NEWS
author haftmann
Tue Apr 16 19:50:19 2019 +0000 (5 months ago)
changeset 70174 40fdd74b75f3
parent 70168 e79bbf86a984
child 70175 85fb1a585f52
permissions -rw-r--r--
entry point for comprehensive word library
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history of user-relevant changes
     2 =================================================
     3 
     4 (Note: Isabelle/jEdit shows a tree-view of the NEWS file in Sidekick.)
     5 
     6 
     7 New in Isabelle2019 (June 2019)
     8 -------------------------------
     9 
    10 *** General ***
    11 
    12 * The font collection "Isabelle DejaVu" is systematically derived from
    13 the existing "DejaVu" fonts, with variants "Sans Mono", "Sans", "Serif"
    14 and styles "Normal", "Bold", "Italic/Oblique", "Bold-Italic/Oblique".
    15 The DejaVu base fonts are retricted to well-defined Unicode ranges and
    16 augmented by special Isabelle symbols, taken from the former
    17 "IsabelleText" font (which is no longer provided separately). The line
    18 metrics and overall rendering quality is closer to original DejaVu.
    19 INCOMPATIBILITY with display configuration expecting the old
    20 "IsabelleText" font: use e.g. "Isabelle DejaVu Sans Mono" instead.
    21 
    22 * The Isabelle fonts render "\<inverse>" properly as superscript "-1".
    23 
    24 * Old-style inner comments (* ... *) within the term language are no
    25 longer supported (legacy feature in Isabelle2018).
    26 
    27 * Old-style {* verbatim *} tokens are explicitly marked as legacy
    28 feature and will be removed soon. Use \<open>cartouche\<close> syntax instead, e.g.
    29 via "isabelle update_cartouches -t" (available since Isabelle2015).
    30 
    31 * Infix operators that begin or end with a "*" can now be paranthesized
    32 without additional spaces, eg "(*)" instead of "( * )". Minor
    33 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    34 
    35 * Mixfix annotations may use cartouches instead of old-style double
    36 quotes, e.g. (infixl \<open>+\<close> 60). The command-line tool "isabelle update -u
    37 mixfix_cartouches" allows to update existing theory sources
    38 automatically.
    39 
    40 * ML setup commands (e.g. 'setup', 'method_setup', 'parse_translation')
    41 need to provide a closed expression -- without trailing semicolon. Minor
    42 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    43 
    44 * Commands 'generate_file', 'export_generated_files', and
    45 'compile_generated_files' support a stateless (PIDE-conformant) model
    46 for generated sources and compiled binaries of other languages. The
    47 compilation process is managed in Isabelle/ML, and results exported to
    48 the session database for further use (e.g. with "isabelle export" or
    49 "isabelle build -e").
    50 
    51 
    52 *** Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE ***
    53 
    54 * Fonts for the text area, gutter, GUI elements etc. use the "Isabelle
    55 DejaVu" collection by default, which provides uniform rendering quality
    56 with the usual Isabelle symbols. Line spacing no longer needs to be
    57 adjusted: properties for the old IsabelleText font had "Global Options /
    58 Text Area / Extra vertical line spacing (in pixels): -2", it now
    59 defaults to 1, but 0 works as well.
    60 
    61 * The jEdit File Browser is more prominent in the default GUI layout of
    62 Isabelle/jEdit: various virtual file-systems provide access to Isabelle
    63 resources, notably via "favorites:" (or "Edit Favorites").
    64 
    65 * Further markup and rendering for "plain text" (e.g. informal prose)
    66 and "raw text" (e.g. verbatim sources). This improves the visual
    67 appearance of formal comments inside the term language, or in general
    68 for repeated alternation of formal and informal text.
    69 
    70 * Action "isabelle-export-browser" points the File Browser to the theory
    71 exports of the current buffer, based on the "isabelle-export:" virtual
    72 file-system. The directory view needs to be reloaded manually to follow
    73 ongoing document processing.
    74 
    75 * Action "isabelle-session-browser" points the File Browser to session
    76 information, based on the "isabelle-session:" virtual file-system. Its
    77 entries are structured according to chapter / session names, the open
    78 operation is redirected to the session ROOT file.
    79 
    80 * Support for user-defined file-formats via class isabelle.File_Format
    81 in Isabelle/Scala (e.g. see isabelle.Bibtex.File_Format), configured via
    82 the shell function "isabelle_file_format" in etc/settings (e.g. of an
    83 Isabelle component).
    84 
    85 * System option "jedit_text_overview" allows to disable the text
    86 overview column.
    87 
    88 * Command-line options "-s" and "-u" of "isabelle jedit" override the
    89 default for system option "system_heaps" that determines the heap
    90 storage directory for "isabelle build". Option "-n" is now clearly
    91 separated from option "-s".
    92 
    93 * The Isabelle/jEdit desktop application uses the same options as
    94 "isabelle jedit" for its internal "isabelle build" process: the implicit
    95 option "-o system_heaps" (or "-s") has been discontinued. This reduces
    96 the potential for surprise wrt. command-line tools.
    97 
    98 * The official download of the Isabelle/jEdit application already
    99 contains heap images for Isabelle/HOL within its main directory: thus
   100 the first encounter becomes faster and more robust (e.g. when run from a
   101 read-only directory).
   102 
   103 * Isabelle DejaVu fonts are available with hinting by default, which is
   104 relevant for low-resolution displays. This may be disabled via system
   105 option "isabelle_fonts_hinted = false" in
   106 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/preferences -- it occasionally yields better
   107 results.
   108 
   109 * OpenJDK 11 has quite different font rendering, with better glyph
   110 shapes and improved sub-pixel anti-aliasing. In some situations results
   111 might be *worse* than Oracle Java 8, though -- a proper HiDPI / UHD
   112 display is recommended.
   113 
   114 
   115 *** Document preparation ***
   116 
   117 * Document markers are formal comments of the form \<^marker>\<open>marker_body\<close> that
   118 are stripped from document output: the effect is to modify the semantic
   119 presentation context or to emit markup to the PIDE document. Some
   120 predefined markers are taken from the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative,
   121 e.g. \<^marker>\<open>contributor arg\<close> or \<^marker>\<open>license arg\<close> and produce PIDE markup that
   122 can retrieved from the document database.
   123 
   124 * Old-style command tags %name are re-interpreted as markers with
   125 proof-scope \<^marker>\<open>tag (proof) name\<close> and produce LaTeX environments as
   126 before. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: multiple markers are composed in
   127 canonical order, resulting in a reversed list of tags in the
   128 presentation context.
   129 
   130 * Marker \<^marker>\<open>tag name\<close> does not apply to the proof of a top-level goal
   131 statement by default (e.g. 'theorem', 'lemma'). This is a subtle change
   132 of semantics wrt. old-style %name.
   133 
   134 * In Isabelle/jEdit, the string "\tag" may be completed to a "\<^marker>\<open>tag \<close>"
   135 template.
   136 
   137 * Document antiquotation option "cartouche" indicates if the output
   138 should be delimited as cartouche; this takes precedence over the
   139 analogous option "quotes".
   140 
   141 * Many document antiquotations are internally categorized as "embedded"
   142 and expect one cartouche argument, which is typically used with the
   143 \<^control>\<open>cartouche\<close> notation (e.g. \<^term>\<open>\<lambda>x y. x\<close>). The cartouche
   144 delimiters are stripped in output of the source (antiquotation option
   145 "source"), but it is possible to enforce delimiters via option
   146 "source_cartouche", e.g. @{term [source_cartouche] \<open>\<lambda>x y. x\<close>}.
   147 
   148 
   149 *** Isar ***
   150 
   151 * Implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc. have been discontinued
   152 (legacy feature since Isabelle2016).
   153 
   154 * More robust treatment of structural errors: begin/end blocks take
   155 precedence over goal/proof. This is particularly relevant for the
   156 headless PIDE session and server.
   157 
   158 * Command keywords of kind thy_decl / thy_goal may be more specifically
   159 fit into the traditional document model of "definition-statement-proof"
   160 via thy_defn / thy_stmt / thy_goal_defn / thy_goal_stmt.
   161 
   162 
   163 *** HOL ***
   164 
   165 * Command 'export_code' produces output as logical files within the
   166 theory context, as well as formal session exports that can be
   167 materialized via command-line tools "isabelle export" or "isabelle build
   168 -e" (with 'export_files' in the session ROOT). Isabelle/jEdit also
   169 provides a virtual file-system "isabelle-export:" that can be explored
   170 in the regular file-browser. A 'file_prefix' argument allows to specify
   171 an explicit name prefix for the target file (SML, OCaml, Scala) or
   172 directory (Haskell); the default is "export" with a consecutive number
   173 within each theory.
   174 
   175 * Command 'export_code': the 'file' argument is now legacy and will be
   176 removed soon: writing to the physical file-system is not well-defined in
   177 a reactive/parallel application like Isabelle. The empty 'file' argument
   178 has been discontinued already: it is superseded by the file-browser in
   179 Isabelle/jEdit on "isabelle-export:". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   180 
   181 * Command 'code_reflect' no longer supports the 'file' argument: it has
   182 been superseded by 'file_prefix' for stateless file management as in
   183 'export_code'. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   184 
   185 * Code generation for OCaml: proper strings are used for literals.
   186 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   187 
   188 * Code generation for OCaml: Zarith supersedes Nums as library for
   189 proper integer arithmetic. The library is located via standard
   190 invocations of "ocamlfind" (via ISABELLE_OCAMLFIND settings variable).
   191 The environment provided by "isabelle ocaml_setup" already contains this
   192 tool and the required packages. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   193 
   194 * Code generation for Haskell: code includes for Haskell must contain
   195 proper module frame, nothing is added magically any longer.
   196 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   197 
   198 * Code generation: slightly more conventional syntax for 'code_stmts'
   199 antiquotation. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   200 
   201 * Theory List: the precedence of the list_update operator has changed:
   202 "f a [n := x]" now needs to be written "(f a)[n := x]".
   203 
   204 * The functions \<Union>, \<Inter>, \<Squnion>, \<Sqinter> (not the corresponding binding operators)
   205 now have the same precedence as any other prefix function symbol. Minor
   206 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   207 
   208 * Simplified syntax setup for big operators under image. In rare
   209 situations, type conversions are not inserted implicitly any longer
   210 and need to be given explicitly. Auxiliary abbreviations INFIMUM,
   211 SUPREMUM, UNION, INTER should now rarely occur in output and are just
   212 retained as migration auxiliary. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   213 
   214 * The simplifier uses image_cong_simp as a congruence rule. The historic
   215 and not really well-formed congruence rules INF_cong*, SUP_cong*, are
   216 not used by default any longer. INCOMPATIBILITY; consider using declare
   217 image_cong_simp [cong del] in extreme situations.
   218 
   219 * INF_image and SUP_image are no default simp rules any longer.
   220 INCOMPATIBILITY, prefer image_comp as simp rule if needed.
   221 
   222 * Strong congruence rules (with =simp=> in the premises) for constant f
   223 are now uniformly called f_cong_simp, in accordance with congruence
   224 rules produced for mappers by the datatype package. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   225 
   226 * Retired lemma card_Union_image; use the simpler card_UN_disjoint
   227 instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   228 
   229 * Facts sum_mset.commute and prod_mset.commute have been renamed to
   230 sum_mset.swap and prod_mset.swap, similarly to sum.swap and prod.swap.
   231 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   232 
   233 * ML structure Inductive: slightly more conventional naming schema.
   234 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   235 
   236 * ML: Various _global variants of specification tools have been removed.
   237 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, prefer combinators
   238 Named_Target.theory_map[_result] to lift specifications to the global
   239 theory level.
   240 
   241 * Theory HOL-Library.Simps_Case_Conv: 'case_of_simps' now supports
   242 overlapping and non-exhaustive patterns and handles arbitrarily nested
   243 patterns. It uses on the same algorithm as HOL-Library.Code_Lazy, which
   244 assumes sequential left-to-right pattern matching. The generated
   245 equation no longer tuples the arguments on the right-hand side.
   246 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   247 
   248 * Theory HOL-Library.Multiset: the <Union># operator now has the same
   249 precedence as any other prefix function symbol.
   250 
   251 * Theory HOL-Library.Cardinal_Notations has been discontinued in favor
   252 of the bundle cardinal_syntax (available in theory Main). Minor
   253 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   254 
   255 * Session HOL-Library and HOL-Number_Theory: Exponentiation by squaring,
   256 used for computing powers in class "monoid_mult" and modular
   257 exponentiation.
   258 
   259 * Session HOL-Computational_Algebra: Formal Laurent series and overhaul
   260 of Formal power series.
   261 
   262 * Session HOL-Number_Theory: More material on residue rings in
   263 Carmichael's function, primitive roots, more properties for "ord".
   264 
   265 * Session HOL-Analysis: Better organization and much more material
   266 at the level of abstract topological spaces.
   267 
   268 * Session HOL-Algebra: Free abelian groups, etc., ported from HOL Light;
   269 proofs towards algebraic closure by de Vilhena and Baillon.
   270 
   271 * Session HOL-Homology has been added. It is a port of HOL Light's
   272 homology library, with new proofs of "invariance of domain" and related
   273 results.
   274 
   275 * Session HOL-SPARK: .prv files are no longer written to the
   276 file-system, but exported to the session database. Results may be
   277 retrieved via "isabelle build -e HOL-SPARK-Examples" on the
   278 command-line.
   279 
   280 * Sledgehammer:
   281   - The URL for SystemOnTPTP, which is used by remote provers, has been
   282     updated.
   283   - The machine-learning-based filter MaSh has been optimized to take
   284     less time (in most cases).
   285 
   286 * SMT: reconstruction is now possible using the SMT solver veriT.
   287 
   288 * Session HOL-Word:
   289   * New theory More_Word as comprehensive entrance point.
   290   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   291 
   292 
   293 *** ML ***
   294 
   295 * Command 'generate_file' allows to produce sources for other languages,
   296 with antiquotations in the Isabelle context (only the control-cartouche
   297 form). The default "cartouche" antiquotation evaluates an ML expression
   298 of type string and inlines the result as a string literal of the target
   299 language. For example, this works for Haskell as follows:
   300 
   301   generate_file "Pure.hs" = \<open>
   302   module Isabelle.Pure where
   303     allConst, impConst, eqConst :: String
   304     allConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.all\<close>\<close>
   305     impConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.imp\<close>\<close>
   306     eqConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.eq\<close>\<close>
   307   \<close>
   308 
   309 See also commands 'export_generated_files' and 'compile_generated_files'
   310 to use the results.
   311 
   312 * ML evaluation (notably via commands 'ML' and 'ML_file') is subject to
   313 option ML_environment to select a named environment, such as "Isabelle"
   314 for Isabelle/ML, or "SML" for official Standard ML. It is also possible
   315 to move toplevel bindings between environments, using a notation with
   316 ">" as separator. For example:
   317 
   318   declare [[ML_environment = "Isabelle>SML"]]
   319   ML \<open>val println = writeln\<close>
   320 
   321   declare [[ML_environment = "SML"]]
   322   ML \<open>println "test"\<close>
   323 
   324   declare [[ML_environment = "Isabelle"]]
   325   ML \<open>println\<close>  \<comment> \<open>not present\<close>
   326 
   327 The Isabelle/ML function ML_Env.setup defines new ML environments. This
   328 is useful to incorporate big SML projects in an isolated name space, and
   329 potentially with variations on ML syntax (existing ML_Env.SML_operations
   330 observes the official standard).
   331 
   332 * ML antiquotation @{master_dir} refers to the master directory of the
   333 underlying theory, i.e. the directory of the theory file.
   334 
   335 * ML antiquotation @{verbatim} inlines its argument as string literal,
   336 preserving newlines literally. The short form \<^verbatim>\<open>abc\<close> is particularly
   337 useful.
   338 
   339 * Local_Theory.reset is no longer available in user space. Regular
   340 definitional packages should use balanced blocks of
   341 Local_Theory.open_target versus Local_Theory.close_target instead, or
   342 the Local_Theory.subtarget(_result) combinator. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   343 
   344 * Original PolyML.pointerEq is retained as a convenience for tools that
   345 don't use Isabelle/ML (where this is called "pointer_eq").
   346 
   347 
   348 *** System ***
   349 
   350 * Update to OpenJDK 11: the current long-term support version of Java.
   351 
   352 * Update to Poly/ML 5.8 allows to use the native x86_64 platform without
   353 the full overhead of 64-bit values everywhere. This special x86_64_32
   354 mode provides up to 16GB ML heap, while program code and stacks are
   355 allocated elsewhere. Thus approx. 5 times more memory is available for
   356 applications compared to old x86 mode (which is no longer used by
   357 Isabelle). The switch to the x86_64 CPU architecture also avoids
   358 compatibility problems with Linux and macOS, where 32-bit applications
   359 are gradually phased out.
   360 
   361 * System option "checkpoint" has been discontinued: obsolete thanks to
   362 improved memory management in Poly/ML.
   363 
   364 * System option "system_heaps" determines where to store the session
   365 image of "isabelle build" (and other tools using that internally).
   366 Former option "-s" is superseded by option "-o system_heaps".
   367 INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line syntax.
   368 
   369 * Session directory $ISABELLE_HOME/src/Tools/Haskell provides some
   370 source modules for Isabelle tools implemented in Haskell, notably for
   371 Isabelle/PIDE.
   372 
   373 * The command-line tool "isabelle build -e" retrieves theory exports
   374 from the session build database, using 'export_files' in session ROOT
   375 entries.
   376 
   377 * The command-line tool "isabelle update" uses Isabelle/PIDE in
   378 batch-mode to update theory sources based on semantic markup produced in
   379 Isabelle/ML. Actual updates depend on system options that may be enabled
   380 via "-u OPT" (for "update_OPT"), see also $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/options
   381 section "Theory update". Theory sessions are specified as in "isabelle
   382 dump".
   383 
   384 * The command-line tool "isabelle update -u control_cartouches" changes
   385 antiquotations into control-symbol format (where possible): @{NAME}
   386 becomes \<^NAME> and @{NAME ARG} becomes \<^NAME>\<open>ARG\<close>.
   387 
   388 * Support for Isabelle command-line tools defined in Isabelle/Scala.
   389 Instances of class Isabelle_Scala_Tools may be configured via the shell
   390 function "isabelle_scala_tools" in etc/settings (e.g. of an Isabelle
   391 component).
   392 
   393 * Isabelle Server command "use_theories" supports "nodes_status_delay"
   394 for continuous output of node status information. The time interval is
   395 specified in seconds; a negative value means it is disabled (default).
   396 
   397 * Isabelle Server command "use_theories" terminates more robustly in the
   398 presence of structurally broken sources: full consolidation of theories
   399 is no longer required.
   400 
   401 * OCaml tools and libraries are now accesed via ISABELLE_OCAMLFIND,
   402 which needs to point to a suitable version of "ocamlfind" (e.g. via
   403 OPAM, see below). INCOMPATIBILITY: settings variables ISABELLE_OCAML and
   404 ISABELLE_OCAMLC are no longer supported.
   405 
   406 * Support for managed installations of Glasgow Haskell Compiler and
   407 OCaml via the following command-line tools:
   408 
   409   isabelle ghc_setup
   410   isabelle ghc_stack
   411 
   412   isabelle ocaml_setup
   413   isabelle ocaml_opam
   414 
   415 The global installation state is determined by the following settings
   416 (and corresponding directory contents):
   417 
   418   ISABELLE_STACK_ROOT
   419   ISABELLE_STACK_RESOLVER
   420   ISABELLE_GHC_VERSION
   421 
   422   ISABELLE_OPAM_ROOT
   423   ISABELLE_OCAML_VERSION
   424 
   425 After setup, the following Isabelle settings are automatically
   426 redirected (overriding existing user settings):
   427 
   428   ISABELLE_GHC
   429 
   430   ISABELLE_OCAMLFIND
   431 
   432 The old meaning of these settings as locally installed executables may
   433 be recovered by purging the directories ISABELLE_STACK_ROOT /
   434 ISABELLE_OPAM_ROOT, or by resetting these variables in
   435 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings.
   436 
   437 
   438 
   439 New in Isabelle2018 (August 2018)
   440 ---------------------------------
   441 
   442 *** General ***
   443 
   444 * Session-qualified theory names are mandatory: it is no longer possible
   445 to refer to unqualified theories from the parent session.
   446 INCOMPATIBILITY for old developments that have not been updated to
   447 Isabelle2017 yet (using the "isabelle imports" tool).
   448 
   449 * Only the most fundamental theory names are global, usually the entry
   450 points to major logic sessions: Pure, Main, Complex_Main, HOLCF, IFOL,
   451 FOL, ZF, ZFC etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified names for
   452 formerly global "HOL-Probability.Probability" and "HOL-SPARK.SPARK".
   453 
   454 * Global facts need to be closed: no free variables and no hypotheses.
   455 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   456 
   457 * Facts stemming from locale interpretation are subject to lazy
   458 evaluation for improved performance. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY: errors
   459 stemming from interpretation morphisms might be deferred and thus
   460 difficult to locate; enable system option "strict_facts" temporarily to
   461 avoid this.
   462 
   463 * Marginal comments need to be written exclusively in the new-style form
   464 "\<comment> \<open>text\<close>", old ASCII variants like "-- {* ... *}" are no longer
   465 supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the command-line tool "isabelle
   466 update_comments" to update existing theory files.
   467 
   468 * Old-style inner comments (* ... *) within the term language are legacy
   469 and will be discontinued soon: use formal comments "\<comment> \<open>...\<close>" or "\<^cancel>\<open>...\<close>"
   470 instead.
   471 
   472 * The "op <infix-op>" syntax for infix operators has been replaced by
   473 "(<infix-op>)". If <infix-op> begins or ends with a "*", there needs to
   474 be a space between the "*" and the corresponding parenthesis.
   475 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the command-line tool "isabelle update_op" to
   476 convert theory and ML files to the new syntax. Because it is based on
   477 regular expression matching, the result may need a bit of manual
   478 postprocessing. Invoking "isabelle update_op" converts all files in the
   479 current directory (recursively). In case you want to exclude conversion
   480 of ML files (because the tool frequently also converts ML's "op"
   481 syntax), use option "-m".
   482 
   483 * Theory header 'abbrevs' specifications need to be separated by 'and'.
   484 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   485 
   486 * Command 'external_file' declares the formal dependency on the given
   487 file name, such that the Isabelle build process knows about it, but
   488 without specific Prover IDE management.
   489 
   490 * Session ROOT entries no longer allow specification of 'files'. Rare
   491 INCOMPATIBILITY, use command 'external_file' within a proper theory
   492 context.
   493 
   494 * Session root directories may be specified multiple times: each
   495 accessible ROOT file is processed only once. This facilitates
   496 specification of $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/ROOTS or command-line options like
   497 -d or -D for "isabelle build" and "isabelle jedit". Example:
   498 
   499   isabelle build -D '~~/src/ZF'
   500 
   501 * The command 'display_drafts' has been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   502 use action "isabelle.draft" (or "print") in Isabelle/jEdit instead.
   503 
   504 * In HTML output, the Isabelle symbol "\<hyphen>" is rendered as explicit
   505 Unicode hyphen U+2010, to avoid unclear meaning of the old "soft hyphen"
   506 U+00AD. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, e.g. copy-paste of historic Isabelle HTML
   507 output.
   508 
   509 
   510 *** Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE ***
   511 
   512 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" provides more flexible options
   513 for session management:
   514 
   515   - option -R builds an auxiliary logic image with all theories from
   516     other sessions that are not already present in its parent
   517 
   518   - option -S is like -R, with a focus on the selected session and its
   519     descendants (this reduces startup time for big projects like AFP)
   520 
   521   - option -A specifies an alternative ancestor session for options -R
   522     and -S
   523 
   524   - option -i includes additional sessions into the name-space of
   525     theories
   526 
   527   Examples:
   528     isabelle jedit -R HOL-Number_Theory
   529     isabelle jedit -R HOL-Number_Theory -A HOL
   530     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL
   531     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL-Analysis
   532     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL-Analysis -i CryptHOL
   533 
   534 * PIDE markup for session ROOT files: allows to complete session names,
   535 follow links to theories and document files etc.
   536 
   537 * Completion supports theory header imports, using theory base name.
   538 E.g. "Prob" may be completed to "HOL-Probability.Probability".
   539 
   540 * Named control symbols (without special Unicode rendering) are shown as
   541 bold-italic keyword. This is particularly useful for the short form of
   542 antiquotations with control symbol: \<^name>\<open>argument\<close>. The action
   543 "isabelle.antiquoted_cartouche" turns an antiquotation with 0 or 1
   544 arguments into this format.
   545 
   546 * Completion provides templates for named symbols with arguments,
   547 e.g. "\<comment> \<open>ARGUMENT\<close>" or "\<^emph>\<open>ARGUMENT\<close>".
   548 
   549 * Slightly more parallel checking, notably for high priority print
   550 functions (e.g. State output).
   551 
   552 * The view title is set dynamically, according to the Isabelle
   553 distribution and the logic session name. The user can override this via
   554 set-view-title (stored persistently in $JEDIT_SETTINGS/perspective.xml).
   555 
   556 * System options "spell_checker_include" and "spell_checker_exclude"
   557 supersede former "spell_checker_elements" to determine regions of text
   558 that are subject to spell-checking. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   559 
   560 * Action "isabelle.preview" is able to present more file formats,
   561 notably bibtex database files and ML files.
   562 
   563 * Action "isabelle.draft" is similar to "isabelle.preview", but shows a
   564 plain-text document draft. Both are available via the menu "Plugins /
   565 Isabelle".
   566 
   567 * When loading text files, the Isabelle symbols encoding UTF-8-Isabelle
   568 is only used if there is no conflict with existing Unicode sequences in
   569 the file. Otherwise, the fallback encoding is plain UTF-8 and Isabelle
   570 symbols remain in literal \<symbol> form. This avoids accidental loss of
   571 Unicode content when saving the file.
   572 
   573 * Bibtex database files (.bib) are semantically checked.
   574 
   575 * Update to jedit-5.5.0, the latest release.
   576 
   577 
   578 *** Isabelle/VSCode Prover IDE ***
   579 
   580 * HTML preview of theories and other file-formats similar to
   581 Isabelle/jEdit.
   582 
   583 * Command-line tool "isabelle vscode_server" accepts the same options
   584 -A, -R, -S, -i for session selection as "isabelle jedit". This is
   585 relevant for isabelle.args configuration settings in VSCode. The former
   586 option -A (explore all known session files) has been discontinued: it is
   587 enabled by default, unless option -S is used to focus on a particular
   588 spot in the session structure. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   589 
   590 
   591 *** Document preparation ***
   592 
   593 * Formal comments work uniformly in outer syntax, inner syntax (term
   594 language), Isabelle/ML and some other embedded languages of Isabelle.
