NEWS
author Thomas Sewell <thomas.sewell@nicta.com.au>
Tue Apr 17 16:21:47 2012 +1000 (2012-04-17)
changeset 47567 407cabf66f21
parent 47563 01f687b84aff
child 47585 6eb3b3ae4ccb
child 47616 632a1e5710e6
permissions -rw-r--r--
New tactic "word_bitwise" expands word equalities/inequalities into logic.
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
     5 ------------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
    10 
    11   - markup for bound variables
    12   - markup for types of term variables (e.g. displayed as tooltips)
    13   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
    14   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
    15     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
    16 
    17 * Updated and extended reference manuals ("isar-ref" and
    18 "implementation"); reduced remaining material in old "ref" manual.
    19 
    20 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
    21 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
    22 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
    23 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
    24 etc. was exploited.
    25 
    26 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
    27 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
    28 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
    29 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
    30 indices of schematic variables.
    31 
    32 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
    33 
    34     num ~> num_token
    35     xnum ~> xnum_token
    36     xstr ~> str_token
    37 
    38 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
    39 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
    40 position information via constraints).
    41 
    42 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
    43 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
    44 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    45 
    46 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
    47 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
    48 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
    49 
    50 
    51 *** Pure ***
    52 
    53 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
    54 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
    55 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
    56 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
    57 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
    58 
    59   context
    60     fixes x y z :: 'a
    61     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
    62   begin
    63 
    64   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
    65 
    66   end
    67 
    68   thm my_trans
    69 
    70 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
    71 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
    72 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
    73 
    74 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
    75 ... begin ... end" block as well.
    76 
    77 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
    78 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
    79 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
    80 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.
    81 
    82 See commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref
    83 manual.
    84 
    85 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
    86 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
    87 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
    88 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
    89 
    90 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
    91 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
    92 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
    93 
    94 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
    95 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
    96 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
    97 undocumented feature.)
    98 
    99 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   100 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   101 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   102 
   103 * Obsolete command 'types' has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   104 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   105 
   106 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   107 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   108 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   109 
   110 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   111 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   112 
   113 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   114 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   115 
   116   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   117 
   118 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   119 
   120 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   121 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   122 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   123 
   124   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   125 
   126   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   127     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   128 
   129 
   130 *** HOL ***
   131 
   132 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL" ("prog-prove").
   133 It completely supercedes "A Tutorial Introduction to Structured Isar Proofs",
   134 which has been removed. It supercedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant
   135 for Higher-Order Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial
   136 but does not cover all of the material of that old tutorial.
   137 
   138 * Discontinued old Tutorial on Isar ("isar-overview");
   139 
   140 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   141 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   142 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   143 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase sets S accidentally
   144 used as predicates by "%x. x : S" and predicates P accidentally used
   145 as sets by "{x. P x}".  Corresponding proofs in a first step should be
   146 pruned from any tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def
   147 as far as possible.
   148 
   149 For developments which deliberately mixed predicates and sets, a
   150 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   151 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   152 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   153 
   154 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   155 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   156 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   157 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively. (See definitions
   158 in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.) Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some user theories
   159 may require adaptations as follows:
   160 
   161   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   162     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   163 
   164   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   165     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   166     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   167 
   168   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   169     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   170 
   171   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   172     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   173     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   174 
   175   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   176     Redefine using other integer operations.
   177 
   178 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   179 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   180 
   181 * New proof import from HOL Light: Faster, simpler, and more scalable.
   182 Requires a proof bundle, which is available as an external component.
   183 Discontinued old (and mostly dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.
   184 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   185 
   186 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   187 
   188 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   189 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   190 of some relation theorems:
   191 
   192   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   193   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   194   symp_def ~> (dropped, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   195   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   196   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   197   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   198 
   199 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   200 
   201 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   202 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   203 
   204 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   205 
   206 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   207 to match the constant's name:
   208 
   209   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   210   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   211   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   212   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   213   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   214   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   215   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   216   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   217   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   218   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   219   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   220   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   221   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   222   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   223   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   224   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   225   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   226   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   227   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   228   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   229   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   230   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   231   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   232   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   233 
   234 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   235 
   236 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   237 and corresponding theorem names:
   238 
   239   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   240 
   241   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   242 
   243   - Renamed theorems:
   244 
   245     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   246     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   247     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   248     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   249     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   250     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   251     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   252     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   253     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   254     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   255     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   256     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   257     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   258     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   259     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   260     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   261     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   262     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   263     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   264     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   265     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   266     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   267     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   268 
   269     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   270 
   271     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   272 
   273 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   274 
   275 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   276 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   277 
   278   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   279   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   280   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   281   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   282   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   283   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   284   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   285   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   286   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   287   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   288   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   289   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   290   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   291   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   292   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   293   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   294   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   295   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   296   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   297   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   298   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   299 
   300 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   301 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   302 
   303 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   304 
   305 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   306 
   307   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   308   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   309   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   310   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   311   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   312   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   313   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   314   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   315   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   316   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   317   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   318   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   319   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   320   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   321   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   322   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   323   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   324   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   325 
   326 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   327 
   328 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   329 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   330 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   331 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   332 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   333 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   334 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   335 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   336 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   337 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   338 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   339 
   340 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   341 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   342 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   343 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   344 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   345 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   346 
   347 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   348 through option types.
   349 
   350 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   351 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   352 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   353 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   354 one_case.
   355 
   356 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   357 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   358 
   359 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
   360 association lists with distinct keys.
   361 
   362 * 'datatype' specifications allow explicit sort constraints.
   363 
   364 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   365 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   366 
   367 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
   368 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
   369 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
   370 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
   371 follows:
   372 
   373   Operations:
   374   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
   375   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
   376   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
   377   del -> rbt_del
   378   delete -> rbt_delete
   379   ins -> rbt_ins
   380   insert -> rbt_insert
   381   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
   382   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
   383   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
   384   lookup -> rbt_lookup
   385   sorted -> rbt_sorted
   386   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
   387   tree_less -> rbt_less
   388   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
   389   union -> rbt_union
   390   union_with -> rbt_union_with
   391   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
   392 
   393   Lemmas:
   394   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
   395   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
   396   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
   397   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
   398   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
   399   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
   400   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
   401   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
   402   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
   403   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
   404   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
   405   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
   406   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
   407   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
   408   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
   409   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
   410   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
   411   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
   412   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
   413   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
   414   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
   415   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
   416   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
   417   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
   418   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
   419   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
   420   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
   421   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
   422   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
   423   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
   424   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
   425   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
   426   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
   427   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
   428   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
   429   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
   430   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
   431   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
   432   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
   433   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
   434   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
   435   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
   436   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
   437   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
   438   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
   439   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
   440   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
   441   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
   442   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
   443   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
   444   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
   445   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
   446   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
   447   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
   448   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
   449   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
   450   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
   451   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
   452   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
   453   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
   454   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
   455   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
   456   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
   457   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
   458   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
   459   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
   460   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
   461   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
   462   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
   463   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
   464   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
   465   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
   466   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
   467   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
   468   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
   469   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
   470   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
   471   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
   472   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
   473   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
   474   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
   475   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
   476   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
   477 
   478 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
   479 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
   480 instead.
   481 
   482   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
   483   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
   484   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
   485   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
   486   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
   487   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
   488   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
   489   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
   490   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   491   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   492   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
   493   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
   494   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   495   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
   496   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   497   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
   498   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
   499   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
   500   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
   501   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
   502   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
   503   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
   504   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
   505   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
   506   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
   507   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
   508   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
   509   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
   510   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
   511   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
   512   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
   513   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
   514   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
   515   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
   516   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
   517   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
   518   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
   519   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
   520   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
   521   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
   522   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
   523 
   524 * New tactic "word_bitwise" for splitting machine word equalities and
   525 inequalities into logical circuits. Requires theory "WordBitwise" from HOL-Word
   526 session. Supports addition, subtraction, multiplication, shifting by
   527 constants, bitwise operators and numeric constants. Requires fixed-length word
   528 types, cannot operate on 'a word. Solves many standard word identies outright
   529 and converts more into first order problems amenable to blast or similar. See
   530 HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy and examples in HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
   531 
   532 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   533 the result of the fact expression.
   534 
   535 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   536 relations.
   537 
   538 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   539 
   540 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   541 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   542 
   543   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   544   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   545   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   546   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   547   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   548   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   549   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   550   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   551   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   552   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   553   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   554   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   555   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   556   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   557   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   558   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   559   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   560   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   561   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   562   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   563   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   564   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   565   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   566   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   567   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   568   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   569   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   570   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   571   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   572   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   573   zless_le ~> less_le
   574   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   575   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   576   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   577 
   578 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   579 
   580   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   581 
   582 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   583 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   584 
   585   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   586 
   587 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   588 a list and a nat.
   589 
   590 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
   591 
   592 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   593 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   594 
   595 * Quickcheck:
   596 
   597   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   598     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   599     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   600     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   601     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   602 
   603     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   604     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   605     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   606 
   607     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   608     continues searching for genuine ones.
   609 
   610     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   611     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   612     show genuine counterexamples.
   613 
   614   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   615     value generators for a given type and operations.
   616 
   617     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   618     constructors of that type.
   619 
   620   - Support for multisets.
   621 
   622   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   623 
   624   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   625     conjectures in a locale context.
   626 
   627 * Nitpick:
   628   - Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option and
   629     affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   630 
   631 * Sledgehammer:
   632   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012 paper "More
   633     SPASS with Isabelle".
   634   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   635   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and TFF1),
   636     iProver, iProver-Eq.
   637   - Replaced remote E-SInE with remote Satallax in the default setup.
   638   - Sped up the minimizer.
   639   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   640   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   641   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   642 
   643 * Metis:
   644   - Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   645     parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   646 
   647 * SMT:
   648   - Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   649 
   650 * Command 'try0':
   651   - Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   652 
   653 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   654 eventually_elim* rules. Supports structured proofs.
   655 
   656 * HOL/TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all languages)
   657 into Isabelle/HOL.
   658 
   659 
   660 *** FOL ***
   661 
   662 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
   663 
   664 
   665 *** ZF ***
   666 
   667 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
   668 analysis.
   669 
   670 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
   671 
   672 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   673 
   674 
   675 *** ML ***
   676 
   677 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
   678 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
   679 
   680 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
   681 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
   682 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
   683 
   684 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
   685 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
   686 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
   687 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
   688 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
   689 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
   690 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
   691 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
   692 
   693 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
   694 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
   695 
   696 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
   697 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
   698 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
   699 
   700 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
   701 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   702 
   703 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
   704 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
   705 context as well.
   706 
   707 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
   708 
   709   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
   710   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
   711   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
   712   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
   713   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
   714   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
   715   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
   716   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
   717   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
   718   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
   719   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
   720   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
   721 
   722 
   723 *** System ***
   724 
   725 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
   726 (not just JRE).
   727 
   728 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
   729 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
   730 
   731 
   732 
   733 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
   734 ------------------------------------
   735 
   736 *** General ***
   737 
   738 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
   739 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
   740 
   741   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
   742     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
   743     files for checking).
   744 
   745   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
   746     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
   747     positions.
   748 
   749   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
   750     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
   751     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
   752 
   753   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
   754     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
   755     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
   756 
   757   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
   758     cores.
   759 
   760   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
   761     versions (garbage collection).
   762 
   763 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
   764 including some remaining limitations.
