  5895 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  5896 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  5897 compile-time.  For example:
  5898 
  5899 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  5900 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  5901 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  5902 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  5903 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  5904 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  5905 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  5906 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  5907 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  5908 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  5909 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  5910 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  5911 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  5912 ML {* @{context} *}
  5913 ML {* @{theory} *}
  5914 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  5915 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  5916 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  5917 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  5918 ML {* @{claset} *}
  5919 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  5920 
  5921 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  5922 
  5923 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  5924 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  5925 
  5926 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  5927 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  5928 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  5929 
  5930 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  5931 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  5932 
  5933 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  5934 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  5935 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  5936 
  5937 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  5938 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  5939 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  5940 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  5941 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  5942 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  5943 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  5944 declarations and definitions.
  5945 
  5946 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  5947 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  5948 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  5949 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  5950 
  5951 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  5952 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  5953 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  5954 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5955 
  5956 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  5957 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  5958 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  5959 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  5960 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  5961 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  5962 
  5963 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  5964 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  5965 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  5966 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  5967 attributes, methods, etc.
  5968 
  5969 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  5970 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  5971 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  5972 fold_map combinators.
  5973 
  5974 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  5975 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  5976 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  5977 derivation.
  5978 
  5979 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  5980 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  5981 achieve the old behaviour.
  5982 
  5983 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  5984 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  5985 statements.
  5986 
  5987 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
  5988 enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
  5989 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
  5990 
  5991 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
  5992 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
  5993 some popular functions from term.ML:
  5994 
  5995   Term.variant		->  Name.variant
  5996   Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
  5997   Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
  5998 
  5999 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
  6000 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
  6001 
  6002 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
  6003 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
  6004 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
  6005 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
  6006 various freeze_thaw operations.
  6007 
  6008 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
  6009 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
  6010 Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
  6011 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
  6012 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
  6013 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
  6014 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
  6015 in a locale context).
  6016 
  6017 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
  6018 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
  6019 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
  6020 which are considered legacy and await removal.
  6021 
  6022 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
  6023 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
  6024 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
  6025 etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still
  6026 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using
  6027 a mere theory instead of a full context.
  6028 
  6029 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
  6030 ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
  6031 without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
  6032 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
  6033 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
  6034 
  6035   ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
  6036 
  6037 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
  6038 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
  6039 this:
  6040 
  6041   Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
  6042 
  6043 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
  6044 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
  6045 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
  6046 -- use plain ERROR instead.
  6047 
  6048 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
  6049 list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
  6050 
  6051 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to
  6052 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
  6053 
  6054 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
  6055 theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
  6056 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
  6057 batch mode.
  6058 
  6059 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax.  Renamed
  6060 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords.  Removed
  6061 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in
  6062 OuterSyntax.command etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6063 
  6064 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
  6065 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
  6066 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
  6067 simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
  6068 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
  6069 
  6070 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
  6071 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
  6072 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
  6073 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
  6074 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
  6075 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
  6076 
  6077 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
  6078 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
  6079 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
  6080 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6081 
  6082 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
  6083 "Trueprop" etc.
  6084 
  6085 
  6086 *** System ***
  6087 
  6088 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now
  6089 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER.  This simplifies use of multiple
  6090 Isabelle installations.
  6091 
  6092 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical
  6093 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source
  6094 code.
  6095 
  6096 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.
  6097 
  6098 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of
  6099 Poly/ML 5.1.  The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing
  6100 independent theories, according to the given theory header
  6101 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via
  6102 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A
  6103 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up
  6104 to 6 on a 8-core machine.  User-code needs to observe certain
  6105 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar
  6106 Implementation manual.
  6107 
  6108 
  6109 
  6110 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
  6111 ----------------------------------
  6112 
  6113 *** General ***
  6114 
  6115 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
  6116 
  6117   theory <name>
  6118   imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
  6119   uses <file1> ... <fileM>
  6120   begin
  6121 
  6122 where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax
  6123 
  6124   theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:
  6125 
  6126 will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
  6127 existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
  6128 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.
  6129 
  6130 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via
  6131 relative and absolute paths.
  6132 
  6133 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a
  6134 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,
  6135 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select
  6136 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that
  6137 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified
  6138 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose
  6139 lhs match term.  Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects
  6140 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under
  6141 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f.  Example:
  6142 
  6143   C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."
  6144 
  6145 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",
  6146 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."
  6147 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).
  6148 
  6149 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of
  6150 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6151 
  6152 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that
  6153 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both
  6154 formal and informal parts).  Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof
  6155 General interface.  Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):
  6156 
  6157   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html
  6158   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html
  6159 
  6160 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the
  6161 Classical Reasoner.  Typical big applications run around 2 times
  6162 faster.
  6163 
  6164 
  6165 *** Document preparation ***
  6166 
  6167 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output
  6168 of raw sources.  Only those symbols that do not require additional
  6169 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are
  6170 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim.  isatool display
  6171 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the
  6172 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).
  6173 
  6174 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,
  6175 notably folding and hiding.  Predefined tags include "theory" (for
  6176 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for
  6177 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and
  6178 "invisible" are unused by default.  Users may give explicit tag
  6179 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''.  The
  6180 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document
  6181 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of
  6182 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,
  6183 \isadroptag.
  6184 
  6185 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool
  6186 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them).  Typical
  6187 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present
  6188 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold
  6189 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit
  6190 these parts without any formal replacement text.  The Isabelle site
  6191 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as
  6192 specified above.
  6193 
  6194 * Several new antiquotations:
  6195 
  6196   @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;
  6197 
  6198   @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;
  6199 
  6200   @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the
  6201   argument is a known logical constant;
  6202 
  6203   @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or
  6204   theorem applying a "style" to it
  6205 
  6206   @{ML text}
  6207 
  6208 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of
  6209 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the
  6210 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'
  6211 to print the specified premise.  TermStyle.add_style provides an ML
  6212 interface for introducing further styles.  See also the "LaTeX Sugar"
  6213 document practical applications.  The ML antiquotation prints
  6214 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.
  6215 
  6216 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',
  6217 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which
  6218 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations.  For
  6219 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.
  6220 
  6221 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative
  6222 context interpreting the subsequent argument.  For example: @{thm
  6223 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.
  6224 
  6225 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within
  6226 a proof context.
  6227 
  6228 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a
  6229 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').
  6230 
  6231 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX
  6232 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).
  6233 
  6234 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option
  6235 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false
  6236 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.
  6237 
  6238 
  6239 *** Pure ***
  6240