   595 See also "Document comments" in the isar-ref manual. The following forms
   596 are supported:
   597 
   598   - marginal text comment: \<comment> \<open>\<dots>\<close>
   599   - canceled source: \<^cancel>\<open>\<dots>\<close>
   600   - raw LaTeX: \<^latex>\<open>\<dots>\<close>
   601 
   602 * Outside of the inner theory body, the default presentation context is
   603 theory Pure. Thus elementary antiquotations may be used in markup
   604 commands (e.g. 'chapter', 'section', 'text') and formal comments.
   605 
   606 * System option "document_tags" specifies alternative command tags. This
   607 is occasionally useful to control the global visibility of commands via
   608 session options (e.g. in ROOT).
   609 
   610 * Document markup commands ('section', 'text' etc.) are implicitly
   611 tagged as "document" and visible by default. This avoids the application
   612 of option "document_tags" to these commands.
   613 
   614 * Isabelle names are mangled into LaTeX macro names to allow the full
   615 identifier syntax with underscore, prime, digits. This is relevant for
   616 antiquotations in control symbol notation, e.g. \<^const_name> becomes
   617 \isactrlconstUNDERSCOREname.
   618 
   619 * Document preparation with skip_proofs option now preserves the content
   620 more accurately: only terminal proof steps ('by' etc.) are skipped.
   621 
   622 * Document antiquotation @{theory name} requires the long
   623 session-qualified theory name: this is what users reading the text
   624 normally need to import.
   625 
   626 * Document antiquotation @{session name} checks and prints the given
   627 session name verbatim.
   628 
   629 * Document antiquotation @{cite} now checks the given Bibtex entries
   630 against the Bibtex database files -- only in batch-mode session builds.
   631 
   632 * Command-line tool "isabelle document" has been re-implemented in
   633 Isabelle/Scala, with simplified arguments and explicit errors from the
   634 latex and bibtex process. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   635 
   636 * Session ROOT entry: empty 'document_files' means there is no document
   637 for this session. There is no need to specify options [document = false]
   638 anymore.
   639 
   640 
   641 *** Isar ***
   642 
   643 * Command 'interpret' no longer exposes resulting theorems as literal
   644 facts, notably for the \<open>prop\<close> notation or the "fact" proof method. This
   645 improves modularity of proofs and scalability of locale interpretation.
   646 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, need to refer to explicitly named facts instead
   647 (e.g. use 'find_theorems' or 'try' to figure this out).
   648 
   649 * The old 'def' command has been discontinued (legacy since
   650 Isbelle2016-1). INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'define' instead -- usually with
   651 object-logic equality or equivalence.
   652 
   653 
   654 *** Pure ***
   655 
   656 * The inner syntax category "sort" now includes notation "_" for the
   657 dummy sort: it is effectively ignored in type-inference.
   658 
   659 * Rewrites clauses (keyword 'rewrites') were moved into the locale
   660 expression syntax, where they are part of locale instances. In
   661 interpretation commands rewrites clauses now need to occur before 'for'
   662 and 'defines'. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY; definitions immediately subject to
   663 rewriting may need to be pulled up into the surrounding theory.
   664 
   665 * For 'rewrites' clauses, if activating a locale instance fails, fall
   666 back to reading the clause first. This helps avoid qualification of
   667 locale instances where the qualifier's sole purpose is avoiding
   668 duplicate constant declarations.
   669 
   670 * Proof method "simp" now supports a new modifier "flip:" followed by a
   671 list of theorems. Each of these theorems is removed from the simpset
   672 (without warning if it is not there) and the symmetric version of the
   673 theorem (i.e. lhs and rhs exchanged) is added to the simpset. For "auto"
   674 and friends the modifier is "simp flip:".
   675 
   676 
   677 *** HOL ***
   678 
   679 * Sledgehammer: bundled version of "vampire" (for non-commercial users)
   680 helps to avoid fragility of "remote_vampire" service.
   681 
   682 * Clarified relationship of characters, strings and code generation:
   683 
   684   - Type "char" is now a proper datatype of 8-bit values.
   685 
   686   - Conversions "nat_of_char" and "char_of_nat" are gone; use more
   687     general conversions "of_char" and "char_of" with suitable type
   688     constraints instead.
   689 
   690   - The zero character is just written "CHR 0x00", not "0" any longer.
   691 
   692   - Type "String.literal" (for code generation) is now isomorphic to
   693     lists of 7-bit (ASCII) values; concrete values can be written as
   694     "STR ''...''" for sequences of printable characters and "STR 0x..."
   695     for one single ASCII code point given as hexadecimal numeral.
   696 
   697   - Type "String.literal" supports concatenation "... + ..." for all
   698     standard target languages.
   699 
   700   - Theory HOL-Library.Code_Char is gone; study the explanations
   701     concerning "String.literal" in the tutorial on code generation to
   702     get an idea how target-language string literals can be converted to
   703     HOL string values and vice versa.
   704 
   705   - Session Imperative-HOL: operation "raise" directly takes a value of
   706     type "String.literal" as argument, not type "string".
   707 
   708 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   709 
   710 * Code generation: Code generation takes an explicit option
   711 "case_insensitive" to accomodate case-insensitive file systems.
   712 
   713 * Abstract bit operations as part of Main: push_bit, take_bit, drop_bit.
   714 
   715 * New, more general, axiomatization of complete_distrib_lattice. The
   716 former axioms:
   717 
   718   "sup x (Inf X) = Inf (sup x ` X)" and "inf x (Sup X) = Sup (inf x ` X)"
   719 
   720 are replaced by:
   721 
   722   "Inf (Sup ` A) <= Sup (Inf ` {f ` A | f . (! Y \<in> A . f Y \<in> Y)})"
   723 
   724 The instantiations of sets and functions as complete_distrib_lattice are
   725 moved to Hilbert_Choice.thy because their proofs need the Hilbert choice
   726 operator. The dual of this property is also proved in theory
   727 HOL.Hilbert_Choice.
   728 
   729 * New syntax for the minimum/maximum of a function over a finite set:
   730 MIN x\<in>A. B and even MIN x. B (only useful for finite types), also MAX.
   731 
   732 * Clarifed theorem names:
   733 
   734   Min.antimono ~> Min.subset_imp
   735   Max.antimono ~> Max.subset_imp
   736 
   737 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   738 
   739 * SMT module:
   740 
   741   - The 'smt_oracle' option is now necessary when using the 'smt' method
   742     with a solver other than Z3. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   743 
   744   - The encoding to first-order logic is now more complete in the
   745     presence of higher-order quantifiers. An 'smt_explicit_application'
   746     option has been added to control this. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   747 
   748 * Facts sum.commute(_restrict) and prod.commute(_restrict) renamed to
   749 sum.swap(_restrict) and prod.swap(_restrict), to avoid name clashes on
   750 interpretation of abstract locales. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   751 
   752 * Predicate coprime is now a real definition, not a mere abbreviation.
   753 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   754 
   755 * Predicate pairwise_coprime abolished, use "pairwise coprime" instead.
   756 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   757 
   758 * The relator rel_filter on filters has been strengthened to its
   759 canonical categorical definition with better properties.
   760 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   761 
   762 * Generalized linear algebra involving linear, span, dependent, dim
   763 from type class real_vector to locales module and vector_space.
   764 Renamed:
   765 
   766   span_inc ~> span_superset
   767   span_superset ~> span_base
   768   span_eq ~> span_eq_iff
   769 
   770 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   771 
   772 * Class linordered_semiring_1 covers zero_less_one also, ruling out
   773 pathologic instances. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   774 
   775 * Theory HOL.List: functions "sorted_wrt" and "sorted" now compare every
   776 element in a list to all following elements, not just the next one.
   777 
   778 * Theory HOL.List syntax:
   779 
   780   - filter-syntax "[x <- xs. P]" is no longer output syntax, but only
   781     input syntax
   782 
   783   - list comprehension syntax now supports tuple patterns in "pat <- xs"
   784 
   785 * Theory Map: "empty" must now be qualified as "Map.empty".
   786 
   787 * Removed nat-int transfer machinery. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   788 
   789 * Fact mod_mult_self4 (on nat) renamed to Suc_mod_mult_self3, to avoid
   790 clash with fact mod_mult_self4 (on more generic semirings).
   791 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   792 
   793 * Eliminated some theorem aliasses:
   794   even_times_iff ~> even_mult_iff
   795   mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_nat ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   796   even_of_nat ~> even_int_iff
   797 
   798 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   799 
   800 * Eliminated some theorem duplicate variations:
   801 
   802   - dvd_eq_mod_eq_0_numeral can be replaced by dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
   803   - mod_Suc_eq_Suc_mod can be replaced by mod_Suc
   804   - mod_Suc_eq_Suc_mod [symmetrict] can be replaced by mod_simps
   805   - mod_eq_0_iff can be replaced by mod_eq_0_iff_dvd and dvd_def
   806   - the witness of mod_eqD can be given directly as "_ div _"
   807 
   808 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   809 
   810 * Classical setup: Assumption "m mod d = 0" (for m d :: nat) is no
   811 longer aggresively destroyed to "\<exists>q. m = d * q". INCOMPATIBILITY, adding
   812 "elim!: dvd" to classical proof methods in most situations restores
   813 broken proofs.
   814 
   815 * Theory HOL-Library.Conditional_Parametricity provides command
   816 'parametric_constant' for proving parametricity of non-recursive
   817 definitions. For constants that are not fully parametric the command
   818 will infer conditions on relations (e.g., bi_unique, bi_total, or type
   819 class conditions such as "respects 0") sufficient for parametricity. See
   820 theory HOL-ex.Conditional_Parametricity_Examples for some examples.
   821 
   822 * Theory HOL-Library.Code_Lazy provides a new preprocessor for the code
   823 generator to generate code for algebraic types with lazy evaluation
   824 semantics even in call-by-value target languages. See the theories
   825 HOL-ex.Code_Lazy_Demo and HOL-Codegenerator_Test.Code_Lazy_Test for some
   826 examples.
   827 
   828 * Theory HOL-Library.Landau_Symbols has been moved here from AFP.
   829 
   830 * Theory HOL-Library.Old_Datatype no longer provides the legacy command
   831 'old_datatype'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   832 
   833 * Theory HOL-Computational_Algebra.Polynomial_Factorial does not provide
   834 instances of rat, real, complex as factorial rings etc. Import
   835 HOL-Computational_Algebra.Field_as_Ring explicitly in case of need.
   836 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   837 
   838 * Session HOL-Algebra: renamed (^) to [^] to avoid conflict with new
   839 infix/prefix notation.
   840 
   841 * Session HOL-Algebra: revamped with much new material. The set of
   842 isomorphisms between two groups is now denoted iso rather than iso_set.
   843 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   844 
   845 * Session HOL-Analysis: the Arg function now respects the same interval
   846 as Ln, namely (-pi,pi]; the old Arg function has been renamed Arg2pi.
   847 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   848 
   849 * Session HOL-Analysis: the functions zorder, zer_poly, porder and
   850 pol_poly have been redefined. All related lemmas have been reworked.
   851 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   852 
   853 * Session HOL-Analysis: infinite products, Moebius functions, the
   854 Riemann mapping theorem, the Vitali covering theorem,
   855 change-of-variables results for integration and measures.
   856 
   857 * Session HOL-Real_Asymp: proof method "real_asymp" proves asymptotics
   858 or real-valued functions (limits, "Big-O", etc.) automatically.
   859 See also ~~/src/HOL/Real_Asymp/Manual for some documentation.
   860 
   861 * Session HOL-Types_To_Sets: more tool support (unoverload_type combines
   862 internalize_sorts and unoverload) and larger experimental application
   863 (type based linear algebra transferred to linear algebra on subspaces).
   864 
   865 
   866 *** ML ***
   867 
   868 * Operation Export.export emits theory exports (arbitrary blobs), which
   869 are stored persistently in the session build database.
   870 
   871 * Command 'ML_export' exports ML toplevel bindings to the global
   872 bootstrap environment of the ML process. This allows ML evaluation
   873 without a formal theory context, e.g. in command-line tools like
   874 "isabelle process".
   875 
   876 
   877 *** System ***
   878 
   879 * Mac OS X 10.10 Yosemite is now the baseline version; Mavericks is no
   880 longer supported.
   881 
   882 * Linux and Windows/Cygwin is for x86_64 only, old 32bit platform
   883 support has been discontinued.
   884 
   885 * Java runtime is for x86_64 only. Corresponding Isabelle settings have
   886 been renamed to ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS and JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS,
   887 instead of former 32/64 variants. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   888 
   889 * Old settings ISABELLE_PLATFORM and ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM should be
   890 phased out due to unclear preference of 32bit vs. 64bit architecture.
   891 Explicit GNU bash expressions are now preferred, for example (with
   892 quotes):
   893 
   894   #Posix executables (Unix or Cygwin), with preference for 64bit
   895   "${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}"
   896 
   897   #native Windows or Unix executables, with preference for 64bit
   898   "${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM64:-${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32:-${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}}}"
   899 
   900   #native Windows (32bit) or Unix executables (preference for 64bit)
   901   "${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32:-${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}}"
   902 
   903 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" supports new options:
   904   - option -B NAME: include session NAME and all descendants
   905   - option -S: only observe changes of sources, not heap images
   906   - option -f: forces a fresh build
   907 
   908 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" options -c -x -B refer to
   909 descendants wrt. the session parent or import graph. Subtle
   910 INCOMPATIBILITY: options -c -x used to refer to the session parent graph
   911 only.
   912 
   913 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" takes "condition" options with the
   914 corresponding environment values into account, when determining the
   915 up-to-date status of a session.
   916 
   917 * The command-line tool "dump" dumps information from the cumulative
   918 PIDE session database: many sessions may be loaded into a given logic
   919 image, results from all loaded theories are written to the output
   920 directory.
   921 
   922 * Command-line tool "isabelle imports -I" also reports actual session
   923 imports. This helps to minimize the session dependency graph.
   924 
   925 * The command-line tool "export" and 'export_files' in session ROOT
   926 entries retrieve theory exports from the session build database.
   927 
   928 * The command-line tools "isabelle server" and "isabelle client" provide
   929 access to the Isabelle Server: it supports responsive session management
   930 and concurrent use of theories, based on Isabelle/PIDE infrastructure.
   931 See also the "system" manual.
   932 
   933 * The command-line tool "isabelle update_comments" normalizes formal
   934 comments in outer syntax as follows: \<comment> \<open>text\<close> (whith a single space to
   935 approximate the appearance in document output). This is more specific
   936 than former "isabelle update_cartouches -c": the latter tool option has
   937 been discontinued.
   938 
   939 * The command-line tool "isabelle mkroot" now always produces a document
   940 outline: its options have been adapted accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   941 
   942 * The command-line tool "isabelle mkroot -I" initializes a Mercurial
   943 repository for the generated session files.
   944 
   945 * Settings ISABELLE_HEAPS + ISABELLE_BROWSER_INFO (or
   946 ISABELLE_HEAPS_SYSTEM + ISABELLE_BROWSER_INFO_SYSTEM in "system build
   947 mode") determine the directory locations of the main build artefacts --
   948 instead of hard-wired directories in ISABELLE_HOME_USER (or
   949 ISABELLE_HOME).
   950 
   951 * Settings ISABELLE_PATH and ISABELLE_OUTPUT have been discontinued:
   952 heap images and session databases are always stored in
   953 $ISABELLE_HEAPS/$ML_IDENTIFIER (command-line default) or
   954 $ISABELLE_HEAPS_SYSTEM/$ML_IDENTIFIER (main Isabelle application or
   955 "isabelle jedit -s" or "isabelle build -s").
   956 
   957 * ISABELLE_LATEX and ISABELLE_PDFLATEX now include platform-specific
   958 options for improved error reporting. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY with
   959 unusual LaTeX installations, may have to adapt these settings.
   960 
   961 * Update to Poly/ML 5.7.1 with slightly improved performance and PIDE
   962 markup for identifier bindings. It now uses The GNU Multiple Precision
   963 Arithmetic Library (libgmp) on all platforms, notably Mac OS X with
   964 32/64 bit.
   965 
   966 
   967 
   968 New in Isabelle2017 (October 2017)
   969 ----------------------------------
   970 
   971 *** General ***
   972 
   973 * Experimental support for Visual Studio Code (VSCode) as alternative
   974 Isabelle/PIDE front-end, see also
   975 https://marketplace.visualstudio.com/items?itemName=makarius.Isabelle2017
   976 
   977 VSCode is a new type of application that continues the concepts of
   978 "programmer's editor" and "integrated development environment" towards
   979 fully semantic editing and debugging -- in a relatively light-weight
   980 manner. Thus it fits nicely on top of the Isabelle/PIDE infrastructure.
   981 Technically, VSCode is based on the Electron application framework
   982 (Node.js + Chromium browser + V8), which is implemented in JavaScript
   983 and TypeScript, while Isabelle/VSCode mainly consists of Isabelle/Scala
   984 modules around a Language Server implementation.
   985 
   986 * Theory names are qualified by the session name that they belong to.
   987 This affects imports, but not the theory name space prefix (which is
   988 just the theory base name as before).
   989 
   990 In order to import theories from other sessions, the ROOT file format
   991 provides a new 'sessions' keyword. In contrast, a theory that is
   992 imported in the old-fashioned manner via an explicit file-system path
   993 belongs to the current session, and might cause theory name conflicts
   994 later on. Theories that are imported from other sessions are excluded
   995 from the current session document. The command-line tool "isabelle
   996 imports" helps to update theory imports.
   997 
   998 * The main theory entry points for some non-HOL sessions have changed,
   999 to avoid confusion with the global name "Main" of the session HOL. This
  1000 leads to the follow renamings:
  1001 
  1002   CTT/Main.thy    ~>  CTT/CTT.thy
  1003   ZF/Main.thy     ~>  ZF/ZF.thy
  1004   ZF/Main_ZF.thy  ~>  ZF/ZF.thy
  1005   ZF/Main_ZFC.thy ~>  ZF/ZFC.thy
  1006   ZF/ZF.thy       ~>  ZF/ZF_Base.thy
  1007 
  1008 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1009 
  1010 * Commands 'alias' and 'type_alias' introduce aliases for constants and
  1011 type constructors, respectively. This allows adhoc changes to name-space
  1012 accesses within global or local theory contexts, e.g. within a 'bundle'.
  1013 
  1014 * Document antiquotations @{prf} and @{full_prf} output proof terms
  1015 (again) in the same way as commands 'prf' and 'full_prf'.
  1016 
  1017 * Computations generated by the code generator can be embedded directly
  1018 into ML, alongside with @{code} antiquotations, using the following
  1019 antiquotations:
  1020 
  1021   @{computation ... terms: ... datatypes: ...} :
  1022     ((term -> term) -> 'ml option -> 'a) -> Proof.context -> term -> 'a
  1023   @{computation_conv ... terms: ... datatypes: ...} :
  1024     (Proof.context -> 'ml -> conv) -> Proof.context -> conv
  1025   @{computation_check terms: ... datatypes: ...} : Proof.context -> conv
  1026 
  1027 See src/HOL/ex/Computations.thy,
  1028 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Commutative_Ring.thy and
  1029 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Reflective_Field.thy for examples and the
  1030 tutorial on code generation.
  1031 
  1032 
  1033 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1034 
  1035 * Session-qualified theory imports allow the Prover IDE to process
  1036 arbitrary theory hierarchies independently of the underlying logic
  1037 session image (e.g. option "isabelle jedit -l"), but the directory
  1038 structure needs to be known in advance (e.g. option "isabelle jedit -d"
  1039 or a line in the file $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/ROOTS).
  1040 
  1041 * The PIDE document model maintains file content independently of the
  1042 status of jEdit editor buffers. Reloading jEdit buffers no longer causes
  1043 changes of formal document content. Theory dependencies are always
  1044 resolved internally, without the need for corresponding editor buffers.
  1045 The system option "jedit_auto_load" has been discontinued: it is
  1046 effectively always enabled.
  1047 
  1048 * The Theories dockable provides a "Purge" button, in order to restrict
  1049 the document model to theories that are required for open editor
  1050 buffers.
  1051 
  1052 * The Theories dockable indicates the overall status of checking of each
  1053 entry. When all forked tasks of a theory are finished, the border is
  1054 painted with thick lines; remaining errors in this situation are
  1055 represented by a different border color.
  1056 
  1057 * Automatic indentation is more careful to avoid redundant spaces in
  1058 intermediate situations. Keywords are indented after input (via typed
  1059 characters or completion); see also option "jedit_indent_input".
  1060 
  1061 * Action "isabelle.preview" opens an HTML preview of the current theory
  1062 document in the default web browser.
  1063 
  1064 * Command-line invocation "isabelle jedit -R -l LOGIC" opens the ROOT
  1065 entry of the specified logic session in the editor, while its parent is
  1066 used for formal checking.
  1067 
  1068 * The main Isabelle/jEdit plugin may be restarted manually (using the
  1069 jEdit Plugin Manager), as long as the "Isabelle Base" plugin remains
  1070 enabled at all times.
  1071 
  1072 * Update to current jedit-5.4.0.
  1073 
  1074 
  1075 *** Pure ***
  1076 
  1077 * Deleting the last code equations for a particular function using
  1078 [code del] results in function with no equations (runtime abort) rather
  1079 than an unimplemented function (generation time abort). Use explicit
  1080 [[code drop:]] to enforce the latter. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1081 
  1082 * Proper concept of code declarations in code.ML:
  1083   - Regular code declarations act only on the global theory level, being
  1084     ignored with warnings if syntactically malformed.
  1085   - Explicitly global code declarations yield errors if syntactically
  1086     malformed.
  1087   - Default code declarations are silently ignored if syntactically
  1088     malformed.
  1089 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1090 
  1091 * Clarified and standardized internal data bookkeeping of code
  1092 declarations: history of serials allows to track potentially
  1093 non-monotonous declarations appropriately. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1094 
  1095 
  1096 *** HOL ***
  1097 
  1098 * The Nunchaku model finder is now part of "Main".
  1099 
  1100 * SMT module:
  1101   - A new option, 'smt_nat_as_int', has been added to translate 'nat' to
  1102     'int' and benefit from the SMT solver's theory reasoning. It is
  1103     disabled by default.
  1104   - The legacy module "src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy" has been removed.
  1105   - Several small issues have been rectified in the 'smt' command.
  1106 
  1107 * (Co)datatype package: The 'size_gen_o_map' lemma is no longer
  1108 generated for datatypes with type class annotations. As a result, the
  1109 tactic that derives it no longer fails on nested datatypes. Slight
  1110 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1111 
  1112 * Command and antiquotation "value" with modified default strategy:
  1113 terms without free variables are always evaluated using plain evaluation
  1114 only, with no fallback on normalization by evaluation. Minor
  1115 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1116 
  1117 * Theories "GCD" and "Binomial" are already included in "Main" (instead
  1118 of "Complex_Main").
  1119 
  1120 * Constant "surj" is a full input/output abbreviation (again).
  1121 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1122 
  1123 * Dropped aliasses RangeP, DomainP for Rangep, Domainp respectively.
  1124 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1125 
  1126 * Renamed ii to imaginary_unit in order to free up ii as a variable
  1127 name. The syntax \<i> remains available. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1128 
  1129 * Dropped abbreviations transP, antisymP, single_valuedP; use constants
  1130 transp, antisymp, single_valuedp instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1131 
  1132 * Constant "subseq" in Topological_Spaces has been removed -- it is
  1133 subsumed by "strict_mono". Some basic lemmas specific to "subseq" have
  1134 been renamed accordingly, e.g. "subseq_o" -> "strict_mono_o" etc.
  1135 
  1136 * Theory List: "sublist" renamed to "nths" in analogy with "nth", and
  1137 "sublisteq" renamed to "subseq". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1138 
  1139 * Theory List: new generic function "sorted_wrt".
  1140 
  1141 * Named theorems mod_simps covers various congruence rules concerning
  1142 mod, replacing former zmod_simps. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1143 
  1144 * Swapped orientation of congruence rules mod_add_left_eq,
  1145 mod_add_right_eq, mod_add_eq, mod_mult_left_eq, mod_mult_right_eq,
  1146 mod_mult_eq, mod_minus_eq, mod_diff_left_eq, mod_diff_right_eq,
  1147 mod_diff_eq. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1148 
  1149 * Generalized some facts:
  1150     measure_induct_rule
  1151     measure_induct
  1152     zminus_zmod ~> mod_minus_eq
  1153     zdiff_zmod_left ~> mod_diff_left_eq
  1154     zdiff_zmod_right ~> mod_diff_right_eq
  1155     zmod_eq_dvd_iff ~> mod_eq_dvd_iff
  1156 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1157 
  1158 * Algebraic type class hierarchy of euclidean (semi)rings in HOL:
  1159 euclidean_(semi)ring, euclidean_(semi)ring_cancel,
  1160 unique_euclidean_(semi)ring; instantiation requires provision of a
  1161 euclidean size.
  1162 
  1163 * Theory "HOL-Number_Theory.Euclidean_Algorithm" has been reworked:
  1164   - Euclidean induction is available as rule eucl_induct.
  1165   - Constants Euclidean_Algorithm.gcd, Euclidean_Algorithm.lcm,
  1166     Euclidean_Algorithm.Gcd and Euclidean_Algorithm.Lcm allow
  1167     easy instantiation of euclidean (semi)rings as GCD (semi)rings.
  1168   - Coefficients obtained by extended euclidean algorithm are
  1169     available as "bezout_coefficients".
  1170 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1171 
  1172 * Theory "Number_Theory.Totient" introduces basic notions about Euler's
  1173 totient function previously hidden as solitary example in theory
  1174 Residues. Definition changed so that "totient 1 = 1" in agreement with
  1175 the literature. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1176 
  1177 * New styles in theory "HOL-Library.LaTeXsugar":
  1178   - "dummy_pats" for printing equations with "_" on the lhs;
  1179   - "eta_expand" for printing eta-expanded terms.
  1180 
  1181 * Theory "HOL-Library.Permutations": theorem bij_swap_ompose_bij has
  1182 been renamed to bij_swap_compose_bij. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1183 
  1184 * New theory "HOL-Library.Going_To_Filter" providing the "f going_to F"
  1185 filter for describing points x such that f(x) is in the filter F.
  1186 
  1187 * Theory "HOL-Library.Formal_Power_Series": constants X/E/L/F have been
  1188 renamed to fps_X/fps_exp/fps_ln/fps_hypergeo to avoid polluting the name
  1189 space. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1190 
  1191 * Theory "HOL-Library.FinFun" has been moved to AFP (again).