   765 
   766 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
   767 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
   768 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
   769 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
   770 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
   771 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   772 
   773 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
   774 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
   775 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
   776 
   777 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
   778 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
   779 usedir option -Q.
   780 
   781 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
   782 configuration options, with more conventional names:
   783 
   784   long_names   ~> names_long
   785   short_names  ~> names_short
   786   unique_names ~> names_unique
   787 
   788 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
   789 
   790   declare [[names_unique = false]]
   791 
   792 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
   793 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
   794 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
   795 
   796 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
   797 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
   798 
   799 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
   800   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
   801   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
   802   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
   803     "Classical Reasoner".
   804 
   805 
   806 *** HOL ***
   807 
   808 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
   809 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   810 
   811 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
   812 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
   813 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
   814 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
   815 class complete_linorder.
   816 
   817 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
   818 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
   819 
   820 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
   821 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
   822 
   823   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
   824   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
   825   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
   826   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
   827   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
   828   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
   829   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
   830   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
   831   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
   832   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
   833   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
   834 
   835 More consistent and comprehensive names:
   836 
   837   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
   838   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
   839   INFI_def ~> INF_def
   840   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
   841   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
   842   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
   843   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
   844   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
   845   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
   846   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
   847   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
   848   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
   849   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
   850   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
   851   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
   852   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
   853 
   854 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   855 
   856 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
   857 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   858 
   859 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
   860 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
   861 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
   862 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   863 
   864 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
   865 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
   866 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
   867 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   868 
   869 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
   870 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
   871 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
   872 
   873 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
   874 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
   875 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   876 
   877 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
   878 separate type class floor_ceiling.
   879 
   880 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
   881 
   882     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
   883     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
   884 
   885 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
   886 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   887 
   888 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
   889 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   890 
   891 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
   892 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
   893 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
   894 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   895 
   896   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
   897   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
   898   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
   899   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
   900   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
   901   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
   902   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
   903 
   904 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
   905 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   906 
   907   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
   908   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
   909   real_less_def ~> less_le
   910   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
   911   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
   912   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
   913   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   914   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   915   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   916   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
   917   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
   918   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
   919   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
   920   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
   921   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
   922   real_le_linear ~> linear
   923   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
   924   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   925   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
   926   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
   927   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
   928   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
   929   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
   930   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
   931   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
   932   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
   933   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
   934   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
   935   expi_add ~> exp_add
   936   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
   937   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
   938   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
   939   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
   940   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
   941   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
   942   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
   943   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
   944   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
   945   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   946   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
   947   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
   948   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
   949   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
   950   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
   951   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
   952   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
   953   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
   954   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
   955   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
   956   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
   957   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
   958   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
   959   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
   960   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
   961   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
   962   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
   963   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
   964   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
   965   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
   966   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
   967   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
   968   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
   969   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
   970   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
   971   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
   972   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
   973   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
   974   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
   975   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
   976   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
   977   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
   978   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
   979   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
   980   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
   981   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
   982   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
   983   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
   984   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
   985   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
   986   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
   987   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
   988   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
   989 
   990 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
   991 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
   992 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
   993 
   994 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
   995 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
   996 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
   997 
   998 * Code generation:
   999 
  1000   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1001     characters in the target language.
  1002 
  1003   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1004     instead.
  1005 
  1006   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1007 
  1008   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1009     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1010 
  1011       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1012 
  1013 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1014 
  1015 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1016 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1017 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1018 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1019 syntax.
  1020 
  1021 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1022 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1023 
  1024 * Nitpick:
  1025   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1026   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1027   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1028     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1029 
  1030 * Sledgehammer:
  1031   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1032   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1033     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1034   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1035     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1036   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1037     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1038   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1039     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1040   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1041     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1042 
  1043 * Metis:
  1044   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1045   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1046     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1047 
  1048 * Command 'try':
  1049   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1050     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1051   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1052     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1053 
  1054 * Quickcheck:
  1055   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1056     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1057   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1058     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1059   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1060     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1061     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1062     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1063   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1064     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1065 
  1066 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1067 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1068 
  1069 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1070 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1071 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1072 
  1073 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1074 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1075 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1076 
  1077 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1078 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1079 
  1080 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1081 arithmetic.
  1082 
  1083 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1084 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1085 and lattice type classes.
  1086 
  1087 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1088 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1089 
  1090 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1091 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1092 
  1093 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1094 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1095 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1096 
  1097   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1098   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1099   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1100   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1101 
  1102 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1103 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1104 constants:
  1105 
  1106   type inat   ~> type enat
  1107   Fin         ~> enat
  1108   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1109   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1110   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1111 
  1112 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1113 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1114 
  1115 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1116 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1117 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1118 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1119 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1120 
  1121 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1122 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1123 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1124 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1125 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1126 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1127 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1128 
  1129   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1130   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1131   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1132   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1133 
  1134 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1135 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1136 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1137 
  1138   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1139   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1140   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1141   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1142   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1143   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1144   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1145   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1146   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1147   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1148   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1149   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1150   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1151   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1152   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1153   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1154   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1155   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1156   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1157   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1158   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1159   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1160   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1161   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1162   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1163   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1164   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1165   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1166   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1167   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1168   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1169   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1170   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1171   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1172   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1173   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1174   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1175   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1176   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1177   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1178   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1179   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1180   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1181   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1182   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1183   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1184   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1185   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1186   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1187   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1188   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1189 
  1190 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1191   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1192   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1193   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1194   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1195     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1196 
  1197 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1198 
  1199   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1200   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1201   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1202   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1203   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1204   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1205   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1206   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1207   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1208   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1209   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1210   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1211   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1212   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1213   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1214   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1215   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1216   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1217   UU_I ~> bottomI
  1218   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  1219   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1220   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1221   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  1222   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  1223   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  1224 
  1225 
  1226 *** Document preparation ***
  1227 
  1228 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1229 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1230 same.
  1231 
  1232 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  1233 result.
  1234 
  1235 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  1236 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  1237 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  1238 
  1239 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  1240 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  1241 
  1242 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  1243 like this:
  1244 
  1245   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  1246   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  1247 
  1248 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  1249 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  1250 layouts.
  1251 
  1252 
  1253 *** ML ***
  1254 
  1255 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  1256 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  1257 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  1258 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  1259 under external program control.
  1260 
  1261 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  1262 data, which requires explicit setup.
  1263 
  1264 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  1265 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  1266 (better known as Proof General).
  1267 
  1268 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1269 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  1270 
  1271 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  1272 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  1273 
  1274 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  1275 (including quotes etc.).
  1276 
  1277 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  1278 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  1279 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  1280 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  1281 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  1282 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  1283 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  1284 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  1285 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  1286 
  1287 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  1288 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  1289 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1290 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  1291 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  1292 
  1293 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  1294 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  1295 
  1296 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  1297 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  1298 
  1299 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  1300 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  1301 
  1302 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  1303 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  1304 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  1305 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  1306 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  1307 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  1308 proper Proof.context.
  1309 
  1310 
  1311 *** System ***
  1312 
  1313 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  1314 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  1315 
  1316 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  1317 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  1318 
  1319 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  1320 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  1321 
  1322   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  1323   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  1324   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  1325   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  1326   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  1327 
  1328 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  1329 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1330 
  1331 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  1332 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  1333 example:
  1334 
  1335   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  1336 
  1337 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  1338 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  1339 
  1340 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  1341 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  1342 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  1343 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  1344 
  1345 
  1346 
  1347 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  1348 ----------------------------------
  1349 
  1350 *** General ***
  1351 
  1352 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  1353 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  1354 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  1355 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  1356 like this:
  1357 
  1358   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  1359 
  1360 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  1361 
  1362 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  1363 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  1364 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  1365 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  1366 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  1367 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  1368 
  1369 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  1370 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  1371 the following package declarations:
  1372 
  1373   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  1374   \usepackage{textcomp}
  1375 
  1376 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  1377 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  1378 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  1379 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  1380 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  1381 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  1382 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  1383 
  1384 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  1385 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1386 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  1387 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  1388 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  1389 
  1390 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  1391 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  1392 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  1393 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  1394 
  1395 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  1396 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  1397 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  1398 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  1399 
  1400   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  1401 
  1402   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  1403   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  1404   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  1405   show_types                    show_types
  1406   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  1407   show_consts                   show_consts
  1408   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  1409 
  1410   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  1411   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  1412   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  1413 
  1414   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  1415   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  1416 
  1417   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  1418 
  1419   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  1420   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  1421   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  1422   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  1423   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  1424 
  1425 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  1426 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  1427 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  1428 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  1429 
  1430 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  1431 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1432 
  1433   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  1434   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  1435 
  1436 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  1437 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  1438 float_token.
  1439 
  1440 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  1441 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  1442 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1443 
  1444 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  1445 DejaVu Sans.
  1446 
  1447 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  1448 
  1449 
  1450 *** Pure ***
  1451 
  1452 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  1453 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  1454 time.
  1455 
  1456 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  1457 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1458 
  1459 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  1460 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1461 
  1462 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  1463 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  1464 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  1465 command already provided this functionality.
  1466 
  1467 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  1468 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  1469 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  1470 without interpretations.
  1471 
  1472 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  1473 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  1474 
  1475 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  1476 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  1477 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  1478 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  1479 
  1480 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  1481 'definition' instead.
  1482 
  1483 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  1484 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  1485 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  1486 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  1487 
  1488 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  1489 constructors.
  1490 
  1491 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  1492 the local file system.
  1493 
  1494 
  1495 *** HOL ***
  1496 
  1497 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  1498 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  1499 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  1500 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  1501 
  1502   declare [[coercion f]]
  1503 
  1504 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  1505 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  1506 
  1507   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  1508 
  1509 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  1510 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  1511 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  1512 other theories like this:
  1513 
  1514   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  1515 
  1516 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  1517 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  1518 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  1519 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  1520 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  1521 for examples.
  1522 
  1523 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  1524 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1525 
  1526 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  1527 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  1528 
  1529 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  1530 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  1531 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  1532 
  1533 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  1534 functorial structure of types.
  1535 
  1536 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  1537 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  1538 
  1539 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  1540 languages.
  1541 
  1542 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  1543 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  1544 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1545 
  1546 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  1547 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1548 
  1549 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  1550 combinators any longer.
  1551 
  1552 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  1553 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  1554 
  1555 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  1556 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  1557 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  1558 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  1559 
  1560   record 'a foo = ...
  1561   ...
  1562   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  1563 
  1564 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  1565 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  1566 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1567 
  1568 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  1569 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  1570 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  1571 
  1572 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  1573 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  1574 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  1575 
  1576 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  1577 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1578 
  1579 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  1580 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  1581 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  1582 independently.
  1583 
  1584 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  1585 counter example search.
  1586 
  1587 * Sledgehammer:
  1588   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  1589     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  1590     sledgehammer").
  1591   - Renamed commands:
  1592     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  1593     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  1594     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  1595     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1596   - Renamed options:
  1597     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  1598     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  1599     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  1600     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  1601     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1602 
  1603 * Nitpick:
  1604   - Renamed options:
  1605     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  1606     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  1607     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1608   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  1609   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  1610   - Added "whack" option.
  1611   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  1612   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  1613   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  1614   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  1615     higher cardinalities.
  1616   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  1617 
  1618 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  1619 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  1620 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  1621 
  1622     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  1623 
  1624 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  1625 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  1626 
  1627 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  1628 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  1629 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  1630 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  1631 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  1632 "smt_solver".
  1633 
  1634 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  1635 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  1636 
  1637 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  1638 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  1639 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  1640 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1641 
  1642 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  1643   - Renamed:
  1644     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  1645     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  1646     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1647   - Added:
  1648     smt_verbose
  1649     smt_random_seed
  1650     smt_datatypes
  1651     smt_infer_triggers
  1652     smt_monomorph_limit
  1653     cvc3_options
  1654     remote_cvc3_options
  1655     remote_z3_options
  1656     yices_options
  1657 
  1658 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  1659 header.
  1660 
  1661 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  1662 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  1663 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  1664 
  1665   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  1666 
  1667 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1668 
  1669 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  1670 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1671 
  1672 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1673 
  1674 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  1675 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1676 
  1677 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  1678 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  1679 
  1680 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  1681 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1682 
  1683 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  1684 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  1685 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1686 
  1687 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1688 
  1689 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  1690 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1691 
  1692 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  1693 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1694 
  1695 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  1696 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  1697 for congruent(2)).
  1698 
  1699 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  1700 
  1701   types
  1702     bool ~> HOL.bool
  1703     nat ~> Nat.nat
  1704 
  1705   constants
  1706     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  1707     True ~> HOL.True
  1708     False ~> HOL.False
  1709     op & ~> HOL.conj
  1710     op | ~> HOL.disj
  1711     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  1712     op = ~> HOL.eq
  1713     Not ~> HOL.Not
  1714     The ~> HOL.The
  1715     All ~> HOL.All
  1716     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  1717     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  1718     Let ~> HOL.Let
  1719     If ~> HOL.If
  1720     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  1721     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  1722     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  1723     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  1724     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  1725     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  1726     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  1727     op : ~> Set.member
  1728     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  1729 
  1730 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1731 
  1732 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  1733 
  1734     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  1735     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  1736     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  1737     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  1738     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  1739     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  1740     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  1741     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  1742 
  1743 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1744 
  1745 * More stylized fact names:
  1746 
  1747   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  1748   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  1749   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  1750   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  1751 
  1752 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1753 
  1754 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  1755 
  1756   constants
  1757     null ~> List.null
  1758 
  1759   facts
  1760     mem_iff ~> member_def
  1761     null_empty ~> null_def
  1762 
  1763 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  1764 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  1765 generation.
  1766 
  1767 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  1768 Haskell code.
  1769 
  1770 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  1771 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  1772 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1773 
  1774 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  1775 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1776 
  1777 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  1778 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  1779 
  1780 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  1781 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  1782 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1783 
  1784 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  1785 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1786 
  1787 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  1788 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1789 
  1790 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  1791 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  1792 referred to by its qualified name.
  1793 
  1794   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  1795   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  1796   product ~>  Enum.product
  1797 
  1798 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  1799 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  1800 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1801 
  1802 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  1803 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  1804 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  1805 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1806 
  1807 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  1808 sort_key.
  1809 
  1810 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  1811 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1812 
  1813 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  1814 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  1815 instead of finite cartesian products.
  1816 
  1817   types
  1818     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  1819               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  1820               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  1821         (depends on your needs)
  1822 
  1823   constants
  1824      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  1825      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  1826      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  1827 
  1828 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  1829 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  1830 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  1831 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1832 
  1833 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  1834 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  1835 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  1836 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  1837 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1838 
  1839 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  1840 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1841 
  1842 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  1843 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  1844 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  1845 
  1846 
  1847 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  1848 
  1849 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  1850 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  1851 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  1852 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  1853 compatibility.
  1854 
  1855 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  1856 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  1857 
  1858 
  1859 *** HOLCF ***
  1860 
  1861 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  1862 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  1863 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  1864 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1865 
  1866 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  1867 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  1868 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1869 
  1870   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  1871   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  1872   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  1873 
  1874 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  1875 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  1876 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1877 
  1878 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  1879 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  1880 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  1881 domain definition now works:
  1882 
  1883   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  1884 
  1885 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  1886 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  1887 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  1888 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  1889 
  1890   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  1891     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  1892 
  1893   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  1894 
  1895 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  1896 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  1897 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1898 
  1899 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  1900 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1901 
  1902 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  1903 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  1904 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  1905 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  1906 
  1907 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  1908 
  1909 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1910 
  1911 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1912 
  1913 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  1914 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1915 
  1916 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  1917 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  1918 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  1919 
  1920 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  1921 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  1922 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1923 
  1924 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  1925 still supported as an input translation.
  1926 
  1927 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  1928 
  1929   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  1930   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  1931   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1932   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  1933   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  1934   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  1935   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1936 
  1937 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  1938 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1939 
  1940   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  1941   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  1942   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  1943   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  1944   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  1945   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  1946 
  1947 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  1948 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1949 
  1950 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  1951 
  1952   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  1953   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  1954   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  1955   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  1956 
  1957 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1958 
  1959 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  1960 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1961 
  1962 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  1963 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1964 
  1965   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  1966   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  1967   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  1968   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  1969   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  1970   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  1971   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  1972   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  1973   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  1974   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  1975   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  1976   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  1977   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  1978   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  1979   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  1980   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  1981   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  1982   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  1983   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  1984   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  1985 
  1986 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1987 
  1988   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  1989   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  1990   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  1991   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  1992   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  1993   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  1994   box_less             ~> box_below
  1995   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  1996   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  1997   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  1998   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  1999   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2000   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2001   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2002   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2003   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2004   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2005   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2006   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2007   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2008   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2009   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2010   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2011   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2012   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2013   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2014   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2015   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2016   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2017   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2018   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2019   up_less              ~> up_below
  2020   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2021   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2022   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2023   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2024   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2025   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2026   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2027   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2028   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2029   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2030   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2031   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2032   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2033 
  2034 
  2035 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2036 
  2037 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2038 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2039 
  2040 
  2041 *** ML ***
  2042 
  2043 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2044 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2045 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2046 
  2047 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2048 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2049 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2050 
  2051 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2052 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2053 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2054 
  2055 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2056 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2057 
  2058 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2059 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2060 
  2061 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2062 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2063 
  2064 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2065 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2066 
  2067 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2068 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2069 almost all situations.
  2070 
  2071 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2072 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2073 Isabelle/ML.
  2074 
  2075 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2076 meaning.
  2077 
  2078 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2079 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2080 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2081 
  2082 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2083 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2084 
  2085 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2086 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2087 
  2088 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2089 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2090 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2091 
  2092 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2093 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2094 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2095 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2096 configuration options.
  2097 
  2098 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2099 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2100 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2101 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2102 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2103 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2104 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2105 
  2106 
  2107 
  2108 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2109 ---------------------------------
  2110 
  2111 *** General ***
  2112 
  2113 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2114 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2115 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2116 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2117 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2118 their full internal name.
  2119 
  2120 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2121 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2122 Some hints on upgrading:
  2123 
  2124   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2125     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2126     which are independent of this issue.
  2127 
  2128   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2129     provides the following special forms:
  2130 
  2131       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2132       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2133       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2134 
  2135     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2136     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2137     extra variables".
  2138 
  2139     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2140     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2141     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2142     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2143     "logic".
  2144 
  2145   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2146     antiquotations:
  2147 
  2148       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2149       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2150       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2151       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2152 
  2153   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2154     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2155     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2156     antiquotations.
  2157 
  2158 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2159 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2160 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2161 diagnose syntax problems.
  2162 
  2163 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2164 
  2165 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2166 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2167 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2168 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2169 
  2170 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2171 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2172 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2173 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2174 
  2175 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2176 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2177 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2178 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2179 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2180 
  2181 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2182 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2183 
  2184 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2185 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2186 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2187 
  2188   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2189 
  2190 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2191 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2192 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2193 
  2194 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2195 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2196 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2197 
  2198 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2199 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2200 
  2201 
  2202 *** Pure ***
  2203 
  2204 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2205 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2206 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2207 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2208 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2209 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2210 inspect proof terms.
  2211 
  2212 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2213 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2214 are added internally.  For example:
  2215 
  2216   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2217 
  2218 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  2219 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2220 
  2221 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2222 
  2223 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2224 'class' instead.
  2225 
  2226 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2227 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2228 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2229 
  2230 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2231 invariants.
  2232 
  2233 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  2234 user space functionality any longer.
  2235 
  2236 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  2237 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  2238 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2239 
  2240 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  2241 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  2242 
  2243 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  2244 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  2245 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  2246 
  2247 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  2248 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  2249 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  2250 
  2251 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  2252 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2253 
  2254 
  2255 *** HOL ***
  2256 
  2257 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  2258 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  2259 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  2260 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  2261 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  2262 
  2263 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  2264 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  2265 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  2266 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  2267 
  2268   fun
  2269     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  2270   where
  2271     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  2272 
  2273   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  2274     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  2275 
  2276   quotient_definition
  2277     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  2278 
  2279 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  2280 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  2281 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  2282 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  2283 
  2284 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  2285 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  2286 
  2287 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  2288 separate HOL-SMT session.
  2289 
  2290 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  2291 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2292 
  2293 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  2294 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  2295 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  2296 
  2297 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  2298 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2299 
  2300 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  2301 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2302 
  2303 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  2304 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2305 
  2306 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  2307 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2308 
  2309 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  2310 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  2311 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2312 
  2313   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  2314   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  2315   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  2316   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  2317   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  2318   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  2319   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  2320   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  2321   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  2322   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  2323   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  2324   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  2325   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  2326   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  2327   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  2328   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  2329   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  2330   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  2331   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  2332   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  2333   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  2334   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  2335   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  2336   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  2337   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  2338   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  2339   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  2340   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  2341   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  2342   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  2343 
  2344 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  2345 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  2346 
  2347 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  2348 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  2349 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2350 
  2351 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  2352 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  2353 
  2354 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  2355 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2356 
  2357 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  2358 
  2359 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  2360 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2361 
  2362 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  2363 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2364 
  2365 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2366 
  2367 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  2368 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  2369 
  2370 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  2371 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  2372 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  2373 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2374 
  2375 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  2376   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  2377   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  2378   - inverse, divide: Rings
  2379 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2380 
  2381 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  2382 lattices):
  2383 
  2384     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  2385     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  2386 
  2387     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  2388 
  2389     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  2390     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  2391     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2392     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  2393     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2394     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  2395     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  2396     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  2397     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  2398     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  2399     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  2400     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  2401     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  2402 
  2403     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  2404     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2405     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2406     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  2407     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  2408     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  2409     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  2410     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  2411     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  2412     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  2413     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  2414     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  2415     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  2416     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  2417     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  2418     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  2419     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  2420     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  2421 
  2422   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  2423   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  2424 
  2425     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  2426     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  2427     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  2428     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  2429     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  2430 
  2431 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2432 
  2433 * Refined field classes:
  2434   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  2435     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  2436     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  2437   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  2438 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2439 
  2440 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  2441   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  2442   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  2443   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  2444     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  2445   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  2446     equal_neg_zero.
  2447 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2448 
  2449 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  2450 sets to lattices:
  2451 
  2452   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  2453   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  2454   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  2455   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  2456   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  2457   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  2458   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  2459   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  2460   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  2461   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  2462 
  2463 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  2464 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  2465 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  2466 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  2467 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  2468 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2469 
  2470 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  2471 multiset order:
  2472 
  2473   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  2474     <= and <;
  2475   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  2476     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  2477     multiset_order;
  2478   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  2479     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  2480     generation;
  2481   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  2482     if needed.