  1192 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1193 
  1194 * Theory "HOL-Library.FuncSet": some old and rarely used ASCII
  1195 replacement syntax has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax
  1196 with symbols should be used instead. The subsequent commands help to
  1197 reproduce the old forms, e.g. to simplify porting old theories:
  1198 
  1199 syntax (ASCII)
  1200   "_PiE" :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'b set \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) set"  ("(3PIE _:_./ _)" 10)
  1201   "_Pi"  :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'b set \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) set"  ("(3PI _:_./ _)" 10)
  1202   "_lam" :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'a \<Rightarrow> 'b \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b)"  ("(3%_:_./ _)" [0,0,3] 3)
  1203 
  1204 * Theory "HOL-Library.Multiset": the simprocs on subsets operators of
  1205 multisets have been renamed:
  1206 
  1207   msetless_cancel_numerals ~> msetsubset_cancel
  1208   msetle_cancel_numerals ~> msetsubset_eq_cancel
  1209 
  1210 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1211 
  1212 * Theory "HOL-Library.Pattern_Aliases" provides input and output syntax
  1213 for pattern aliases as known from Haskell, Scala and ML.
  1214 
  1215 * Theory "HOL-Library.Uprod" formalizes the type of unordered pairs.
  1216 
  1217 * Session HOL-Analysis: more material involving arcs, paths, covering
  1218 spaces, innessential maps, retracts, infinite products, simplicial
  1219 complexes. Baire Category theorem. Major results include the Jordan
  1220 Curve Theorem and the Great Picard Theorem.
  1221 
  1222 * Session HOL-Algebra has been extended by additional lattice theory:
  1223 the Knaster-Tarski fixed point theorem and Galois Connections.
  1224 
  1225 * Sessions HOL-Computational_Algebra and HOL-Number_Theory: new notions
  1226 of squarefreeness, n-th powers, and prime powers.
  1227 
  1228 * Session "HOL-Computional_Algebra" covers many previously scattered
  1229 theories, notably Euclidean_Algorithm, Factorial_Ring,
  1230 Formal_Power_Series, Fraction_Field, Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra,
  1231 Normalized_Fraction, Polynomial_FPS, Polynomial, Primes. Minor
  1232 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1233 
  1234 
  1235 *** System ***
  1236 
  1237 * Isabelle/Scala: the SQL module supports access to relational
  1238 databases, either as plain file (SQLite) or full-scale server
  1239 (PostgreSQL via local port or remote ssh connection).
  1240 
  1241 * Results of "isabelle build" are recorded as SQLite database (i.e.
  1242 "Application File Format" in the sense of
  1243 https://www.sqlite.org/appfileformat.html). This allows systematic
  1244 access via operations from module Sessions.Store in Isabelle/Scala.
  1245 
  1246 * System option "parallel_proofs" is 1 by default (instead of more
  1247 aggressive 2). This requires less heap space and avoids burning parallel
  1248 CPU cycles, while full subproof parallelization is enabled for repeated
  1249 builds (according to parallel_subproofs_threshold).
  1250 
  1251 * System option "record_proofs" allows to change the global
  1252 Proofterm.proofs variable for a session. Regular values are are 0, 1, 2;
  1253 a negative value means the current state in the ML heap image remains
  1254 unchanged.
  1255 
  1256 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_SCALA_BUILD_OPTIONS has been
  1257 renamed to ISABELLE_SCALAC_OPTIONS. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1258 
  1259 * Isabelle settings variables ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM,
  1260 ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32, ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM64 indicate the
  1261 native Windows platform (independently of the Cygwin installation). This
  1262 is analogous to ISABELLE_PLATFORM, ISABELLE_PLATFORM32,
  1263 ISABELLE_PLATFORM64.
  1264 
  1265 * Command-line tool "isabelle build_docker" builds a Docker image from
  1266 the Isabelle application bundle for Linux. See also
  1267 https://hub.docker.com/r/makarius/isabelle
  1268 
  1269 * Command-line tool "isabelle vscode_server" provides a Language Server
  1270 Protocol implementation, e.g. for the Visual Studio Code editor. It
  1271 serves as example for alternative PIDE front-ends.
  1272 
  1273 * Command-line tool "isabelle imports" helps to maintain theory imports
  1274 wrt. session structure. Examples for the main Isabelle distribution:
  1275 
  1276   isabelle imports -I -a
  1277   isabelle imports -U -a
  1278   isabelle imports -U -i -a
  1279   isabelle imports -M -a -d '~~/src/Benchmarks'
  1280 
  1281 
  1282 
  1283 New in Isabelle2016-1 (December 2016)
  1284 -------------------------------------
  1285 
  1286 *** General ***
  1287 
  1288 * Splitter in proof methods "simp", "auto" and friends:
  1289   - The syntax "split add" has been discontinued, use plain "split",
  1290     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1291   - For situations with many conditional or case expressions, there is
  1292     an alternative splitting strategy that can be much faster. It is
  1293     selected by writing "split!" instead of "split". It applies safe
  1294     introduction and elimination rules after each split rule. As a
  1295     result the subgoal may be split into several subgoals.
  1296 
  1297 * Command 'bundle' provides a local theory target to define a bundle
  1298 from the body of specification commands (such as 'declare',
  1299 'declaration', 'notation', 'lemmas', 'lemma'). For example:
  1300 
  1301 bundle foo
  1302 begin
  1303   declare a [simp]
  1304   declare b [intro]
  1305 end
  1306 
  1307 * Command 'unbundle' is like 'include', but works within a local theory
  1308 context. Unlike "context includes ... begin", the effect of 'unbundle'
  1309 on the target context persists, until different declarations are given.
  1310 
  1311 * Simplified outer syntax: uniform category "name" includes long
  1312 identifiers. Former "xname" / "nameref" / "name reference" has been
  1313 discontinued.
  1314 
  1315 * Embedded content (e.g. the inner syntax of types, terms, props) may be
  1316 delimited uniformly via cartouches. This works better than old-fashioned
  1317 quotes when sub-languages are nested.
  1318 
  1319 * Mixfix annotations support general block properties, with syntax
  1320 "(\<open>x=a y=b z \<dots>\<close>". Notable property names are "indent", "consistent",
  1321 "unbreakable", "markup". The existing notation "(DIGITS" is equivalent
  1322 to "(\<open>indent=DIGITS\<close>". The former notation "(00" for unbreakable blocks
  1323 is superseded by "(\<open>unbreabable\<close>" --- rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1324 
  1325 * Proof method "blast" is more robust wrt. corner cases of Pure
  1326 statements without object-logic judgment.
  1327 
  1328 * Commands 'prf' and 'full_prf' are somewhat more informative (again):
  1329 proof terms are reconstructed and cleaned from administrative thm nodes.
  1330 
  1331 * Code generator: config option "code_timing" triggers measurements of
  1332 different phases of code generation. See src/HOL/ex/Code_Timing.thy for
  1333 examples.
  1334 
  1335 * Code generator: implicits in Scala (stemming from type class
  1336 instances) are generated into companion object of corresponding type
  1337 class, to resolve some situations where ambiguities may occur.
  1338 
  1339 * Solve direct: option "solve_direct_strict_warnings" gives explicit
  1340 warnings for lemma statements with trivial proofs.
  1341 
  1342 
  1343 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1344 
  1345 * More aggressive flushing of machine-generated input, according to
  1346 system option editor_generated_input_delay (in addition to existing
  1347 editor_input_delay for regular user edits). This may affect overall PIDE
  1348 reactivity and CPU usage.
  1349 
  1350 * Syntactic indentation according to Isabelle outer syntax. Action
  1351 "indent-lines" (shortcut C+i) indents the current line according to
  1352 command keywords and some command substructure. Action
  1353 "isabelle.newline" (shortcut ENTER) indents the old and the new line
  1354 according to command keywords only; see also option
  1355 "jedit_indent_newline".
  1356 
  1357 * Semantic indentation for unstructured proof scripts ('apply' etc.) via
  1358 number of subgoals. This requires information of ongoing document
  1359 processing and may thus lag behind, when the user is editing too
  1360 quickly; see also option "jedit_script_indent" and
  1361 "jedit_script_indent_limit".
  1362 
  1363 * Refined folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax: 'next' and 'qed'
  1364 are treated as delimiters for fold structure; 'begin' and 'end'
  1365 structure of theory specifications is treated as well.
  1366 
  1367 * Command 'proof' provides information about proof outline with cases,
  1368 e.g. for proof methods "cases", "induct", "goal_cases".
  1369 
  1370 * Completion templates for commands involving "begin ... end" blocks,
  1371 e.g. 'context', 'notepad'.
  1372 
  1373 * Sidekick parser "isabelle-context" shows nesting of context blocks
  1374 according to 'begin' and 'end' structure.
  1375 
  1376 * Highlighting of entity def/ref positions wrt. cursor.
  1377 
  1378 * Action "isabelle.select-entity" (shortcut CS+ENTER) selects all
  1379 occurrences of the formal entity at the caret position. This facilitates
  1380 systematic renaming.
  1381 
  1382 * PIDE document markup works across multiple Isar commands, e.g. the
  1383 results established at the end of a proof are properly identified in the
  1384 theorem statement.
  1385 
  1386 * Cartouche abbreviations work both for " and ` to accomodate typical
  1387 situations where old ASCII notation may be updated.
  1388 
  1389 * Dockable window "Symbols" also provides access to 'abbrevs' from the
  1390 outer syntax of the current theory buffer. This provides clickable
  1391 syntax templates, including entries with empty abbrevs name (which are
  1392 inaccessible via keyboard completion).
  1393 
  1394 * IDE support for the Isabelle/Pure bootstrap process, with the
  1395 following independent stages:
  1396 
  1397   src/Pure/ROOT0.ML
  1398   src/Pure/ROOT.ML
  1399   src/Pure/Pure.thy
  1400   src/Pure/ML_Bootstrap.thy
  1401 
  1402 The ML ROOT files act like quasi-theories in the context of theory
  1403 ML_Bootstrap: this allows continuous checking of all loaded ML files.
  1404 The theory files are presented with a modified header to import Pure
  1405 from the running Isabelle instance. Results from changed versions of
  1406 each stage are *not* propagated to the next stage, and isolated from the
  1407 actual Isabelle/Pure that runs the IDE itself. The sequential
  1408 dependencies of the above files are only observed for batch build.
  1409 
  1410 * Isabelle/ML and Standard ML files are presented in Sidekick with the
  1411 tree structure of section headings: this special comment format is
  1412 described in "implementation" chapter 0, e.g. (*** section ***).
  1413 
  1414 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified
  1415 within the theory header as 'abbrevs'. The theory syntax for 'keywords'
  1416 has been simplified accordingly: optional abbrevs need to go into the
  1417 new 'abbrevs' section.
  1418 
  1419 * Global abbreviations via $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and
  1420 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs are no longer supported. Minor
  1421 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'abbrevs' within theory header instead.
  1422 
  1423 * Action "isabelle.keymap-merge" asks the user to resolve pending
  1424 Isabelle keymap changes that are in conflict with the current jEdit
  1425 keymap; non-conflicting changes are always applied implicitly. This
  1426 action is automatically invoked on Isabelle/jEdit startup and thus
  1427 increases chances that users see new keyboard shortcuts when re-using
  1428 old keymaps.
  1429 
  1430 * ML and document antiquotations for file-systems paths are more uniform
  1431 and diverse:
  1432 
  1433   @{path NAME}   -- no file-system check
  1434   @{file NAME}   -- check for plain file
  1435   @{dir NAME}    -- check for directory
  1436 
  1437 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, former uses of @{file} and @{file_unchecked} may
  1438 have to be changed.
  1439 
  1440 
  1441 *** Document preparation ***
  1442 
  1443 * New symbol \<circle>, e.g. for temporal operator.
  1444 
  1445 * New document and ML antiquotation @{locale} for locales, similar to
  1446 existing antiquotation @{class}.
  1447 
  1448 * Mixfix annotations support delimiters like \<^control>\<open>cartouche\<close> --
  1449 this allows special forms of document output.
  1450 
  1451 * Raw LaTeX output now works via \<^latex>\<open>...\<close> instead of raw control
  1452 symbol \<^raw:...>. INCOMPATIBILITY, notably for LaTeXsugar.thy and its
  1453 derivatives.
  1454 
  1455 * \<^raw:...> symbols are no longer supported.
  1456 
  1457 * Old 'header' command is no longer supported (legacy since
  1458 Isabelle2015).
  1459 
  1460 
  1461 *** Isar ***
  1462 
  1463 * Many specification elements support structured statements with 'if' /
  1464 'for' eigen-context, e.g. 'axiomatization', 'abbreviation',
  1465 'definition', 'inductive', 'function'.
  1466 
  1467 * Toplevel theorem statements support eigen-context notation with 'if' /
  1468 'for' (in postfix), which corresponds to 'assumes' / 'fixes' in the
  1469 traditional long statement form (in prefix). Local premises are called
  1470 "that" or "assms", respectively. Empty premises are *not* bound in the
  1471 context: INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1472 
  1473 * Command 'define' introduces a local (non-polymorphic) definition, with
  1474 optional abstraction over local parameters. The syntax resembles
  1475 'definition' and 'obtain'. It fits better into the Isar language than
  1476 old 'def', which is now a legacy feature.
  1477 
  1478 * Command 'obtain' supports structured statements with 'if' / 'for'
  1479 context.
  1480 
  1481 * Command '\<proof>' is an alias for 'sorry', with different
  1482 typesetting. E.g. to produce proof holes in examples and documentation.
  1483 
  1484 * The defining position of a literal fact \<open>prop\<close> is maintained more
  1485 carefully, and made accessible as hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
  1486 
  1487 * Commands 'finally' and 'ultimately' used to expose the result as
  1488 literal fact: this accidental behaviour has been discontinued. Rare
  1489 INCOMPATIBILITY, use more explicit means to refer to facts in Isar.
  1490 
  1491 * Command 'axiomatization' has become more restrictive to correspond
  1492 better to internal axioms as singleton facts with mandatory name. Minor
  1493 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1494 
  1495 * Proof methods may refer to the main facts via the dynamic fact
  1496 "method_facts". This is particularly useful for Eisbach method
  1497 definitions.
  1498 
  1499 * Proof method "use" allows to modify the main facts of a given method
  1500 expression, e.g.
  1501 
  1502   (use facts in simp)
  1503   (use facts in \<open>simp add: ...\<close>)
  1504 
  1505 * The old proof method "default" has been removed (legacy since
  1506 Isabelle2016). INCOMPATIBILITY, use "standard" instead.
  1507 
  1508 
  1509 *** Pure ***
  1510 
  1511 * Pure provides basic versions of proof methods "simp" and "simp_all"
  1512 that only know about meta-equality (==). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in
  1513 theory imports that merge Pure with e.g. Main of Isabelle/HOL: the order
  1514 is relevant to avoid confusion of Pure.simp vs. HOL.simp.
  1515 
  1516 * The command 'unfolding' and proof method "unfold" include a second
  1517 stage where given equations are passed through the attribute "abs_def"
  1518 before rewriting. This ensures that definitions are fully expanded,
  1519 regardless of the actual parameters that are provided. Rare
  1520 INCOMPATIBILITY in some corner cases: use proof method (simp only:)
  1521 instead, or declare [[unfold_abs_def = false]] in the proof context.
  1522 
  1523 * Type-inference improves sorts of newly introduced type variables for
  1524 the object-logic, using its base sort (i.e. HOL.type for Isabelle/HOL).
  1525 Thus terms like "f x" or "\<And>x. P x" without any further syntactic context
  1526 produce x::'a::type in HOL instead of x::'a::{} in Pure. Rare
  1527 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide explicit type constraints for Pure
  1528 types where this is really intended.
  1529 
  1530 
  1531 *** HOL ***
  1532 
  1533 * New proof method "argo" using the built-in Argo solver based on SMT
  1534 technology. The method can be used to prove goals of quantifier-free
  1535 propositional logic, goals based on a combination of quantifier-free
  1536 propositional logic with equality, and goals based on a combination of
  1537 quantifier-free propositional logic with linear real arithmetic
  1538 including min/max/abs. See HOL/ex/Argo_Examples.thy for examples.
  1539 
  1540 * The new "nunchaku" command integrates the Nunchaku model finder. The
  1541 tool is experimental. See ~~/src/HOL/Nunchaku/Nunchaku.thy for details.
  1542 
  1543 * Metis: The problem encoding has changed very slightly. This might
  1544 break existing proofs. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1545 
  1546 * Sledgehammer:
  1547   - The MaSh relevance filter is now faster than before.
  1548   - Produce syntactically correct Vampire 4.0 problem files.
  1549 
  1550 * (Co)datatype package:
  1551   - New commands for defining corecursive functions and reasoning about
  1552     them in "~~/src/HOL/Library/BNF_Corec.thy": 'corec', 'corecursive',
  1553     'friend_of_corec', and 'corecursion_upto'; and 'corec_unique' proof
  1554     method. See 'isabelle doc corec'.
  1555   - The predicator :: ('a \<Rightarrow> bool) \<Rightarrow> 'a F \<Rightarrow> bool is now a first-class
  1556     citizen in bounded natural functors.
  1557   - 'primrec' now allows nested calls through the predicator in addition
  1558     to the map function.
  1559   - 'bnf' automatically discharges reflexive proof obligations.
  1560   - 'bnf' outputs a slightly modified proof obligation expressing rel in
  1561        terms of map and set
  1562        (not giving a specification for rel makes this one reflexive).
  1563   - 'bnf' outputs a new proof obligation expressing pred in terms of set
  1564        (not giving a specification for pred makes this one reflexive).
  1565     INCOMPATIBILITY: manual 'bnf' declarations may need adjustment.
  1566   - Renamed lemmas:
  1567       rel_prod_apply ~> rel_prod_inject
  1568       pred_prod_apply ~> pred_prod_inject
  1569     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1570   - The "size" plugin has been made compatible again with locales.
  1571   - The theorems about "rel" and "set" may have a slightly different (but
  1572     equivalent) form.
  1573     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1574 
  1575 * The 'coinductive' command produces a proper coinduction rule for
  1576 mutual coinductive predicates. This new rule replaces the old rule,
  1577 which exposed details of the internal fixpoint construction and was
  1578 hard to use. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1579 
  1580 * New abbreviations for negated existence (but not bounded existence):
  1581 
  1582   \<nexists>x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>x. P x)
  1583   \<nexists>!x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>!x. P x)
  1584 
  1585 * The print mode "HOL" for ASCII syntax of binders "!", "?", "?!", "@"
  1586 has been removed for output. It is retained for input only, until it is
  1587 eliminated altogether.
  1588 
  1589 * The unique existence quantifier no longer provides 'binder' syntax,
  1590 but uses syntax translations (as for bounded unique existence). Thus
  1591 iterated quantification \<exists>!x y. P x y with its slightly confusing
  1592 sequential meaning \<exists>!x. \<exists>!y. P x y is no longer possible. Instead,
  1593 pattern abstraction admits simultaneous unique existence \<exists>!(x, y). P x y
  1594 (analogous to existing notation \<exists>!(x, y)\<in>A. P x y). Potential
  1595 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.
  1596 
  1597 * Conventional syntax "%(). t" for unit abstractions. Slight syntactic
  1598 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1599 
  1600 * Renamed constants and corresponding theorems:
  1601 
  1602     setsum ~> sum
  1603     setprod ~> prod
  1604     listsum ~> sum_list
  1605     listprod ~> prod_list
  1606 
  1607 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1608 
  1609 * Sligthly more standardized theorem names:
  1610     sgn_times ~> sgn_mult
  1611     sgn_mult' ~> Real_Vector_Spaces.sgn_mult
  1612     divide_zero_left ~> div_0
  1613     zero_mod_left ~> mod_0
  1614     divide_zero ~> div_by_0
  1615     divide_1 ~> div_by_1
  1616     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_left ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
  1617     div_mult_self1_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
  1618     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_right ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
  1619     div_mult_self2_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
  1620     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_left ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_left
  1621     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_right ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_right
  1622     mod_div_equality ~> div_mult_mod_eq
  1623     mod_div_equality2 ~> mult_div_mod_eq
  1624     mod_div_equality3 ~> mod_div_mult_eq
  1625     mod_div_equality4 ~> mod_mult_div_eq
  1626     minus_div_eq_mod ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod
  1627     minus_div_eq_mod2 ~> minus_mult_div_eq_mod
  1628     minus_mod_eq_div ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult
  1629     minus_mod_eq_div2 ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div
  1630     div_mod_equality' ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult [symmetric]
  1631     mod_div_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
  1632     zmod_zdiv_equality ~> mult_div_mod_eq [symmetric]
  1633     zmod_zdiv_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
  1634     Divides.mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1635     mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1636     zmult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1637     div_1 ~> div_by_Suc_0
  1638     mod_1 ~> mod_by_Suc_0
  1639 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1640 
  1641 * New type class "idom_abs_sgn" specifies algebraic properties
  1642 of sign and absolute value functions.  Type class "sgn_if" has
  1643 disappeared.  Slight INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1644 
  1645 * Dedicated syntax LENGTH('a) for length of types.
  1646 
  1647 * Characters (type char) are modelled as finite algebraic type
  1648 corresponding to {0..255}.
  1649 
  1650   - Logical representation:
  1651     * 0 is instantiated to the ASCII zero character.
  1652     * All other characters are represented as "Char n"
  1653       with n being a raw numeral expression less than 256.
  1654     * Expressions of the form "Char n" with n greater than 255
  1655       are non-canonical.
  1656   - Printing and parsing:
  1657     * Printable characters are printed and parsed as "CHR ''\<dots>''"
  1658       (as before).
  1659     * The ASCII zero character is printed and parsed as "0".
  1660     * All other canonical characters are printed as "CHR 0xXX"
  1661       with XX being the hexadecimal character code.  "CHR n"
  1662       is parsable for every numeral expression n.
  1663     * Non-canonical characters have no special syntax and are
  1664       printed as their logical representation.
  1665   - Explicit conversions from and to the natural numbers are
  1666     provided as char_of_nat, nat_of_char (as before).
  1667   - The auxiliary nibble type has been discontinued.
  1668 
  1669 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1670 
  1671 * Type class "div" with operation "mod" renamed to type class "modulo"
  1672 with operation "modulo", analogously to type class "divide". This
  1673 eliminates the need to qualify any of those names in the presence of
  1674 infix "mod" syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1675 
  1676 * Statements and proofs of Knaster-Tarski fixpoint combinators lfp/gfp
  1677 have been clarified. The fixpoint properties are lfp_fixpoint, its
  1678 symmetric lfp_unfold (as before), and the duals for gfp. Auxiliary items
  1679 for the proof (lfp_lemma2 etc.) are no longer exported, but can be
  1680 easily recovered by composition with eq_refl. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1681 
  1682 * Constant "surj" is a mere input abbreviation, to avoid hiding an
  1683 equation in term output. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1684 
  1685 * Command 'code_reflect' accepts empty constructor lists for datatypes,
  1686 which renders those abstract effectively.
  1687 
  1688 * Command 'export_code' checks given constants for abstraction
  1689 violations: a small guarantee that given constants specify a safe
  1690 interface for the generated code.
  1691 
  1692 * Code generation for Scala: ambiguous implicts in class diagrams are
  1693 spelt out explicitly.
  1694 
  1695 * Static evaluators (Code_Evaluation.static_* in Isabelle/ML) rely on
  1696 explicitly provided auxiliary definitions for required type class
  1697 dictionaries rather than half-working magic. INCOMPATIBILITY, see the
  1698 tutorial on code generation for details.
  1699 
  1700 * Theory Set_Interval: substantial new theorems on indexed sums and
  1701 products.
  1702 
  1703 * Locale bijection establishes convenient default simp rules such as
  1704 "inv f (f a) = a" for total bijections.
  1705 
  1706 * Abstract locales semigroup, abel_semigroup, semilattice,
  1707 semilattice_neutr, ordering, ordering_top, semilattice_order,
  1708 semilattice_neutr_order, comm_monoid_set, semilattice_set,
  1709 semilattice_neutr_set, semilattice_order_set,
  1710 semilattice_order_neutr_set monoid_list, comm_monoid_list,
  1711 comm_monoid_list_set, comm_monoid_mset, comm_monoid_fun use boldified
  1712 syntax uniformly that does not clash with corresponding global syntax.
  1713 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1714 
  1715 * Former locale lifting_syntax is now a bundle, which is easier to
  1716 include in a local context or theorem statement, e.g. "context includes
  1717 lifting_syntax begin ... end". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1718 
  1719 * Some old / obsolete theorems have been renamed / removed, potential
  1720 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1721 
  1722   nat_less_cases  --  removed, use linorder_cases instead
  1723   inv_image_comp  --  removed, use image_inv_f_f instead
  1724   image_surj_f_inv_f  ~>  image_f_inv_f
  1725 
  1726 * Some theorems about groups and orders have been generalised from
  1727   groups to semi-groups that are also monoids:
  1728     le_add_same_cancel1
  1729     le_add_same_cancel2
  1730     less_add_same_cancel1
  1731     less_add_same_cancel2
  1732     add_le_same_cancel1
  1733     add_le_same_cancel2
  1734     add_less_same_cancel1
  1735     add_less_same_cancel2
  1736 
  1737 * Some simplifications theorems about rings have been removed, since
  1738   superseeded by a more general version:
  1739     less_add_cancel_left_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel1
  1740     less_add_cancel_right_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel2
  1741     less_eq_add_cancel_left_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel1
  1742     less_eq_add_cancel_right_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel2
  1743     less_eq_add_cancel_left_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel1
  1744     less_eq_add_cancel_right_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel2
  1745     less_add_cancel_left_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel1
  1746     less_add_cancel_right_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel2
  1747 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1748 
  1749 * Renamed split_if -> if_split and split_if_asm -> if_split_asm to
  1750 resemble the f.split naming convention, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1751 
  1752 * Added class topological_monoid.
  1753 
  1754 * The following theorems have been renamed:
  1755 
  1756   setsum_left_distrib ~> sum_distrib_right
  1757   setsum_right_distrib ~> sum_distrib_left
  1758 
  1759 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1760 
  1761 * Compound constants INFIMUM and SUPREMUM are mere abbreviations now.
  1762 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1763 
  1764 * "Gcd (f ` A)" and "Lcm (f ` A)" are printed with optional
  1765 comprehension-like syntax analogously to "Inf (f ` A)" and "Sup (f `
  1766 A)".
  1767 
  1768 * Class semiring_Lcd merged into semiring_Gcd. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1769 
  1770 * The type class ordered_comm_monoid_add is now called
  1771 ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add. A new type class ordered_comm_monoid_add
  1772 is introduced as the combination of ordered_ab_semigroup_add +
  1773 comm_monoid_add. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1774 
  1775 * Introduced the type classes canonically_ordered_comm_monoid_add and
  1776 dioid.