  2483 
  2484 Renamed:
  2485 
  2486   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  2487   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  2488   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  2489 
  2490 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2491 
  2492 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  2493 
  2494 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  2495 
  2496 * Theory List: added transpose.
  2497 
  2498 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  2499 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  2500 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2501 
  2502   Constants:
  2503   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  2504   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  2505   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  2506   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  2507   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  2508   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  2509   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  2510   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  2511   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  2512   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  2513   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  2514   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  2515   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  2516 
  2517   Lemmas:
  2518   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2519   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  2520   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  2521   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  2522   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  2523   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  2524   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  2525   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  2526   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  2527   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  2528   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  2529   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  2530   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2531 
  2532 * Sledgehammer:
  2533   - Renamed ATP commands:
  2534     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  2535     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  2536     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  2537     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  2538     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  2539     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2540   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  2541   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  2542     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  2543   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  2544     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  2545     is still experimental.)
  2546   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  2547     full-typed mode.
  2548   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  2549 
  2550 * Nitpick:
  2551   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  2552   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  2553   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  2554     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  2555   - Added support for quotient types.
  2556   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  2557     constructs.
  2558   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  2559     "termination" proofs).
  2560   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  2561   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  2562   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  2563   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  2564     record getters.
  2565   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  2566   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  2567   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  2568   - Added "atoms" option.
  2569   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  2570     problems.
  2571   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  2572     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  2573     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2574   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  2575     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2576   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2577 
  2578 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  2579   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  2580   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  2581   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  2582   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  2583   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  2584   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  2585   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  2586   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  2587   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2588 
  2589 
  2590 *** HOLCF ***
  2591 
  2592 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  2593 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  2594 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2595 
  2596 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  2597 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  2598 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  2599 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2600 
  2601 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  2602 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  2603 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  2604 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  2605 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2606 
  2607 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  2608 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  2609 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2610 
  2611 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  2612 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2613 
  2614   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  2615   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  2616 
  2617 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  2618 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2619 
  2620   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  2621   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  2622   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  2623   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  2624   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  2625 
  2626 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  2627 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2628 
  2629   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  2630   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  2631   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  2632 
  2633 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  2634 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  2635 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2636 
  2637 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  2638 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2639 
  2640 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2641 
  2642 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  2643 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2644 
  2645 
  2646 *** ML ***
  2647 
  2648 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  2649 
  2650     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  2651     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  2652 
  2653     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  2654     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  2655     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  2656     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  2657 
  2658     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  2659     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  2660     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  2661 
  2662 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  2663 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  2664 
  2665 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  2666 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  2667 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  2668 
  2669 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  2670 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  2671 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  2672 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  2673 
  2674 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  2675 the context or even global references.
  2676 
  2677 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  2678 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  2679 
  2680 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  2681 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  2682 
  2683   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  2684   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  2685   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  2686   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  2687   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  2688   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  2689   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  2690   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  2691   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  2692   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  2693 
  2694 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  2695 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  2696 
  2697 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  2698 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  2699 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  2700 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  2701 pass the proper local context through the code!
  2702 
  2703 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  2704 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  2705 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  2706 Theory_Data version.
  2707 
  2708 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  2709 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  2710 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  2711 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  2712 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  2713 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  2714 explicitly in rare situations.
  2715 
  2716 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  2717 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  2718 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2719 
  2720 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  2721 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2722 
  2723 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  2724 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  2725 quite rare).
  2726 
  2727 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  2728 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2729 
  2730 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  2731 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  2732 terms.
  2733 
  2734 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  2735 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  2736 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  2737 
  2738 
  2739 *** System ***
  2740 
  2741 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  2742 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  2743 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  2744 
  2745 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  2746 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  2747 respectively.
  2748 
  2749 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  2750 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  2751 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  2752 prefers 64 bit if available:
  2753 
  2754   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  2755 
  2756 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  2757 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  2758 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  2759 component.
  2760 
  2761 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  2762 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  2763 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  2764 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  2765 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  2766 the user for manual installation.
  2767 
  2768 
  2769 
  2770 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  2771 -------------------------------------
  2772 
  2773 *** General ***
  2774 
  2775 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  2776 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  2777 
  2778 
  2779 *** Pure ***
  2780 
  2781 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  2782 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  2783 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  2784 
  2785 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  2786 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  2787 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  2788 
  2789 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  2790 interpretation.
  2791 
  2792 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  2793 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2794 
  2795 
  2796 *** Document preparation ***
  2797 
  2798 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  2799 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  2800 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  2801 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  2802 
  2803 
  2804 *** HOL ***
  2805 
  2806 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  2807 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  2808 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  2809 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  2810 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  2811 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  2812 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  2813 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  2814 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  2815 
  2816 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  2817 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  2818 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  2819 
  2820 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  2821 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  2822 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  2823 
  2824 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  2825 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  2826 
  2827 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  2828 
  2829 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  2830 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  2831 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  2832 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  2833 
  2834 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  2835 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  2836 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  2837 "mirabelle" utility.
  2838 
  2839 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  2840 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  2841 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  2842 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  2843 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  2844 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  2845 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  2846 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  2847 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  2848 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  2849 
  2850 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  2851 procedure only.
  2852 
  2853 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  2854 
  2855 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  2856 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  2857 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  2858 that fail later.
  2859 
  2860 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  2861 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  2862 
  2863 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  2864 the same method as the approximation method.
  2865 
  2866 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  2867 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  2868 series expansion.
  2869 
  2870 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  2871 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  2872 
  2873 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  2874 reals.
  2875 
  2876 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  2877 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  2878 
  2879 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  2880 fixpoint theorem.
  2881 
  2882 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  2883   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  2884     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  2885   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  2886     accordingly
  2887   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  2888     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  2889   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  2890     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  2891 
  2892 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  2893 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  2894 lattice.
  2895 
  2896 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  2897 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  2898 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  2899 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  2900 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  2901 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  2902 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2903 
  2904 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  2905   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  2906     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  2907   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  2908     le_inf_iff
  2909   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  2910     sup_aci)
  2911   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  2912   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  2913   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  2914     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  2915     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  2916     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  2917     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  2918     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  2919     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  2920     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  2921     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  2922     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  2923     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  2924   - authentic syntax for
  2925     Set.Pow
  2926     Set.image
  2927   - mere abbreviations:
  2928     Set.empty               (for bot)
  2929     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  2930     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  2931     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  2932     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  2933     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  2934     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  2935     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  2936   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  2937 
  2938 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  2939 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  2940 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  2941 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  2942 
  2943 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  2944 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  2945 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2946 
  2947 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  2948 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2949 
  2950 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  2951 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  2952 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  2953 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2954 
  2955 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  2956 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2957 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  2958 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  2959 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  2960 
  2961 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  2962 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  2963 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2964 
  2965 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  2966 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2967 
  2968 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  2969 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  2970 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  2971 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  2972 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  2973 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  2974 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  2975 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2976 
  2977 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  2978     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  2979     code_post       replaces    code post
  2980     etc.
  2981   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2982 
  2983 * Renamed methods:
  2984     sizechange -> size_change
  2985     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  2986   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2987 
  2988 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  2989 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  2990 
  2991 * Renamed theorems:
  2992     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  2993     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  2994     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  2995     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  2996     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  2997   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2998 
  2999 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3000 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3001 
  3002 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3003 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3004 
  3005 
  3006 *** HOLCF ***
  3007 
  3008 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3009 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3010 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3011 
  3012 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3013 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3014 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3015 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3016 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3017 
  3018 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3019 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3020 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3021 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3022 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3023 
  3024 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3025 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3026 constructor are pre-configured.
  3027 
  3028 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3029 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3030 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3031 
  3032 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3033 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3034 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3035 as well.)
  3036 
  3037 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3038 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3039 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3040 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3041 examples.
  3042 
  3043 
  3044 *** ML ***
  3045 
  3046 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3047 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3048 
  3049 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3050 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3051 position, logical grouping etc.
  3052 
  3053 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3054 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3055 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3056 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3057 
  3058 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3059 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3060 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3061 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3062 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3063 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3064 
  3065 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3066 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3067 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3068 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3069 experiments with references.
  3070 
  3071 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3072 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3073 
  3074 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3075 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3076 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3077 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3078 
  3079 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3080 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3081 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3082 
  3083 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3084 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3085 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3086 
  3087 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3088 
  3089 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3090 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3091 
  3092 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3093 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3094 
  3095 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3096 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3097 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3098 
  3099 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3100 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3101 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3102 
  3103 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3104 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3105 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3106 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3107 
  3108 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3109 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3110 instead of global theory.
  3111 
  3112 
  3113 *** System ***
  3114 
  3115 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3116 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3117 usedir option -q.
  3118 
  3119 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3120 also the system manual.
  3121 
  3122 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3123 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3124 
  3125 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3126 this is always enabled.
  3127 
  3128 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3129 
  3130 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3131 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3132 currently supported on Linux only.
  3133 
  3134 
  3135 
  3136 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3137 --------------------------------
  3138 
  3139 *** General ***
  3140 
  3141 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3142 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3143 
  3144   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3145     "isatool."
  3146 
  3147   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3148     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3149 
  3150   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3151     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3152 
  3153 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3154 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3155 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3156 
  3157 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3158 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3159 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3160 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3161 via "isabelle emacs".
  3162 
  3163 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3164 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3165 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3166 
  3167 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3168 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3169 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3170 
  3171 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3172 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3173 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3174 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3175 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3176 
  3177 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3178 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3179 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3180 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3181 
  3182 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3183 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3184 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3185 
  3186 
  3187 *** Pure ***
  3188 
  3189 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3190 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3191 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3192 
  3193 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3194 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3195 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3196 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3197 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3198 
  3199 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3200 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3201 useful in locale declarations.
  3202 
  3203 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3204 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3205 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3206 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3207 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3208 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3209 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3210 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3211 no longer generated.
  3212 
  3213 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3214 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3215 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3216 
  3217 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  3218 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  3219 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  3220 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3221 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3222 
  3223 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3224 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3225 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3226 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3227 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3228 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3229 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3230 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3231 
  3232 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  3233 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  3234 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  3235 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  3236 
  3237 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3238 
  3239 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  3240 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  3241 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  3242 
  3243 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  3244 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3245 
  3246 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  3247 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  3248 in HOL, write
  3249 
  3250     class foo = ...
  3251 
  3252 instead of
  3253 
  3254     class foo = type + ...
  3255 
  3256 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  3257 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3258 
  3259 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  3260 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  3261 
  3262 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  3263 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  3264 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  3265 
  3266 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  3267 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  3268 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  3269 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  3270 directly in regular applications.
  3271 
  3272 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  3273 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  3274 
  3275 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  3276 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  3277 
  3278 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  3279 theory context.
  3280 
  3281 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  3282 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3283 
  3284 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  3285 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  3286 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  3287 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  3288 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  3289 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  3290 
  3291   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  3292 
  3293 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  3294 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  3295 normalization.
  3296 
  3297 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  3298 addressing etc.
  3299 
  3300 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  3301 
  3302   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  3303   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  3304 
  3305 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3306 
  3307   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  3308      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  3309      parts of the code generator framework).
  3310 
  3311   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  3312      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  3313      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  3314 
  3315 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3316 
  3317 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  3318 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3319 
  3320 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  3321 patterns, e.g.
  3322 
  3323     find_consts "_ => bool"
  3324 
  3325 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  3326 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  3327 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  3328 hyphen:
  3329 
  3330     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  3331 
  3332 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  3333 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  3334 
  3335 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  3336 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  3337 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  3338 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  3339 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  3340 higher-order unification.
  3341 
  3342 
  3343 *** Document preparation ***
  3344 
  3345 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  3346 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  3347 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  3348 
  3349 
  3350 *** HOL ***
  3351 
  3352 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  3353 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  3354 
  3355 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  3356 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  3357 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  3358 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  3359 Main, as before.
  3360 
  3361 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  3362 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  3363 
  3364 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  3365 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  3366 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  3367 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  3368 
  3369 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  3370 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  3371 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  3372 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  3373 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  3374 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  3375 
  3376 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  3377 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  3378 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  3379 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  3380 
  3381 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  3382 menu.
  3383 
  3384 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  3385 (contains the empty clause).
  3386 
  3387 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  3388 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  3389 
  3390 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  3391 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  3392 
  3393 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  3394 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  3395 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3396 
  3397 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  3398 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  3399 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  3400 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  3401 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  3402 
  3403 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  3404 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  3405 
  3406 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  3407 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  3408 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  3409 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  3410 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  3411 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  3412 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  3413 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  3414 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  3415 
  3416 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  3417 
  3418 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  3419 
  3420 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  3421 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3422 
  3423 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  3424 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  3425 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  3426 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  3427 
  3428 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  3429 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3430 
  3431     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  3432     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  3433     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  3434     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  3435     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  3436     Union ~>    Set.Union
  3437     {} ~>       Set.empty
  3438     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  3439 
  3440 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  3441 theory Set.
  3442 
  3443 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  3444 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  3445 
  3446 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  3447 
  3448 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  3449 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  3450 
  3451 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  3452 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  3453 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  3454 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  3455 allowed. For examples see
  3456 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  3457 
  3458 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  3459 
  3460 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  3461 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3462 
  3463 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  3464 structure:
  3465 
  3466     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  3467     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3468     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3469     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3470     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3471     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3472     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3473     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3474     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3475     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3476     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3477     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3478     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3479     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3480     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3481     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3482     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3483     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3484     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3485     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3486     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3487     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3488     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3489     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3490     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3491     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3492     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3493     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3494     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3495     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3496     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3497     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  3498     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3499 
  3500     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3501     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3502     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3503     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  3504     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3505     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3506     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3507     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3508     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3509     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3510 
  3511     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3512     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3513     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3514     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3515     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3516     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3517 
  3518 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  3519 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  3520 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  3521 
  3522 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  3523 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  3524 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  3525 
  3526 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  3527 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3528 
  3529 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  3530 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  3531 
  3532 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  3533 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  3534 proofs, e.g.
  3535 
  3536   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  3537 
  3538 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  3539 
  3540 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  3541 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  3542 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3543 
  3544 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  3545 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  3546 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3547 
  3548 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  3549 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  3550 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  3551 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3552 
  3553 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  3554 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  3555 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  3556 preorder_class.*.
  3557 
  3558 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  3559 "diag" to "Id_on".
  3560 
  3561 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  3562 
  3563   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  3564 
  3565 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  3566 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  3567 fold_image.
  3568 
  3569 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  3570 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  3571 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  3572 the former will disappear at some point.
  3573 
  3574 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  3575 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  3576 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  3577 
  3578 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  3579 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  3580 realpow_0      -> power_0
  3581 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  3582 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  3583 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  3584 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  3585 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  3586 
  3587 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  3588 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  3589 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  3590 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  3591 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  3592 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  3593 
  3594     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  3595     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  3596     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  3597     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  3598     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  3599     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  3600     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  3601 
  3602 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  3603 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3604 rename old lemmas as follows:
  3605 
  3606 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  3607 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  3608 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  3609 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  3610 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  3611 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  3612 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  3613 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  3614 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  3615 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  3616 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  3617 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  3618 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  3619 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  3620 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  3621 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  3622 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  3623 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  3624 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  3625 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  3626 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  3627 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  3628 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  3629 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  3630 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  3631 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  3632 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  3633 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  3634 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  3635 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  3636 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  3637 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  3638 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  3639 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  3640 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  3641 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  3642 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  3643 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  3644 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  3645 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  3646 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  3647 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  3648 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  3649 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  3650 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  3651 
  3652 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3653 
  3654 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  3655 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  3656 
  3657 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  3658 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  3659 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  3660 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  3661 
  3662 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  3663 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  3664 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  3665 theory RealVector.
  3666 
  3667 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  3668 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  3669 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  3670 and inner products are included.
  3671 
  3672 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  3673 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  3674 supported.
  3675 
  3676 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  3677 first diagonalization argument.
  3678 
  3679 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  3680 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  3681 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  3682 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3683 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  3684 
  3685     hide (open) const gcd
  3686     abbreviation gcd where
  3687       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  3688     notation (output)
  3689       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  3690 
  3691 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  3692 
  3693 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  3694 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  3695 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3696 
  3697 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  3698 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  3699 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  3700 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  3701 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  3702 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  3703 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  3704 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  3705 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  3706 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  3707 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  3708 cases.
  3709 
  3710 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  3711 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  3712 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  3713 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  3714 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  3715 
  3716     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  3717     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  3718     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  3719     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  3720     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  3721 
  3722 
  3723 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3724 
  3725 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  3726 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  3727 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  3728 
  3729 * New theory of factorial domains.
  3730 
  3731 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  3732 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  3733 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  3734 
  3735 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3736 
  3737 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  3738 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  3739 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  3740 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  3741 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  3742 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  3743 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  3744 
  3745 
  3746 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  3747 
  3748 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  3749 
  3750 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  3751 theory targets.
  3752 
  3753 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  3754 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  3755 'inductive' etc.
  3756 
  3757 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  3758 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  3759 
  3760 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  3761 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  3762 
  3763 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  3764 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  3765 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  3766 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  3767 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  3768 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  3769 the algorithm W:
  3770 
  3771  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  3772  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  3773          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  3774 
  3775 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  3776 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  3777 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  3778 
  3779 
  3780 *** HOLCF ***
  3781 
  3782 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  3783 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  3784 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  3785 
  3786 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  3787 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  3788 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  3789 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  3790 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3791 
  3792 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  3793 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3794 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3795 
  3796 
  3797 *** ZF ***
  3798 
  3799 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  3800 
  3801 
  3802 *** ML ***
  3803 
  3804 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  3805 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  3806 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  3807 5.2.1!
  3808 
  3809 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  3810 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  3811 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  3812 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  3813 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  3814 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  3815 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3816 
  3817 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  3818 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  3819 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  3820 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  3821 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  3822 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  3823 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  3824 
  3825 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  3826 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  3827 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  3828 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  3829 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  3830 
  3831 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  3832 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  3833 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  3834 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  3835 Method.add_method.
  3836 
  3837 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  3838 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  3839 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  3840 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  3841 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  3842 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  3843 
  3844 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  3845 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  3846 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  3847 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  3848 examples.
  3849 
  3850 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  3851 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  3852 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  3853 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  3854 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  3855 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  3856 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  3857 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  3858 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  3859 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  3860 
  3861 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  3862 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  3863 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  3864 
  3865 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  3866 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  3867 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  3868 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  3869 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  3870 resort for legacy applications.
  3871 
  3872 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  3873 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  3874 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  3875 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  3876 explicit runtime argument.
  3877 
  3878 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  3879 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  3880 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  3881 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  3882 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3883 
  3884 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  3885 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  3886 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  3887 theory state.
  3888 
  3889 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  3890 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  3891 
  3892   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  3893   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  3894   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  3895   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  3896   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  3897   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  3898   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  3899   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  3900   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  3901   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  3902 
  3903 
  3904 *** System ***
  3905 
  3906 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  3907 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  3908 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  3909 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  3910 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  3911 
  3912 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  3913 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  3914 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  3915 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  3916 
  3917 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  3918 
  3919 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  3920 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  3921 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  3922 prover operations.
  3923 
  3924 
  3925 
  3926 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  3927 -------------------------------
  3928 
  3929 *** General ***
  3930 
  3931 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  3932 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  3933 
  3934 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  3935 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  3936 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  3937 provides a proper context already.
  3938 
  3939 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  3940 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  3941 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  3942 
  3943 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  3944 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  3945 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  3946 swap theory imports.
  3947 
  3948 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  3949 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  3950 
  3951 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  3952 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3953 white space without escapes.
  3954 
  3955 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  3956 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  3957 "foo_bar".
  3958 
  3959 
  3960 *** Pure ***
  3961 
  3962 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  3963 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  3964 
  3965 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  3966 There are three ways of invoking it:
  3967 
  3968 (1) unused_thms
  3969      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  3970 
  3971 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  3972      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  3973      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  3974 
  3975 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  3976      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  3977      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  3978      their ancestors.
  3979 
  3980 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  3981 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  3982 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  3983 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  3984 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  3985 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  3986 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  3987 
  3988 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  3989 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  3990 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  3991 
  3992 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  3993 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  3994 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  3995 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  3996 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  3997 
  3998 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  3999 
  4000 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4001 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4002 update of theories within ML code.
  4003 
  4004 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4005 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4006 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4007 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4008 
  4009 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4010 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4011 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4012 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4013 
  4014 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4015 
  4016 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4017 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4018 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4019 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4020 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4021 
  4022 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4023 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4024 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4025 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4026 situations.
  4027 
  4028 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4029 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4030 proof text.
  4031 
  4032 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4033 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4034 
  4035 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4036 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4037 predicates.
  4038 
  4039 
  4040 *** Document preparation ***
  4041 
  4042 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4043 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4044 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4045 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4046 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4047 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4048 
  4049 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4050 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4051 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4052 
  4053 
  4054 *** HOL ***
  4055 
  4056 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4057 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4058 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4059 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4060 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4061 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4062 
  4063 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4064 with multithreading.
  4065 
  4066 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4067 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4068 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4069 
  4070 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4071 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4072 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4073 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4074 
  4075 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4076 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4077 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4078 and makes them available separately.  See
  4079 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4080 
  4081 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4082 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4083 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4084 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4085 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4086 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4087 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4088 the declared rules.
  4089 
  4090 This setup also deals with rules like 
  4091 
  4092   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4093 
  4094 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4095 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4096 
  4097 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4098 
  4099   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4100 
  4101   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4102     definitions on => and bool.
  4103 
  4104   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4105     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4106     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4107 
  4108       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4109       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4110       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4111       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4112       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4113       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4114       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4115       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4116 
  4117   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4118     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4119     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4120 
  4121   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4122     The proof pattern
  4123 
  4124       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4125       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4126 
  4127     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4128     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4129 
  4130       have "EX S. P S"
  4131       proof
  4132         show "P S" <...>
  4133       qed
  4134 
  4135   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4136     The proof pattern
  4137 
  4138       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4139       also have "S = T" <...>
  4140       finally have "P T" .