  1777 
  1778 * Introduced the type class ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. When
  1779 instantiating linordered_semiring_strict and ordered_ab_group_add, an
  1780 explicit instantiation of ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le might
  1781 be required. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1782 
  1783 * Dropped various legacy fact bindings, whose replacements are often
  1784 of a more general type also:
  1785   lcm_left_commute_nat ~> lcm.left_commute
  1786   lcm_left_commute_int ~> lcm.left_commute
  1787   gcd_left_commute_nat ~> gcd.left_commute
  1788   gcd_left_commute_int ~> gcd.left_commute
  1789   gcd_greatest_iff_nat ~> gcd_greatest_iff
  1790   gcd_greatest_iff_int ~> gcd_greatest_iff
  1791   coprime_dvd_mult_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult
  1792   coprime_dvd_mult_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult
  1793   zpower_numeral_even ~> power_numeral_even
  1794   gcd_mult_cancel_nat ~> gcd_mult_cancel
  1795   gcd_mult_cancel_int ~> gcd_mult_cancel
  1796   div_gcd_coprime_nat ~> div_gcd_coprime
  1797   div_gcd_coprime_int ~> div_gcd_coprime
  1798   zpower_numeral_odd ~> power_numeral_odd
  1799   zero_less_int_conv ~> of_nat_0_less_iff
  1800   gcd_greatest_nat ~> gcd_greatest
  1801   gcd_greatest_int ~> gcd_greatest
  1802   coprime_mult_nat ~> coprime_mult
  1803   coprime_mult_int ~> coprime_mult
  1804   lcm_commute_nat ~> lcm.commute
  1805   lcm_commute_int ~> lcm.commute
  1806   int_less_0_conv ~> of_nat_less_0_iff
  1807   gcd_commute_nat ~> gcd.commute
  1808   gcd_commute_int ~> gcd.commute
  1809   Gcd_insert_nat ~> Gcd_insert
  1810   Gcd_insert_int ~> Gcd_insert
  1811   of_int_int_eq ~> of_int_of_nat_eq
  1812   lcm_least_nat ~> lcm_least
  1813   lcm_least_int ~> lcm_least
  1814   lcm_assoc_nat ~> lcm.assoc
  1815   lcm_assoc_int ~> lcm.assoc
  1816   int_le_0_conv ~> of_nat_le_0_iff
  1817   int_eq_0_conv ~> of_nat_eq_0_iff
  1818   Gcd_empty_nat ~> Gcd_empty
  1819   Gcd_empty_int ~> Gcd_empty
  1820   gcd_assoc_nat ~> gcd.assoc
  1821   gcd_assoc_int ~> gcd.assoc
  1822   zero_zle_int ~> of_nat_0_le_iff
  1823   lcm_dvd2_nat ~> dvd_lcm2
  1824   lcm_dvd2_int ~> dvd_lcm2
  1825   lcm_dvd1_nat ~> dvd_lcm1
  1826   lcm_dvd1_int ~> dvd_lcm1
  1827   gcd_zero_nat ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
  1828   gcd_zero_int ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
  1829   gcd_dvd2_nat ~> gcd_dvd2
  1830   gcd_dvd2_int ~> gcd_dvd2
  1831   gcd_dvd1_nat ~> gcd_dvd1
  1832   gcd_dvd1_int ~> gcd_dvd1
  1833   int_numeral ~> of_nat_numeral
  1834   lcm_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
  1835   lcm_ac_int ~> ac_simps
  1836   gcd_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
  1837   gcd_ac_int ~> ac_simps
  1838   abs_int_eq ~> abs_of_nat
  1839   zless_int ~> of_nat_less_iff
  1840   zdiff_int ~> of_nat_diff
  1841   zadd_int ~> of_nat_add
  1842   int_mult ~> of_nat_mult
  1843   int_Suc ~> of_nat_Suc
  1844   inj_int ~> inj_of_nat
  1845   int_1 ~> of_nat_1
  1846   int_0 ~> of_nat_0
  1847   Lcm_empty_nat ~> Lcm_empty
  1848   Lcm_empty_int ~> Lcm_empty
  1849   Lcm_insert_nat ~> Lcm_insert
  1850   Lcm_insert_int ~> Lcm_insert
  1851   comp_fun_idem_gcd_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
  1852   comp_fun_idem_gcd_int ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
  1853   comp_fun_idem_lcm_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
  1854   comp_fun_idem_lcm_int ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
  1855   Lcm_eq_0 ~> Lcm_eq_0_I
  1856   Lcm0_iff ~> Lcm_0_iff
  1857   Lcm_dvd_int ~> Lcm_least
  1858   divides_mult_nat ~> divides_mult
  1859   divides_mult_int ~> divides_mult
  1860   lcm_0_nat ~> lcm_0_right
  1861   lcm_0_int ~> lcm_0_right
  1862   lcm_0_left_nat ~> lcm_0_left
  1863   lcm_0_left_int ~> lcm_0_left
  1864   dvd_gcd_D1_nat ~> dvd_gcdD1
  1865   dvd_gcd_D1_int ~> dvd_gcdD1
  1866   dvd_gcd_D2_nat ~> dvd_gcdD2
  1867   dvd_gcd_D2_int ~> dvd_gcdD2
  1868   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
  1869   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
  1870   realpow_minus_mult ~> power_minus_mult
  1871   realpow_Suc_le_self ~> power_Suc_le_self
  1872   dvd_Gcd, dvd_Gcd_nat, dvd_Gcd_int removed in favour of Gcd_greatest
  1873 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1874 
  1875 * Renamed HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy to
  1876 HOL/Quotient_Examples/Quotient_FSet.thy INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1877 
  1878 * Session HOL-Library: theory FinFun bundles "finfun_syntax" and
  1879 "no_finfun_syntax" allow to control optional syntax in local contexts;
  1880 this supersedes former theory FinFun_Syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, e.g. use
  1881 "unbundle finfun_syntax" to imitate import of
  1882 "~~/src/HOL/Library/FinFun_Syntax".
  1883 
  1884 * Session HOL-Library: theory Multiset_Permutations (executably) defines
  1885 the set of permutations of a given set or multiset, i.e. the set of all
  1886 lists that contain every element of the carrier (multi-)set exactly
  1887 once.
  1888 
  1889 * Session HOL-Library: multiset membership is now expressed using
  1890 set_mset rather than count.
  1891 
  1892   - Expressions "count M a > 0" and similar simplify to membership
  1893     by default.
  1894 
  1895   - Converting between "count M a = 0" and non-membership happens using
  1896     equations count_eq_zero_iff and not_in_iff.
  1897 
  1898   - Rules count_inI and in_countE obtain facts of the form
  1899     "count M a = n" from membership.
  1900 
  1901   - Rules count_in_diffI and in_diff_countE obtain facts of the form
  1902     "count M a = n + count N a" from membership on difference sets.
  1903 
  1904 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1905 
  1906 * Session HOL-Library: theory LaTeXsugar uses new-style "dummy_pats" for
  1907 displaying equations in functional programming style --- variables
  1908 present on the left-hand but not on the righ-hand side are replaced by
  1909 underscores.
  1910 
  1911 * Session HOL-Library: theory Combinator_PER provides combinator to
  1912 build partial equivalence relations from a predicate and an equivalence
  1913 relation.
  1914 
  1915 * Session HOL-Library: theory Perm provides basic facts about almost
  1916 everywhere fix bijections.
  1917 
  1918 * Session HOL-Library: theory Normalized_Fraction allows viewing an
  1919 element of a field of fractions as a normalized fraction (i.e. a pair of
  1920 numerator and denominator such that the two are coprime and the
  1921 denominator is normalized wrt. unit factors).
  1922 
  1923 * Session HOL-NSA has been renamed to HOL-Nonstandard_Analysis.
  1924 
  1925 * Session HOL-Multivariate_Analysis has been renamed to HOL-Analysis.
  1926 
  1927 * Session HOL-Analysis: measure theory has been moved here from
  1928 HOL-Probability. When importing HOL-Analysis some theorems need
  1929 additional name spaces prefixes due to name clashes. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1930 
  1931 * Session HOL-Analysis: more complex analysis including Cauchy's
  1932 inequality, Liouville theorem, open mapping theorem, maximum modulus
  1933 principle, Residue theorem, Schwarz Lemma.
  1934 
  1935 * Session HOL-Analysis: Theory of polyhedra: faces, extreme points,
  1936 polytopes, and the Krein–Milman Minkowski theorem.
  1937 
  1938 * Session HOL-Analysis: Numerous results ported from the HOL Light
  1939 libraries: homeomorphisms, continuous function extensions, invariance of
  1940 domain.
  1941 
  1942 * Session HOL-Probability: the type of emeasure and nn_integral was
  1943 changed from ereal to ennreal, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1944 
  1945   emeasure :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> ennreal
  1946   nn_integral :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> ennreal) \<Rightarrow> ennreal
  1947 
  1948 * Session HOL-Probability: Code generation and QuickCheck for
  1949 Probability Mass Functions.
  1950 
  1951 * Session HOL-Probability: theory Random_Permutations contains some
  1952 theory about choosing a permutation of a set uniformly at random and
  1953 folding over a list in random order.
  1954 
  1955 * Session HOL-Probability: theory SPMF formalises discrete
  1956 subprobability distributions.
  1957 
  1958 * Session HOL-Library: the names of multiset theorems have been
  1959 normalised to distinguish which ordering the theorems are about
  1960 
  1961     mset_less_eqI ~> mset_subset_eqI
  1962     mset_less_insertD ~> mset_subset_insertD
  1963     mset_less_eq_count ~> mset_subset_eq_count
  1964     mset_less_diff_self ~> mset_subset_diff_self
  1965     mset_le_exists_conv ~> mset_subset_eq_exists_conv
  1966     mset_le_mono_add_right_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel
  1967     mset_le_mono_add_left_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel
  1968     mset_le_mono_add ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add
  1969     mset_le_add_left ~> mset_subset_eq_add_left
  1970     mset_le_add_right ~> mset_subset_eq_add_right
  1971     mset_le_single ~> mset_subset_eq_single
  1972     mset_le_multiset_union_diff_commute ~> mset_subset_eq_multiset_union_diff_commute
  1973     diff_le_self ~> diff_subset_eq_self
  1974     mset_leD ~> mset_subset_eqD
  1975     mset_lessD ~> mset_subsetD
  1976     mset_le_insertD ~> mset_subset_eq_insertD
  1977     mset_less_of_empty ~> mset_subset_of_empty
  1978     mset_less_size ~> mset_subset_size
  1979     wf_less_mset_rel ~> wf_subset_mset_rel
  1980     count_le_replicate_mset_le ~> count_le_replicate_mset_subset_eq
  1981     mset_remdups_le ~> mset_remdups_subset_eq
  1982     ms_lesseq_impl ~> subset_eq_mset_impl
  1983 
  1984 Some functions have been renamed:
  1985     ms_lesseq_impl -> subset_eq_mset_impl
  1986 
  1987 * HOL-Library: multisets are now ordered with the multiset ordering
  1988     #\<subseteq># ~> \<le>
  1989     #\<subset># ~> <
  1990     le_multiset ~> less_eq_multiset
  1991     less_multiset ~> le_multiset
  1992 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1993 
  1994 * Session HOL-Library: the prefix multiset_order has been discontinued:
  1995 the theorems can be directly accessed. As a consequence, the lemmas
  1996 "order_multiset" and "linorder_multiset" have been discontinued, and the
  1997 interpretations "multiset_linorder" and "multiset_wellorder" have been
  1998 replaced by instantiations. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1999 
  2000 * Session HOL-Library: some theorems about the multiset ordering have
  2001 been renamed:
  2002 
  2003     le_multiset_def ~> less_eq_multiset_def
  2004     less_multiset_def ~> le_multiset_def
  2005     less_eq_imp_le_multiset ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
  2006     mult_less_not_refl ~> mset_le_not_refl
  2007     mult_less_trans ~> mset_le_trans
  2008     mult_less_not_sym ~> mset_le_not_sym
  2009     mult_less_asym ~> mset_le_asym
  2010     mult_less_irrefl ~> mset_le_irrefl
  2011     union_less_mono2{,1,2} ~> union_le_mono2{,1,2}
  2012 
  2013     le_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O ~> less_eq_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O
  2014     le_multiset_total ~> less_eq_multiset_total
  2015     less_multiset_right_total ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
  2016     le_multiset_empty_left ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_left
  2017     le_multiset_empty_right ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_right
  2018     less_multiset_empty_right ~> le_multiset_empty_left
  2019     less_multiset_empty_left ~> le_multiset_empty_right
  2020     union_less_diff_plus ~> union_le_diff_plus
  2021     ex_gt_count_imp_less_multiset ~> ex_gt_count_imp_le_multiset
  2022     less_multiset_plus_left_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_left_nonempty
  2023     le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty
  2024 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2025 
  2026 * Session HOL-Library: the lemma mset_map has now the attribute [simp].
  2027 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2028 
  2029 * Session HOL-Library: some theorems about multisets have been removed.
  2030 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the following replacements:
  2031 
  2032     le_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
  2033     less_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
  2034     le_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
  2035     less_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
  2036     add_eq_self_empty_iff ~> add_cancel_left_right
  2037     mset_subset_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  2038     mset_less_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  2039     mset_le_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  2040     empty_inter ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_left
  2041     inter_empty ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_right
  2042     empty_sup ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_left
  2043     sup_empty ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_right
  2044     bdd_below_multiset ~> subset_mset.bdd_above_bot
  2045     subset_eq_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
  2046     le_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
  2047     mset_subset_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
  2048     mset_less_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
  2049 
  2050 * Session HOL-Library: some typeclass constraints about multisets have
  2051 been reduced from ordered or linordered to preorder. Multisets have the
  2052 additional typeclasses order_bot, no_top,
  2053 ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le, ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add,
  2054 linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add, and
  2055 ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2056 
  2057 * Session HOL-Library: there are some new simplification rules about
  2058 multisets, the multiset ordering, and the subset ordering on multisets.
  2059 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2060 
  2061 * Session HOL-Library: the subset ordering on multisets has now the
  2062 interpretations ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le and
  2063 bounded_lattice_bot. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2064 
  2065 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: single has been removed in favor
  2066 of add_mset that roughly corresponds to Set.insert. Some theorems have
  2067 removed or changed:
  2068 
  2069   single_not_empty ~> add_mset_not_empty or empty_not_add_mset
  2070   fold_mset_insert ~> fold_mset_add_mset
  2071   image_mset_insert ~> image_mset_add_mset
  2072   union_single_eq_diff
  2073   multi_self_add_other_not_self
  2074   diff_single_eq_union
  2075 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2076 
  2077 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: some theorems have been changed
  2078 to use add_mset instead of single:
  2079 
  2080   mset_add
  2081   multi_self_add_other_not_self
  2082   diff_single_eq_union
  2083   union_single_eq_diff
  2084   union_single_eq_member
  2085   add_eq_conv_diff
  2086   insert_noteq_member
  2087   add_eq_conv_ex
  2088   multi_member_split
  2089   multiset_add_sub_el_shuffle
  2090   mset_subset_eq_insertD
  2091   mset_subset_insertD
  2092   insert_subset_eq_iff
  2093   insert_union_subset_iff
  2094   multi_psub_of_add_self
  2095   inter_add_left1
  2096   inter_add_left2
  2097   inter_add_right1
  2098   inter_add_right2
  2099   sup_union_left1
  2100   sup_union_left2
  2101   sup_union_right1
  2102   sup_union_right2
  2103   size_eq_Suc_imp_eq_union
  2104   multi_nonempty_split
  2105   mset_insort
  2106   mset_update
  2107   mult1I
  2108   less_add
  2109   mset_zip_take_Cons_drop_twice
  2110   rel_mset_Zero
  2111   msed_map_invL
  2112   msed_map_invR
  2113   msed_rel_invL
  2114   msed_rel_invR
  2115   le_multiset_right_total
  2116   multiset_induct
  2117   multiset_induct2_size
  2118   multiset_induct2
  2119 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2120 
  2121 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the definitions of some
  2122 constants have changed to use add_mset instead of adding a single
  2123 element:
  2124 
  2125   image_mset
  2126   mset
  2127   replicate_mset
  2128   mult1
  2129   pred_mset
  2130   rel_mset'
  2131   mset_insort
  2132 
  2133 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2134 
  2135 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: due to the above changes, the
  2136 attributes of some multiset theorems have been changed:
  2137 
  2138   insert_DiffM  [] ~> [simp]
  2139   insert_DiffM2 [simp] ~> []
  2140   diff_add_mset_swap [simp]
  2141   fold_mset_add_mset [simp]
  2142   diff_diff_add [simp] (for multisets only)
  2143   diff_cancel [simp] ~> []
  2144   count_single [simp] ~> []
  2145   set_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  2146   size_multiset_single [simp] ~> []
  2147   size_single [simp] ~> []
  2148   image_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  2149   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel [simp] ~> []
  2150   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel [simp] ~> []
  2151   fold_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  2152   subset_eq_empty [simp] ~> []
  2153   empty_sup [simp] ~> []
  2154   sup_empty [simp] ~> []
  2155   inter_empty [simp] ~> []
  2156   empty_inter [simp] ~> []
  2157 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2158 
  2159 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the order of the variables in
  2160 the second cases of multiset_induct, multiset_induct2_size,
  2161 multiset_induct2 has been changed (e.g. Add A a ~> Add a A).
  2162 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2163 
  2164 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: there is now a simplification
  2165 procedure on multisets. It mimics the behavior of the procedure on
  2166 natural numbers. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2167 
  2168 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: renamed sums and products of
  2169 multisets:
  2170 
  2171   msetsum ~> sum_mset
  2172   msetprod ~> prod_mset
  2173 
  2174 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the notation for intersection
  2175 and union of multisets have been changed:
  2176 
  2177   #\<inter> ~> \<inter>#
  2178   #\<union> ~> \<union>#
  2179 
  2180 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2181 
  2182 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the lemma
  2183 one_step_implies_mult_aux on multisets has been removed, use
  2184 one_step_implies_mult instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2185 
  2186 * Session HOL-Library: theory Complete_Partial_Order2 provides reasoning
  2187 support for monotonicity and continuity in chain-complete partial orders
  2188 and about admissibility conditions for fixpoint inductions.
  2189 
  2190 * Session HOL-Library: theory Library/Polynomial contains also
  2191 derivation of polynomials (formerly in Library/Poly_Deriv) but not
  2192 gcd/lcm on polynomials over fields. This has been moved to a separate
  2193 theory Library/Polynomial_GCD_euclidean.thy, to pave way for a possible
  2194 future different type class instantiation for polynomials over factorial
  2195 rings. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2196 
  2197 * Session HOL-Library: theory Sublist provides function "prefixes" with
  2198 the following renaming
  2199 
  2200   prefixeq -> prefix
  2201   prefix -> strict_prefix
  2202   suffixeq -> suffix
  2203   suffix -> strict_suffix
  2204 
  2205 Added theory of longest common prefixes.
  2206 
  2207 * Session HOL-Number_Theory: algebraic foundation for primes:
  2208 Generalisation of predicate "prime" and introduction of predicates
  2209 "prime_elem", "irreducible", a "prime_factorization" function, and the
  2210 "factorial_ring" typeclass with instance proofs for nat, int, poly. Some
  2211 theorems now have different names, most notably "prime_def" is now
  2212 "prime_nat_iff". INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2213 
  2214 * Session Old_Number_Theory has been removed, after porting remaining
  2215 theories.
  2216 
  2217 * Session HOL-Types_To_Sets provides an experimental extension of
  2218 Higher-Order Logic to allow translation of types to sets.
  2219 
  2220 
  2221 *** ML ***
  2222 
  2223 * Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm use efficient operations from the Poly/ML
  2224 library (notably for big integers). Subtle change of semantics:
  2225 Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm both normalize the sign, results are never
  2226 negative. This coincides with the definitions in HOL/GCD.thy.
  2227 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2228 
  2229 * Structure Rat for rational numbers is now an integral part of
  2230 Isabelle/ML, with special notation @int/nat or @int for numerals (an
  2231 abbreviation for antiquotation @{Pure.rat argument}) and ML pretty
  2232 printing. Standard operations on type Rat.rat are provided via ad-hoc
  2233 overloading of + - * / < <= > >= ~ abs. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  2234 use + instead of +/ etc. Moreover, exception Rat.DIVZERO has been
  2235 superseded by General.Div.
  2236 
  2237 * ML antiquotation @{path} is superseded by @{file}, which ensures that
  2238 the argument is a plain file. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2239 
  2240 * Antiquotation @{make_string} is available during Pure bootstrap --
  2241 with approximative output quality.
  2242 
  2243 * Low-level ML system structures (like PolyML and RunCall) are no longer
  2244 exposed to Isabelle/ML user-space. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2245 
  2246 * The ML function "ML" provides easy access to run-time compilation.
  2247 This is particularly useful for conditional compilation, without
  2248 requiring separate files.
  2249 
  2250 * Option ML_exception_debugger controls detailed exception trace via the
  2251 Poly/ML debugger. Relevant ML modules need to be compiled beforehand
  2252 with ML_file_debug, or with ML_file and option ML_debugger enabled. Note
  2253 debugger information requires consirable time and space: main
  2254 Isabelle/HOL with full debugger support may need ML_system_64.
  2255 
  2256 * Local_Theory.restore has been renamed to Local_Theory.reset to
  2257 emphasize its disruptive impact on the cumulative context, notably the
  2258 scope of 'private' or 'qualified' names. Note that Local_Theory.reset is
  2259 only appropriate when targets are managed, e.g. starting from a global
  2260 theory and returning to it. Regular definitional packages should use
  2261 balanced blocks of Local_Theory.open_target versus
  2262 Local_Theory.close_target instead. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2263 
  2264 * Structure TimeLimit (originally from the SML/NJ library) has been
  2265 replaced by structure Timeout, with slightly different signature.
  2266 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2267 
  2268 * Discontinued cd and pwd operations, which are not well-defined in a
  2269 multi-threaded environment. Note that files are usually located
  2270 relatively to the master directory of a theory (see also
  2271 File.full_path). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2272 
  2273 * Binding.empty_atts supersedes Thm.empty_binding and
  2274 Attrib.empty_binding. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2275 
  2276 
  2277 *** System ***
  2278 
  2279 * SML/NJ and old versions of Poly/ML are no longer supported.
  2280 
  2281 * Poly/ML heaps now follow the hierarchy of sessions, and thus require
  2282 much less disk space.
  2283 
  2284 * The Isabelle ML process is now managed directly by Isabelle/Scala, and
  2285 shell scripts merely provide optional command-line access. In
  2286 particular:
  2287 
  2288   . Scala module ML_Process to connect to the raw ML process,
  2289     with interaction via stdin/stdout/stderr or in batch mode;
  2290   . command-line tool "isabelle console" as interactive wrapper;
  2291   . command-line tool "isabelle process" as batch mode wrapper.
  2292 
  2293 * The executable "isabelle_process" has been discontinued. Tools and
  2294 prover front-ends should use ML_Process or Isabelle_Process in
  2295 Isabelle/Scala. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2296 
  2297 * New command-line tool "isabelle process" supports ML evaluation of
  2298 literal expressions (option -e) or files (option -f) in the context of a
  2299 given heap image. Errors lead to premature exit of the ML process with
  2300 return code 1.
  2301 
  2302 * The command-line tool "isabelle build" supports option -N for cyclic
  2303 shuffling of NUMA CPU nodes. This may help performance tuning on Linux
  2304 servers with separate CPU/memory modules.
  2305 
  2306 * System option "threads" (for the size of the Isabelle/ML thread farm)
  2307 is also passed to the underlying ML runtime system as --gcthreads,
  2308 unless there is already a default provided via ML_OPTIONS settings.
  2309 
  2310 * System option "checkpoint" helps to fine-tune the global heap space
  2311 management of isabelle build. This is relevant for big sessions that may
  2312 exhaust the small 32-bit address space of the ML process (which is used
  2313 by default).
  2314 
  2315 * System option "profiling" specifies the mode for global ML profiling
  2316 in "isabelle build". Possible values are "time", "allocations". The
  2317 command-line tool "isabelle profiling_report" helps to digest the
  2318 resulting log files.
  2319 
  2320 * System option "ML_process_policy" specifies an optional command prefix
  2321 for the underlying ML process, e.g. to control CPU affinity on
  2322 multiprocessor systems. The "isabelle jedit" tool allows to override the
  2323 implicit default via option -p.
  2324 
  2325 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" provides option -r to help to
  2326 bootstrapping Isabelle/Pure interactively.
  2327 
  2328 * Command-line tool "isabelle yxml" has been discontinued.
  2329 INCOMPATIBILITY, use operations from the modules "XML" and "YXML" in
  2330 Isabelle/ML or Isabelle/Scala.
  2331 
  2332 * Many Isabelle tools that require a Java runtime system refer to the
  2333 settings ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS64,
  2334 depending on the underlying platform. The settings for "isabelle build"
  2335 ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64 have been
  2336 discontinued. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2337 
  2338 * The Isabelle system environment always ensures that the main
  2339 executables are found within the shell search $PATH: "isabelle" and
  2340 "isabelle_scala_script".
  2341 
  2342 * Isabelle tools may consist of .scala files: the Scala compiler is
  2343 invoked on the spot. The source needs to define some object that extends
  2344 Isabelle_Tool.Body.
  2345 
  2346 * File.bash_string, File.bash_path etc. represent Isabelle/ML and
  2347 Isabelle/Scala strings authentically within GNU bash. This is useful to
  2348 produce robust shell scripts under program control, without worrying
  2349 about spaces or special characters. Note that user output works via
  2350 Path.print (ML) or Path.toString (Scala). INCOMPATIBILITY, the old (and
  2351 less versatile) operations File.shell_quote, File.shell_path etc. have
  2352 been discontinued.
  2353 
  2354 * The isabelle_java executable allows to run a Java process within the
  2355 name space of Java and Scala components that are bundled with Isabelle,
  2356 but without the Isabelle settings environment.
  2357 
  2358 * Isabelle/Scala: the SSH module supports ssh and sftp connections, for
  2359 remote command-execution and file-system access. This resembles
  2360 operations from module File and Isabelle_System to some extent. Note
  2361 that Path specifications need to be resolved remotely via
  2362 ssh.remote_path instead of File.standard_path: the implicit process
  2363 environment is different, Isabelle settings are not available remotely.
  2364 
  2365 * Isabelle/Scala: the Mercurial module supports repositories via the
  2366 regular hg command-line interface. The repositroy clone and working
  2367 directory may reside on a local or remote file-system (via ssh
  2368 connection).
  2369 
  2370 
  2371 
  2372 New in Isabelle2016 (February 2016)
  2373 -----------------------------------
  2374 
  2375 *** General ***
  2376 
  2377 * Eisbach is now based on Pure instead of HOL. Objects-logics may import
  2378 either the theory ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach (for HOL etc.) or
  2379 ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach_Old_Appl_Syntax (for FOL, ZF etc.). Note that
  2380 the HOL-Eisbach session located in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/ contains further
  2381 examples that do require HOL.
  2382 
  2383 * Better resource usage on all platforms (Linux, Windows, Mac OS X) for
  2384 both Isabelle/ML and Isabelle/Scala.  Slightly reduced heap space usage.
  2385 
  2386 * Former "xsymbols" syntax with Isabelle symbols is used by default,
  2387 without any special print mode. Important ASCII replacement syntax
  2388 remains available under print mode "ASCII", but less important syntax
  2389 has been removed (see below).
  2390 
  2391 * Support for more arrow symbols, with rendering in LaTeX and Isabelle
  2392 fonts: \<Lleftarrow> \<Rrightarrow> \<longlongleftarrow> \<longlongrightarrow> \<longlonglongleftarrow> \<longlonglongrightarrow>.
  2393 
  2394 * Special notation \<struct> for the first implicit 'structure' in the
  2395 context has been discontinued. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit
  2396 structure name instead, notably in indexed notation with block-subscript
  2397 (e.g. \<odot>\<^bsub>A\<^esub>).
  2398 
  2399 * The glyph for \<diamond> in the IsabelleText font now corresponds better to its
  2400 counterpart \<box> as quantifier-like symbol. A small diamond is available as
  2401 \<diamondop>; the old symbol \<struct> loses this rendering and any special
  2402 meaning.
  2403 
  2404 * Syntax for formal comments "-- text" now also supports the symbolic
  2405 form "\<comment> text". Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -c" helps
  2406 to update old sources.
  2407 
  2408 * Toplevel theorem statements have been simplified as follows:
  2409 
  2410   theorems             ~>  lemmas
  2411   schematic_lemma      ~>  schematic_goal
  2412   schematic_theorem    ~>  schematic_goal
  2413   schematic_corollary  ~>  schematic_goal
  2414 
  2415 Command-line tool "isabelle update_theorems" updates theory sources
  2416 accordingly.
  2417 
  2418 * Toplevel theorem statement 'proposition' is another alias for
  2419 'theorem'.
  2420 
  2421 * The old 'defs' command has been removed (legacy since Isabelle2014).
  2422 INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular 'definition' instead. Overloaded and/or
  2423 deferred definitions require a surrounding 'overloading' block.
  2424 
  2425 
  2426 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2427 
  2428 * IDE support for the source-level debugger of Poly/ML, to work with
  2429 Isabelle/ML and official Standard ML. Option "ML_debugger" and commands
  2430 'ML_file_debug', 'ML_file_no_debug', 'SML_file_debug',
  2431 'SML_file_no_debug' control compilation of sources with or without
  2432 debugging information. The Debugger panel allows to set breakpoints (via
  2433 context menu), step through stopped threads, evaluate local ML
  2434 expressions etc. At least one Debugger view needs to be active to have
  2435 any effect on the running ML program.
  2436 
  2437 * The State panel manages explicit proof state output, with dynamic
  2438 auto-update according to cursor movement. Alternatively, the jEdit
  2439 action "isabelle.update-state" (shortcut S+ENTER) triggers manual
  2440 update.
  2441 
  2442 * The Output panel no longer shows proof state output by default, to
  2443 avoid GUI overcrowding. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the State panel instead or
  2444 enable option "editor_output_state".
  2445 
  2446 * The text overview column (status of errors, warnings etc.) is updated
  2447 asynchronously, leading to much better editor reactivity. Moreover, the
  2448 full document node content is taken into account. The width of the
  2449 column is scaled according to the main text area font, for improved
  2450 visibility.
  2451 
  2452 * The main text area no longer changes its color hue in outdated
  2453 situations. The text overview column takes over the role to indicate
  2454 unfinished edits in the PIDE pipeline. This avoids flashing text display
  2455 due to ad-hoc updates by auxiliary GUI components, such as the State
  2456 panel.
  2457 
  2458 * Slightly improved scheduling for urgent print tasks (e.g. command
  2459 state output, interactive queries) wrt. long-running background tasks.
  2460 
  2461 * Completion of symbols via prefix of \<name> or \<^name> or \name is
  2462 always possible, independently of the language context. It is never
  2463 implicit: a popup will show up unconditionally.
  2464 
  2465 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified in
  2466 $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs, with
  2467 support for simple templates using ASCII 007 (bell) as placeholder.
  2468 
  2469 * Symbols \<oplus>, \<Oplus>, \<otimes>, \<Otimes>, \<odot>, \<Odot>, \<ominus>, \<oslash> no longer provide abbreviations for
  2470 completion like "+o", "*o", ".o" etc. -- due to conflicts with other
  2471 ASCII syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain backslash-completion or define
  2472 suitable abbreviations in $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs.
  2473 
  2474 * Action "isabelle-emph" (with keyboard shortcut C+e LEFT) controls
  2475 emphasized text style; the effect is visible in document output, not in
  2476 the editor.
  2477 
  2478 * Action "isabelle-reset" now uses keyboard shortcut C+e BACK_SPACE,
  2479 instead of former C+e LEFT.
  2480 
  2481 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" and the isabelle.Main
  2482 application wrapper treat the default $USER_HOME/Scratch.thy more
  2483 uniformly, and allow the dummy file argument ":" to open an empty buffer
  2484 instead.
  2485 
  2486 * New command-line tool "isabelle jedit_client" allows to connect to an
  2487 already running Isabelle/jEdit process. This achieves the effect of
  2488 single-instance applications seen on common GUI desktops.
  2489 
  2490 * The default look-and-feel for Linux is the traditional "Metal", which
  2491 works better with GUI scaling for very high-resolution displays (e.g.
  2492 4K). Moreover, it is generally more robust than "Nimbus".
  2493 
  2494 * Update to jedit-5.3.0, with improved GUI scaling and support of
  2495 high-resolution displays (e.g. 4K).
  2496 
  2497 * The main Isabelle executable is managed as single-instance Desktop
  2498 application uniformly on all platforms: Linux, Windows, Mac OS X.
  2499 
  2500 
  2501 *** Document preparation ***
  2502 
  2503 * Commands 'paragraph' and 'subparagraph' provide additional section
  2504 headings. Thus there are 6 levels of standard headings, as in HTML.
  2505 
  2506 * Command 'text_raw' has been clarified: input text is processed as in
  2507 'text' (with antiquotations and control symbols). The key difference is
  2508 the lack of the surrounding isabelle markup environment in output.
  2509 
  2510 * Text is structured in paragraphs and nested lists, using notation that
  2511 is similar to Markdown. The control symbols for list items are as
  2512 follows:
  2513 
  2514   \<^item>  itemize
  2515   \<^enum>  enumerate
  2516   \<^descr>  description
  2517 
  2518 * There is a new short form for antiquotations with a single argument
  2519 that is a cartouche: \<^name>\<open>...\<close> is equivalent to @{name \<open>...\<close>} and
  2520 \<open>...\<close> without control symbol is equivalent to @{cartouche \<open>...\<close>}.
  2521 \<^name> without following cartouche is equivalent to @{name}. The
  2522 standard Isabelle fonts provide glyphs to render important control
  2523 symbols, e.g. "\<^verbatim>", "\<^emph>", "\<^bold>".
  2524 
  2525 * Antiquotations @{noindent}, @{smallskip}, @{medskip}, @{bigskip} with
  2526 corresponding control symbols \<^noindent>, \<^smallskip>, \<^medskip>, \<^bigskip> specify spacing formally, using
  2527 standard LaTeX macros of the same names.
  2528 
  2529 * Antiquotation @{cartouche} in Isabelle/Pure is the same as @{text}.
  2530 Consequently, \<open>...\<close> without any decoration prints literal quasi-formal
  2531 text. Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -t" helps to update
  2532 old sources, by approximative patching of the content of string and
  2533 cartouche tokens seen in theory sources.
  2534 
  2535 * The @{text} antiquotation now ignores the antiquotation option
  2536 "source". The given text content is output unconditionally, without any
  2537 surrounding quotes etc. Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, put quotes into the
  2538 argument where they are really intended, e.g. @{text \<open>"foo"\<close>}. Initial
  2539 or terminal spaces are ignored.
  2540 
  2541 * Antiquotations @{emph} and @{bold} output LaTeX source recursively,
  2542 adding appropriate text style markup. These may be used in the short
  2543 form \<^emph>\<open>...\<close> and \<^bold>\<open>...\<close>.
  2544 
  2545 * Document antiquotation @{footnote} outputs LaTeX source recursively,
  2546 marked as \footnote{}. This may be used in the short form \<^footnote>\<open>...\<close>.
  2547 
  2548 * Antiquotation @{verbatim [display]} supports option "indent".
  2549 
  2550 * Antiquotation @{theory_text} prints uninterpreted theory source text
  2551 (Isar outer syntax with command keywords etc.). This may be used in the
  2552 short form \<^theory_text>\<open>...\<close>. @{theory_text [display]} supports option "indent".
  2553 
  2554 * Antiquotation @{doc ENTRY} provides a reference to the given
  2555 documentation, with a hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
  2556 
  2557 * Antiquotations @{command}, @{method}, @{attribute} print checked
  2558 entities of the Isar language.
  2559 
  2560 * HTML presentation uses the standard IsabelleText font and Unicode
  2561 rendering of Isabelle symbols like Isabelle/Scala/jEdit.  The former
  2562 print mode "HTML" loses its special meaning.
  2563 
  2564 
  2565 *** Isar ***
  2566 
  2567 * Local goals ('have', 'show', 'hence', 'thus') allow structured rule
  2568 statements like fixes/assumes/shows in theorem specifications, but the
  2569 notation is postfix with keywords 'if' (or 'when') and 'for'. For
  2570 example:
  2571 
  2572   have result: "C x y"
  2573     if "A x" and "B y"
  2574     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2575     <proof>
  2576 
  2577 The local assumptions are bound to the name "that". The result is
  2578 exported from context of the statement as usual. The above roughly
  2579 corresponds to a raw proof block like this:
  2580 
  2581   {
  2582     fix x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2583     assume that: "A x" "B y"
  2584     have "C x y" <proof>
  2585   }
  2586   note result = this
  2587 
  2588 The keyword 'when' may be used instead of 'if', to indicate 'presume'
  2589 instead of 'assume' above.
  2590 
  2591 * Assumptions ('assume', 'presume') allow structured rule statements
  2592 using 'if' and 'for', similar to 'have' etc. above. For example:
  2593 
  2594   assume result: "C x y"
  2595     if "A x" and "B y"
  2596     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2597 
  2598 This assumes "\<And>x y::'a. A x \<Longrightarrow> B y \<Longrightarrow> C x y" and produces a general
  2599 result as usual: "A ?x \<Longrightarrow> B ?y \<Longrightarrow> C ?x ?y".
  2600 
  2601 Vacuous quantification in assumptions is omitted, i.e. a for-context
  2602 only effects propositions according to actual use of variables. For
  2603 example:
  2604 
  2605   assume "A x" and "B y" for x and y
  2606 
  2607 is equivalent to:
  2608 
  2609   assume "\<And>x. A x" and "\<And>y. B y"
  2610 
  2611 * The meaning of 'show' with Pure rule statements has changed: premises
  2612 are treated in the sense of 'assume', instead of 'presume'. This means,
  2613 a goal like "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x" can be solved completely as
  2614 follows:
  2615 
  2616   show "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2617 
  2618 or:
  2619 
  2620   show "C x" if "A x" "B x" for x
  2621 
  2622 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, the old behaviour may be recovered as follows:
  2623 
  2624   show "C x" when "A x" "B x" for x
  2625 
  2626 * New command 'consider' states rules for generalized elimination and
  2627 case splitting. This is like a toplevel statement "theorem obtains" used
  2628 within a proof body; or like a multi-branch 'obtain' without activation
  2629 of the local context elements yet.
  2630 
  2631 * Proof method "cases" allows to specify the rule as first entry of
  2632 chained facts.  This is particularly useful with 'consider':
  2633 
  2634   consider (a) A | (b) B | (c) C <proof>
  2635   then have something
  2636   proof cases
  2637     case a
  2638     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2639   next
  2640     case b
  2641     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2642   next
  2643     case c
  2644     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2645   qed
  2646 
  2647 * Command 'case' allows fact name and attribute specification like this:
  2648 
  2649   case a: (c xs)
  2650   case a [attributes]: (c xs)
  2651 
  2652 Facts that are introduced by invoking the case context are uniformly
  2653 qualified by "a"; the same name is used for the cumulative fact. The old
  2654 form "case (c xs) [attributes]" is no longer supported. Rare
  2655 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt uses of case facts in exotic situations,
  2656 and always put attributes in front.
  2657 
  2658 * The standard proof method of commands 'proof' and '..' is now called
  2659 "standard" to make semantically clear what it is; the old name "default"
  2660 is still available as legacy for some time. Documentation now explains
  2661 '..' more accurately as "by standard" instead of "by rule".
  2662 
  2663 * Nesting of Isar goal structure has been clarified: the context after
  2664 the initial backwards refinement is retained for the whole proof, within
  2665 all its context sections (as indicated via 'next'). This is e.g.
  2666 relevant for 'using', 'including', 'supply':
  2667 
  2668   have "A \<and> A" if a: A for A
  2669     supply [simp] = a
  2670   proof
  2671     show A by simp
  2672   next
  2673     show A by simp
  2674   qed
  2675 
  2676 * Command 'obtain' binds term abbreviations (via 'is' patterns) in the
  2677 proof body as well, abstracted over relevant parameters.
  2678 
  2679 * Improved type-inference for theorem statement 'obtains': separate
  2680 parameter scope for of each clause.
  2681 
  2682 * Term abbreviations via 'is' patterns also work for schematic
  2683 statements: result is abstracted over unknowns.
  2684 
  2685 * Command 'subgoal' allows to impose some structure on backward
  2686 refinements, to avoid proof scripts degenerating into long of 'apply'
  2687 sequences. Further explanations and examples are given in the isar-ref
  2688 manual.
  2689 
  2690 * Command 'supply' supports fact definitions during goal refinement
  2691 ('apply' scripts).
  2692 
  2693 * Proof method "goal_cases" turns the current subgoals into cases within
  2694 the context; the conclusion is bound to variable ?case in each case. For
  2695 example:
  2696 
  2697 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2698   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  2699 proof goal_cases
  2700   case (1 x)
  2701   then show ?case using \<open>A x\<close> \<open>B x\<close> sorry
  2702 next
  2703   case (2 y z)
  2704   then show ?case using \<open>U y\<close> \<open>V z\<close> sorry
  2705 qed
  2706 
  2707 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2708   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  2709 proof goal_cases
  2710   case prems: 1
  2711   then show ?case using prems sorry
  2712 next
  2713   case prems: 2
  2714   then show ?case using prems sorry
  2715 qed
  2716 
  2717 * The undocumented feature of implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc.
  2718 is marked as legacy, and will be removed eventually. The proof method
  2719 "goals" achieves a similar effect within regular Isar; often it can be
  2720 done more adequately by other means (e.g. 'consider').
  2721 
  2722 * The vacuous fact "TERM x" may be established "by fact" or as `TERM x`
  2723 as well, not just "by this" or "." as before.
  2724 
  2725 * Method "sleep" succeeds after a real-time delay (in seconds). This is
  2726 occasionally useful for demonstration and testing purposes.
  2727 
  2728 
  2729 *** Pure ***
  2730 
  2731 * Qualifiers in locale expressions default to mandatory ('!') regardless
  2732 of the command. Previously, for 'locale' and 'sublocale' the default was
  2733 optional ('?'). The old synatx '!' has been discontinued.
  2734 INCOMPATIBILITY, remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  2735 
  2736 * Keyword 'rewrites' identifies rewrite morphisms in interpretation
  2737 commands. Previously, the keyword was 'where'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2738 
  2739 * More gentle suppression of syntax along locale morphisms while
  2740 printing terms. Previously 'abbreviation' and 'notation' declarations
  2741 would be suppressed for morphisms except term identity. Now
  2742 'abbreviation' is also kept for morphims that only change the involved
  2743 parameters, and only 'notation' is suppressed. This can be of great help
  2744 when working with complex locale hierarchies, because proof states are
  2745 displayed much more succinctly. It also means that only notation needs
  2746 to be redeclared if desired, as illustrated by this example:
  2747 
  2748   locale struct = fixes composition :: "'a => 'a => 'a" (infixl "\<cdot>" 65)
  2749   begin
  2750     definition derived (infixl "\<odot>" 65) where ...
  2751   end
  2752 
  2753   locale morphism =
  2754     left: struct composition + right: struct composition'
  2755     for composition (infix "\<cdot>" 65) and composition' (infix "\<cdot>''" 65)
  2756   begin
  2757     notation right.derived ("\<odot>''")
  2758   end
  2759 
  2760 * Command 'global_interpretation' issues interpretations into global
  2761 theories, with optional rewrite definitions following keyword 'defines'.
  2762 
  2763 * Command 'sublocale' accepts optional rewrite definitions after keyword
  2764 'defines'.
  2765 
  2766 * Command 'permanent_interpretation' has been discontinued. Use
  2767 'global_interpretation' or 'sublocale' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2768 
  2769 * Command 'print_definitions' prints dependencies of definitional
  2770 specifications. This functionality used to be part of 'print_theory'.
  2771 
  2772 * Configuration option rule_insts_schematic has been discontinued
  2773 (intermediate legacy feature in Isabelle2015). INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2774 
  2775 * Abbreviations in type classes now carry proper sort constraint. Rare
  2776 INCOMPATIBILITY in situations where the previous misbehaviour has been
  2777 exploited.
  2778 
  2779 * Refinement of user-space type system in type classes: pseudo-local
  2780 operations behave more similar to abbreviations. Potential
  2781 INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  2782 
  2783 
  2784 *** HOL ***
  2785 
  2786 * The 'typedef' command has been upgraded from a partially checked
  2787 "axiomatization", to a full definitional specification that takes the
  2788 global collection of overloaded constant / type definitions into
  2789 account. Type definitions with open dependencies on overloaded
  2790 definitions need to be specified as "typedef (overloaded)". This
  2791 provides extra robustness in theory construction. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2792 
  2793 * Qualification of various formal entities in the libraries is done more
  2794 uniformly via "context begin qualified definition ... end" instead of
  2795 old-style "hide_const (open) ...". Consequently, both the defined
  2796 constant and its defining fact become qualified, e.g. Option.is_none and
  2797 Option.is_none_def. Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY in applications.
  2798 
  2799 * Some old and rarely used ASCII replacement syntax has been removed.
  2800 INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax with symbols should be used instead.
  2801 The subsequent commands help to reproduce the old forms, e.g. to
  2802 simplify porting old theories:
  2803 
  2804   notation iff  (infixr "<->" 25)
  2805 
  2806   notation Times  (infixr "<*>" 80)
  2807 
  2808   type_notation Map.map  (infixr "~=>" 0)
  2809   notation Map.map_comp  (infixl "o'_m" 55)
  2810 
  2811   type_notation FinFun.finfun ("(_ =>f /_)" [22, 21] 21)
  2812 
  2813   notation FuncSet.funcset  (infixr "->" 60)
  2814   notation FuncSet.extensional_funcset  (infixr "->\<^sub>E" 60)
  2815 
  2816   notation Omega_Words_Fun.conc (infixr "conc" 65)
  2817 
  2818   notation Preorder.equiv ("op ~~")
  2819     and Preorder.equiv ("(_/ ~~ _)" [51, 51] 50)
  2820 
  2821   notation (in topological_space) tendsto (infixr "--->" 55)
  2822   notation (in topological_space) LIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  2823   notation LIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  2824 
  2825   notation NSA.approx (infixl "@=" 50)
  2826   notation NSLIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----NS> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  2827   notation NSLIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --NS> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  2828 
  2829 * The alternative notation "\<Colon>" for type and sort constraints has been
  2830 removed: in LaTeX document output it looks the same as "::".
  2831 INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain "::" instead.
  2832 
  2833 * Commands 'inductive' and 'inductive_set' work better when names for
  2834 intro rules are omitted: the "cases" and "induct" rules no longer
  2835 declare empty case_names, but no case_names at all. This allows to use
  2836 numbered cases in proofs, without requiring method "goal_cases".
  2837 
  2838 * Inductive definitions ('inductive', 'coinductive', etc.) expose
  2839 low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  2840 "inductive_internals" is enabled. This refers to the internal predicate
  2841 definition and its monotonicity result. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2842 
  2843 * Recursive function definitions ('fun', 'function', 'partial_function')
  2844 expose low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  2845 "function_internals" is enabled. Its internal inductive definition is
  2846 also subject to "inductive_internals". Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2847 
  2848 * BNF datatypes ('datatype', 'codatatype', etc.) expose low-level facts
  2849 of the internal construction only if the option "bnf_internals" is
  2850 enabled. This supersedes the former option "bnf_note_all". Rare
  2851 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2852 
  2853 * Combinator to represent case distinction on products is named
  2854 "case_prod", uniformly, discontinuing any input aliasses. Very popular
  2855 theorem aliasses have been retained.
  2856 
  2857 Consolidated facts:
  2858   PairE ~> prod.exhaust
  2859   Pair_eq ~> prod.inject
  2860   pair_collapse ~> prod.collapse
  2861   Pair_fst_snd_eq ~> prod_eq_iff
  2862   split_twice ~> prod.case_distrib
  2863   split_weak_cong ~> prod.case_cong_weak
  2864   split_split ~> prod.split
  2865   split_split_asm ~> prod.split_asm
  2866   splitI ~> case_prodI
  2867   splitD ~> case_prodD
  2868   splitI2 ~> case_prodI2
  2869   splitI2' ~> case_prodI2'
  2870   splitE ~> case_prodE
  2871   splitE' ~> case_prodE'
  2872   split_pair ~> case_prod_Pair
  2873   split_eta ~> case_prod_eta
  2874   split_comp ~> case_prod_comp
  2875   mem_splitI ~> mem_case_prodI
  2876   mem_splitI2 ~> mem_case_prodI2
  2877   mem_splitE ~> mem_case_prodE
  2878   The_split ~> The_case_prod
  2879   cond_split_eta ~> cond_case_prod_eta
  2880   Collect_split_in_rel_leE ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leE
  2881   Collect_split_in_rel_leI ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leI
  2882   in_rel_Collect_split_eq ~> in_rel_Collect_case_prod_eq
  2883   Collect_split_Grp_eqD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_eqD
  2884   Collect_split_Grp_inD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_in
  2885   Domain_Collect_split ~> Domain_Collect_case_prod
  2886   Image_Collect_split ~> Image_Collect_case_prod
  2887   Range_Collect_split ~> Range_Collect_case_prod
  2888   Eps_split ~> Eps_case_prod
  2889   Eps_split_eq ~> Eps_case_prod_eq
  2890   split_rsp ~> case_prod_rsp
  2891   curry_split ~> curry_case_prod
  2892   split_curry ~> case_prod_curry
  2893 
  2894 Changes in structure HOLogic:
  2895   split_const ~> case_prod_const
  2896   mk_split ~> mk_case_prod
  2897   mk_psplits ~> mk_ptupleabs
  2898   strip_psplits ~> strip_ptupleabs
  2899 
  2900 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2901 
  2902 * The coercions to type 'real' have been reorganised. The function
  2903 'real' is no longer overloaded, but has type 'nat => real' and
  2904 abbreviates of_nat for that type. Also 'real_of_int :: int => real'
  2905 abbreviates of_int for that type. Other overloaded instances of 'real'
  2906 have been replaced by 'real_of_ereal' and 'real_of_float'.
  2907 
  2908 Consolidated facts (among others):
  2909   real_of_nat_le_iff -> of_nat_le_iff
  2910   real_of_nat_numeral of_nat_numeral
  2911   real_of_int_zero of_int_0
  2912   real_of_nat_zero of_nat_0
  2913   real_of_one of_int_1
  2914   real_of_int_add of_int_add
  2915   real_of_nat_add of_nat_add
  2916   real_of_int_diff of_int_diff
  2917   real_of_nat_diff of_nat_diff
  2918   floor_subtract floor_diff_of_int
  2919   real_of_int_inject of_int_eq_iff
  2920   real_of_int_gt_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_less_iff
  2921   real_of_int_ge_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_le_iff
  2922   real_of_nat_ge_zero of_nat_0_le_iff
  2923   real_of_int_ceiling_ge le_of_int_ceiling
  2924   ceiling_less_eq ceiling_less_iff
  2925   ceiling_le_eq ceiling_le_iff
  2926   less_floor_eq less_floor_iff
  2927   floor_less_eq floor_less_iff
  2928   floor_divide_eq_div floor_divide_of_int_eq
  2929   real_of_int_zero_cancel of_nat_eq_0_iff
  2930   ceiling_real_of_int ceiling_of_int
  2931 
  2932 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2933 
  2934 * Theory Map: lemma map_of_is_SomeD was a clone of map_of_SomeD and has
  2935 been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2936 
  2937 * Quickcheck setup for finite sets.
  2938 
  2939 * Discontinued simp_legacy_precond. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2940 
  2941 * Sledgehammer:
  2942   - The MaSh relevance filter has been sped up.
  2943   - Proof reconstruction has been improved, to minimize the incidence of
  2944     cases where Sledgehammer gives a proof that does not work.
  2945   - Auto Sledgehammer now minimizes and preplays the results.
  2946   - Handle Vampire 4.0 proof output without raising exception.
  2947   - Eliminated "MASH" environment variable. Use the "MaSh" option in
  2948     Isabelle/jEdit instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2949   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option and related subcommands.
  2950 
  2951 * Nitpick:
  2952   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "finite" predicate.
  2953   - Fixed soundness bug in "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  2954   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "rat" type.
  2955   - Removed "check_potential" and "check_genuine" options.
  2956   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option.
  2957 
  2958 * (Co)datatype package:
  2959   - New commands "lift_bnf" and "copy_bnf" for lifting (copying) a BNF
  2960     structure on the raw type to an abstract type defined using typedef.
  2961   - Always generate "case_transfer" theorem.
  2962   - For mutual types, generate slightly stronger "rel_induct",
  2963     "rel_coinduct", and "coinduct" theorems. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2964   - Allow discriminators and selectors with the same name as the type
  2965     being defined.
  2966   - Avoid various internal name clashes (e.g., 'datatype f = f').
  2967 
  2968 * Transfer: new methods for interactive debugging of 'transfer' and
  2969 'transfer_prover': 'transfer_start', 'transfer_step', 'transfer_end',
  2970 'transfer_prover_start' and 'transfer_prover_end'.
  2971 
  2972 * New diagnostic command print_record for displaying record definitions.
  2973 
  2974 * Division on integers is bootstrapped directly from division on
  2975 naturals and uses generic numeral algorithm for computations. Slight
  2976 INCOMPATIBILITY, simproc numeral_divmod replaces and generalizes former
  2977 simprocs binary_int_div and binary_int_mod
  2978 
  2979 * Tightened specification of class semiring_no_zero_divisors. Minor
  2980 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2981 
  2982 * Class algebraic_semidom introduces common algebraic notions of
  2983 integral (semi)domains, particularly units. Although logically subsumed
  2984 by fields, is is not a super class of these in order not to burden
  2985 fields with notions that are trivial there.
  2986 
  2987 * Class normalization_semidom specifies canonical representants for
  2988 equivalence classes of associated elements in an integral (semi)domain.
  2989 This formalizes associated elements as well.
  2990 
  2991 * Abstract specification of gcd/lcm operations in classes semiring_gcd,
  2992 semiring_Gcd, semiring_Lcd. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: facts gcd_nat.commute
  2993 and gcd_int.commute are subsumed by gcd.commute, as well as
  2994 gcd_nat.assoc and gcd_int.assoc by gcd.assoc.