  4141 
  4142     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4143     must be replaced by something like
  4144 
  4145       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4146       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4147       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4148 
  4149   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4150     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4151 
  4152       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4153 
  4154     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4155     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4156     type of the form
  4157 
  4158       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4159 
  4160     rather than
  4161 
  4162       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4163 
  4164 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4165 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4166 
  4167 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4168 
  4169 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4170 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4171 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4172 
  4173 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4174 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4175 
  4176 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4177 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4178 
  4179 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4180 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4181 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4182 
  4183 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4184 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4185 
  4186   less_trans
  4187   less_linear
  4188   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4189   le_less_trans
  4190   less_le_trans
  4191   less_not_sym
  4192   less_asym
  4193 
  4194 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4195 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4196 and different variable names.
  4197 
  4198 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4199 
  4200 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4201 finite maps.
  4202 
  4203 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4204 
  4205 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4206 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4207 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4208 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4209 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4210 accordingly.
  4211 
  4212 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4213 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4214 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4215 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4216 
  4217 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  4218 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  4219 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  4220 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4221 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4222 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4223 
  4224 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4225 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4226 
  4227 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4228 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4229 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4230 
  4231 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4232 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4233 
  4234 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  4235 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  4236 
  4237 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  4238 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4239 
  4240 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  4241 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4242 
  4243 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  4244 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  4245 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4246 
  4247 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  4248 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4249 
  4250 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  4251 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  4252 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  4253 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  4254 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  4255 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4256 
  4257 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  4258 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  4259 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  4260 
  4261 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  4262 
  4263 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  4264 
  4265 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  4266 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  4267 well-orders on sets and on types.
  4268 
  4269 
  4270 *** ZF ***
  4271 
  4272 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  4273 same session:
  4274 
  4275   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  4276   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  4277   Int       -> Int_ZF
  4278   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  4279   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  4280   List      -> List_ZF
  4281   Main      -> Main_ZF
  4282 
  4283 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  4284 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  4285 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  4286 
  4287 
  4288 *** ML ***
  4289 
  4290 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  4291 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  4292 
  4293 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  4294 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  4295 
  4296 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  4297 
  4298 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  4299 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  4300 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  4301 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  4302 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4303 
  4304 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  4305 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  4306 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  4307 
  4308 
  4309 *** System ***
  4310 
  4311 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  4312 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  4313 
  4314 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  4315 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  4316 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  4317 
  4318 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  4319 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  4320 
  4321 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  4322 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  4323 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  4324 
  4325 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  4326 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  4327 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  4328 
  4329 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  4330 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  4331 
  4332 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  4333 way of changing the user's settings is via
  4334 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  4335 script.
  4336 
  4337 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  4338 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  4339 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  4340 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  4341 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  4342 
  4343 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  4344 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  4345 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  4346 
  4347 
  4348 
  4349 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  4350 -----------------------------------
  4351 
  4352 *** General ***
  4353 
  4354 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  4355 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  4356 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4357 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  4358 
  4359 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  4360 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  4361 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4362 
  4363 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  4364 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  4365 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  4366 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4367 
  4368 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  4369 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  4370 quotes.
  4371 
  4372 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  4373 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  4374 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  4375 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  4376 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  4377 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  4378 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  4379 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  4380 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  4381 
  4382 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  4383 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  4384 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  4385 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  4386 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  4387 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  4388 
  4389 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4390 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  4391 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  4392 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  4393 
  4394 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  4395 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  4396 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  4397 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  4398 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  4399 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  4400 
  4401 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  4402 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  4403 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  4404 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  4405 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  4406 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  4407 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  4408 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  4409 
  4410 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  4411 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  4412 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  4413 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  4414 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  4415 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  4416 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  4417 
  4418 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  4419 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  4420 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  4421 
  4422 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  4423 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  4424 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  4425 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  4426 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  4427 limit is imposed.
  4428 
  4429 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  4430 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  4431 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  4432 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  4433 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  4434 and scalability.
  4435 
  4436 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  4437 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  4438 
  4439 
  4440 *** Document preparation ***
  4441 
  4442 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  4443 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  4444 current context.
  4445 
  4446 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  4447 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  4448 
  4449 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  4450 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  4451 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  4452 
  4453 
  4454 *** Pure ***
  4455 
  4456 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  4457 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  4458 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  4459 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  4460 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  4461 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  4462 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  4463 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  4464 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  4465 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  4466 
  4467 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  4468 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  4469 sketch:
  4470 
  4471     internal compilation:
  4472         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  4473     writing SML code to a file:
  4474         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  4475     writing OCaml code to a file:
  4476         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  4477     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  4478         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  4479 
  4480     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  4481         method ``eval''
  4482 
  4483 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  4484 
  4485 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  4486 
  4487     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4488     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4489     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4490     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4491 
  4492 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  4493 
  4494     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  4495       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  4496 
  4497     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  4498       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  4499 
  4500     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  4501       {(target)}+
  4502         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  4503 
  4504     code_class <and_list of classes>
  4505       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  4506         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  4507 
  4508 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  4509 
  4510 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  4511 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  4512 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  4513 codegen".
  4514 
  4515 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  4516 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  4517 annotations).
  4518 
  4519 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  4520 syntax.
  4521 
  4522 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  4523 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  4524 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  4525 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  4526 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  4527 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  4528 
  4529 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  4530 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  4531 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  4532 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  4533 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  4534 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  4535 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  4536 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  4537 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  4538 equations, see section "definitions".
  4539 
  4540 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  4541 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  4542 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  4543 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  4544 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  4545 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  4546 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  4547 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  4548 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  4549 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  4550 
  4551 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  4552 configuration options:
  4553 
  4554   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  4555   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  4556   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  4557   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  4558   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  4559   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  4560   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  4561   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  4562   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  4563 
  4564 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  4565 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  4566 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  4567 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  4568 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  4569 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  4570 order.
  4571 
  4572 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  4573 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  4574 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  4575 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  4576 context encountered later on.
  4577 
  4578 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  4579 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  4580 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  4581 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  4582 
  4583 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  4584 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  4585 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  4586 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  4587 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  4588 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  4589 
  4590 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  4591 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  4592 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  4593 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  4594 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  4595 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  4596 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  4597 more permissive.
  4598 
  4599 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  4600 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  4601 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  4602 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  4603 maintainability of proof texts.
  4604 
  4605 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  4606 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  4607 
  4608   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  4609   then guess x and y by clarify
  4610 
  4611 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  4612 proof tools being involved here.
  4613 
  4614 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  4615 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  4616 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  4617 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  4618 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  4619 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  4620 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  4621 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  4622 
  4623 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  4624 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  4625 certain special cases of literal facts:
  4626 
  4627   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  4628   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  4629   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  4630   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  4631 
  4632 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  4633 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  4634 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  4635 
  4636 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  4637 both named and unnamed ones.
  4638 
  4639 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  4640 
  4641   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  4642 
  4643 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  4644 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  4645 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  4646 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  4647 
  4648 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  4649 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  4650 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  4651 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  4652 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  4653 
  4654 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  4655 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  4656 
  4657 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  4658 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  4659 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  4660 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  4661 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  4662 originally first one.
  4663 
  4664 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  4665 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  4666 expected.
  4667 
  4668 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  4669 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  4670 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  4671 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  4672 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  4673 
  4674   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4675     assumes "EX x. P x"
  4676     obtains x where "P x"
  4677 
  4678   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4679     assumes "A & B"
  4680     obtains A and B
  4681 
  4682   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4683     assumes "A | B"
  4684     obtains
  4685       A
  4686     | B
  4687 
  4688 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  4689 explicitly:
  4690 
  4691   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4692     obtains "~ thesis"
  4693 
  4694   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  4695     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  4696 
  4697 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  4698 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  4699 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  4700 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  4701 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  4702 case_names).
  4703 
  4704 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  4705 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  4706 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  4707 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  4708 
  4709 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  4710 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  4711 top-level lemma.
  4712 
  4713 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  4714 introduction rule (default "that").
  4715 
  4716 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4717 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  4718 to occur.
  4719 
  4720 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  4721 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  4722 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  4723 representations independently of name spaces.
  4724 
  4725 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  4726 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  4727 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4728 
  4729 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  4730 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  4731 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  4732 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  4733 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  4734 current context.
  4735 
  4736 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  4737 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  4738 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  4739 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  4740 
  4741   axiomatization
  4742     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  4743     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  4744 
  4745   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  4746   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  4747 
  4748   abbreviation
  4749     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  4750     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  4751 
  4752 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  4753 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  4754 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  4755 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  4756 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  4757 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  4758 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  4759 
  4760 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  4761 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  4762 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  4763 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  4764 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  4765 
  4766 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  4767 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  4768 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  4769 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  4770 
  4771 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  4772 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  4773 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  4774 
  4775   definition "K x _ = x"
  4776 
  4777   inductive conj for A B
  4778   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  4779 
  4780 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  4781 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  4782 abbreviations on output.
  4783 
  4784 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  4785 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  4786 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  4787 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  4788 
  4789 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  4790 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  4791 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  4792 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  4793 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  4794 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  4795 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  4796 
  4797 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  4798 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  4799 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  4800 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  4801 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  4802 
  4803 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  4804 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  4805 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  4806 
  4807 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  4808 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  4809 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  4810 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  4811 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  4812 
  4813   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  4814     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  4815 
  4816 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  4817 definition specification element in the context of locale
  4818 partial_order.
  4819 
  4820 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  4821 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  4822 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  4823 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  4824 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  4825 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  4826 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  4827 examples.
  4828 
  4829 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  4830 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  4831 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  4832 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  4833 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  4834 
  4835 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  4836 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  4837 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  4838 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  4839 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  4840 
  4841   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  4842   (induct set: foo bar)
  4843   (induct pred: foo bar)
  4844   (induct type: foo bar)
  4845 
  4846 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  4847 new format.
  4848 
  4849 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  4850 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  4851 
  4852 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  4853 considered a legacy feature.
  4854 
  4855 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  4856 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4857 
  4858 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  4859 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  4860 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  4861 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  4862   
  4863 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  4864 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  4865 manipulating the claset.
  4866 
  4867 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  4868 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  4869 least one premise.
  4870 
  4871 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  4872 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  4873 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  4874 rule steps.
  4875 
  4876 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  4877 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  4878 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  4879 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  4880 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  4881 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  4882 
  4883 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  4884 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  4885 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  4886 
  4887 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  4888 the graph browser tool.
  4889 
  4890 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  4891 default; use '!' option for full details.
  4892 
  4893 
  4894 *** HOL ***
  4895 
  4896 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  4897 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  4898 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  4899 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  4900 multi-threading.
  4901   
  4902 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  4903 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  4904 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  4905 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  4906 work with multi-threading.
  4907 
  4908 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  4909 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  4910 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  4911 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  4912 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  4913 
  4914 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  4915 
  4916 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  4917 equality.
  4918 
  4919 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  4920 the new 'class' package:
  4921 
  4922     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  4923     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  4924     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  4925     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  4926     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  4927     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  4928     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  4929     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  4930     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  4931     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  4932     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  4933     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  4934     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  4935     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  4936     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  4937     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  4938     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  4939     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  4940     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  4941     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  4942 
  4943 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  4944 
  4945 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  4946 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  4947 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  4948 names.
  4949 
  4950 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  4951 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  4952 
  4953 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  4954 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  4955 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  4956 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  4957 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  4958 
  4959 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  4960 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  4961 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  4962 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  4963 
  4964 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  4965 
  4966 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  4967 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  4968 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  4969 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  4970 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4971 
  4972 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  4973 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4974 
  4975 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  4976 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  4977 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4978 
  4979 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  4980 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  4981 
  4982 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  4983 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  4984 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  4985 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  4986 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  4987 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  4988 in the current context.
  4989 
  4990 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  4991 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  4992 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4993 
  4994 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  4995 with new class dense_linear_order.
  4996 
  4997 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  4998 
  4999     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5000     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5001 
  5002     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5003       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5004     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5005     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5006 
  5007     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5008     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5009 
  5010   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5011 
  5012     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5013     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5014     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5015     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5016     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5017     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5018     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5019     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5020     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5021     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5022     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5023     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5024     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5025     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5026     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5027     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5028     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5029     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5030     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5031     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5032     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5033     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5034     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5035     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5036     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5037     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5038     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5039     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5040     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5041     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5042     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5043     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5044     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5045     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5046     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5047 
  5048     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5049     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5050     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5051     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5052     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5053     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5054     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5055     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5056     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5057     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5058     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5059     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5060     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5061     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5062     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5063     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5064     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5065 
  5066     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5067     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5068     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5069     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5070     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5071     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5072     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5073     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5074     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5075     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5076     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5077     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5078     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5079     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5080     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5081     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5082     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5083     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5084     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5085     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5086     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5087     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5088     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5089     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5090     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5091     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5092     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5093     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5094 
  5095     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5096     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5097     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5098     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5099     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5100     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5101 
  5102     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5103     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5104     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5105     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5106 
  5107     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5108     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5109 
  5110     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5111     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5112 
  5113 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5114 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5115 
  5116 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5117 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5118 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5119 "*.size".
  5120 
  5121 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5122 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5123 
  5124 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5125 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5126 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5127 
  5128 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5129 
  5130 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5131 machine words, with arithemtic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5132 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5133 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5134 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5135 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5136 numerals on all operations.
  5137 
  5138 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5139 
  5140 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5141 
  5142 * Code generator library theories:
  5143   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5144     languages.
  5145   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5146     languages.
  5147   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5148     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5149   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5150   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5151     denominator).
  5152   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5153     representable by rational numbers.
  5154   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5155     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5156     includes Code_Integer.
  5157   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5158     target-language built-in integers.
  5159   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5160     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5161 
  5162 * New package for inductive predicates
  5163 
  5164   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5165 
  5166     inductive
  5167       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5168       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5169     where
  5170       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5171     | ...
  5172 
  5173   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5174 
  5175     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5176 
  5177     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5178     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5179 
  5180     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5181     intros
  5182       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5183       ...
  5184 
  5185   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5186   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5187 
  5188     inductive_set
  5189       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5190       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5191     where
  5192       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5193     | ...
  5194 
  5195   or
  5196 
  5197     inductive_set
  5198       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5199       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5200       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5201     where
  5202       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5203     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5204     | ...
  5205 
  5206   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5207 
  5208   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5209   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5210 
  5211   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5212 
  5213   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5214     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5215     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5216     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5217     than before the actual inductive definition.
  5218 
  5219   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  5220     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5221     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5222     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5223     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5224     statements of the form
  5225 
  5226       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5227 
  5228     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5229     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5230 
  5231       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5232 
  5233   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  5234 
  5235       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  5236         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5237         ==> ... ==> P
  5238 
  5239     for predicates and
  5240 
  5241       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5242         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5243         ==> ... ==> P
  5244 
  5245     for sets rather than
  5246 
  5247       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5248         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  5249         ==> ... ==> P
  5250 
  5251     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  5252     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  5253     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  5254 
  5255   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  5256     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  5257     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  5258 
  5259 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  5260 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  5261 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  5262 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  5263 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  5264 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  5265 
  5266 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  5267 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  5268 
  5269 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  5270 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  5271 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  5272 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  5273 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  5274 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  5275 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  5276 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  5277 variable.
  5278 
  5279 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  5280 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  5281 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  5282 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5283   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  5284   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  5285 
  5286 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  5287 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  5288 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  5289 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  5290 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  5291 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  5292 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  5293 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  5294 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  5295 
  5296 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  5297 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  5298 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  5299 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  5300 rat, etc.
  5301 
  5302 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  5303 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  5304 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  5305 
  5306 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  5307 
  5308 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  5309 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  5310 
  5311 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  5312 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  5313 
  5314 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  5315 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  5316 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5317 
  5318 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  5319 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  5320 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5321 
  5322 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  5323 
  5324 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  5325 
  5326 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  5327 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  5328 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  5329 positive/negative (in inequations).
  5330 
  5331 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  5332 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  5333 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  5334 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5335 
  5336 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  5337 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  5338 algebraic operations.
  5339 
  5340 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  5341 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5342 
  5343 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  5344 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5345 
  5346 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  5347 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  5348 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  5349 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  5350 adapted.
  5351  
  5352 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  5353 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  5354 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  5355 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  5356 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  5357 
  5358 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  5359 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  5360 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  5361 
  5362 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  5363 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  5364 better use 'abbreviation'.
  5365 
  5366 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5367 
  5368 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  5369 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  5370 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  5371   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  5372       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  5373   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  5374   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  5375   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  5376 
  5377 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  5378 
  5379 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  5380 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  5381 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  5382 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  5383 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  5384 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  5385 
  5386 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  5387 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  5388 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  5389 
  5390 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  5391 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  5392 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  5393 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5394 
  5395 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  5396 
  5397 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  5398 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5399 
  5400 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  5401 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  5402 
  5403 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  5404 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  5405 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  5406 
  5407 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  5408 True/False.
  5409 
  5410 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  5411 
  5412 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  5413 
  5414 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  5415 ``rule'' method.
  5416 
  5417 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  5418 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  5419 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  5420 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  5421 
  5422 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  5423 zChaff is still supported as well.
  5424 
  5425 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  5426 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  5427 
  5428 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  5429 Library.
  5430 
  5431 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  5432 
  5433 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  5434 as greatest fixed-point.
  5435 
  5436 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  5437 association lists.
  5438 
  5439 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  5440 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  5441 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  5442 
  5443 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  5444 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  5445 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5446 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  5447 behavior.
  5448 
  5449 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  5450 
  5451 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  5452 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  5453 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  5454 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  5455 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  5456 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  5457 
  5458 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  5459 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  5460 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  5461 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  5462 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  5463 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  5464 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  5465 
  5466 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  5467 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  5468 
  5469 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  5470 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  5471 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  5472 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  5473 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  5474 
  5475 
  5476 *** HOL-Complex ***
  5477 
  5478 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  5479 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  5480 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  5481 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  5482 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5483 
  5484 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  5485 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  5486 and norm :: 'a => real.
  5487 
  5488 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  5489 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  5490 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5491 
  5492 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  5493 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  5494 
  5495 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  5496 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  5497 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  5498 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5499 
  5500   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5501   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5502   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5503   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  5504   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5505   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5506   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5507   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5508   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5509   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5510   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  5511   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5512   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  5513   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  5514   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  5515 
  5516 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  5517 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  5518 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  5519 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5520 
  5521   approx        <-- capprox
  5522   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  5523   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  5524   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  5525   monad         <-- cmonad
  5526   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  5527   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  5528   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  5529   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  5530 
  5531 
  5532 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5533 
  5534 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  5535 
  5536 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  5537 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5538 
  5539 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  5540 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5541 
  5542 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  5543 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  5544 of algebraic structures.
  5545 
  5546 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  5547 
  5548 
  5549 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5550 
  5551 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  5552 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  5553 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  5554 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  5555 
  5556 
  5557 *** ML ***
  5558 
  5559 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  5560 (even on SML/NJ).
  5561 
  5562 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  5563 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  5564 compile-time.  For example:
  5565 
  5566 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  5567 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  5568 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  5569 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  5570 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  5571 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  5572 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  5573 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  5574 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  5575 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  5576 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  5577 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  5578 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  5579 ML {* @{context} *}
  5580 ML {* @{theory} *}
  5581 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  5582 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  5583 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  5584 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  5585 ML {* @{claset} *}
  5586 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  5587 
  5588 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  5589 
  5590 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  5591 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  5592 
  5593 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  5594 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  5595 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  5596 
  5597 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  5598 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  5599 
  5600 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  5601 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  5602 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  5603 
  5604 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  5605 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  5606 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  5607 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  5608 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  5609 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  5610 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  5611 declarations and definitions.
  5612 
  5613 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  5614 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  5615 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  5616 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  5617 
  5618 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  5619 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  5620 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  5621 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5622 
  5623 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  5624 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  5625 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  5626 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  5627 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  5628 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  5629 
  5630 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  5631 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  5632 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  5633 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  5634 attributes, methods, etc.
  5635 
  5636 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  5637 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  5638 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  5639 fold_map combinators.
  5640 
  5641 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  5642 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  5643 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  5644 derivation.
  5645 
  5646 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  5647 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  5648 achieve the old behaviour.
  5649 
  5650 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  5651 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  5652 statements.
  5653 
  5654 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
  5655 enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
  5656 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
  5657 
  5658 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
  5659 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
  5660 some popular functions from term.ML:
  5661 
  5662   Term.variant		->  Name.variant
  5663   Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
  5664   Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
  5665 
  5666 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
  5667 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
  5668 
  5669 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
  5670 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
  5671 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
  5672 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
  5673 various freeze_thaw operations.
  5674 
  5675 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
  5676 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
  5677 Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
  5678 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
  5679 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
  5680 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
  5681 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
  5682 in a locale context).
  5683 
  5684 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
  5685 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
  5686 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
  5687 which are considered legacy and await removal.
  5688 
  5689 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
  5690 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
  5691 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
  5692 etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still
  5693 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using
  5694 a mere theory instead of a full context.
  5695 
  5696 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
  5697 ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
  5698 without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
  5699 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
  5700 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
  5701 
  5702   ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
  5703 
  5704 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
  5705 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
  5706 this:
  5707 
  5708   Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
  5709 
  5710 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
  5711 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
  5712 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
  5713 -- use plain ERROR instead.
  5714 
  5715 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
  5716 list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
  5717 
  5718 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to
  5719 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
  5720 
  5721 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
  5722 theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
  5723 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
  5724 batch mode.
  5725 
  5726 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax.  Renamed
  5727 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords.  Removed
  5728 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in
  5729 OuterSyntax.command etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5730 
  5731 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
  5732 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
  5733 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
  5734 simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
  5735 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
  5736 
  5737 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
  5738 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
  5739 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
  5740 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
  5741 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
  5742 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
  5743 
  5744 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
  5745 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
  5746 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
  5747 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5748 
  5749 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
  5750 "Trueprop" etc.
  5751 
  5752 
  5753 *** System ***
  5754 
  5755 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now
  5756 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER.  This simplifies use of multiple
  5757 Isabelle installations.
  5758 
  5759 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical
  5760 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source
  5761 code.
  5762 
  5763 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.
  5764 
  5765 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of
  5766 Poly/ML 5.1.  The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing
  5767 independent theories, according to the given theory header
  5768 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via
  5769 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A
  5770 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up
  5771 to 6 on a 8-core machine.  User-code needs to observe certain
  5772 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar
  5773 Implementation manual.
  5774 
  5775 
  5776 
  5777 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
  5778 ----------------------------------
  5779 
  5780 *** General ***
  5781 
  5782 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is
  5783 
  5784   theory <name>
  5785   imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>
  5786   uses <file1> ... <fileM>
  5787   begin
  5788 
  5789 where the 'uses' part is optional.  The previous syntax
  5790 
  5791   theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:
  5792 
  5793 will disappear in the next release.  Use isatool fixheaders to convert
  5794 existing theory files.  Note that there is no change in ancient
  5795 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.