  2995 
  2996 * Former constants Fields.divide (_ / _) and Divides.div (_ div _) are
  2997 logically unified to Rings.divide in syntactic type class Rings.divide,
  2998 with infix syntax (_ div _). Infix syntax (_ / _) for field division is
  2999 added later as abbreviation in class Fields.inverse. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3000 instantiations must refer to Rings.divide rather than the former
  3001 separate constants, hence infix syntax (_ / _) is usually not available
  3002 during instantiation.
  3003 
  3004 * New cancellation simprocs for boolean algebras to cancel complementary
  3005 terms for sup and inf. For example, "sup x (sup y (- x))" simplifies to
  3006 "top". INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3007 
  3008 * Class uniform_space introduces uniform spaces btw topological spaces
  3009 and metric spaces. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: open_<type>_def needs to be
  3010 introduced in the form of an uniformity. Some constants are more general
  3011 now, it may be necessary to add type class constraints.
  3012 
  3013   open_real_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  3014   open_complex_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  3015 
  3016 * Library/Monad_Syntax: notation uses symbols \<bind> and \<then>. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3017 
  3018 * Library/Multiset:
  3019   - Renamed multiset inclusion operators:
  3020       < ~> <#
  3021       > ~> >#
  3022       <= ~> <=#
  3023       >= ~> >=#
  3024       \<le> ~> \<le>#
  3025       \<ge> ~> \<ge>#
  3026     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3027   - Added multiset inclusion operator syntax:
  3028       \<subset>#
  3029       \<subseteq>#
  3030       \<supset>#
  3031       \<supseteq>#
  3032   - "'a multiset" is no longer an instance of the "order",
  3033     "ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le", "ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_diff",
  3034     "semilattice_inf", and "semilattice_sup" type classes. The theorems
  3035     previously provided by these type classes (directly or indirectly)
  3036     are now available through the "subset_mset" interpretation
  3037     (e.g. add_mono ~> subset_mset.add_mono).
  3038     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3039   - Renamed conversions:
  3040       multiset_of ~> mset
  3041       multiset_of_set ~> mset_set
  3042       set_of ~> set_mset
  3043     INCOMPATIBILITY
  3044   - Renamed lemmas:
  3045       mset_le_def ~> subseteq_mset_def
  3046       mset_less_def ~> subset_mset_def
  3047       less_eq_multiset.rep_eq ~> subseteq_mset_def
  3048     INCOMPATIBILITY
  3049   - Removed lemmas generated by lift_definition:
  3050     less_eq_multiset.abs_eq, less_eq_multiset.rsp,
  3051     less_eq_multiset.transfer, less_eq_multiset_def
  3052     INCOMPATIBILITY
  3053 
  3054 * Library/Omega_Words_Fun: Infinite words modeled as functions nat \<Rightarrow> 'a.
  3055 
  3056 * Library/Bourbaki_Witt_Fixpoint: Added formalisation of the
  3057 Bourbaki-Witt fixpoint theorem for increasing functions in
  3058 chain-complete partial orders.
  3059 
  3060 * Library/Old_Recdef: discontinued obsolete 'defer_recdef' command.
  3061 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'function' instead.
  3062 
  3063 * Library/Periodic_Fun: a locale that provides convenient lemmas for
  3064 periodic functions.
  3065 
  3066 * Library/Formal_Power_Series: proper definition of division (with
  3067 remainder) for formal power series; instances for Euclidean Ring and
  3068 GCD.
  3069 
  3070 * HOL-Imperative_HOL: obsolete theory Legacy_Mrec has been removed.
  3071 
  3072 * HOL-Statespace: command 'statespace' uses mandatory qualifier for
  3073 import of parent, as for general 'locale' expressions. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3074 remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  3075 
  3076 * HOL-Decision_Procs: The "approximation" method works with "powr"
  3077 (exponentiation on real numbers) again.
  3078 
  3079 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: theory Cauchy_Integral_Thm with Contour
  3080 integrals (= complex path integrals), Cauchy's integral theorem, winding
  3081 numbers and Cauchy's integral formula, Liouville theorem, Fundamental
  3082 Theorem of Algebra. Ported from HOL Light.
  3083 
  3084 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: topological concepts such as connected
  3085 components, homotopic paths and the inside or outside of a set.
  3086 
  3087 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: radius of convergence of power series and
  3088 various summability tests; Harmonic numbers and the Euler–Mascheroni
  3089 constant; the Generalised Binomial Theorem; the complex and real
  3090 Gamma/log-Gamma/Digamma/ Polygamma functions and their most important
  3091 properties.
  3092 
  3093 * HOL-Probability: The central limit theorem based on Levy's uniqueness
  3094 and continuity theorems, weak convergence, and characterisitc functions.
  3095 
  3096 * HOL-Data_Structures: new and growing session of standard data
  3097 structures.
  3098 
  3099 
  3100 *** ML ***
  3101 
  3102 * The following combinators for low-level profiling of the ML runtime
  3103 system are available:
  3104 
  3105   profile_time          (*CPU time*)
  3106   profile_time_thread   (*CPU time on this thread*)
  3107   profile_allocations   (*overall heap allocations*)
  3108 
  3109 * Antiquotation @{undefined} or \<^undefined> inlines (raise Match).
  3110 
  3111 * Antiquotation @{method NAME} inlines the (checked) name of the given
  3112 Isar proof method.
  3113 
  3114 * Pretty printing of Poly/ML compiler output in Isabelle has been
  3115 improved: proper treatment of break offsets and blocks with consistent
  3116 breaks.
  3117 
  3118 * The auxiliary module Pure/display.ML has been eliminated. Its
  3119 elementary thm print operations are now in Pure/more_thm.ML and thus
  3120 called Thm.pretty_thm, Thm.string_of_thm etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3121 
  3122 * Simproc programming interfaces have been simplified:
  3123 Simplifier.make_simproc and Simplifier.define_simproc supersede various
  3124 forms of Simplifier.mk_simproc, Simplifier.simproc_global etc. Note that
  3125 term patterns for the left-hand sides are specified with implicitly
  3126 fixed variables, like top-level theorem statements. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3127 
  3128 * Instantiation rules have been re-organized as follows:
  3129 
  3130   Thm.instantiate  (*low-level instantiation with named arguments*)
  3131   Thm.instantiate' (*version with positional arguments*)
  3132 
  3133   Drule.infer_instantiate  (*instantiation with type inference*)
  3134   Drule.infer_instantiate'  (*version with positional arguments*)
  3135 
  3136 The LHS only requires variable specifications, instead of full terms.
  3137 Old cterm_instantiate is superseded by infer_instantiate.
  3138 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to re-adjust some ML names and types accordingly.
  3139 
  3140 * Old tactic shorthands atac, rtac, etac, dtac, ftac have been
  3141 discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular assume_tac, resolve_tac etc.
  3142 instead (with proper context).
  3143 
  3144 * Thm.instantiate (and derivatives) no longer require the LHS of the
  3145 instantiation to be certified: plain variables are given directly.
  3146 
  3147 * Subgoal.SUBPROOF and Subgoal.FOCUS combinators use anonymous
  3148 quasi-bound variables (like the Simplifier), instead of accidentally
  3149 named local fixes. This has the potential to improve stability of proof
  3150 tools, but can also cause INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that don't observe
  3151 the proof context discipline.
  3152 
  3153 * Isar proof methods are based on a slightly more general type
  3154 context_tactic, which allows to change the proof context dynamically
  3155 (e.g. to update cases) and indicate explicit Seq.Error results. Former
  3156 METHOD_CASES is superseded by CONTEXT_METHOD; further combinators are
  3157 provided in src/Pure/Isar/method.ML for convenience. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3158 
  3159 
  3160 *** System ***
  3161 
  3162 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" enables print mode "ASCII".
  3163 
  3164 * Command-line tool "isabelle update_then" expands old Isar command
  3165 conflations:
  3166 
  3167     hence  ~>  then have
  3168     thus   ~>  then show
  3169 
  3170 This syntax is more orthogonal and improves readability and
  3171 maintainability of proofs.
  3172 
  3173 * Global session timeout is multiplied by timeout_scale factor. This
  3174 allows to adjust large-scale tests (e.g. AFP) to overall hardware
  3175 performance.
  3176 
  3177 * Property values in etc/symbols may contain spaces, if written with the
  3178 replacement character "␣" (Unicode point 0x2324). For example:
  3179 
  3180     \<star>  code: 0x0022c6  group: operator  font: Deja␣Vu␣Sans␣Mono
  3181 
  3182 * Java runtime environment for x86_64-windows allows to use larger heap
  3183 space.
  3184 
  3185 * Java runtime options are determined separately for 32bit vs. 64bit
  3186 platforms as follows.
  3187 
  3188   - Isabelle desktop application: platform-specific files that are
  3189     associated with the main app bundle
  3190 
  3191   - isabelle jedit: settings
  3192     JEDIT_JAVA_SYSTEM_OPTIONS
  3193     JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  3194 
  3195   - isabelle build: settings
  3196     ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  3197 
  3198 * Bash shell function "jvmpath" has been renamed to "platform_path": it
  3199 is relevant both for Poly/ML and JVM processes.
  3200 
  3201 * Poly/ML default platform architecture may be changed from 32bit to
  3202 64bit via system option ML_system_64. A system restart (and rebuild) is
  3203 required after change.
  3204 
  3205 * Poly/ML 5.6 runs natively on x86-windows and x86_64-windows, which
  3206 both allow larger heap space than former x86-cygwin.
  3207 
  3208 * Heap images are 10-15% smaller due to less wasteful persistent theory
  3209 content (using ML type theory_id instead of theory);
  3210 
  3211 
  3212 
  3213 New in Isabelle2015 (May 2015)
  3214 ------------------------------
  3215 
  3216 *** General ***
  3217 
  3218 * Local theory specification commands may have a 'private' or
  3219 'qualified' modifier to restrict name space accesses to the local scope,
  3220 as provided by some "context begin ... end" block. For example:
  3221 
  3222   context
  3223   begin
  3224 
  3225   private definition ...
  3226   private lemma ...
  3227 
  3228   qualified definition ...
  3229   qualified lemma ...
  3230 
  3231   lemma ...
  3232   theorem ...
  3233 
  3234   end
  3235 
  3236 * Command 'experiment' opens an anonymous locale context with private
  3237 naming policy.
  3238 
  3239 * Command 'notepad' requires proper nesting of begin/end and its proof
  3240 structure in the body: 'oops' is no longer supported here. Minor
  3241 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'sorry' instead.
  3242 
  3243 * Command 'named_theorems' declares a dynamic fact within the context,
  3244 together with an attribute to maintain the content incrementally. This
  3245 supersedes functor Named_Thms in Isabelle/ML, but with a subtle change
  3246 of semantics due to external visual order vs. internal reverse order.
  3247 
  3248 * 'find_theorems': search patterns which are abstractions are
  3249 schematically expanded before search. Search results match the naive
  3250 expectation more closely, particularly wrt. abbreviations.
  3251 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3252 
  3253 * Commands 'method_setup' and 'attribute_setup' now work within a local
  3254 theory context.
  3255 
  3256 * Outer syntax commands are managed authentically within the theory
  3257 context, without implicit global state. Potential for accidental
  3258 INCOMPATIBILITY, make sure that required theories are really imported.
  3259 
  3260 * Historical command-line terminator ";" is no longer accepted (and
  3261 already used differently in Isar). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle
  3262 update_semicolons" to remove obsolete semicolons from old theory
  3263 sources.
  3264 
  3265 * Structural composition of proof methods (meth1; meth2) in Isar
  3266 corresponds to (tac1 THEN_ALL_NEW tac2) in ML.
  3267 
  3268 * The Eisbach proof method language allows to define new proof methods
  3269 by combining existing ones with their usual syntax. The "match" proof
  3270 method provides basic fact/term matching in addition to
  3271 premise/conclusion matching through Subgoal.focus, and binds fact names
  3272 from matches as well as term patterns within matches. The Isabelle
  3273 documentation provides an entry "eisbach" for the Eisbach User Manual.
  3274 Sources and various examples are in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/.
  3275 
  3276 
  3277 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3278 
  3279 * Improved folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax. Alternatively,
  3280 the "sidekick" mode may be used for document structure.
  3281 
  3282 * Extended bracket matching based on Isar language structure. System
  3283 option jedit_structure_limit determines maximum number of lines to scan
  3284 in the buffer.
  3285 
  3286 * Support for BibTeX files: context menu, context-sensitive token
  3287 marker, SideKick parser.
  3288 
  3289 * Document antiquotation @{cite} provides formal markup, which is
  3290 interpreted semi-formally based on .bib files that happen to be open in
  3291 the editor (hyperlinks, completion etc.).
  3292 
  3293 * Less waste of vertical space via negative line spacing (see Global
  3294 Options / Text Area).
  3295 
  3296 * Improved graphview panel with optional output of PNG or PDF, for
  3297 display of 'thy_deps', 'class_deps' etc.
  3298 
  3299 * The commands 'thy_deps' and 'class_deps' allow optional bounds to
  3300 restrict the visualized hierarchy.
  3301 
  3302 * Improved scheduling for asynchronous print commands (e.g. provers
  3303 managed by the Sledgehammer panel) wrt. ongoing document processing.
  3304 
  3305 
  3306 *** Document preparation ***
  3307 
  3308 * Document markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection',
  3309 'subsubsection', 'text', 'txt', 'text_raw' work uniformly in any
  3310 context, even before the initial 'theory' command. Obsolete proof
  3311 commands 'sect', 'subsect', 'subsubsect', 'txt_raw' have been
  3312 discontinued, use 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection', 'text_raw'
  3313 instead. The old 'header' command is still retained for some time, but
  3314 should be replaced by 'chapter', 'section' etc. (using "isabelle
  3315 update_header"). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3316 
  3317 * Official support for "tt" style variants, via \isatt{...} or
  3318 \begin{isabellett}...\end{isabellett}. The somewhat fragile \verb or
  3319 verbatim environment of LaTeX is no longer used. This allows @{ML} etc.
  3320 as argument to other macros (such as footnotes).
  3321 
  3322 * Document antiquotation @{verbatim} prints ASCII text literally in "tt"
  3323 style.
  3324 
  3325 * Discontinued obsolete option "document_graph": session_graph.pdf is
  3326 produced unconditionally for HTML browser_info and PDF-LaTeX document.
  3327 
  3328 * Diagnostic commands and document markup commands within a proof do not
  3329 affect the command tag for output. Thus commands like 'thm' are subject
  3330 to proof document structure, and no longer "stick out" accidentally.
  3331 Commands 'text' and 'txt' merely differ in the LaTeX style, not their
  3332 tags. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  3333 
  3334 * System option "pretty_margin" is superseded by "thy_output_margin",
  3335 which is also accessible via document antiquotation option "margin".
  3336 Only the margin for document output may be changed, but not the global
  3337 pretty printing: that is 76 for plain console output, and adapted
  3338 dynamically in GUI front-ends. Implementations of document
  3339 antiquotations need to observe the margin explicitly according to
  3340 Thy_Output.string_of_margin. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3341 
  3342 * Specification of 'document_files' in the session ROOT file is
  3343 mandatory for document preparation. The legacy mode with implicit
  3344 copying of the document/ directory is no longer supported. Minor
  3345 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3346 
  3347 
  3348 *** Pure ***
  3349 
  3350 * Proof methods with explicit instantiation ("rule_tac", "subgoal_tac"
  3351 etc.) allow an optional context of local variables ('for' declaration):
  3352 these variables become schematic in the instantiated theorem; this
  3353 behaviour is analogous to 'for' in attributes "where" and "of".
  3354 Configuration option rule_insts_schematic (default false) controls use
  3355 of schematic variables outside the context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3356 declare rule_insts_schematic = true temporarily and update to use local
  3357 variable declarations or dummy patterns instead.
  3358 
  3359 * Explicit instantiation via attributes "where", "of", and proof methods
  3360 "rule_tac" with derivatives like "subgoal_tac" etc. admit dummy patterns
  3361 ("_") that stand for anonymous local variables.
  3362 
  3363 * Generated schematic variables in standard format of exported facts are
  3364 incremented to avoid material in the proof context. Rare
  3365 INCOMPATIBILITY, explicit instantiation sometimes needs to refer to
  3366 different index.
  3367 
  3368 * Lexical separation of signed and unsigned numerals: categories "num"
  3369 and "float" are unsigned. INCOMPATIBILITY: subtle change in precedence
  3370 of numeral signs, particularly in expressions involving infix syntax
  3371 like "(- 1) ^ n".
  3372 
  3373 * Old inner token category "xnum" has been discontinued.  Potential
  3374 INCOMPATIBILITY for exotic syntax: may use mixfix grammar with "num"
  3375 token category instead.
  3376 
  3377 
  3378 *** HOL ***
  3379 
  3380 * New (co)datatype package:
  3381   - The 'datatype_new' command has been renamed 'datatype'. The old
  3382     command of that name is now called 'old_datatype' and is provided
  3383     by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  3384     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  3385     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3386   - Renamed theorems:
  3387       disc_corec ~> corec_disc
  3388       disc_corec_iff ~> corec_disc_iff
  3389       disc_exclude ~> distinct_disc
  3390       disc_exhaust ~> exhaust_disc
  3391       disc_map_iff ~> map_disc_iff
  3392       sel_corec ~> corec_sel
  3393       sel_exhaust ~> exhaust_sel
  3394       sel_map ~> map_sel
  3395       sel_set ~> set_sel
  3396       sel_split ~> split_sel
  3397       sel_split_asm ~> split_sel_asm
  3398       strong_coinduct ~> coinduct_strong
  3399       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  3400     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3401   - The "no_code" option to "free_constructors", "datatype_new", and
  3402     "codatatype" has been renamed "plugins del: code".
  3403     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3404   - The rules "set_empty" have been removed. They are easy
  3405     consequences of other set rules "by auto".
  3406     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3407   - The rule "set_cases" is now registered with the "[cases set]"
  3408     attribute. This can influence the behavior of the "cases" proof
  3409     method when more than one case rule is applicable (e.g., an
  3410     assumption is of the form "w : set ws" and the method "cases w"
  3411     is invoked). The solution is to specify the case rule explicitly
  3412     (e.g. "cases w rule: widget.exhaust").
  3413     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3414   - Renamed theories:
  3415       BNF_Comp ~> BNF_Composition
  3416       BNF_FP_Base ~> BNF_Fixpoint_Base
  3417       BNF_GFP ~> BNF_Greatest_Fixpoint
  3418       BNF_LFP ~> BNF_Least_Fixpoint
  3419       BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> BNF_Wellorder_Constructions
  3420       Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> Cardinals/Wellorder_Constructions
  3421     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3422   - Lifting and Transfer setup for basic HOL types sum and prod (also
  3423     option) is now performed by the BNF package. Theories Lifting_Sum,
  3424     Lifting_Product and Lifting_Option from Main became obsolete and
  3425     were removed. Changed definitions of the relators rel_prod and
  3426     rel_sum (using inductive).
  3427     INCOMPATIBILITY: use rel_prod.simps and rel_sum.simps instead
  3428     of rel_prod_def and rel_sum_def.
  3429     Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: (rarely used by name) transfer theorem names
  3430     changed (e.g. map_prod_transfer ~> prod.map_transfer).
  3431   - Parametricity theorems for map functions, relators, set functions,
  3432     constructors, case combinators, discriminators, selectors and
  3433     (co)recursors are automatically proved and registered as transfer
  3434     rules.
  3435 
  3436 * Old datatype package:
  3437   - The old 'datatype' command has been renamed 'old_datatype', and
  3438     'rep_datatype' has been renamed 'old_rep_datatype'. They are
  3439     provided by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  3440     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  3441     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3442   - Renamed theorems:
  3443       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  3444     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3445   - Renamed theory:
  3446       ~~/src/HOL/Datatype.thy ~> ~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy
  3447     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3448 
  3449 * Nitpick:
  3450   - Fixed soundness bug related to the strict and non-strict subset
  3451     operations.
  3452 
  3453 * Sledgehammer:
  3454   - CVC4 is now included with Isabelle instead of CVC3 and run by
  3455     default.
  3456   - Z3 is now always enabled by default, now that it is fully open
  3457     source. The "z3_non_commercial" option is discontinued.
  3458   - Minimization is now always enabled by default.
  3459     Removed sub-command:
  3460       min
  3461   - Proof reconstruction, both one-liners and Isar, has been
  3462     dramatically improved.
  3463   - Improved support for CVC4 and veriT.
  3464 
  3465 * Old and new SMT modules:
  3466   - The old 'smt' method has been renamed 'old_smt' and moved to
  3467     'src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy'. It is provided for compatibility,
  3468     until applications have been ported to use the new 'smt' method. For
  3469     the method to work, an older version of Z3 (e.g. Z3 3.2 or 4.0) must
  3470     be installed, and the environment variable "OLD_Z3_SOLVER" must
  3471     point to it.
  3472     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3473   - The 'smt2' method has been renamed 'smt'.
  3474     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3475   - New option 'smt_reconstruction_step_timeout' to limit the
  3476     reconstruction time of Z3 proof steps in the new 'smt' method.
  3477   - New option 'smt_statistics' to display statistics of the new 'smt'
  3478     method, especially runtime statistics of Z3 proof reconstruction.
  3479 
  3480 * Lifting: command 'lift_definition' allows to execute lifted constants
  3481 that have as a return type a datatype containing a subtype. This
  3482 overcomes long-time limitations in the area of code generation and
  3483 lifting, and avoids tedious workarounds.
  3484 
  3485 * Command and antiquotation "value" provide different evaluation slots
  3486 (again), where the previous strategy (NBE after ML) serves as default.
  3487 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3488 
  3489 * Add NO_MATCH-simproc, allows to check for syntactic non-equality.
  3490 
  3491 * field_simps: Use NO_MATCH-simproc for distribution rules, to avoid
  3492 non-termination in case of distributing a division. With this change
  3493 field_simps is in some cases slightly less powerful, if it fails try to
  3494 add algebra_simps, or use divide_simps. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3495 
  3496 * Separate class no_zero_divisors has been given up in favour of fully
  3497 algebraic semiring_no_zero_divisors. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3498 
  3499 * Class linordered_semidom really requires no zero divisors.
  3500 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3501 
  3502 * Classes division_ring, field and linordered_field always demand
  3503 "inverse 0 = 0". Given up separate classes division_ring_inverse_zero,
  3504 field_inverse_zero and linordered_field_inverse_zero. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3505 
  3506 * Classes cancel_ab_semigroup_add / cancel_monoid_add specify explicit
  3507 additive inverse operation. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3508 
  3509 * Complex powers and square roots. The functions "ln" and "powr" are now
  3510 overloaded for types real and complex, and 0 powr y = 0 by definition.
  3511 INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be necessary.
  3512 
  3513 * The functions "sin" and "cos" are now defined for any type of sort
  3514 "{real_normed_algebra_1,banach}" type, so in particular on "real" and
  3515 "complex" uniformly. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be
  3516 needed.
  3517 
  3518 * New library of properties of the complex transcendental functions sin,
  3519 cos, tan, exp, Ln, Arctan, Arcsin, Arccos. Ported from HOL Light.
  3520 
  3521 * The factorial function, "fact", now has type "nat => 'a" (of a sort
  3522 that admits numeric types including nat, int, real and complex.
  3523 INCOMPATIBILITY: an expression such as "fact 3 = 6" may require a type
  3524 constraint, and the combination "real (fact k)" is likely to be
  3525 unsatisfactory. If a type conversion is still necessary, then use
  3526 "of_nat (fact k)" or "real_of_nat (fact k)".
  3527 
  3528 * Removed functions "natfloor" and "natceiling", use "nat o floor" and
  3529 "nat o ceiling" instead. A few of the lemmas have been retained and
  3530 adapted: in their names "natfloor"/"natceiling" has been replaced by
  3531 "nat_floor"/"nat_ceiling".
  3532 
  3533 * Qualified some duplicated fact names required for boostrapping the
  3534 type class hierarchy:
  3535   ab_add_uminus_conv_diff ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  3536   field_inverse_zero ~> inverse_zero
  3537   field_divide_inverse ~> divide_inverse
  3538   field_inverse ~> left_inverse
  3539 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3540 
  3541 * Eliminated fact duplicates:
  3542   mult_less_imp_less_right ~> mult_right_less_imp_less
  3543   mult_less_imp_less_left ~> mult_left_less_imp_less
  3544 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3545 
  3546 * Fact consolidation: even_less_0_iff is subsumed by
  3547 double_add_less_zero_iff_single_add_less_zero (simp by default anyway).
  3548 
  3549 * Generalized and consolidated some theorems concerning divsibility:
  3550   dvd_reduce ~> dvd_add_triv_right_iff
  3551   dvd_plus_eq_right ~> dvd_add_right_iff
  3552   dvd_plus_eq_left ~> dvd_add_left_iff
  3553 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3554 
  3555 * "even" and "odd" are mere abbreviations for "2 dvd _" and "~ 2 dvd _"
  3556 and part of theory Main.
  3557   even_def ~> even_iff_mod_2_eq_zero
  3558 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3559 
  3560 * Lemma name consolidation: divide_Numeral1 ~> divide_numeral_1. Minor
  3561 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3562 
  3563 * Bootstrap of listsum as special case of abstract product over lists.
  3564 Fact rename:
  3565     listsum_def ~> listsum.eq_foldr
  3566 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3567 
  3568 * Product over lists via constant "listprod".
  3569 
  3570 * Theory List: renamed drop_Suc_conv_tl and nth_drop' to
  3571 Cons_nth_drop_Suc.
  3572 
  3573 * New infrastructure for compiling, running, evaluating and testing
  3574 generated code in target languages in HOL/Library/Code_Test. See
  3575 HOL/Codegenerator_Test/Code_Test* for examples.
  3576 
  3577 * Library/Multiset:
  3578   - Introduced "replicate_mset" operation.
  3579   - Introduced alternative characterizations of the multiset ordering in
  3580     "Library/Multiset_Order".
  3581   - Renamed multiset ordering:
  3582       <# ~> #<#
  3583       <=# ~> #<=#
  3584       \<subset># ~> #\<subset>#
  3585       \<subseteq># ~> #\<subseteq>#
  3586     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3587   - Introduced abbreviations for ill-named multiset operations:
  3588       <#, \<subset># abbreviate < (strict subset)
  3589       <=#, \<le>#, \<subseteq># abbreviate <= (subset or equal)
  3590     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3591   - Renamed
  3592       in_multiset_of ~> in_multiset_in_set
  3593       Multiset.fold ~> fold_mset
  3594       Multiset.filter ~> filter_mset
  3595     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3596   - Removed mcard, is equal to size.