  5796 
  5797 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via
  5798 relative and absolute paths.
  5799 
  5800 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a
  5801 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,
  5802 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select
  5803 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that
  5804 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified
  5805 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose
  5806 lhs match term.  Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects
  5807 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under
  5808 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f.  Example:
  5809 
  5810   C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."
  5811 
  5812 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",
  5813 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."
  5814 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).
  5815 
  5816 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of
  5817 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5818 
  5819 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that
  5820 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both
  5821 formal and informal parts).  Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof
  5822 General interface.  Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):
  5823 
  5824   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html
  5825   http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html
  5826 
  5827 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the
  5828 Classical Reasoner.  Typical big applications run around 2 times
  5829 faster.
  5830 
  5831 
  5832 *** Document preparation ***
  5833 
  5834 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output
  5835 of raw sources.  Only those symbols that do not require additional
  5836 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are
  5837 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim.  isatool display
  5838 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the
  5839 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).
  5840 
  5841 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,
  5842 notably folding and hiding.  Predefined tags include "theory" (for
  5843 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for
  5844 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and
  5845 "invisible" are unused by default.  Users may give explicit tag
  5846 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''.  The
  5847 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document
  5848 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of
  5849 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,
  5850 \isadroptag.
  5851 
  5852 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool
  5853 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them).  Typical
  5854 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present
  5855 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold
  5856 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit
  5857 these parts without any formal replacement text.  The Isabelle site
  5858 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as
  5859 specified above.
  5860 
  5861 * Several new antiquotations:
  5862 
  5863   @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;
  5864 
  5865   @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;
  5866 
  5867   @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the
  5868   argument is a known logical constant;
  5869 
  5870   @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or
  5871   theorem applying a "style" to it
  5872 
  5873   @{ML text}
  5874 
  5875 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of
  5876 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the
  5877 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'
  5878 to print the specified premise.  TermStyle.add_style provides an ML
  5879 interface for introducing further styles.  See also the "LaTeX Sugar"
  5880 document practical applications.  The ML antiquotation prints
  5881 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.
  5882 
  5883 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',
  5884 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which
  5885 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations.  For
  5886 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.
  5887 
  5888 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative
  5889 context interpreting the subsequent argument.  For example: @{thm
  5890 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.
  5891 
  5892 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within
  5893 a proof context.
  5894 
  5895 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a
  5896 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').
  5897 
  5898 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX
  5899 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).
  5900 
  5901 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option
  5902 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false
  5903 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.
  5904 
  5905 
  5906 *** Pure ***
  5907 
  5908 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command.  Now performs
  5909 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for
  5910 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also
  5911 isar-ref manual.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly
  5912 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'
  5913 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier.  If
  5914 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.
  5915 
  5916 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures.  First of all,
  5917 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted
  5918 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary
  5919 expressions.  Secondly, in a local context with structure
  5920 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default
  5921 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option
  5922 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures.  Typical
  5923 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.
  5924 
  5925 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and
  5926 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is
  5927 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.
  5928 
  5929 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend
  5930 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for
  5931 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.
  5932 
  5933 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an
  5934 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of
  5935 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle
  5936 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;
  5937 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5938 
  5939 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"
  5940 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.
  5941 INCOMPATIBILITY.  This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for
  5942 axclasses vs. locales.
  5943 
  5944 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes
  5945 instead of base 26 numbers.
  5946 
  5947 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question
  5948 marks in schematic variable names.
  5949 
  5950 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or
  5951 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name.  For example, the
  5952 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:
  5953 
  5954   lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"
  5955     by simp
  5956 
  5957 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).
  5958 
  5959 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix
  5960 annotations as "(00...)".
  5961 
  5962 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter
  5963 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.
  5964 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class
  5965 "logic" vs. "{}".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper
  5966 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'.  Some very
  5967 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption
  5968 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).
  5969 
  5970 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.
  5971 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'
  5972 rather than 'types'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic
  5973 specifications.
  5974 
  5975 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be
  5976 locally fixed variables as well.
  5977 
  5978 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting
  5979 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth
  5980 Limit.
  5981 
  5982 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current
  5983 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc
  5984 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier
  5985 recursively.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs
  5986 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead.  Moreover, the
  5987 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to
  5988 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.
  5989 
  5990 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!
  5991 or ==>.  More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of
  5992 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.
  5993 
  5994 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5995 
  5996 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived
  5997 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already.  Both
  5998 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.
  5999 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /
  6000 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;
  6001 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.
  6002 
  6003 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific
  6004 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.
  6005 
  6006 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference
  6007 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),
  6008 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');
  6009 
  6010 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.
  6011 
  6012 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive
  6013 theory development.
  6014 
  6015 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code
  6016 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures
  6017 for each theory).  INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'
  6018 must be quoted when used as identifiers.
  6019 
  6020 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using
  6021 the code generator.  INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be
  6022 quoted when used as identifier.
  6023 
  6024 
  6025 *** Locales ***
  6026 
  6027 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in
  6028 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3).  These generate
  6029 proof obligations from the expression specification.  After the
  6030 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added
  6031 to the theory, target locale or proof context.  The synopsis of the
  6032 commands is a follows:
  6033 
  6034   (1) interpretation expr inst
  6035   (2) interpretation target < expr
  6036   (3) interpret expr inst
  6037 
  6038 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter
  6039 instantiation of terms from the current context.  This is applied to
  6040 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.
  6041 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the
  6042 locale expression.  Interpretation is smart in that interpretations
  6043 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are
  6044 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate.  Use 'print_interps' to
  6045 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale.  For details,
  6046 see the Isar Reference manual.  Examples can be found in
  6047 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.
  6048 
  6049 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use
  6050 'interpret' instead.
  6051 
  6052 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to
  6053 parameters.
  6054 
  6055 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax
  6056 redeclaration.
  6057 
  6058 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.
  6059 
  6060 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /
  6061 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition
  6062 context, independently of the context of later invocations.  Moreover,
  6063 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied
  6064 to attribute arguments as expected.
  6065 
  6066 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of
  6067 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to
  6068 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.
  6069 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static
  6070 binding mechanism.  Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and
  6071 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further
  6072 intervention.  Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"
  6073 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both
  6074 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed
  6075 values to argument tokens explicitly.
  6076 
  6077 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal
  6078 statements with 'includes'.  INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different
  6079 theorem statement in rare situations.
  6080 
  6081 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements.  Use
  6082 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.
  6083 
  6084 
  6085 *** Provers ***
  6086 
  6087 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for
  6088 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is
  6089 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may
  6090 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is
  6091 still available as 'simplesubst'.
  6092 
  6093 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only
  6094 and quasi orders.
  6095 
  6096 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and
  6097 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.
  6098 
  6099 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth
  6100 limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.
  6101 
  6102 * Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup
  6103 is peformed already.  Object-logics merely need to finish their
  6104 initial simpset configuration as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6105 
  6106 
  6107 *** HOL ***
  6108 
  6109 * Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:
  6110 
  6111   syntax (epsilon)
  6112     "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a"    ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)
  6113 
  6114 The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX
  6115 and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.
  6116 Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>
  6117 becomes available as variable, constant etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  6118 
  6119 * "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".
  6120 Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc.  The x-symbol for >=
  6121 is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to
  6122 support corresponding Isar calculations.
  6123 
  6124 * "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"
  6125 instead of ":".
  6126 
  6127 * theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:
  6128 
  6129   Old       New
  6130   {..n(}    {..<n}
  6131   {)n..}    {n<..}
  6132   {m..n(}   {m..<n}
  6133   {)m..n}   {m<..n}
  6134   {)m..n(}  {m<..<n}
  6135 
  6136 The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next
  6137 release.  For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace
  6138 patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):
  6139 
  6140   {)\([^\.]*\)\.\.  ->  {\1<\.\.}
  6141   \.\.\([^(}]*\)(}  ->  \.\.<\1}
  6142 
  6143 * Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving
  6144 equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic
  6145 interface.
  6146 
  6147 * Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over
  6148 finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is
  6149 now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can
  6150 be a tuple pattern.
  6151 
  6152 Some new syntax forms are available:
  6153 
  6154   "\<Sum>x | P. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"
  6155   "\<Sum>x = a..b. e"   for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"
  6156   "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e"  for     "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"
  6157   "\<Sum>x < k. e"      for     "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"
  6158 
  6159 The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate
  6160 function "Summation", which has been discontinued.
  6161 
  6162 * theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case
  6163 is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case
  6164 (insert F x)'.
  6165 
  6166 * The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger
  6167 fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and
  6168 typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.
  6169 
  6170 * New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.
  6171 Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed.  See
  6172 HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.
  6173 
  6174 * Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the
  6175 induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by
  6176 induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather
  6177 than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  6178 in unstructured proof scripts.
  6179 
  6180 * Reworked implementation of records.  Improved scalability for
  6181 records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type
  6182 inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but
  6183 of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear
  6184 in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields.  The
  6185 top-level (users) view on records is preserved.  Potential
  6186 INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the
  6187 old record representation. The type generated for a record is called
  6188 <record_name>_ext_type.
  6189 
  6190 Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the
  6191 proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if
  6192 quick_and_dirty is enabled).  Definitions of large records can take
  6193 quite long.
  6194 
  6195 New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record
  6196 updates enabled by default.  Moreover, trivial updates are also
  6197 removed: r(|x := x r|) = r.  INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break
  6198 occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.
  6199 
  6200 * typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra
  6201 type-variables in the term.
  6202 
  6203 * Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains
  6204 involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics
  6205 provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6206 old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more
  6207 goals than previously.
  6208 
  6209 * Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is
  6210 present.  Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular
  6211 numbers and sets.  For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y
  6212 just like y <= x.
  6213 
  6214 * Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x".  If a is a free or
  6215 bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded.  Otherwise
  6216 first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If
  6217 possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",
  6218 otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g.  The simproc can be
  6219 enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc.  Potential
  6220 INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.
  6221 
  6222 * Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.
  6223 
  6224 * Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background
  6225 jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.
  6226 
  6227 * Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and
  6228 improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and
  6229 inequalities.
  6230 
  6231 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified
  6232 (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  6233 
  6234   abs_eq             now named abs_of_nonneg
  6235   abs_of_ge_0        now named abs_of_nonneg
  6236   abs_minus_eq       now named abs_of_nonpos
  6237   imp_abs_id         now named abs_of_nonneg
  6238   imp_abs_neg_id     now named abs_of_nonpos
  6239   mult_pos           now named mult_pos_pos
  6240   mult_pos_le        now named mult_nonneg_nonneg
  6241   mult_pos_neg_le    now named mult_nonneg_nonpos
  6242   mult_pos_neg2_le   now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2
  6243   mult_neg           now named mult_neg_neg
  6244   mult_neg_le        now named mult_nonpos_nonpos
  6245 
  6246 * The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:
  6247      
  6248      zero_le_square
  6249      not_square_less_zero 
  6250 
  6251   The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:
  6252   
  6253      realpow_zero_zero