  3597   - Added attributes:
  3598       image_mset.id [simp]
  3599       image_mset_id [simp]
  3600       elem_multiset_of_set [simp, intro]
  3601       comp_fun_commute_plus_mset [simp]
  3602       comp_fun_commute.fold_mset_insert [OF comp_fun_commute_plus_mset, simp]
  3603       in_mset_fold_plus_iff [iff]
  3604       set_of_Union_mset [simp]
  3605       in_Union_mset_iff [iff]
  3606     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3607 
  3608 * Library/Sum_of_Squares: simplified and improved "sos" method. Always
  3609 use local CSDP executable, which is much faster than the NEOS server.
  3610 The "sos_cert" functionality is invoked as "sos" with additional
  3611 argument. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3612 
  3613 * HOL-Decision_Procs: New counterexample generator quickcheck
  3614 [approximation] for inequalities of transcendental functions. Uses
  3615 hardware floating point arithmetic to randomly discover potential
  3616 counterexamples. Counterexamples are certified with the "approximation"
  3617 method. See HOL/Decision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Quickcheck_Ex.thy for
  3618 examples.
  3619 
  3620 * HOL-Probability: Reworked measurability prover
  3621   - applies destructor rules repeatedly
  3622   - removed application splitting (replaced by destructor rule)
  3623   - added congruence rules to rewrite measure spaces under the sets
  3624     projection
  3625 
  3626 * New proof method "rewrite" (in theory ~~/src/HOL/Library/Rewrite) for
  3627 single-step rewriting with subterm selection based on patterns.
  3628 
  3629 
  3630 *** ML ***
  3631 
  3632 * Subtle change of name space policy: undeclared entries are now
  3633 considered inaccessible, instead of accessible via the fully-qualified
  3634 internal name. This mainly affects Name_Space.intern (and derivatives),
  3635 which may produce an unexpected Long_Name.hidden prefix. Note that
  3636 contemporary applications use the strict Name_Space.check (and
  3637 derivatives) instead, which is not affected by the change. Potential
  3638 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare applications of Name_Space.intern.
  3639 
  3640 * Subtle change of error semantics of Toplevel.proof_of: regular user
  3641 ERROR instead of internal Toplevel.UNDEF.
  3642 
  3643 * Basic combinators map, fold, fold_map, split_list, apply are available
  3644 as parameterized antiquotations, e.g. @{map 4} for lists of quadruples.
  3645 
  3646 * Renamed "pairself" to "apply2", in accordance to @{apply 2}.
  3647 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3648 
  3649 * Former combinators NAMED_CRITICAL and CRITICAL for central critical
  3650 sections have been discontinued, in favour of the more elementary
  3651 Multithreading.synchronized and its high-level derivative
  3652 Synchronized.var (which is usually sufficient in applications). Subtle
  3653 INCOMPATIBILITY: synchronized access needs to be atomic and cannot be
  3654 nested.
  3655 
  3656 * Synchronized.value (ML) is actually synchronized (as in Scala): subtle
  3657 change of semantics with minimal potential for INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3658 
  3659 * The main operations to certify logical entities are Thm.ctyp_of and
  3660 Thm.cterm_of with a local context; old-style global theory variants are
  3661 available as Thm.global_ctyp_of and Thm.global_cterm_of.
  3662 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3663 
  3664 * Elementary operations in module Thm are no longer pervasive.
  3665 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified Thm.prop_of, Thm.cterm_of,
  3666 Thm.term_of etc.
  3667 
  3668 * Proper context for various elementary tactics: assume_tac,
  3669 resolve_tac, eresolve_tac, dresolve_tac, forward_tac, match_tac,
  3670 compose_tac, Splitter.split_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3671 
  3672 * Tactical PARALLEL_ALLGOALS is the most common way to refer to
  3673 PARALLEL_GOALS.
  3674 
  3675 * Goal.prove_multi is superseded by the fully general Goal.prove_common,
  3676 which also allows to specify a fork priority.
  3677 
  3678 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "COMMAND"} is superseded by
  3679 @{command_keyword COMMAND} (usually without quotes and with PIDE
  3680 markup). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3681 
  3682 * Cartouches within ML sources are turned into values of type
  3683 Input.source (with formal position information).
  3684 
  3685 
  3686 *** System ***
  3687 
  3688 * The Isabelle tool "update_cartouches" changes theory files to use
  3689 cartouches instead of old-style {* verbatim *} or `alt_string` tokens.
  3690 
  3691 * The Isabelle tool "build" provides new options -X, -k, -x.
  3692 
  3693 * Discontinued old-fashioned "codegen" tool. Code generation can always
  3694 be externally triggered using an appropriate ROOT file plus a
  3695 corresponding theory. Parametrization is possible using environment
  3696 variables, or ML snippets in the most extreme cases. Minor
  3697 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3698 
  3699 * JVM system property "isabelle.threads" determines size of Scala thread
  3700 pool, like Isabelle system option "threads" for ML.
  3701 
  3702 * JVM system property "isabelle.laf" determines the default Swing
  3703 look-and-feel, via internal class name or symbolic name as in the jEdit
  3704 menu Global Options / Appearance.
  3705 
  3706 * Support for Proof General and Isar TTY loop has been discontinued.
  3707 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use standard PIDE infrastructure instead.
  3708 
  3709 
  3710 
  3711 New in Isabelle2014 (August 2014)
  3712 ---------------------------------
  3713 
  3714 *** General ***
  3715 
  3716 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
  3717 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
  3718 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
  3719 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
  3720 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
  3721 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
  3722 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
  3723 some examples.
  3724 
  3725 * Standard tactics and proof methods such as "clarsimp", "auto" and
  3726 "safe" now preserve equality hypotheses "x = expr" where x is a free
  3727 variable.  Locale assumptions and chained facts containing "x"
  3728 continue to be useful.  The new method "hypsubst_thin" and the
  3729 configuration option "hypsubst_thin" (within the attribute name space)
  3730 restore the previous behavior.  INCOMPATIBILITY, especially where
  3731 induction is done after these methods or when the names of free and
  3732 bound variables clash.  As first approximation, old proofs may be
  3733 repaired by "using [[hypsubst_thin = true]]" in the critical spot.
  3734 
  3735 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
  3736 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
  3737 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
  3738 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
  3739 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
  3740 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
  3741 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
  3742 proof tools.
  3743 
  3744 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
  3745 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
  3746 supports input via ` (backquote).
  3747 
  3748 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
  3749 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
  3750 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
  3751 
  3752 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
  3753 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
  3754 string token.  General renovation of its syntax using text cartouches.
  3755 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3756 
  3757 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary workaround for
  3758 Isabelle/ML in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
  3759 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.  Potential
  3760 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3761 
  3762 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
  3763 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
  3764 
  3765 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
  3766 not check existence within the file-system.
  3767 
  3768 * Updated and extended manuals: codegen, datatypes, implementation,
  3769 isar-ref, jedit, system.
  3770 
  3771 
  3772 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3773 
  3774 * Improved Document panel: simplified interaction where every single
  3775 mouse click (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit
  3776 buffer.
  3777 
  3778 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons), with connection
  3779 to PIDE hyperlinks.
  3780 
  3781 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
  3782 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
  3783 
  3784 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
  3785 auxiliary ML files.
  3786 
  3787 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism, with simple
  3788 templates, completion language context, name-space completion,
  3789 file-name completion, spell-checker completion.
  3790 
  3791 * Refined GUI popup for completion: more robust key/mouse event
  3792 handling and propagation to enclosing text area -- avoid loosing
  3793 keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
  3794 
  3795 * Completion popup supports both ENTER and TAB (default) to select an
  3796 item, depending on Isabelle options.
  3797 
  3798 * Refined insertion of completion items wrt. jEdit text: multiple
  3799 selections, rectangular selections, rectangular selection as "tall
  3800 caret".
  3801 
  3802 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
  3803 completion popup and context-menu.
  3804 
  3805 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
  3806 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
  3807 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
  3808 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
  3809 
  3810 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
  3811 to highlight text via regular expression.
  3812 
  3813 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
  3814 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
  3815 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
  3816 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
  3817 
  3818 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
  3819 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
  3820 
  3821 * Empty editors buffers that are no longer required (e.g.\ via theory
  3822 imports) are automatically removed from the document model.
  3823 
  3824 * Improved monitor panel.
  3825 
  3826 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
  3827 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
  3828 
  3829 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
  3830 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
  3831 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
  3832 
  3833 * New Simplifier Trace panel provides an interactive view of the
  3834 simplification process, enabled by the "simp_trace_new" attribute
  3835 within the context.
  3836 
  3837 
  3838 *** Pure ***
  3839 
  3840 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
  3841 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
  3842 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
  3843 'instance' command with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem
  3844 might be postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof
  3845 finished trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous
  3846 (without any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
  3847 Axclass.class_axiomatization, Axclass.classrel_axiomatization,
  3848 Axclass.arity_axiomatization.
  3849 
  3850 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
  3851 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
  3852 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
  3853 renaming needs to be applied:
  3854 
  3855   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
  3856   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
  3857   all            ~>  Pure.all
  3858   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
  3859   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
  3860 
  3861 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
  3862 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
  3863 old constants:
  3864 
  3865 setup {*
  3866   fn thy => thy
  3867     |> Sign.root_path
  3868     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
  3869     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
  3870     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
  3871     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
  3872 *}
  3873 
  3874 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
  3875 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
  3876 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
  3877 
  3878 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
  3879 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
  3880 instantiated theorem.
  3881 
  3882 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
  3883 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
  3884 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
  3885 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
  3886 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
  3887 
  3888   attribute_setup standard =
  3889     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
  3890 
  3891 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
  3892 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
  3893 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
  3894 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
  3895 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
  3896 
  3897 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
  3898 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
  3899 differently, e.g. via cartouches).
  3900 
  3901 * Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,
  3902 but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.
  3903 
  3904 * Code generator preprocessor: explicit control of simp tracing on a
  3905 per-constant basis.  See attribute "code_preproc".
  3906 
  3907 
  3908 *** HOL ***
  3909 
  3910 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict target
  3911 language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3912 
  3913 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
  3914 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3915 
  3916 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.  Minor
  3917 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3918 
  3919 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures"
  3920 option.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3921 
  3922 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
  3923 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3924 
  3925 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
  3926 with the given constants.
  3927 
  3928 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
  3929 operations on records.
  3930 
  3931 * Command and antiquotation "value" are now hardcoded against nbe and
  3932 ML.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3933 
  3934 * Renamed command 'enriched_type' to 'functor'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3935 
  3936 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
  3937 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
  3938 
  3939 * Qualified String.implode and String.explode.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3940 
  3941 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules can
  3942 now deal with conjunctions.  For help with converting proofs, the old
  3943 behaviour of the simplifier can be restored like this: declare/using
  3944 [[simp_legacy_precond]].  This configuration option will disappear
  3945 again in the future.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3946 
  3947 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
  3948 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3949 
  3950 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from session
  3951   "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".  The commands 'bnf', 'wrap_free_constructors',
  3952   'datatype_new', 'codatatype', 'primcorec', 'primcorecursive' are now
  3953   part of theory "Main".
  3954 
  3955   Theory renamings:
  3956     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
  3957     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
  3958     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
  3959     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
  3960     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
  3961     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
  3962     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
  3963     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
  3964     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
  3965     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
  3966     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
  3967     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
  3968     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
  3969     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
  3970     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
  3971     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
  3972     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
  3973     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
  3974     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
  3975     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
  3976     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
  3977     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
  3978 
  3979   New theories:
  3980     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
  3981     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
  3982     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
  3983     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
  3984     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
  3985 
  3986   Discontinued theories:
  3987     BNF/BNF.thy
  3988     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
  3989 
  3990 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3991 
  3992 * New (co)datatype package:
  3993   - Command 'primcorec' is fully implemented.
  3994   - Command 'datatype_new' generates size functions ("size_xxx" and
  3995     "size") as required by 'fun'.
  3996   - BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style
  3997     (co)datatypes with Transfer.
  3998   - Renamed commands:
  3999       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
  4000       primrec_new ~> primrec
  4001       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
  4002     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4003   - The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
  4004     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
  4005     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4006   - The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer
  4007     generated.  Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually
  4008     using "prim(co)rec".
  4009     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4010   - No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by
  4011     default, eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
  4012     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4013   - No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
  4014     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
  4015     "discs_sels" option is passed.
  4016     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4017 
  4018 * Old datatype package:
  4019   - The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been
  4020     renamed "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" ->
  4021     "sum.case").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4022   - The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have
  4023     been renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g.,
  4024     "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4025 
  4026 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions,
  4027   their relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new
  4028   BNF-based datatype package.
  4029 
  4030   Renamed constants:
  4031     Option.set ~> set_option
  4032     Option.map ~> map_option
  4033     option_rel ~> rel_option
  4034 
  4035   Renamed theorems:
  4036     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
  4037     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
  4038     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
  4039     option.recs ~> option.rec
  4040     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
  4041     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
  4042     map.simps ~> list.map
  4043     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
  4044     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
  4045     the.simps ~> option.sel
  4046 
  4047 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4048 
  4049 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
  4050     sum_map ~> map_sum
  4051     map_pair ~> map_prod
  4052     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
  4053     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
  4054     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
  4055     set_rel ~> rel_set
  4056     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
  4057     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "src/HOL/Library/FSet.thy")
  4058     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "src/HOL/Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
  4059     vset ~> rel_vset (in "src/HOL/Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
  4060 
  4061 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4062 
  4063 * Lifting and Transfer:
  4064   - a type variable as a raw type is supported
  4065   - stronger reflexivity prover
  4066   - rep_eq is always generated by lift_definition
  4067   - setup for Lifting/Transfer is now automated for BNFs
  4068     + holds for BNFs that do not contain a dead variable
  4069     + relator_eq, relator_mono, relator_distr, relator_domain,
  4070       relator_eq_onp, quot_map, transfer rules for bi_unique, bi_total,
  4071       right_unique, right_total, left_unique, left_total are proved
  4072       automatically
  4073     + definition of a predicator is generated automatically
  4074     + simplification rules for a predicator definition are proved
  4075       automatically for datatypes
  4076   - consolidation of the setup of Lifting/Transfer
  4077     + property that a relator preservers reflexivity is not needed any
  4078       more
  4079       Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4080     + left_total and left_unique rules are now transfer rules
  4081       (reflexivity_rule attribute not needed anymore)
  4082       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4083     + Domainp does not have to be a separate assumption in
  4084       relator_domain theorems (=> more natural statement)
  4085       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4086   - registration of code equations is more robust
  4087     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4088   - respectfulness proof obligation is preprocessed to a more readable
  4089     form
  4090     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4091   - eq_onp is always unfolded in respectfulness proof obligation
  4092     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4093   - unregister lifting setup for Code_Numeral.integer and
  4094     Code_Numeral.natural
  4095     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4096   - Lifting.invariant -> eq_onp
  4097     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4098 
  4099 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof
  4100 traces.  This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and
  4101 "dpll".  Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT
  4102 solvers should use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now
  4103 the default SAT solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and
  4104 corresponding tactics; the old default can be restored using "declare
  4105 [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4106 
  4107 * SMT module: A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called
  4108 "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2 and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g.,
  4109 4.3). The new proof method is called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also
  4110 supported as oracles. Yices is no longer supported, because no version
  4111 of the solver can handle both SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
  4112 
  4113 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
  4114 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
  4115 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
  4116 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
  4117 
  4118 * Sledgehammer:
  4119   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
  4120   - MaSh overhaul:
  4121     . New SML-based learning algorithms eliminate the dependency on
  4122       Python and increase performance and reliability.
  4123     . MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the
  4124       traditional MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable
  4125       MaSh, set the "MaSh" system option in Isabelle/jEdit Plugin
  4126       Options / Isabelle / General to "none".
  4127   - New option:
  4128       smt_proofs
  4129   - Renamed options:
  4130       isar_compress ~> compress
  4131       isar_try0 ~> try0
  4132 
  4133 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4134 
  4135 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
  4136 
  4137 * Nitpick:
  4138   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could
  4139     take infinite values.
  4140   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as
  4141     "Abs_Integ" and "Rep_Integ".
  4142   - Removed "std" option.
  4143   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
  4144     "hide_types".
  4145 
  4146 * Metis: Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis
  4147 (full_types)' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4148 
  4149 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
  4150 
  4151 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
  4152   - Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
  4153   - Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF and
  4154     SUP instead uniformly.
  4155   - More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
  4156     or SUP and Sup.
  4157   - INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
  4158   - Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
  4159   - Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong, with
  4160     simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace former
  4161     INT_cong, SUP_cong
  4162 
  4163 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4164 
  4165 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice.
  4166 
  4167 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
  4168 
  4169   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  4170   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  4171   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  4172   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  4173 
  4174 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4175 
  4176 * Theory reorganization: split of Big_Operators.thy into
  4177 Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy.
  4178 
  4179 * Consolidated some facts about big group operators:
  4180 
  4181     setsum_0' ~> setsum.neutral
  4182     setsum_0 ~> setsum.neutral_const
  4183     setsum_addf ~> setsum.distrib
  4184     setsum_cartesian_product ~> setsum.cartesian_product
  4185     setsum_cases ~> setsum.If_cases
  4186     setsum_commute ~> setsum.commute
  4187     setsum_cong ~> setsum.cong
  4188     setsum_delta ~> setsum.delta
  4189     setsum_delta' ~> setsum.delta'
  4190     setsum_diff1' ~> setsum.remove
  4191     setsum_empty ~> setsum.empty
  4192     setsum_infinite ~> setsum.infinite
  4193     setsum_insert ~> setsum.insert
  4194     setsum_inter_restrict'' ~> setsum.inter_filter
  4195     setsum_mono_zero_cong_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_left
  4196     setsum_mono_zero_cong_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_right
  4197     setsum_mono_zero_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_left
  4198     setsum_mono_zero_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_right
  4199     setsum_reindex ~> setsum.reindex
  4200     setsum_reindex_cong ~> setsum.reindex_cong
  4201     setsum_reindex_nonzero ~> setsum.reindex_nontrivial
  4202     setsum_restrict_set ~> setsum.inter_restrict
  4203     setsum_Plus ~> setsum.Plus
  4204     setsum_setsum_restrict ~> setsum.commute_restrict
  4205     setsum_Sigma ~> setsum.Sigma
  4206     setsum_subset_diff ~> setsum.subset_diff
  4207     setsum_Un_disjoint ~> setsum.union_disjoint
  4208     setsum_UN_disjoint ~> setsum.UNION_disjoint
  4209     setsum_Un_Int ~> setsum.union_inter
  4210     setsum_Union_disjoint ~> setsum.Union_disjoint
  4211     setsum_UNION_zero ~> setsum.Union_comp
  4212     setsum_Un_zero ~> setsum.union_inter_neutral
  4213     strong_setprod_cong ~> setprod.strong_cong
  4214     strong_setsum_cong ~> setsum.strong_cong
  4215     setprod_1' ~> setprod.neutral
  4216     setprod_1 ~> setprod.neutral_const
  4217     setprod_cartesian_product ~> setprod.cartesian_product
  4218     setprod_cong ~> setprod.cong
  4219     setprod_delta ~> setprod.delta
  4220     setprod_delta' ~> setprod.delta'
  4221     setprod_empty ~> setprod.empty
  4222     setprod_infinite ~> setprod.infinite
  4223     setprod_insert ~> setprod.insert
  4224     setprod_mono_one_cong_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_left
  4225     setprod_mono_one_cong_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_right
  4226     setprod_mono_one_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_left
  4227     setprod_mono_one_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_right
  4228     setprod_reindex ~> setprod.reindex
  4229     setprod_reindex_cong ~> setprod.reindex_cong
  4230     setprod_reindex_nonzero ~> setprod.reindex_nontrivial
  4231     setprod_Sigma ~> setprod.Sigma
  4232     setprod_subset_diff ~> setprod.subset_diff
  4233     setprod_timesf ~> setprod.distrib
  4234     setprod_Un2 ~> setprod.union_diff2
  4235     setprod_Un_disjoint ~> setprod.union_disjoint
  4236     setprod_UN_disjoint ~> setprod.UNION_disjoint
  4237     setprod_Un_Int ~> setprod.union_inter
  4238     setprod_Union_disjoint ~> setprod.Union_disjoint
  4239     setprod_Un_one ~> setprod.union_inter_neutral
  4240 
  4241   Dropped setsum_cong2 (simple variant of setsum.cong).
  4242   Dropped setsum_inter_restrict' (simple variant of setsum.inter_restrict)
  4243   Dropped setsum_reindex_id, setprod_reindex_id
  4244     (simple variants of setsum.reindex [symmetric], setprod.reindex [symmetric]).
  4245 
  4246 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4247 
  4248 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
  4249 
  4250   Fact consolidations:
  4251     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
  4252     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
  4253     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
  4254     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
  4255     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
  4256     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
  4257     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
  4258     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
  4259     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
  4260     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
  4261     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
  4262     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
  4263     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
  4264     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
  4265     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
  4266     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
  4267     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
  4268     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
  4269     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
  4270     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
  4271     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
  4272     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
  4273     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
  4274     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
  4275     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
  4276     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
  4277     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
  4278     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
  4279     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
  4280     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
  4281     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
  4282     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
  4283     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
  4284     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
  4285     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
  4286     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
  4287     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
  4288     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
  4289     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
  4290     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
  4291 
  4292 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
  4293 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
  4294 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
  4295 
  4296 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1,
  4297 min.cobounded2, max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
  4298 
  4299 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
  4300 
  4301 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4302 
  4303 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~>
  4304 Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4305 
  4306 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
  4307 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4308 
  4309 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
  4310     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
  4311 
  4312 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4313 
  4314 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and
  4315   consolidation:
  4316     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
  4317     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
  4318 
  4319 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4320 
  4321 * Abolished neg_numeral.
  4322   - Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
  4323   - Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
  4324   - When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
  4325     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
  4326   - HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
  4327     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
  4328   - Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
  4329 
  4330 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4331 
  4332 * Reduced name variants for rules on associativity and commutativity:
  4333 
  4334     add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  4335     add_commute ~> add.commute
  4336     add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  4337     mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  4338     mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  4339     mult_left_commute ~> mult.left_commute
  4340     nat_add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  4341     nat_add_commute ~> add.commute
  4342     nat_add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  4343     nat_mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  4344     nat_mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  4345     eq_assoc ~> iff_assoc
  4346     eq_left_commute ~> iff_left_commute
  4347 
  4348 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4349 
  4350 * Fact collections add_ac and mult_ac are considered old-fashioned.
  4351 Prefer ac_simps instead, or specify rules
  4352 (add|mult).(assoc|commute|left_commute) individually.
  4353 
  4354 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
  4355     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
  4356     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
  4357     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
  4358     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
  4359 
  4360 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4361 
  4362 * Fact name consolidation:
  4363     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  4364     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
  4365     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
  4366     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
  4367     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
  4368 
  4369 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4370 
  4371 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
  4372 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
  4373 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
  4374 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
  4375 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
  4376 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly have
  4377 been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and field_simps.
  4378 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4379 
  4380 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
  4381 
  4382 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
  4383 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
  4384 
  4385 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
  4386 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
  4387 
  4388 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
  4389 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
  4390 or the brute way with
  4391 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
  4392 
  4393 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in theory
  4394 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them instead of explicitly
  4395 stating boundedness of sets.
  4396 
  4397 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow more
  4398 syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain shows up as
  4399 additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4400 
  4401 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
  4402   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
  4403   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
  4404   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
  4405   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
  4406   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
  4407   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
  4408   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
  4409   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
  4410   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
  4411   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
  4412   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
  4413 
  4414   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
  4415 
  4416   removed auxiliary lemmas:
  4417 
  4418     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
  4419     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr,
  4420     real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded, summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2,
  4421     sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom, sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero,
  4422     summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
  4423 
  4424 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4425 
  4426 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
  4427   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
  4428 
  4429   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
  4430 
  4431   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
  4432 
  4433   - removed constant isDiff
  4434 
  4435   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as
  4436     input syntax.
  4437 
  4438   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed.
  4439 
  4440   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
  4441 
  4442   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
  4443 
  4444   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
  4445 
  4446   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which
  4447     includes now rules for DERIV, has_derivative and
  4448     has_vector_derivative.
  4449 
  4450   - Other renamings:
  4451     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
  4452     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
  4453     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
  4454     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
  4455     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
  4456     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
  4457     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
  4458 
  4459 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4460 
  4461 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the
  4462 continuous_on_intros, isCont_intros collections, these facts are now
  4463 in continuous_intros.
  4464 
  4465 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im,
  4466 the Complex constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use
  4467 primcorec to defined the behaviour of a complex-valued function.
  4468 
  4469 Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they
  4470 are available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This
  4471 especially removes
  4472 
  4473     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
  4474 
  4475 Instead the reverse direction is supported with
  4476     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
  4477 
  4478 Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
  4479 
  4480   Renamings:
  4481     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
  4482     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
  4483     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
  4484     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
  4485     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
  4486     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
  4487     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
  4488     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
  4489     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
  4490     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
  4491     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
  4492     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
  4493 
  4494     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
  4495     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
  4496     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
  4497 
  4498   Removed theorems:
  4499     complex_zero_def
  4500     complex_add_def
  4501     complex_minus_def
  4502     complex_diff_def
  4503     complex_one_def
  4504     complex_mult_def
  4505     complex_inverse_def
  4506     complex_scaleR_def
  4507 
  4508 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4509 
  4510 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
  4511 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4512 
  4513 * HOL-Library: new theory src/HOL/Library/Tree.thy.
  4514 
  4515 * HOL-Library: removed theory src/HOL/Library/Kleene_Algebra.thy; it
  4516 is subsumed by session Kleene_Algebra in AFP.
  4517 
  4518 * HOL-Library / theory RBT: various constants and facts are hidden;
  4519 lifting setup is unregistered.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4520 
  4521 * HOL-Cardinals: new theory src/HOL/Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy.
  4522 
  4523 * HOL-Word: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
  4524 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4525 
  4526 * HOL-Word:
  4527   - Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a duplicate
  4528     of "word_arith_wis".
  4529   - Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
  4530     "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
  4531     "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
  4532 
  4533 * HOL-Number_Theory:
  4534   - consolidated the proofs of the binomial theorem
  4535   - the function fib is again of type nat => nat and not overloaded
  4536   - no more references to Old_Number_Theory in the HOL libraries
  4537     (except the AFP)
  4538 
  4539 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4540 
  4541 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
  4542   - Type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces.
  4543   - New theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
  4544     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
  4545   - Changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
  4546     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
  4547     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
  4548     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
  4549     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-)open
  4550     intervals.
  4551   - removed dependencies on type class ordered_euclidean_space with
  4552     introduction of "cbox" on euclidean_space
  4553     - renamed theorems:
  4554         interval ~> box
  4555         mem_interval ~> mem_box
  4556         interval_eq_empty ~> box_eq_empty
  4557         interval_ne_empty ~> box_ne_empty
  4558         interval_sing(1) ~> cbox_sing
  4559         interval_sing(2) ~> box_sing
  4560         subset_interval_imp ~> subset_box_imp
  4561         subset_interval ~> subset_box
  4562         open_interval ~> open_box
  4563         closed_interval ~> closed_cbox
  4564         interior_closed_interval ~> interior_cbox
  4565         bounded_closed_interval ~> bounded_cbox
  4566         compact_interval ~> compact_cbox
  4567         bounded_subset_closed_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_cbox_symmetric
  4568         bounded_subset_closed_interval ~> bounded_subset_cbox
  4569         mem_interval_componentwiseI ~> mem_box_componentwiseI
  4570         convex_box ~> convex_prod
  4571         rel_interior_real_interval ~> rel_interior_real_box
  4572         convex_interval ~> convex_box
  4573         convex_hull_eq_real_interval ~> convex_hull_eq_real_cbox
  4574         frechet_derivative_within_closed_interval ~> frechet_derivative_within_cbox
  4575         content_closed_interval' ~> content_cbox'
  4576         elementary_subset_interval ~> elementary_subset_box
  4577         diameter_closed_interval ~> diameter_cbox
  4578         frontier_closed_interval ~> frontier_cbox
  4579         frontier_open_interval ~> frontier_box
  4580         bounded_subset_open_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_box_symmetric
  4581         closure_open_interval ~> closure_box
  4582         open_closed_interval_convex ~> open_cbox_convex
  4583         open_interval_midpoint ~> box_midpoint
  4584         content_image_affinity_interval ~> content_image_affinity_cbox
  4585         is_interval_interval ~> is_interval_cbox + is_interval_box + is_interval_closed_interval
  4586         bounded_interval ~> bounded_closed_interval + bounded_boxes
  4587 
  4588     - respective theorems for intervals over the reals:
  4589         content_closed_interval + content_cbox
  4590         has_integral + has_integral_real
  4591         fine_division_exists + fine_division_exists_real
  4592         has_integral_null + has_integral_null_real
  4593         tagged_division_union_interval + tagged_division_union_interval_real
  4594         has_integral_const + has_integral_const_real
  4595         integral_const + integral_const_real
  4596         has_integral_bound + has_integral_bound_real
  4597         integrable_continuous + integrable_continuous_real
  4598         integrable_subinterval + integrable_subinterval_real
  4599         has_integral_reflect_lemma + has_integral_reflect_lemma_real
  4600         integrable_reflect + integrable_reflect_real
  4601         integral_reflect + integral_reflect_real
  4602         image_affinity_interval + image_affinity_cbox
  4603         image_smult_interval + image_smult_cbox
  4604         integrable_const + integrable_const_ivl
  4605         integrable_on_subinterval + integrable_on_subcbox
  4606 
  4607   - renamed theorems:
  4608     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
  4609     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
  4610     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
  4611 
  4612 * HOL-Probability:
  4613   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
  4614 
  4615     . Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
  4616       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
  4617 
  4618     . Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
  4619 
  4620   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general
  4621     Bochner integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
  4622 
  4623     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
  4624     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
  4625     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
  4626     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
  4627     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
  4628     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
  4629     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
  4630     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
  4631     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
  4632     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
  4633     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
  4634     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  nn_integral_liminf
  4635     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
  4636     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
  4637     integral_indicator          ~>
  4638          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
  4639     positive_integral_fst       ~>  nn_integral_fst'
  4640     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> nn_integral_fst
  4641     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> nn_integral_snd
  4642 
  4643     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
  4644          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
  4645 
  4646     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
  4647          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
  4648 
  4649     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
  4650          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
  4651 
  4652     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
  4653          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
  4654          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
  4655 
  4656     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
  4657          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  4658 
  4659     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
  4660          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
  4661 
  4662     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
  4663          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
  4664          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  4665 
  4666     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
  4667          nn_integral_real_affine
  4668 
  4669     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
  4670          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
  4671 
  4672     The following theorems where removed:
  4673 
  4674     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
  4675     lebesgue_integral_uminus
  4676     lebesgue_integral_cmult
  4677     lebesgue_integral_multc
  4678     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
  4679     integral_cmul_indicator
  4680     integral_real
  4681 
  4682   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal
  4683     distributed random variables.
  4684 
  4685 * HOL-Decision_Procs: Separate command 'approximate' for approximative
  4686 computation in src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor
  4687 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4688 
  4689 
  4690 *** Scala ***
  4691 
  4692 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
  4693 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
  4694 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
  4695 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
  4696 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4697 
  4698 * Substantial reworking of internal PIDE protocol communication
  4699 channels.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4700 
  4701 
  4702 *** ML ***
  4703 
  4704 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
  4705 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
  4706 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
  4707 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
  4708 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
  4709 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
  4710 
  4711 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
  4712 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  4713 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
  4714 actually belongs to it).
  4715 
  4716 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
  4717 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
  4718 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
  4719 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
  4720 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
  4721 of schematic variables.
  4722 
  4723 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
  4724 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4725 
  4726 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
  4727 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context
  4728 via "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4729 
  4730 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
  4731 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4732 
  4733 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
  4734 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
  4735 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
  4736 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4737 
  4738 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
  4739 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4740 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
  4741 formal context.
  4742 
  4743 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
  4744 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4745 
  4746 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
  4747 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
  4748 
  4749 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
  4750 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
  4751 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
  4752 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
  4753 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
  4754 
  4755 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
  4756 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
  4757 purposes.
  4758 
  4759 
  4760 *** System ***
  4761 
  4762 * Proof General with its traditional helper scripts is now an optional
  4763 Isabelle component, e.g. see ProofGeneral-4.2-2 from the Isabelle
  4764 component repository http://isabelle.in.tum.de/components/.  Note that
  4765 the "system" manual provides general explanations about add-on
  4766 components, especially those that are not bundled with the release.
  4767 
  4768 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
  4769 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
  4770 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
  4771 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
  4772 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the ISABELLE_PROCESS
  4773 settings variable.
  4774 
  4775 * Former "isabelle tty" has been superseded by "isabelle console",
  4776 with implicit build like "isabelle jedit", and without the mostly
  4777 obsolete Isar TTY loop.
  4778 
  4779 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
  4780 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
  4781 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
  4782 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
  4783 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
  4784 
  4785 * Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize".  Note that the usual format
  4786 for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,
  4787 as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.
  4788 
  4789 * Removed obsolete tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality may be
  4790 integrated into Isabelle/jEdit eventually.
  4791 
  4792 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
  4793 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
  4794 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
  4795 
  4796 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
  4797 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
  4798 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
  4799 processing is started.
  4800 
  4801 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
  4802 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
  4803 
  4804 
  4805 
  4806 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
  4807 -------------------------------------
  4808 
  4809 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  4810 
  4811 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
  4812 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
  4813 
  4814 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
  4815 after edits surrounding the command location.
  4816 
  4817 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
  4818 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
  4819 e.g. out-of-memory).
  4820 
  4821 
  4822 *** System ***
  4823 
  4824 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
  4825 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
  4826 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
  4827 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
  4828 
  4829 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
  4830 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
  4831 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
  4832 
  4833 
  4834 
  4835 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
  4836 -------------------------------------
  4837 
  4838 *** General ***
  4839 
  4840 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
  4841 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
  4842 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4843 
  4844 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
  4845 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4846 
  4847 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
  4848 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
  4849 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
  4850 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
  4851 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
  4852 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
  4853 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
  4854 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
  4855 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
  4856 syntax.
  4857 
  4858 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
  4859 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4860 
  4861 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
  4862 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
  4863 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
  4864 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
  4865 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
  4866 
  4867 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
  4868 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4869 
  4870 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
  4871 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
  4872 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
  4873 
  4874 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
  4875 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
  4876 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
  4877 
  4878 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
  4879 eliminated old "ref" manual.
  4880 
  4881 
  4882 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  4883 
  4884 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
  4885 Documentation panel.
  4886 
  4887 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
  4888 documentation.
  4889 
  4890 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
  4891 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
  4892 
  4893 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
  4894 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
  4895 normal editing and checking process.
  4896 
  4897 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
  4898 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
  4899 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
  4900 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
  4901 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
  4902 
  4903 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
  4904 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
  4905 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
  4906 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
  4907 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
  4908 
  4909 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
  4910 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
  4911 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
  4912 
  4913 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
  4914 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
  4915 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
  4916 to resolve conflict.
  4917 
  4918 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
  4919 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
  4920 
  4921 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
  4922 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
  4923 such command executions while editing.
  4924 
  4925 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
  4926 document content.
  4927 
  4928 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
  4929 toplevel theorem statements.
  4930 
  4931 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
  4932 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
  4933 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
  4934 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
  4935 
  4936 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
  4937 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
  4938 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
  4939 
  4940 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  4941 / Global Options / Appearance".
  4942 
  4943 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  4944 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  4945 
  4946 
  4947 *** Pure ***
  4948 
  4949 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  4950 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  4951 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  4952 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  4953 details.
  4954 
  4955 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  4956 
  4957 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  4958 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  4959 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  4960 
  4961 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  4962 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4963 
  4964 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  4965 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  4966 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  4967 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4968 
  4969 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  4970 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  4971 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4972 
  4973 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  4974 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  4975 
  4976 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  4977 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  4978 situations.
  4979 
  4980 
  4981 *** HOL ***
  4982 
  4983 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  4984 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  4985 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4986 
  4987 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  4988 
  4989 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  4990 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  4991 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  4992 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  4993 
  4994   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  4995 
  4996 * Code generator:
  4997   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  4998     'code_instance'.
  4999   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  5000     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  5001 
  5002 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  5003 examples.
  5004 
  5005 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  5006 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  5007 to distinguish both when desired.
  5008 
  5009 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  5010 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  5011 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  5012 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5013 
  5014 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  5015 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  5016 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  5017 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  5018 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  5019 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5020 
  5021 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  5022 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  5023 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5024 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  5025 
  5026 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  5027 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  5028 
  5029 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  5030 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  5031 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  5032 
  5033 * Lifting:
  5034   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  5035     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  5036       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  5037       transfer rules
  5038     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  5039       correspondence relation can be generated
  5040     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  5041       parametricity
  5042     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  5043   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  5044   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  5045     copies
  5046   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  5047     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  5048     anonymous context)
  5049   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  5050     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5051   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  5052     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  5053   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  5054     INCOMPATIBILITY
  5055 
  5056 * Transfer:
  5057   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  5058     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  5059   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  5060   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  5061     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  5062   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  5063 
  5064 * Reification and reflection:
  5065   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  5066     "Reification".
  5067   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  5068   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  5069 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5070 
  5071 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  5072   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  5073     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5074     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  5075   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  5076     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  5077   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  5078     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  5079     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  5080     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  5081     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  5082     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  5083     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  5084     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  5085   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  5086     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  5087   - Fact renames:
  5088       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  5089       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  5090 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5091 
  5092 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  5093 
  5094 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  5095 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  5096 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  5097 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5098 
  5099 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  5100 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  5101 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  5102 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  5103 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  5104 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  5105 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  5106 lemmas.
  5107 
  5108 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  5109 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  5110 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5111 
  5112 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  5113 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5114 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  5115 
  5116 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  5117 top and bottom elements.
  5118 
  5119 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  5120 
  5121 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  5122 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  5123 
  5124  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  5125    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  5126    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  5127 
  5128  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  5129    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  5130    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  5131 
  5132    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  5133    arbitrary filter.
  5134 
  5135  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  5136    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  5137    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  5138    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  5139    on a compact set.
  5140 
  5141  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  5142    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  5143    linear_continuum_topology).
  5144 
  5145  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  5146    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  5147    on all sequences converging to x.
  5148 
  5149  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  5150    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  5151    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  5152    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  5153    left or right.
  5154 
  5155  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  5156 
  5157      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  5158 
  5159  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  5160    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  5161 
  5162  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  5163    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  5164    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  5165    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  5166    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  5167    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  5168 
  5169  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  5170 
  5171    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  5172 
  5173    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  5174      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  5175 
  5176    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  5177 
  5178    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  5179      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  5180 
  5181    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  5182 
  5183    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  5184 
  5185  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  5186 
  5187 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5188 
  5189 * Nitpick:
  5190   - Added option "spy".
  5191   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  5192 
  5193 * Sledgehammer:
  5194   - Renamed option:
  5195       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  5196     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5197   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  5198   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  5199   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  5200 
  5201 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  5202 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  5203 
  5204 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  5205   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  5206   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  5207     generated code.
  5208   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  5209   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  5210   - Fact renames:
  5211     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  5212     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  5213     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  5214 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  5215 
  5216 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  5217 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  5218 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  5219 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  5220 
  5221 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  5222 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  5223 
  5224 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5225 
  5226 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  5227 
  5228     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  5229     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  5230 
  5231 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5232 
  5233 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  5234 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  5235 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  5236 
  5237 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  5238 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  5239 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  5240 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5241 
  5242 * HOL-BNF:
  5243   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  5244     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  5245     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  5246     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  5247   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  5248     coinduct).
  5249   - Renamed keywords:
  5250     data ~> datatype_new
  5251     codata ~> codatatype
  5252     bnf_def ~> bnf
  5253   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  5254     discs ~> disc
  5255     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  5256     map_id' ~> map_id
  5257     sels ~> sel
  5258     set_map' ~> set_map
  5259     sets ~> set
  5260 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  5261 
  5262 
  5263 *** ML ***
  5264 
  5265 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  5266 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  5267 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  5268 Examples.thy in particular.
  5269 
  5270 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  5271 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  5272 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  5273 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  5274 
  5275 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  5276 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  5277 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  5278 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  5279 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5280 
  5281 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  5282 
  5283     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  5284     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  5285 
  5286 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5287 
  5288 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  5289 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  5290 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  5291 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  5292 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  5293 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  5294 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  5295 
  5296 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  5297 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  5298 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  5299 clasets separately from the context.
  5300 
  5301 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  5302 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  5303 
  5304 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  5305 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  5306 
  5307 
  5308 *** System ***
  5309 
  5310 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  5311 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5312 
  5313 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  5314 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5315 
  5316 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  5317 settings variable.
  5318 
  5319 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  5320 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  5321 always pdf.
  5322 
  5323 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  5324 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  5325 
  5326 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  5327 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  5328 
  5329 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  5330 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  5331 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  5332 
  5333 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  5334 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  5335 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  5336 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  5337 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5338 for HTML presentation of theories.
  5339 
  5340 
  5341 
  5342 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  5343 -----------------------------------
  5344 
  5345 *** General ***
  5346 
  5347 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  5348 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  5349 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  5350 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  5351 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  5352 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  5353 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  5354 
  5355 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  5356 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  5357 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  5358 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  5359 
  5360 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  5361 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  5362 
  5363 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  5364 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  5365 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  5366 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  5367 dependencies properly.
  5368 
  5369 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  5370 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  5371 
  5372 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  5373 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  5374 
  5375 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  5376 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  5377 and "class ... context ...".
  5378 
  5379 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  5380 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  5381 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  5382 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  5383 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  5384 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  5385 
  5386 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  5387 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  5388 
  5389 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  5390 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  5391 
  5392 
  5393 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  5394 
  5395 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  5396 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  5397 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  5398 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  5399 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  5400 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  5401 
  5402 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  5403 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  5404 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  5405 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  5406 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  5407 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  5408 
  5409 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  5410 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  5411 browser on demand.
  5412 
  5413 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  5414 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  5415 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  5416 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  5417 
  5418 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  5419 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  5420 
  5421 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  5422 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  5423 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  5424 potentially infinite message streams.
  5425 
  5426 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  5427 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  5428 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  5429 schemes.
  5430 
  5431 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  5432 symbols.
  5433 
  5434 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  5435 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  5436 
  5437 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  5438 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  5439 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  5440 
  5441 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  5442 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  5443 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  5444 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  5445 
  5446 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  5447 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  5448 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  5449 
  5450 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  5451 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  5452 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  5453 Isabelle distribution.
  5454 
  5455 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  5456 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  5457 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  5458 
  5459 
  5460 *** Pure ***
  5461 
  5462 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  5463 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  5464 
  5465 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  5466 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  5467 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5468 
  5469 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5470 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  5471 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  5472 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  5473 with some care where this is really required.
  5474 
  5475 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  5476 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  5477 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  5478 
  5479   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  5480 
  5481 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  5482 a Hasse diagram.
  5483 
  5484 
  5485 *** HOL ***
  5486 
  5487 * Sledgehammer:
  5488 
  5489   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  5490     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  5491   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  5492   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  5493   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  5494   - Renamed options:
  5495       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  5496       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  5497       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  5498       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  5499 
  5500 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  5501 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  5502 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  5503 
  5504 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  5505 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5506 
  5507 * Lifting:
  5508   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  5509   - quot_del attribute
  5510   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  5511 
  5512 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  5513 expressions.
  5514 
  5515 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  5516 pointfree expressions.
  5517 
  5518 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  5519 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  5520 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  5521 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  5522 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5523 
  5524 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  5525 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  5526 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  5527 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  5528 accordingly.
  5529 
  5530 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  5531 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5532 
  5533 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  5534 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5535 
  5536 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5537 
  5538 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  5539 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  5540 
  5541 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  5542 
  5543 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  5544 
  5545   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  5546   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  5547 
  5548 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5549 
  5550 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  5551 
  5552   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  5553   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  5554 
  5555 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5556 
  5557 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  5558 
  5559   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  5560     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  5561     output f x converges to G.
  5562 
  5563   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  5564     infinity (at_bot).
  5565 
  5566   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  5567     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  5568 
  5569   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  5570     at_top".
  5571 
  5572 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5573 
  5574 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  5575 lattice type classes.
  5576 
  5577 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  5578 
  5579     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  5580     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  5581 
  5582 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5583 
  5584 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  5585 changes as follows.
  5586 
  5587   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  5588 
  5589       prefix ~> prefixeq
  5590       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  5591 
  5592   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  5593     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  5594     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  5595     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  5596 
  5597   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  5598     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  5599     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  5600 
  5601   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  5602     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  5603     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  5604     Library/Prefix_Order.
  5605 
  5606   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  5607     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  5608 
  5609       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  5610       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  5611       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  5612       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  5613       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  5614       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  5615       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  5616       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  5617       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  5618       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  5619       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  5620       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  5621       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  5622       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  5623       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  5624       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  5625 
  5626 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5627 
  5628 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  5629 
  5630 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  5631 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  5632 
  5633 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  5634 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  5635 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  5636 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  5637 
  5638   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  5639   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  5640   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  5641   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  5642   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  5643   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  5644   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  5645   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  5646   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  5647   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  5648 
  5649 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5650 
  5651 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  5652 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  5653 Data").
  5654 
  5655 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  5656 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  5657 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  5658 code.
  5659 
  5660 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  5661 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  5662 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  5663 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5664 
  5665 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  5666 
  5667 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  5668 
  5669 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  5670 
  5671   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  5672   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  5673 
  5674 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  5675 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  5676 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  5677 
  5678   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  5679 
  5680     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  5681     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  5682     cart_base i  removed
  5683     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  5684 
  5685   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  5686 
  5687   Renamed lemmas:
  5688 
  5689     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  5690     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  5691     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  5692     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  5693     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  5694     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  5695     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  5696     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  5697     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  5698     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  5699 
  5700 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5701 
  5702 * HOL/Probability:
  5703 
  5704   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  5705 
  5706   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  5707     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  5708     (borel_measurable_induct).
  5709 
  5710   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  5711     projective family).
  5712 
  5713 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  5714 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  5715 
  5716 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  5717 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  5718 datatypes.
  5719 
  5720 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  5721 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  5722 
  5723 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  5724 trees for the code generator.
  5725 
  5726 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  5727 Lifting/Transfer.
  5728 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5729 
  5730 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  5731 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5732 
  5733 
  5734 *** Document preparation ***
  5735 
  5736 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  5737 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  5738 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  5739 
  5740 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  5741 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  5742 
  5743 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  5744 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  5745 document/root.tex.
  5746 
  5747 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  5748 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5749 
  5750 
  5751 *** ML ***
  5752 
  5753 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  5754 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  5755 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  5756 
  5757 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  5758 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  5759 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  5760 
  5761 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  5762 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  5763 necessarily printing visible text.
  5764 
  5765 
  5766 *** System ***
  5767 
  5768 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  5769 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  5770 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  5771 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  5772 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  5773 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  5774 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  5775 
  5776 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  5777 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  5778 
  5779   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  5780 
  5781 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  5782 
  5783 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  5784 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  5785 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  5786 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  5787 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  5788 
  5789 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  5790 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  5791 
  5792 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  5793 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  5794 
  5795 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  5796 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5797 
  5798 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  5799 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  5800 version of Isabelle.
  5801 
  5802 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  5803 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  5804 
  5805 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  5806 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5807 for home-made settings.
  5808 
  5809 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  5810 
  5811 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  5812 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  5813 configuration.
  5814 
  5815 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  5816 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  5817 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  5818 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  5819 bundled as Isabelle component.
  5820 
  5821 
  5822 
  5823 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  5824 ------------------------------
  5825 
  5826 *** General ***
  5827 
  5828 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  5829 
  5830   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  5831     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  5832   - markup for bound variables
  5833   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  5834   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  5835   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  5836     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  5837 
  5838 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  5839 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  5840 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  5841 
  5842 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  5843 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  5844 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  5845 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  5846 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  5847 
  5848   context
  5849     fixes x y z :: 'a
  5850     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  5851   begin
  5852 
  5853   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  5854 
  5855   end
  5856 
  5857   thm my_trans
  5858 
  5859 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  5860 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  5861 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  5862 
  5863 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  5864 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  5865 
  5866 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  5867 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  5868 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  5869 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  5870 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  5871 
  5872 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  5873 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  5874 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  5875 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  5876 indices of schematic variables.
  5877 
  5878 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  5879 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  5880 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  5881 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  5882 etc. was exploited.
  5883 
  5884 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  5885 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  5886 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  5887 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  5888 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  5889 of the material of that old tutorial.
  5890 
  5891 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  5892 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  5893 manual.
  5894 
  5895 
  5896 *** Pure ***
  5897 
  5898 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  5899 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  5900 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  5901 
  5902 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  5903 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  5904 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  5905 undocumented feature.)
  5906 
  5907 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  5908 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  5909 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  5910 
  5911   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  5912 
  5913   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  5914     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  5915 
  5916 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  5917 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  5918 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  5919 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  5920 
  5921 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  5922 
  5923     num ~> num_token
  5924     xnum ~> xnum_token
  5925     xstr ~> str_token
  5926 
  5927 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  5928 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  5929 position information via constraints).
  5930 
  5931 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  5932 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  5933 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5934 
  5935 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  5936 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  5937 
  5938 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  5939 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  5940 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5941 
  5942 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  5943 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5944 
  5945 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  5946 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  5947 
  5948   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  5949 
  5950 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5951 
  5952 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  5953 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5954 
  5955 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  5956 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  5957 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  5958 
  5959 
  5960 *** HOL ***
  5961 
  5962 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  5963 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  5964 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  5965 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  5966 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  5967 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  5968 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  5969 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  5970 possible.
  5971 
  5972 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  5973 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  5974 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  5975 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  5976 
  5977 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  5978 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5979 
  5980 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  5981 
  5982 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  5983 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  5984 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  5985 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  5986 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  5987 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  5988 
  5989   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  5990     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  5991 
  5992   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  5993     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  5994     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  5995 
  5996   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  5997     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  5998 
  5999   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  6000     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  6001     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  6002 
  6003   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  6004     Redefine using other integer operations.
  6005 
  6006 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  6007 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  6008 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  6009 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  6010 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  6011 
  6012   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  6013     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  6014     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  6015     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  6016     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  6017 
  6018     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  6019     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  6020 
  6021   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  6022     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  6023     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  6024     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  6025     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  6026     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  6027     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  6028     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  6029 
  6030   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  6031     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  6032     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  6033     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  6034 
  6035   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  6036     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  6037     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  6038     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  6039 
  6040   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  6041     from type nat to type int.
  6042 
  6043 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  6044 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  6045 
  6046   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  6047     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  6048     type.  Example syntax:
  6049 
  6050     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  6051       is List.insert
  6052 
  6053     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  6054     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  6055     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  6056     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  6057     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  6058     by the package.
  6059 
  6060   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  6061     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  6062     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  6063     code generation for each constant.
  6064 
  6065   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  6066     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  6067     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  6068     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  6069     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  6070 
  6071   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  6072     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  6073     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  6074 
  6075 * Quotient package:
  6076 
  6077   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  6078     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  6079 
  6080   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  6081     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  6082 
  6083   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  6084     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  6085     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6086 
  6087   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  6088     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6089 
  6090 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  6091 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  6092 
  6093 * Quickcheck:
  6094 
  6095   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  6096     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  6097     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  6098     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  6099     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  6100 
  6101     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  6102     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  6103     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  6104 
  6105     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  6106     continues searching for genuine ones.
  6107 
  6108     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  6109     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  6110     show genuine counterexamples.
  6111 
  6112   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  6113     value generators for a given type and operations.
  6114 
  6115     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  6116     constructors of that type.
  6117 
  6118   - Support for multisets.
  6119 
  6120   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  6121 
  6122   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  6123     conjectures in a locale context.
  6124 
  6125 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  6126 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  6127 
  6128 * Sledgehammer:
  6129   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  6130     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  6131   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  6132   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  6133     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  6134   - Sped up the minimizer.
  6135   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  6136   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  6137   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  6138 
  6139 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  6140 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  6141 
  6142 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  6143 
  6144 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6145 
  6146 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  6147 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  6148 
  6149   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  6150 
  6151 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  6152 a list and a nat.
  6153 
  6154 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  6155 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  6156 
  6157 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  6158 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  6159 default.
  6160 
  6161 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  6162 
  6163   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  6164 
  6165 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  6166 
  6167 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  6168 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  6169 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  6170 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  6171 one_case.
  6172 
  6173 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  6174 the result of the fact expression.
  6175 
  6176 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  6177 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  6178 of some relation theorems:
  6179 
  6180   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  6181   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  6182   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  6183   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  6184   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  6185   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  6186 
  6187 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  6188 
  6189 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  6190 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  6191 
  6192 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6193 
  6194 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  6195 to match the constant's name:
  6196 
  6197   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  6198   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  6199   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  6200   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  6201   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  6202   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  6203   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  6204   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  6205   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  6206   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  6207   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  6208   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  6209   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  6210   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  6211   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  6212   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  6213   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  6214   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  6215   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  6216   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  6217   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  6218   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  6219   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  6220   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  6221 
  6222 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6223 
  6224 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  6225 and corresponding theorem names:
  6226 
  6227   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  6228 
  6229   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  6230 
  6231   - Renamed theorems:
  6232 
  6233     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  6234     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  6235     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  6236     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  6237     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  6238     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  6239     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  6240     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  6241     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  6242     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  6243     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  6244     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  6245     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  6246     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  6247     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  6248     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  6249     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  6250     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  6251     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  6252     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  6253     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  6254     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  6255     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  6256 
  6257     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  6258 
  6259     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp