NEWS
author wenzelm
Wed Apr 10 19:14:47 2013 +0200 (2013-04-10)
changeset 51689 43a3465805dd
parent 51682 bdaa1582dc8b
parent 51686 532e0ac5a66d
child 51703 f2e92fc0c8aa
permissions -rw-r--r--
merged
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
    10 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
    11 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation, with its
    12 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs, has been discontinued.
    13 The default chapter is "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for HTML
    14 presentation of theories.
    15 
    16 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
    17 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
    18 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    19 
    20 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
    21 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 
    24 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    25 
    26 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
    27 timing information.
    28 
    29 * Option to skip over proofs, using implicit 'sorry' internally.
    30 
    31 
    32 *** Pure ***
    33 
    34 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
    35 
    36 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
    37 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
    38 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
    39 
    40 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
    41 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    42 
    43 
    44 *** HOL ***
    45 
    46 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check
    47   phase rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators
    48   is separated from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
    49   "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
    50 
    51   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
    52 
    53 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
    54 
    55 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
    56   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
    57     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
    58     This is now identity on infinite sets.
    59   - Locales (Ā»mini packagesĀ«) for fundamental definitions with
    60     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
    61   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
    62     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
    63     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
    64     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
    65     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
    66     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
    67     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
    68     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly. 
    69   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
    70     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
    71   - Fact renames:
    72       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
    73       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
    74 
    75 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    76 
    77 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
    78 
    79 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.
    80 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    81 
    82 * Discontinued obsolete src/HOL/IsaMakefile (considered legacy since
    83 Isabelle2013).  Use "isabelle build" to operate on Isabelle sessions.
    84 
    85 * Numeric types mapped by default to target language numerals:
    86 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces
    87 former code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
    88 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
    89 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in ML).
    90 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    91 
    92 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
    93 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
    94 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on
    95 code generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    96 
    97 * Theory "RealVector" and "Limits": Introduce type class
    98 (lin)order_topology. Allows to generalize theorems about limits and
    99 order. Instances are reals and extended reals.
   100 
   101 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   102 
   103     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   104     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   105 
   106 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   107 
   108 * Sledgehammer:
   109 
   110   - Renamed option:
   111       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   112 
   113 
   114 *** HOL-Algebra ***
   115 
   116 * Discontinued theories src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and .../poly.
   117 Existing theories should be based on src/HOL/Library/Polynomial
   118 instead.  The latter provides integration with HOL's type classes for
   119 rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   120 
   121 
   122 *** ML ***
   123 
   124 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   125 
   126     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   127     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   128 
   129 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   130 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   131 
   132 
   133 *** System ***
   134 
   135 * Discontinued "isabelle usedir" option -P (remote path) and -r (reset
   136 session path).  Note that usedir is legacy and superseded by "isabelle
   137 build" since Isabelle2013.
   138 
   139 
   140 
   141 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   142 -----------------------------------
   143 
   144 *** General ***
   145 
   146 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   147 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   148 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   149 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   150 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   151 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   152 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   153 
   154 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   155 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   156 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   157 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   158 
   159 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   160 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   161 
   162 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   163 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   164 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   165 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   166 dependencies properly.
   167 
   168 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   169 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   170 
   171 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   172 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   173 
   174 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   175 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   176 and "class ... context ...".
   177 
   178 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   179 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   180 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   181 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   182 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   183 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   184 
   185 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   186 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   187 
   188 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   189 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   190 
   191 
   192 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   193 
   194 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   195 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   196 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   197 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   198 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   199 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   200 
   201 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   202 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   203 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   204 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   205 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   206 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   207 
   208 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   209 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   210 browser on demand.
   211 
   212 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   213 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   214 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   215 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   216 
   217 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   218 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   219 
   220 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   221 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   222 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   223 potentially infinite message streams.
   224 
   225 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   226 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   227 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   228 schemes.
   229 
   230 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   231 symbols.
   232 
   233 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   234 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   235 
   236 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   237 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   238 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   239 
   240 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   241 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   242 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   243 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   244 
   245 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   246 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   247 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   248 
   249 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   250 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   251 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   252 Isabelle distribution.
   253 
   254 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   255 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   256 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   257 
   258 
   259 *** Pure ***
   260 
   261 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   262 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   263 
   264 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   265 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   266 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   267 
   268 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   269 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   270 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   271 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   272 with some care where this is really required.
   273 
   274 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   275 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   276 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   277 
   278   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   279 
   280 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   281 a Hasse diagram.
   282 
   283 
   284 *** HOL ***
   285 
   286 * Sledgehammer:
   287 
   288   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   289     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   290   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   291   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   292   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   293   - Renamed options:
   294       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   295       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   296       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   297       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   298 
   299 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   300 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   301 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   302 
   303 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   304 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   305 
   306 * Lifting:
   307   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   308   - quot_del attribute
   309   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   310 
   311 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   312 expressions.
   313 
   314 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   315 pointfree expressions.
   316 
   317 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   318 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   319 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   320 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   321 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   322 
   323 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   324 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   325 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   326 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   327 accordingly.
   328 
   329 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   330 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   331 
   332 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   333 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   334 
   335 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   336 
   337 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   338 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   339 
   340 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   341 
   342 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   343 
   344   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   345   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   346 
   347 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   348 
   349 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   350 
   351   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   352   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   353 
   354 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   355 
   356 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   357 
   358   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   359     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   360     output f x converges to G.
   361 
   362   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   363     infinity (at_bot).
   364 
   365   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   366     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   367 
   368   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   369     at_top".
   370 
   371 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   372 
   373 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   374 lattice type classes.
   375 
   376 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   377 
   378     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   379     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   380 
   381 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   382 
   383 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   384 changes as follows.
   385 
   386   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   387 
   388       prefix ~> prefixeq
   389       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   390 
   391   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   392     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   393     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   394     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   395 
   396   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   397     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   398     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   399 
   400   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   401     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   402     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   403     Library/Prefix_Order.
   404 
   405   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   406     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   407 
   408       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   409       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   410       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   411       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   412       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   413       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   414       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   415       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   416       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   417       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   418       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   419       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   420       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   421       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   422       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   423       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   424 
   425 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   426 
   427 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   428 
   429 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   430 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   431 
   432 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   433 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   434 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   435 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   436 
   437   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   438   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   439   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   440   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   441   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   442   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   443   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   444   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   445   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   446   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   447 
   448 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   449 
   450 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   451 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   452 Data").
   453 
   454 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   455 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   456 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   457 code.
   458 
   459 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   460 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   461 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   462 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   463 
   464 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
   465 
   466 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
   467 
   468 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
   469 
   470   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
   471   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
   472 
   473 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
   474 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
   475 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
   476 
   477   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
   478 
   479     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
   480     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
   481     cart_base i  removed
   482     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
   483 
   484   Theorems about these constants where removed.
   485 
   486   Renamed lemmas:
   487 
   488     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
   489     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
   490     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
   491     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
   492     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
   493     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
   494     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
   495     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
   496     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
   497     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
   498 
   499 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   500 
   501 * HOL/Probability:
   502 
   503   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
   504 
   505   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
   506     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
   507     (borel_measurable_induct).
   508 
   509   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
   510     projective family).
   511 
   512 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
   513 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   514 
   515 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
   516 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
   517 datatypes.
   518 
   519 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
   520 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
   521 
   522 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
   523 trees for the code generator.
   524 
   525 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
   526 Lifting/Transfer.
   527 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
   528 
   529 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
   530 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   531 
   532 
   533 *** Document preparation ***
   534 
   535 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
   536 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
   537 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
   538 
   539 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
   540 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
   541 
   542 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   543 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   544 document/root.tex.
   545 
   546 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   547 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   548 
   549 
   550 *** ML ***
   551 
   552 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   553 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
   554 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
   555 
   556 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   557 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   558 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   559 
   560 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   561 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   562 necessarily printing visible text.
   563 
   564 
   565 *** System ***
   566 
   567 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   568 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   569 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
   570 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
   571 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
   572 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   573 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   574 
   575 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   576 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   577 
   578   isabelle build -s -b HOL
   579 
   580 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   581 
   582 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   583 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   584 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   585 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   586 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   587 
   588 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   589 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   590 
   591 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   592 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   593 
   594 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
   595 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   596 
   597 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   598 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   599 version of Isabelle.
   600 
   601 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
   602 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
   603 
   604 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   605 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   606 for home-made settings.
   607 
   608 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
   609 
   610 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   611 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   612 configuration.
   613 
   614 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   615 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   616 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   617 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   618 bundled as Isabelle component.
   619 
   620 
   621 
   622 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   623 ------------------------------
   624 
   625 *** General ***
   626 
   627 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   628 
   629   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   630     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   631   - markup for bound variables
   632   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   633   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   634   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   635     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   636 
   637 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   638 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   639 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   640 
   641 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   642 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   643 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   644 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   645 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   646 
   647   context
   648     fixes x y z :: 'a
   649     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   650   begin
   651 
   652   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   653 
   654   end
   655 
   656   thm my_trans
   657 
   658 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   659 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   660 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   661 
   662 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   663 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   664 
   665 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   666 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   667 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   668 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   669 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   670 
   671 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   672 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   673 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   674 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   675 indices of schematic variables.
   676 
   677 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   678 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   679 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   680 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   681 etc. was exploited.
   682 
   683 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   684 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   685 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   686 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   687 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   688 of the material of that old tutorial.
   689 
   690 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   691 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   692 manual.
   693 
   694 
   695 *** Pure ***
   696 
   697 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   698 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   699 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   700 
   701 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   702 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   703 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   704 undocumented feature.)
   705 
   706 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   707 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   708 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   709 
   710   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   711 
   712   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   713     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   714 
   715 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   716 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   717 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   718 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   719 
   720 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   721 
   722     num ~> num_token
   723     xnum ~> xnum_token
   724     xstr ~> str_token
   725 
   726 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   727 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   728 position information via constraints).
   729 
   730 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   731 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   732 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   733 
   734 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   735 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   736 
   737 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   738 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   739 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   740 
   741 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   742 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   743 
   744 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   745 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   746 
   747   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   748 
   749 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   750 
   751 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   752 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   753 
   754 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   755 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   756 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   757 
   758 
   759 *** HOL ***
   760 
   761 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   762 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   763 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   764 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   765 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   766 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   767 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   768 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   769 possible.
   770 
   771 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   772 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   773 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   774 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   775 
   776 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   777 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   778 
   779 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   780 
   781 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   782 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   783 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   784 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   785 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   786 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   787 
   788   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   789     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   790 
   791   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   792     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   793     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   794 
   795   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   796     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   797 
   798   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   799     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   800     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   801 
   802   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   803     Redefine using other integer operations.
   804 
   805 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   806 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   807 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   808 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   809 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   810 
   811   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   812     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   813     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   814     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   815     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   816 
   817     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   818     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   819 
   820   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   821     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   822     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   823     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   824     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   825     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   826     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   827     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   828 
   829   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   830     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   831     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   832     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   833 
   834   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   835     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   836     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   837     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   838 
   839   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   840     from type nat to type int.
   841 
   842 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   843 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   844 
   845   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   846     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   847     type.  Example syntax:
   848 
   849     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   850       is List.insert
   851 
   852     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   853     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   854     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   855     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   856     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   857     by the package.
   858 
   859   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   860     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   861     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   862     code generation for each constant.
   863 
   864   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   865     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   866     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   867     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   868     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   869 
   870   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   871     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   872     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   873 
   874 * Quotient package:
   875 
   876   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   877     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   878 
   879   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   880     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   881 
   882   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   883     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   884     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   885 
   886   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   887     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   888 
   889 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   890 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   891 
   892 * Quickcheck:
   893 
   894   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   895     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   896     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   897     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   898     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   899 
   900     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   901     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   902     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   903 
   904     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   905     continues searching for genuine ones.
   906 
   907     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   908     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   909     show genuine counterexamples.
   910 
   911   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   912     value generators for a given type and operations.
   913 
   914     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   915     constructors of that type.
   916 
   917   - Support for multisets.
   918 
   919   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   920 
   921   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   922     conjectures in a locale context.
   923 
   924 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   925 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   926 
   927 * Sledgehammer:
   928   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   929     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   930   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   931   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   932     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   933   - Sped up the minimizer.
   934   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   935   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   936   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   937 
   938 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   939 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   940 
   941 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   942 
   943 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   944 
   945 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   946 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   947 
   948   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   949 
   950 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   951 a list and a nat.
   952 
   953 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   954 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   955 
   956 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   957 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   958 default.
   959 
   960 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   961 
   962   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   963 
   964 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   965 
   966 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   967 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   968 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   969 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   970 one_case.
   971 
   972 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   973 the result of the fact expression.
   974 
   975 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   976 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   977 of some relation theorems:
   978 
   979   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   980   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   981   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   982   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   983   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   984   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   985 
   986 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   987 
   988 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   989 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   990 
   991 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   992 
   993 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   994 to match the constant's name:
   995 
   996   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   997   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   998   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   999   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1000   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1001   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1002   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1003   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1004   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1005   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1006   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1007   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1008   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1009   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1010   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1011   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1012   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1013   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1014   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1015   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1016   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1017   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1018   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1019   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1020 
  1021 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1022 
  1023 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1024 and corresponding theorem names:
  1025 
  1026   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1027 
  1028   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1029 
  1030   - Renamed theorems:
  1031 
  1032     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1033     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1034     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1035     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1036     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1037     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1038     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1039     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1040     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1041     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1042     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1043     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1044     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1045     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1046     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1047     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1048     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1049     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1050     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1051     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1052     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1053     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1054     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1055 
  1056     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1057 
  1058     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1059 
  1060 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1061 
  1062 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1063 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1064 
  1065   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1066   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1067   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1068   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1069   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1070   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1071   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1072   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1073   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1074   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1075   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1076   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1077   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1078   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1079   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1080   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1081   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1082   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1083   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1084   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1085   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1086 
  1087 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1088 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1089 
  1090 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1091 
  1092 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1093 
  1094   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1095   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1096   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1097   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1098   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1099   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1100   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1101   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1102   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1103   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1104   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1105   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1106   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1107   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1108   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1109   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1110   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1111   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1112 
  1113 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1114 
  1115 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1116 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1117 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1118 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1119 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1120 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1121 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1122 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1123 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1124 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1125 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1126 
  1127 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1128 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1129 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1130 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1131 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1132 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1133 
  1134 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1135 through option types.
  1136 
  1137 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1138 relations.
  1139 
  1140 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1141 
  1142 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1143 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1144 
  1145   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1146   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1147   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1148   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1149   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1150   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1151   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1152   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1153   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1154   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1155   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1156   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1157   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1158   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1159   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1160   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1161   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1162   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1163   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1164   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1165   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1166   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1167   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1168   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1169   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1170   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1171   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1172   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1173   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1174   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1175   zless_le ~> less_le
  1176   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1177   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1178   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1179 
  1180 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1181 
  1182   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1183 
  1184 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1185 
  1186 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1187 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1188 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1189 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1190 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1191 
  1192 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1193 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1194 
  1195 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1196 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1197 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1198 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1199 follows:
  1200 
  1201   Operations:
  1202   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1203   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1204   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1205   del -> rbt_del
  1206   delete -> rbt_delete
  1207   ins -> rbt_ins
  1208   insert -> rbt_insert
  1209   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1210   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1211   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1212   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1213   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1214   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1215   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1216   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1217   union -> rbt_union
  1218   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1219   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1220 
  1221   Lemmas:
  1222   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1223   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1224   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1225   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1226   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1227   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1228   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1229   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1230   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1231   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1232   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1233   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1234   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1235   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1236   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1237   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1238   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1239   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1240   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1241   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1242   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1243   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1244   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1245   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1246   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1247   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1248   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1249   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1250   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1251   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1252   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1253   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1254   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1255   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1256   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1257   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1258   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1259   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1260   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1261   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1262   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1263   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1264   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1265   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1266   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1267   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1268   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1269   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1270   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1271   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1272   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1273   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1274   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1275   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1276   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1277   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1278   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1279   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1280   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1281   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1282   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1283   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1284   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1285   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1286   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1287   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1288   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1289   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1290   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1291   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1292   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1293   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1294   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1295   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1296   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1297   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1298   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1299   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1300   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1301   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1302   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1303   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1304   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1305 
  1306 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1307 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1308 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1309 
  1310   Changed Operations:
  1311   float_abs -> abs
  1312   float_nprt -> nprt
  1313   float_pprt -> pprt
  1314   pow2 -> use powr
  1315   round_down -> float_round_down
  1316   round_up -> float_round_up
  1317   scale -> exponent
  1318 
  1319   Removed Operations:
  1320   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1321 
  1322   Renamed Lemmas:
  1323   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1324   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1325   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1326   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1327   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1328   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1329   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1330   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1331   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1332   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1333   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1334   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1335   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1336   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1337   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1338   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1339   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1340   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1341   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1342   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1343   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1344   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1345   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1346   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1347   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1348   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1349   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1350   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1351   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1352   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1353   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1354   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1355   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1356   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1357   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1358   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1359 
  1360   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1361   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1362   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1363   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1364   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1365   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1366   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1367   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1368   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1369   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1370 
  1371 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1372 association lists with distinct keys.
  1373 
  1374 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1375 annotated commands.
  1376 
  1377 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1378 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1379 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1380 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1381 
  1382 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1383 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1384 instead.
  1385 
  1386   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1387   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1388   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1389   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1390   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1391   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1392   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1393   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1394   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1395   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1396   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1397   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1398   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1399   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1400   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1401   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1402   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1403   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1404   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1405   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1406   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1407   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1408   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1409   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1410   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1411   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1412   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1413   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1414   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1415   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1416   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1417   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1418   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1419   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1420   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1421   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1422   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1423   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1424   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1425   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1426   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1427 
  1428 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1429 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1430 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1431 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1432 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1433 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1434 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1435 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1436 
  1437 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1438 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1439 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1440 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1441 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1442 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1443 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1444 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1445 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1446 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1447 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1448 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1449 
  1450   Renamed constants:
  1451   measure -> emeasure
  1452   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1453   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1454   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1455   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1456 
  1457   Removed locales:
  1458   completeable_measure_space
  1459   finite_measure_space
  1460   finite_prob_space
  1461   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1462   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1463   finite_sigma_algebra
  1464   measure_space
  1465   pair_finite_prob_space
  1466   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1467   pair_finite_space
  1468   pair_sigma_algebra
  1469   product_sigma_algebra
  1470 
  1471   Removed constants:
  1472   conditional_space
  1473   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1474   image_space
  1475   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1476   pair_measure_generator
  1477   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1478   subvimage
  1479 
  1480   Replacement theorems:
  1481   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1482   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1483   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1484   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1485   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1486   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1487   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1488   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1489   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1490   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1491   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1492   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1493   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1494   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1495   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1496   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1497   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1498   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1499   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1500   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1501   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1502   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1503   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1504   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1505   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1506   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1507   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1508   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1509   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1510   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1511   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1512   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1513   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1514   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1515   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1516   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1517   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1518   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1519   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1520   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1521   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1522   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1523   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1524   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1525   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1526   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1527   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1528   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1529   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1530   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1531   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1532   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1533   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1534   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1535   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1536   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1537   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1538   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1539   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1540   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1541   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1542   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1543   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1544   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1545   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1546   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1547   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1548   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1549   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1550   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1551   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1552   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1553   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1554   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1555   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1556   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1557   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1558   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1559   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1560   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1561   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1562   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1563   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1564   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1565   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1566   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1567   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1568   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1569   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1570   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1571   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1572   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1573   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1574   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1575   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1576   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1577   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1578   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1579   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1580   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1581   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1582   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1583   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1584   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1585   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1586   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1587   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1588   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1589   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1590   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1591   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1592   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1593   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1594   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1595   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1596   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1597   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1598   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1599   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1600   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1601   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1602   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1603   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1604   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1605   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1606   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1607   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1608   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1609 
  1610 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1611 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1612 
  1613 
  1614 *** FOL ***
  1615 
  1616 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1617 
  1618 
  1619 *** ZF ***
  1620 
  1621 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1622 analysis.
  1623 
  1624 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1625 
  1626 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1627 
  1628 
  1629 *** ML ***
  1630 
  1631 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1632 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1633 
  1634 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1635 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1636 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1637 
  1638 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1639 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1640 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1641 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1642 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1643 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1644 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1645 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1646 
  1647 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1648 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1649 
  1650 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1651 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1652 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1653 
  1654 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1655 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1656 
  1657 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1658 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1659 context as well.
  1660 
  1661 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1662 
  1663   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1664   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1665   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1666   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1667   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1668   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1669   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1670   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1671   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1672   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1673   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1674   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1675 
  1676 
  1677 *** System ***
  1678 
  1679 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1680 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1681 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1682 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1683 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1684 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1685 the generic user home was intended.
  1686 
  1687 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1688 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1689 
  1690 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1691 (not just JRE).
  1692 
  1693 
  1694 
  1695 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1696 ------------------------------------
  1697 
  1698 *** General ***
  1699 
  1700 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1701 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1702 
  1703   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1704     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1705     files for checking).
  1706 
  1707   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1708     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1709     positions.
  1710 
  1711   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1712     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1713     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1714 
  1715   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1716     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1717     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1718 
  1719   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1720     cores.
  1721 
  1722   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1723     versions (garbage collection).
  1724 
  1725 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1726 including some remaining limitations.
  1727 
  1728 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1729 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1730 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1731 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1732 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1733 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1734 
  1735 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1736 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1737 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1738 
  1739 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1740 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1741 usedir option -Q.
  1742 
  1743 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1744 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1745 
  1746   long_names   ~> names_long
  1747   short_names  ~> names_short
  1748   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1749 
  1750 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1751 
  1752   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1753 
  1754 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1755 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1756 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1757 
  1758 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1759 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1760 
  1761 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1762   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1763   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1764   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1765     "Classical Reasoner".
  1766 
  1767 
  1768 *** HOL ***
  1769 
  1770 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1771 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1772 
  1773 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1774 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1775 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1776 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1777 class complete_linorder.
  1778 
  1779 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1780 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1781 
  1782 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1783 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1784 
  1785   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1786   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1787   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1788   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1789   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1790   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1791   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1792   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1793   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1794   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1795   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1796 
  1797 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1798 
  1799   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1800   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1801   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1802   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1803   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1804   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1805   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1806   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1807   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1808   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1809   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1810   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1811   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1812   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1813   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1814   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1815 
  1816 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1817 
  1818 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1819 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1820 
  1821 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1822 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1823 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1824 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1825 
  1826 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1827 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1828 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1829 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1830 
  1831 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1832 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1833 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1834 
  1835 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1836 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1837 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1838 
  1839 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1840 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1841 
  1842 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1843 
  1844     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1845     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1846 
  1847 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1848 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1849 
  1850 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1851 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1852 
  1853 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1854 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1855 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1856 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1857 
  1858   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1859   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1860   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1861   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1862   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1863   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1864   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1865 
  1866 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1867 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1868 
  1869   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1870   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1871   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1872   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1873   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1874   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1875   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1876   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1877   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1878   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1879   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1880   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1881   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1882   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1883   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1884   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1885   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1886   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1887   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1888   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1889   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1890   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1891   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1892   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1893   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1894   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1895   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1896   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1897   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1898   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1899   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1900   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1901   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1902   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1903   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1904   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1905   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1906   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1907   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1908   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1909   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1910   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1911   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1912   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1913   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1914   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1915   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1916   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1917   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1918   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1919   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1920   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1921   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1922   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1923   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1924   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1925   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1926   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1927   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1928   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1929   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1930   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1931   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1932   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1933   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1934   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1935   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1936   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1937   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1938   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1939   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1940   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1941   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1942   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1943   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1944   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1945   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1946   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1947   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1948   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1949   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1950   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1951 
  1952 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1953 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1954 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1955 
  1956 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1957 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1958 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1959 
  1960 * Code generation:
  1961 
  1962   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1963     characters in the target language.
  1964 
  1965   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1966     instead.
  1967 
  1968   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1969 
  1970   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1971     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1972 
  1973       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1974 
  1975 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1976 
  1977 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1978 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1979 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1980 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1981 syntax.
  1982 
  1983 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1984 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1985 
  1986 * Nitpick:
  1987   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1988   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1989   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1990     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1991 
  1992 * Sledgehammer:
  1993   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1994   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1995     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1996   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1997     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1998   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1999     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2000   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2001     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2002   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2003     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2004 
  2005 * Metis:
  2006   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2007   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2008     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2009 
  2010 * Command 'try':
  2011   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2012     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2013   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2014     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2015 
  2016 * Quickcheck:
  2017   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2018     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2019   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2020     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2021   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2022     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2023     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2024     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2025   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2026     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2027 
  2028 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2029 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2030 
  2031 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2032 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2033 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2034 
  2035 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2036 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2037 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2038 
  2039 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2040 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2041 
  2042 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2043 arithmetic.
  2044 
  2045 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2046 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2047 and lattice type classes.
  2048 
  2049 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2050 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2051 
  2052 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2053 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2054 
  2055 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2056 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2057 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2058 
  2059   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2060   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2061   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2062   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2063 
  2064 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2065 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2066 constants:
  2067 
  2068   type inat   ~> type enat
  2069   Fin         ~> enat
  2070   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2071   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2072   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2073 
  2074 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2075 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2076 
  2077 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2078 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2079 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2080 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2081 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2082 
  2083 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2084 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2085 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2086 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2087 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2088 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2089 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2090 
  2091   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2092   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2093   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2094   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2095 
  2096 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2097 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2098 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2099 
  2100   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2101   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2102   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2103   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2104   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2105   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2106   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2107   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2108   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2109   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2110   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2111   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2112   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2113   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2114   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2115   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2116   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2117   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2118   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2119   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2120   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2121   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2122   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2123   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2124   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2125   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2126   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2127   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2128   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2129   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2130   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2131   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2132   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2133   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2134   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2135   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2136   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2137   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2138   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2139   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2140   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2141   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2142   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2143   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2144   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2145   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2146   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2147   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2148   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2149   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2150   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2151 
  2152 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2153   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2154   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2155   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2156   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2157     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2158 
  2159 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2160 
  2161   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2162   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2163   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2164   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2165   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2166   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2167   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2168   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2169   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2170   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2171   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2172   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2173   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2174   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2175   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2176   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2177   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2178   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2179   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2180   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2181   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2182   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2183   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2184   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2185   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2186 
  2187 
  2188 *** Document preparation ***
  2189 
  2190 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2191 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2192 same.
  2193 
  2194 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2195 result.
  2196 
  2197 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2198 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2199 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2200 
  2201 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2202 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2203 
  2204 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2205 like this:
  2206 
  2207   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2208   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2209 
  2210 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2211 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2212 layouts.
  2213 
  2214 
  2215 *** ML ***
  2216 
  2217 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2218 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2219 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2220 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2221 under external program control.
  2222 
  2223 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2224 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2225 
  2226 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2227 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2228 (better known as Proof General).
  2229 
  2230 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2231 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2232 
  2233 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2234 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2235 
  2236 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2237 (including quotes etc.).
  2238 
  2239 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2240 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2241 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2242 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2243 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2244 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2245 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2246 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2247 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2248 
  2249 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2250 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2251 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2252 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2253 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2254 
  2255 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2256 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2257 
  2258 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2259 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2260 
  2261 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2262 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2263 
  2264 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2265 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2266 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2267 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2268 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2269 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2270 proper Proof.context.
  2271 
  2272 
  2273 *** System ***
  2274 
  2275 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2276 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2277 
  2278 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2279 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2280 
  2281 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2282 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2283 
  2284   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2285   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2286   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2287   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2288   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2289 
  2290 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2291 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2292 
  2293 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2294 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2295 example:
  2296 
  2297   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2298 
  2299 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2300 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2301 
  2302 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2303 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2304 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2305 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2306 
  2307 
  2308 
  2309 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2310 ----------------------------------
  2311 
  2312 *** General ***
  2313 
  2314 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2315 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2316 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2317 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2318 like this:
  2319 
  2320   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2321 
  2322 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2323 
  2324 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2325 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2326 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2327 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2328 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2329 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2330 
  2331 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2332 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2333 the following package declarations:
  2334 
  2335   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2336   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2337 
  2338 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2339 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2340 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2341 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2342 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2343 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2344 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2345 
  2346 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2347 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2348 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2349 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2350 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2351 
  2352 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2353 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2354 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2355 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2356 
  2357 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2358 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2359 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2360 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2361 
  2362   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2363 
  2364   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2365   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2366   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2367   show_types                    show_types
  2368   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2369   show_consts                   show_consts
  2370   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2371 
  2372   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2373   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2374   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2375 
  2376   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2377   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2378 
  2379   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2380 
  2381   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2382   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2383   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2384   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2385   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2386 
  2387 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2388 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2389 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2390 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2391 
  2392 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2393 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2394 
  2395   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2396   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2397 
  2398 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2399 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2400 float_token.
  2401 
  2402 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2403 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2404 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2405 
  2406 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2407 DejaVu Sans.
  2408 
  2409 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2410 
  2411 
  2412 *** Pure ***
  2413 
  2414 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2415 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2416 time.
  2417 
  2418 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2419 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2420 
  2421 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2422 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2423 
  2424 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2425 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2426 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2427 command already provided this functionality.
  2428 
  2429 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2430 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2431 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2432 without interpretations.
  2433 
  2434 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2435 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2436 
  2437 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2438 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2439 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2440 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2441 
  2442 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2443 'definition' instead.
  2444 
  2445 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2446 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2447 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2448 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2449 
  2450 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2451 constructors.
  2452 
  2453 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2454 the local file system.
  2455 
  2456 
  2457 *** HOL ***
  2458 
  2459 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2460 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2461 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2462 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2463 
  2464   declare [[coercion f]]
  2465 
  2466 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2467 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2468 
  2469   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2470 
  2471 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2472 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2473 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2474 other theories like this:
  2475 
  2476   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2477 
  2478 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2479 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2480 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2481 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2482 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2483 for examples.
  2484 
  2485 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2486 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2487 
  2488 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2489 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2490 
  2491 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2492 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2493 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2494 
  2495 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2496 functorial structure of types.
  2497 
  2498 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2499 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2500 
  2501 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2502 languages.
  2503 
  2504 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2505 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2506 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2507 
  2508 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2509 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2510 
  2511 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2512 combinators any longer.
  2513 
  2514 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2515 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2516 
  2517 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2518 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2519 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2520 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2521 
  2522   record 'a foo = ...
  2523   ...
  2524   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2525 
  2526 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2527 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2528 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2529 
  2530 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2531 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2532 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2533 
  2534 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2535 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2536 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2537 
  2538 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2539 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2540 
  2541 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2542 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2543 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2544 independently.
  2545 
  2546 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2547 counter example search.
  2548 
  2549 * Sledgehammer:
  2550   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2551     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2552     sledgehammer").
  2553   - Renamed commands:
  2554     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2555     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2556     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2557     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2558   - Renamed options:
  2559     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2560     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2561     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2562     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2563     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2564 
  2565 * Nitpick:
  2566   - Renamed options:
  2567     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2568     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2569     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2570   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2571   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2572   - Added "whack" option.
  2573   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2574   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2575   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2576   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2577     higher cardinalities.
  2578   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2579 
  2580 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2581 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2582 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2583 
  2584     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2585 
  2586 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2587 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2588 
  2589 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2590 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2591 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2592 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2593 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2594 "smt_solver".
  2595 
  2596 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2597 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2598 
  2599 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2600 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2601 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2602 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2603 
  2604 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2605   - Renamed:
  2606     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2607     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2608     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2609   - Added:
  2610     smt_verbose
  2611     smt_random_seed
  2612     smt_datatypes
  2613     smt_infer_triggers
  2614     smt_monomorph_limit
  2615     cvc3_options
  2616     remote_cvc3_options
  2617     remote_z3_options
  2618     yices_options
  2619 
  2620 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2621 header.
  2622 
  2623 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2624 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2625 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2626 
  2627   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2628 
  2629 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2630 
  2631 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2632 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2633 
  2634 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2635 
  2636 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2637 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2638 
  2639 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2640 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2641 
  2642 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2643 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2644 
  2645 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2646 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2647 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2648 
  2649 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2650 
  2651 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2652 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2653 
  2654 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2655 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2656 
  2657 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2658 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2659 for congruent(2)).
  2660 
  2661 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2662 
  2663   types
  2664     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2665     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2666 
  2667   constants
  2668     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2669     True ~> HOL.True
  2670     False ~> HOL.False
  2671     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2672     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2673     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2674     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2675     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2676     The ~> HOL.The
  2677     All ~> HOL.All
  2678     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2679     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2680     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2681     If ~> HOL.If
  2682     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2683     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2684     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2685     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2686     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2687     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2688     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2689     op : ~> Set.member
  2690     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2691 
  2692 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2693 
  2694 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2695 
  2696     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2697     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2698     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2699     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2700     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2701     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2702     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2703     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2704 
  2705 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2706 
  2707 * More stylized fact names:
  2708 
  2709   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2710   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2711   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2712   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2713 
  2714 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2715 
  2716 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2717 
  2718   constants
  2719     null ~> List.null
  2720 
  2721   facts
  2722     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2723     null_empty ~> null_def
  2724 
  2725 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2726 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2727 generation.
  2728 
  2729 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2730 Haskell code.
  2731 
  2732 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2733 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2734 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2735 
  2736 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2737 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2738 
  2739 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2740 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2741 
  2742 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2743 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2744 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2745 
  2746 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2747 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2748 
  2749 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2750 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2751 
  2752 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2753 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2754 referred to by its qualified name.
  2755 
  2756   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2757   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2758   product ~>  Enum.product
  2759 
  2760 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2761 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2762 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2763 
  2764 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2765 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2766 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2767 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2768 
  2769 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2770 sort_key.
  2771 
  2772 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2773 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2774 
  2775 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2776 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2777 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2778 
  2779   types
  2780     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2781               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2782               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2783         (depends on your needs)
  2784 
  2785   constants
  2786      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2787      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2788      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2789 
  2790 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2791 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2792 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2793 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2794 
  2795 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2796 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2797 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2798 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2799 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2800 
  2801 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2802 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2803 
  2804 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2805 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2806 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2807 
  2808 
  2809 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2810 
  2811 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2812 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2813 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2814 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2815 compatibility.
  2816 
  2817 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2818 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2819 
  2820 
  2821 *** HOLCF ***
  2822 
  2823 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2824 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2825 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2826 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2827 
  2828 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2829 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2830 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2831 
  2832   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2833   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2834   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2835 
  2836 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2837 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2838 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2839 
  2840 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2841 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2842 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2843 domain definition now works:
  2844 
  2845   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2846 
  2847 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2848 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2849 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2850 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2851 
  2852   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2853     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2854 
  2855   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2856 
  2857 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2858 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2859 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2860 
  2861 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2862 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2863 
  2864 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2865 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2866 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2867 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2868 
  2869 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2870 
  2871 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2872 
  2873 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2874 
  2875 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2876 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2877 
  2878 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2879 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2880 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2881 
  2882 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2883 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2884 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2885 
  2886 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2887 still supported as an input translation.
  2888 
  2889 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2890 
  2891   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2892   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2893   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2894   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2895   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2896   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2897   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2898 
  2899 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2900 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2901 
  2902   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2903   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2904   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2905   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2906   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2907   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2908 
  2909 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2910 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2911 
  2912 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2913 
  2914   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2915   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2916   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2917   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2918 
  2919 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2920 
  2921 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2922 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2923 
  2924 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2925 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2926 
  2927   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2928   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2929   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2930   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2931   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2932   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2933   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2934   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2935   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2936   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2937   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2938   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2939   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2940   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2941   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2942   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2943   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2944   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2945   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2946   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2947 
  2948 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2949 
  2950   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2951   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2952   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2953   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2954   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2955   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2956   box_less             ~> box_below
  2957   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2958   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2959   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2960   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2961   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2962   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2963   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2964   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2965   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2966   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2967   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2968   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2969   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2970   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2971   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2972   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2973   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2974   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2975   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2976   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2977   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2978   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2979   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2980   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2981   up_less              ~> up_below
  2982   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2983   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2984   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2985   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2986   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2987   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2988   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2989   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2990   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2991   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2992   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2993   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2994   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2995 
  2996 
  2997 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2998 
  2999 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3000 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3001 
  3002 
  3003 *** ML ***
  3004 
  3005 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3006 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3007 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3008 
  3009 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3010 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3011 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3012 
  3013 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3014 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3015 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3016 
  3017 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3018 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3019 
  3020 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3021 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3022 
  3023 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3024 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3025 
  3026 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3027 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3028 
  3029 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3030 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3031 almost all situations.
  3032 
  3033 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3034 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3035 Isabelle/ML.
  3036 
  3037 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3038 meaning.
  3039 
  3040 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3041 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3042 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3043 
  3044 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3045 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3046 
  3047 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3048 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3049 
  3050 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3051 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3052 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3053 
  3054 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3055 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3056 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3057 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3058 configuration options.
  3059 
  3060 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3061 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3062 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3063 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3064 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3065 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3066 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3067 
  3068 
  3069 
  3070 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3071 ---------------------------------
  3072 
  3073 *** General ***
  3074 
  3075 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3076 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3077 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3078 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3079 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3080 their full internal name.
  3081 
  3082 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3083 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3084 Some hints on upgrading:
  3085 
  3086   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3087     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3088     which are independent of this issue.
  3089 
  3090   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3091     provides the following special forms:
  3092 
  3093       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3094       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3095       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3096 
  3097     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3098     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3099     extra variables".
  3100 
  3101     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3102     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3103     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3104     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3105     "logic".
  3106 
  3107   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3108     antiquotations:
  3109 
  3110       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3111       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3112       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3113       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3114 
  3115   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3116     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3117     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3118     antiquotations.
  3119 
  3120 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3121 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3122 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3123 diagnose syntax problems.
  3124 
  3125 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3126 
  3127 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3128 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3129 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3130 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3131 
  3132 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3133 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3134 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3135 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3136 
  3137 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3138 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3139 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3140 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3141 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3142 
  3143 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3144 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3145 
  3146 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3147 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3148 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3149 
  3150   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3151 
  3152 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3153 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3154 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3155 
  3156 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3157 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3158 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3159 
  3160 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3161 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3162 
  3163 
  3164 *** Pure ***
  3165 
  3166 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3167 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3168 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3169 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3170 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3171 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3172 inspect proof terms.
  3173 
  3174 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3175 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3176 are added internally.  For example:
  3177 
  3178   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3179 
  3180 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3181 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3182 
  3183 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3184 
  3185 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3186 'class' instead.
  3187 
  3188 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3189 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3190 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3191 
  3192 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3193 invariants.
  3194 
  3195 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3196 user space functionality any longer.
  3197 
  3198 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3199 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3200 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3201 
  3202 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3203 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3204 
  3205 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3206 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3207 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3208 
  3209 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3210 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3211 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3212 
  3213 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3214 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3215 
  3216 
  3217 *** HOL ***
  3218 
  3219 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3220 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3221 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3222 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3223 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3224 
  3225 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3226 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3227 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3228 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3229 
  3230   fun
  3231     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3232   where
  3233     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3234 
  3235   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3236     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3237 
  3238   quotient_definition
  3239     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3240 
  3241 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3242 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3243 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3244 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3245 
  3246 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3247 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3248 
  3249 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3250 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3251 
  3252 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3253 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3254 
  3255 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3256 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3257 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3258 
  3259 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3260 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3261 
  3262 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3263 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3264 
  3265 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3266 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3267 
  3268 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3269 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3270 
  3271 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3272 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3273 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3274 
  3275   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3276   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3277   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3278   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3279   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3280   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3281   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3282   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3283   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3284   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3285   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3286   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3287   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3288   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3289   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3290   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3291   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3292   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3293   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3294   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3295   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3296   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3297   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3298   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3299   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3300   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3301   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3302   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3303   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3304   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3305 
  3306 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3307 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3308 
  3309 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3310 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3311 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3312 
  3313 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3314 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3315 
  3316 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3317 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3318 
  3319 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3320 
  3321 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3322 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3323 
  3324 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3325 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3326 
  3327 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3328 
  3329 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3330 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3331 
  3332 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3333 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3334 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3335 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3336 
  3337 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3338   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3339   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3340   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3341 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3342 
  3343 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3344 lattices):
  3345 
  3346     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3347     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3348 
  3349     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3350 
  3351     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3352     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3353     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3354     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3355     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3356     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3357     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3358     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3359     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3360     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3361     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3362     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3363     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3364 
  3365     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3366     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3367     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3368     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3369     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3370     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3371     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3372     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3373     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3374     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3375     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3376     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3377     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3378     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3379     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3380     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3381     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3382     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3383 
  3384   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3385   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3386 
  3387     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3388     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3389     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3390     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3391     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3392 
  3393 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3394 
  3395 * Refined field classes:
  3396   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3397     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3398     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3399   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3400 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3401 
  3402 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3403   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3404   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3405   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3406     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3407   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3408     equal_neg_zero.
  3409 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3410 
  3411 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3412 sets to lattices:
  3413 
  3414   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3415   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3416   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3417   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3418   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3419   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3420   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3421   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3422   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3423   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3424 
  3425 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3426 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3427 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3428 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3429 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3430 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3431 
  3432 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3433 multiset order:
  3434 
  3435   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3436     <= and <;
  3437   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3438     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3439     multiset_order;
  3440   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3441     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3442     generation;
  3443   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3444     if needed.
  3445 
  3446 Renamed:
  3447 
  3448   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3449   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3450   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3451 
  3452 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3453 
  3454 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3455 
  3456 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3457 
  3458 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3459 
  3460 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3461 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3462 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3463 
  3464   Constants:
  3465   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3466   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3467   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3468   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3469   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3470   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3471   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3472   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3473   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3474   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3475   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3476   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3477   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3478 
  3479   Lemmas:
  3480   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3481   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3482   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3483   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3484   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3485   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3486   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3487   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3488   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3489   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3490   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3491   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3492   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3493 
  3494 * Sledgehammer:
  3495   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3496     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3497     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3498     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3499     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3500     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3501     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3502   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3503   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3504     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3505   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3506     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3507     is still experimental.)
  3508   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3509     full-typed mode.
  3510   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3511 
  3512 * Nitpick:
  3513   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3514   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3515   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3516     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3517   - Added support for quotient types.
  3518   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3519     constructs.
  3520   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3521     "termination" proofs).
  3522   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3523   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3524   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3525   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3526     record getters.
  3527   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3528   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3529   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3530   - Added "atoms" option.
  3531   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3532     problems.
  3533   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3534     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3535     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3536   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3537     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3538   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3539 
  3540 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3541   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3542   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3543   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3544   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3545   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3546   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3547   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3548   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3549   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3550 
  3551 
  3552 *** HOLCF ***
  3553 
  3554 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3555 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3556 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3557 
  3558 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3559 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3560 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3561 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3562 
  3563 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3564 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3565 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3566 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3567 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3568 
  3569 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3570 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3571 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3572 
  3573 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3574 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3575 
  3576   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3577   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3578 
  3579 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3580 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3581 
  3582   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3583   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3584   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3585   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3586   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3587 
  3588 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3589 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3590 
  3591   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3592   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3593   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3594 
  3595 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3596 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3597 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3598 
  3599 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3600 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3601 
  3602 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3603 
  3604 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3605 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3606 
  3607 
  3608 *** ML ***
  3609 
  3610 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3611 
  3612     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3613     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3614 
  3615     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3616     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3617     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3618     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3619 
  3620     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3621     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3622     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3623 
  3624 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3625 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3626 
  3627 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3628 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3629 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3630 
  3631 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3632 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3633 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3634 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3635 
  3636 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3637 the context or even global references.
  3638 
  3639 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3640 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3641 
  3642 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3643 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3644 
  3645   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3646   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3647   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3648   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3649   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3650   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3651   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3652   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3653   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3654   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3655 
  3656 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3657 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3658 
  3659 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3660 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3661 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3662 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3663 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3664 
  3665 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3666 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3667 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3668 Theory_Data version.
  3669 
  3670 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3671 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3672 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3673 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3674 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3675 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3676 explicitly in rare situations.
  3677 
  3678 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3679 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3680 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3681 
  3682 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3683 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3684 
  3685 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3686 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3687 quite rare).
  3688 
  3689 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3690 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3691 
  3692 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3693 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3694 terms.
  3695 
  3696 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3697 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3698 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3699 
  3700 
  3701 *** System ***
  3702 
  3703 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3704 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3705 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3706 
  3707 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3708 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3709 respectively.
  3710 
  3711 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3712 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3713 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3714 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3715 
  3716   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3717 
  3718 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3719 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3720 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3721 component.
  3722 
  3723 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3724 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3725 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3726 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3727 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3728 the user for manual installation.
  3729 
  3730 
  3731 
  3732 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3733 -------------------------------------
  3734 
  3735 *** General ***
  3736 
  3737 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3738 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3739 
  3740 
  3741 *** Pure ***
  3742 
  3743 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3744 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3745 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3746 
  3747 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3748 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3749 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3750 
  3751 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3752 interpretation.
  3753 
  3754 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3755 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3756 
  3757 
  3758 *** Document preparation ***
  3759 
  3760 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3761 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3762 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3763 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3764 
  3765 
  3766 *** HOL ***
  3767 
  3768 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3769 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3770 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3771 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3772 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3773 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3774 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3775 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3776 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3777 
  3778 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3779 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3780 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3781 
  3782 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3783 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3784 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3785 
  3786 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3787 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3788 
  3789 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3790 
  3791 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3792 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3793 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3794 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3795 
  3796 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3797 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3798 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3799 "mirabelle" utility.
  3800 
  3801 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3802 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3803 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3804 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3805 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3806 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3807 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3808 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3809 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3810 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3811 
  3812 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3813 procedure only.
  3814 
  3815 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3816 
  3817 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3818 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3819 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3820 that fail later.
  3821 
  3822 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3823 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3824 
  3825 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3826 the same method as the approximation method.
  3827 
  3828 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3829 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3830 series expansion.
  3831 
  3832 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3833 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3834 
  3835 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3836 reals.
  3837 
  3838 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3839 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3840 
  3841 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3842 fixpoint theorem.
  3843 
  3844 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3845   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3846     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3847   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3848     accordingly
  3849   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3850     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3851   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3852     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3853 
  3854 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3855 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3856 lattice.
  3857 
  3858 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3859 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3860 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3861 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3862 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3863 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3864 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3865 
  3866 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3867   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3868     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3869   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3870     le_inf_iff
  3871   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3872     sup_aci)
  3873   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3874   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3875   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3876     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3877     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3878     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3879     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3880     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3881     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3882     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3883     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3884     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3885     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3886   - authentic syntax for
  3887     Set.Pow
  3888     Set.image
  3889   - mere abbreviations:
  3890     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3891     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3892     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3893     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3894     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3895     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3896     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3897     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3898   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3899 
  3900 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3901 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3902 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3903 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3904 
  3905 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3906 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3907 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3908 
  3909 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3910 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3911 
  3912 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3913 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3914 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3915 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3916 
  3917 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3918 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3919 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3920 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3921 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3922 
  3923 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3924 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3925 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3926 
  3927 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3928 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3929 
  3930 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3931 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3932 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3933 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3934 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3935 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3936 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3937 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3938 
  3939 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3940     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3941     code_post       replaces    code post
  3942     etc.
  3943   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3944 
  3945 * Renamed methods:
  3946     sizechange -> size_change
  3947     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3948   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3949 
  3950 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3951 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3952 
  3953 * Renamed theorems:
  3954     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3955     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3956     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3957     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3958     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3959   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3960 
  3961 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3962 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3963 
  3964 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3965 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3966 
  3967 
  3968 *** HOLCF ***
  3969 
  3970 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3971 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3972 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3973 
  3974 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3975 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3976 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3977 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3978 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3979 
  3980 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3981 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3982 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3983 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3984 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3985 
  3986 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3987 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3988 constructor are pre-configured.
  3989 
  3990 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3991 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3992 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3993 
  3994 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3995 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3996 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3997 as well.)
  3998 
  3999 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4000 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4001 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4002 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4003 examples.
  4004 
  4005 
  4006 *** ML ***
  4007 
  4008 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4009 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4010 
  4011 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4012 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4013 position, logical grouping etc.
  4014 
  4015 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4016 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4017 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4018 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4019 
  4020 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4021 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4022 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4023 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4024 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4025 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4026 
  4027 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4028 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4029 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4030 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4031 experiments with references.
  4032 
  4033 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4034 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4035 
  4036 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4037 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4038 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4039 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4040 
  4041 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4042 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4043 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4044 
  4045 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4046 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4047 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4048 
  4049 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4050 
  4051 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4052 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4053 
  4054 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4055 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4056 
  4057 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4058 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4059 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4060 
  4061 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4062 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4063 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4064 
  4065 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4066 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4067 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4068 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4069 
  4070 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4071 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4072 instead of global theory.
  4073 
  4074 
  4075 *** System ***
  4076 
  4077 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4078 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4079 usedir option -q.
  4080 
  4081 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4082 also the system manual.
  4083 
  4084 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4085 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4086 
  4087 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4088 this is always enabled.
  4089 
  4090 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4091 
  4092 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4093 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4094 currently supported on Linux only.
  4095 
  4096 
  4097 
  4098 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4099 --------------------------------
  4100 
  4101 *** General ***
  4102 
  4103 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4104 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4105 
  4106   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4107     "isatool."
  4108 
  4109   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4110     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4111 
  4112   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4113     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4114 
  4115 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4116 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4117 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4118 
  4119 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4120 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4121 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4122 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4123 via "isabelle emacs".
  4124 
  4125 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4126 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4127 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4128 
  4129 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4130 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4131 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4132 
  4133 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4134 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4135 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4136 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4137 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4138 
  4139 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4140 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4141 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4142 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4143 
  4144 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4145 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4146 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4147 
  4148 
  4149 *** Pure ***
  4150 
  4151 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4152 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4153 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4154 
  4155 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4156 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4157 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4158 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4159 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4160 
  4161 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4162 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4163 useful in locale declarations.
  4164 
  4165 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4166 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4167 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4168 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4169 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4170 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4171 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4172 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4173 no longer generated.
  4174 
  4175 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4176 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4177 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4178 
  4179 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4180 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4181 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4182 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4183 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4184 
  4185 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4186 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4187 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4188 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4189 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4190 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4191 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4192 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4193 
  4194 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4195 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4196 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4197 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4198 
  4199 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4200 
  4201 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4202 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4203 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4204 
  4205 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4206 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4207 
  4208 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4209 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4210 in HOL, write
  4211 
  4212     class foo = ...
  4213 
  4214 instead of
  4215 
  4216     class foo = type + ...
  4217 
  4218 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4219 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4220 
  4221 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4222 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4223 
  4224 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4225 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4226 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4227 
  4228 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4229 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4230 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4231 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4232 directly in regular applications.
  4233 
  4234 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4235 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4236 
  4237 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4238 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4239 
  4240 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4241 theory context.
  4242 
  4243 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4244 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4245 
  4246 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4247 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4248 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4249 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4250 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4251 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4252 
  4253   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4254 
  4255 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4256 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4257 normalization.
  4258 
  4259 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4260 addressing etc.
  4261 
  4262 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4263 
  4264   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4265   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4266 
  4267 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4268 
  4269   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4270      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4271      parts of the code generator framework).
  4272 
  4273   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4274      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4275      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4276 
  4277 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4278 
  4279 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4280 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4281 
  4282 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4283 patterns, e.g.
  4284 
  4285     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4286 
  4287 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4288 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4289 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4290 hyphen:
  4291 
  4292     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4293 
  4294 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4295 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4296 
  4297 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4298 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4299 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4300 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4301 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4302 higher-order unification.
  4303 
  4304 
  4305 *** Document preparation ***
  4306 
  4307 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4308 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4309 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4310 
  4311 
  4312 *** HOL ***
  4313 
  4314 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4315 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4316 
  4317 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4318 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4319 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4320 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4321 Main, as before.
  4322 
  4323 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4324 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4325 
  4326 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4327 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4328 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4329 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4330 
  4331 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4332 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4333 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4334 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4335 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4336 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4337 
  4338 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4339 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4340 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4341 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4342 
  4343 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4344 menu.
  4345 
  4346 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4347 (contains the empty clause).
  4348 
  4349 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4350 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4351 
  4352 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4353 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4354 
  4355 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4356 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4357 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4358 
  4359 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4360 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4361 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4362 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4363 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4364 
  4365 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4366 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4367 
  4368 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4369 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4370 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4371 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4372 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4373 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4374 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4375 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4376 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4377 
  4378 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4379 
  4380 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4381 
  4382 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4383 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4384 
  4385 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4386 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4387 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4388 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4389 
  4390 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4391 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4392 
  4393     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4394     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4395     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4396     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4397     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4398     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4399     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4400     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4401 
  4402 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4403 theory Set.
  4404 
  4405 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4406 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4407 
  4408 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4409 
  4410 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4411 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4412 
  4413 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4414 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4415 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4416 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4417 allowed. For examples see
  4418 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4419 
  4420 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4421 
  4422 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4423 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4424 
  4425 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4426 structure:
  4427 
  4428     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4429     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4430     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4431     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4432     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4433     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4434     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4435     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4436     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4437     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4438     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4439     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4440     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4441     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4442     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4443     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4444     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4445     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4446     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4447     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4448     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4449     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4450     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4451     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4452     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4453     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4454     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4455     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4456     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4457     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4458     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4459     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4460     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4461 
  4462     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4463     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4464     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4465     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4466     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4467     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4468     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4469     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4470     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4471     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4472 
  4473     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4474     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4475     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4476     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4477     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4478     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4479 
  4480 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4481 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4482 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4483 
  4484 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4485 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4486 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4487 
  4488 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4489 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4490 
  4491 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4492 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4493 
  4494 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4495 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4496 proofs, e.g.
  4497 
  4498   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4499 
  4500 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4501 
  4502 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4503 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4504 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4505 
  4506 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4507 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4508 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4509 
  4510 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4511 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4512 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4513 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4514 
  4515 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4516 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4517 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4518 preorder_class.*.
  4519 
  4520 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4521 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4522 
  4523 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4524 
  4525   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4526 
  4527 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4528 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4529 fold_image.
  4530 
  4531 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4532 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4533 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4534 the former will disappear at some point.
  4535 
  4536 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4537 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4538 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4539 
  4540 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4541 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4542 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4543 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4544 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4545 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4546 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4547 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4548 
  4549 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4550 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4551 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4552 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4553 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4554 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4555 
  4556     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4557     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4558     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4559     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4560     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4561     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4562     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4563 
  4564 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4565 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4566 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4567 
  4568 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4569 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4570 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4571 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4572 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4573 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4574 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4575 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4576 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4577 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4578 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4579 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4580 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4581 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4582 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4583 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4584 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4585 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4586 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4587 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4588 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4589 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4590 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4591 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4592 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4593 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4594 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4595 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4596 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4597 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4598 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4599 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4600 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4601 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4602 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4603 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4604 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4605 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4606 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4607 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4608 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4609 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4610 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4611 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4612 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4613 
  4614 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4615 
  4616 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4617 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4618 
  4619 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4620 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4621 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4622 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4623 
  4624 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4625 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4626 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4627 theory RealVector.
  4628 
  4629 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4630 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4631 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4632 and inner products are included.
  4633 
  4634 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4635 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4636 supported.
  4637 
  4638 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4639 first diagonalization argument.
  4640 
  4641 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4642 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4643 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4644 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4645 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4646 
  4647     hide (open) const gcd
  4648     abbreviation gcd where
  4649       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4650     notation (output)
  4651       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4652 
  4653 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4654 
  4655 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4656 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4657 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4658 
  4659 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4660 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4661 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4662 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4663 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4664 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4665 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4666 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4667 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4668 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4669 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4670 cases.
  4671 
  4672 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4673 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4674 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4675 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4676 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4677 
  4678     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4679     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4680     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4681     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4682     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4683 
  4684 
  4685 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4686 
  4687 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4688 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4689 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4690 
  4691 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4692 
  4693 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4694 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4695 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4696 
  4697 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4698 
  4699 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4700 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4701 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4702 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4703 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4704 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4705 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4706 
  4707 
  4708 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4709 
  4710 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4711 
  4712 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4713 theory targets.
  4714 
  4715 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4716 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4717 'inductive' etc.
  4718 
  4719 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4720 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4721 
  4722 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4723 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4724 
  4725 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4726 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4727 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4728 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4729 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4730 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4731 the algorithm W:
  4732 
  4733  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4734  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4735          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4736 
  4737 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4738 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4739 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4740 
  4741 
  4742 *** HOLCF ***
  4743 
  4744 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4745 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4746 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4747 
  4748 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4749 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4750 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4751 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4752 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4753 
  4754 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4755 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4756 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4757 
  4758 
  4759 *** ZF ***
  4760 
  4761 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4762 
  4763 
  4764 *** ML ***
  4765 
  4766 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4767 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4768 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4769 5.2.1!
  4770 
  4771 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4772 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4773 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4774 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4775 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4776 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4777 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4778 
  4779 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4780 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4781 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4782 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4783 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4784 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4785 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4786 
  4787 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4788 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4789 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4790 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4791 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4792 
  4793 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4794 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4795 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4796 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4797 Method.add_method.
  4798 
  4799 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4800 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4801 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4802 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4803 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4804 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4805 
  4806 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4807 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4808 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4809 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4810 examples.
  4811 
  4812 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4813 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4814 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4815 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4816 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4817 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4818 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4819 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4820 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4821 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4822 
  4823 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4824 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4825 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4826 
  4827 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4828 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4829 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4830 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4831 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4832 resort for legacy applications.
  4833 
  4834 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4835 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4836 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4837 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4838 explicit runtime argument.
  4839 
  4840 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4841 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4842 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4843 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4844 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4845 
  4846 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4847 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4848 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4849 theory state.
  4850 
  4851 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4852 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4853 
  4854   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4855   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4856   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4857   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4858   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4859   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4860   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4861   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4862   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4863   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4864 
  4865 
  4866 *** System ***
  4867 
  4868 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4869 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4870 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4871 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4872 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4873 
  4874 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4875 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4876 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4877 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4878 
  4879 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4880 
  4881 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4882 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4883 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4884 prover operations.
  4885 
  4886 
  4887 
  4888 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4889 -------------------------------
  4890 
  4891 *** General ***
  4892 
  4893 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4894 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4895 
  4896 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4897 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4898 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4899 provides a proper context already.
  4900 
  4901 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4902 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4903 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4904 
  4905 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4906 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4907 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4908 swap theory imports.
  4909 
  4910 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4911 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4912 
  4913 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4914 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4915 white space without escapes.
  4916 
  4917 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4918 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4919 "foo_bar".
  4920 
  4921 
  4922 *** Pure ***
  4923 
  4924 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4925 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4926 
  4927 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4928 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4929 
  4930 (1) unused_thms
  4931      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4932 
  4933 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4934      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4935      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4936 
  4937 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4938      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4939      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4940      their ancestors.
  4941 
  4942 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4943 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4944 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4945 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4946 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4947 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4948 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4949 
  4950 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4951 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4952 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4953 
  4954 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4955 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4956 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4957 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4958 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4959 
  4960 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4961 
  4962 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4963 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4964 update of theories within ML code.
  4965 
  4966 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4967 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4968 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4969 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4970 
  4971 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4972 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4973 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4974 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4975 
  4976 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4977 
  4978 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4979 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4980 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4981 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4982 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4983 
  4984 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4985 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4986 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4987 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4988 situations.
  4989 
  4990 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4991 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4992 proof text.
  4993 
  4994 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4995 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4996 
  4997 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4998 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4999 predicates.
  5000 
  5001 
  5002 *** Document preparation ***
  5003 
  5004 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5005 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5006 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5007 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5008 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5009 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5010 
  5011 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5012 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5013 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5014 
  5015 
  5016 *** HOL ***
  5017 
  5018 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5019 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5020 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5021 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5022 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5023 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5024 
  5025 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5026 with multithreading.
  5027 
  5028 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5029 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5030 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5031 
  5032 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5033 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5034 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5035 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5036 
  5037 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5038 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5039 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5040 and makes them available separately.  See
  5041 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5042 
  5043 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5044 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5045 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5046 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5047 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5048 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5049 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5050 the declared rules.
  5051 
  5052 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5053 
  5054   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5055 
  5056 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5057 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5058 
  5059 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5060 
  5061   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5062 
  5063   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5064     definitions on => and bool.
  5065 
  5066   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5067     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5068     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5069 
  5070       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5071       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5072       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5073       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5074       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5075       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5076       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5077       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5078 
  5079   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5080     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5081     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5082 
  5083   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5084     The proof pattern
  5085 
  5086       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5087       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5088 
  5089     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5090     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5091 
  5092       have "EX S. P S"
  5093       proof
  5094         show "P S" <...>
  5095       qed
  5096 
  5097   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5098     The proof pattern
  5099 
  5100       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5101       also have "S = T" <...>
  5102       finally have "P T" .
  5103 
  5104     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5105     must be replaced by something like
  5106 
  5107       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5108       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5109       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5110 
  5111   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5112     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5113 
  5114       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5115 
  5116     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5117     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5118     type of the form
  5119 
  5120       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5121 
  5122     rather than
  5123 
  5124       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5125 
  5126 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5127 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5128 
  5129 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5130 
  5131 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5132 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5133 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5134 
  5135 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5136 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5137 
  5138 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5139 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5140 
  5141 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5142 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5143 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5144 
  5145 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5146 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5147 
  5148   less_trans
  5149   less_linear
  5150   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5151   le_less_trans
  5152   less_le_trans
  5153   less_not_sym
  5154   less_asym
  5155 
  5156 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5157 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5158 and different variable names.
  5159 
  5160 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5161 
  5162 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5163 finite maps.
  5164 
  5165 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5166 
  5167 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5168 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5169 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5170 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5171 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5172 accordingly.
  5173 
  5174 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5175 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5176 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5177 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5178 
  5179 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5180 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5181 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5182 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5183 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5184 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5185 
  5186 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5187 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5188 
  5189 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5190 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5191 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5192 
  5193 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5194 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5195 
  5196 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5197 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5198 
  5199 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5200 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5201 
  5202 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5203 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5204 
  5205 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5206 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5207 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5208 
  5209 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5210 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5211 
  5212 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5213 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5214 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5215 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5216 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5217 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5218 
  5219 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5220 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5221 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5222 
  5223 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5224 
  5225 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5226 
  5227 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5228 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5229 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5230 
  5231 
  5232 *** ZF ***
  5233 
  5234 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5235 same session:
  5236 
  5237   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5238   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5239   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5240   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5241   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5242   List      -> List_ZF
  5243   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5244 
  5245 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5246 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5247 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5248 
  5249 
  5250 *** ML ***
  5251 
  5252 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5253 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5254 
  5255 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5256 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5257 
  5258 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5259 
  5260 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5261 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5262 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5263 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5264 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5265 
  5266 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5267 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5268 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5269 
  5270 
  5271 *** System ***
  5272 
  5273 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5274 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5275 
  5276 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5277 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5278 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5279 
  5280 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5281 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5282 
  5283 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5284 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5285 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5286 
  5287 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5288 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5289 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5290 
  5291 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5292 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5293 
  5294 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5295 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5296 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5297 script.
  5298 
  5299 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5300 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5301 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5302 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5303 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5304 
  5305 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5306 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5307 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5308 
  5309 
  5310 
  5311 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5312 -----------------------------------
  5313 
  5314 *** General ***
  5315 
  5316 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5317 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5318 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5319 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5320 
  5321 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5322 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5323 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5324 
  5325 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5326 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5327 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5328 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5329 
  5330 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5331 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5332 quotes.
  5333 
  5334 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5335 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5336 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5337 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5338 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5339 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5340 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5341 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5342 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5343 
  5344 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5345 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5346 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5347 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5348 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5349 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5350 
  5351 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5352 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5353 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5354 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5355 
  5356 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5357 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5358 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5359 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5360 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5361 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5362 
  5363 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5364 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5365 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5366 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5367 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5368 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5369 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5370 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5371 
  5372 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5373 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5374 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5375 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5376 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5377 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5378 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5379 
  5380 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5381 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5382 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5383 
  5384 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5385 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5386 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5387 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5388 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5389 limit is imposed.
  5390 
  5391 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5392 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5393 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5394 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5395 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5396 and scalability.
  5397 
  5398 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5399 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5400 
  5401 
  5402 *** Document preparation ***
  5403 
  5404 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5405 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5406 current context.
  5407 
  5408 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5409 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5410 
  5411 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5412 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5413 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5414 
  5415 
  5416 *** Pure ***
  5417 
  5418 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5419 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5420 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5421 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5422 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5423 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5424 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5425 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5426 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5427 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5428 
  5429 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5430 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5431 sketch:
  5432 
  5433     internal compilation:
  5434         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5435     writing SML code to a file:
  5436         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5437     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5438         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5439     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5440         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5441 
  5442     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5443         method ``eval''
  5444 
  5445 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5446 
  5447 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5448 
  5449     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5450     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5451     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5452     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5453 
  5454 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5455 
  5456     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5457       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5458 
  5459     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5460       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5461 
  5462     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5463       {(target)}+
  5464         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5465 
  5466     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5467       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5468         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5469 
  5470 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5471 
  5472 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5473 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5474 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5475 codegen".
  5476 
  5477 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5478 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5479 annotations).
  5480 
  5481 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5482 syntax.
  5483 
  5484 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5485 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5486 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5487 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5488 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5489 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5490 
  5491 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5492 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5493 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5494 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5495 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5496 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5497 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5498 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5499 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5500 equations, see section "definitions".
  5501 
  5502 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5503 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5504 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5505 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5506 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5507 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5508 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5509 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5510 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5511 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5512 
  5513 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5514 configuration options:
  5515 
  5516   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5517   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5518   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5519   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5520   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5521   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5522   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5523   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5524   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5525 
  5526 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5527 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5528 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5529 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5530 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5531 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5532 order.
  5533 
  5534 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5535 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5536 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5537 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5538 context encountered later on.
  5539 
  5540 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5541 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5542 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5543 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5544 
  5545 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5546 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5547 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5548 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5549 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5550 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5551 
  5552 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5553 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5554 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5555 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5556 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5557 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5558 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5559 more permissive.
  5560 
  5561 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5562 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5563 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5564 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5565 maintainability of proof texts.
  5566 
  5567 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5568 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5569 
  5570   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5571   then guess x and y by clarify
  5572 
  5573 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5574 proof tools being involved here.
  5575 
  5576 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5577 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5578 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5579 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5580 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5581 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5582 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5583 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5584 
  5585 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5586 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5587 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5588 
  5589   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5590   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5591   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5592   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5593 
  5594 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5595 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5596 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5597 
  5598 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5599 both named and unnamed ones.
  5600 
  5601 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5602 
  5603   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5604 
  5605 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5606 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5607 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5608 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5609 
  5610 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5611 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5612 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5613 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5614 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5615 
  5616 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5617 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5618 
  5619 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5620 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5621 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5622 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5623 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5624 originally first one.
  5625 
  5626 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5627 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5628 expected.
  5629 
  5630 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5631 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5632 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5633 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5634 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5635 
  5636   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5637     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5638     obtains x where "P x"
  5639 
  5640   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5641     assumes "A & B"
  5642     obtains A and B
  5643 
  5644   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5645     assumes "A | B"
  5646     obtains
  5647       A
  5648     | B
  5649 
  5650 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5651 explicitly:
  5652 
  5653   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5654     obtains "~ thesis"
  5655 
  5656   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5657     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5658 
  5659 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5660 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5661 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5662 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5663 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5664 case_names).
  5665 
  5666 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5667 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5668 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5669 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5670 
  5671 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5672 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5673 top-level lemma.
  5674 
  5675 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5676 introduction rule (default "that").
  5677 
  5678 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5679 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5680 to occur.
  5681 
  5682 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5683 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5684 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5685 representations independently of name spaces.
  5686 
  5687 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5688 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5689 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5690 
  5691 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5692 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5693 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5694 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5695 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5696 current context.
  5697 
  5698 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5699 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5700 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5701 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5702 
  5703   axiomatization
  5704     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5705     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5706 
  5707   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5708   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5709 
  5710   abbreviation
  5711     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5712     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5713 
  5714 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5715 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5716 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5717 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5718 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5719 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5720 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5721 
  5722 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5723 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5724 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5725 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5726 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5727 
  5728 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5729 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5730 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5731 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5732 
  5733 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5734 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5735 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5736 
  5737   definition "K x _ = x"
  5738 
  5739   inductive conj for A B
  5740   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5741 
  5742 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5743 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5744 abbreviations on output.
  5745 
  5746 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5747 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5748 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5749 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5750 
  5751 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5752 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5753 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5754 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5755 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5756 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5757 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5758 
  5759 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5760 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5761 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5762 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5763 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5764 
  5765 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5766 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5767 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5768 
  5769 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5770 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5771 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5772 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5773 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5774 
  5775   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5776     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5777 
  5778 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5779 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5780 partial_order.
  5781 
  5782 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5783 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5784 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5785 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5786 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5787 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5788 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5789 examples.
  5790 
  5791 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5792 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5793 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5794 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5795 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5796 
  5797 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5798 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5799 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5800 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5801 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5802 
  5803   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5804   (induct set: foo bar)
  5805   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5806   (induct type: foo bar)
  5807 
  5808 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5809 new format.
  5810 
  5811 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5812 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5813 
  5814 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5815 considered a legacy feature.
  5816 
  5817 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5818 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5819 
  5820 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5821 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5822 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5823 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5824   
  5825 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5826 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5827 manipulating the claset.
  5828 
  5829 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5830 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5831 least one premise.
  5832 
  5833 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5834 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5835 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5836 rule steps.
  5837 
  5838 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5839 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5840 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5841 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5842 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5843 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5844 
  5845 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5846 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5847 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5848 
  5849 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5850 the graph browser tool.
  5851 
  5852 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5853 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5854 
  5855 
  5856 *** HOL ***
  5857 
  5858 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5859 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5860 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5861 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5862 multi-threading.
  5863   
  5864 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5865 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5866 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5867 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5868 work with multi-threading.
  5869 
  5870 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5871 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5872 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5873 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5874 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5875 
  5876 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5877 
  5878 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5879 equality.
  5880 
  5881 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5882 the new 'class' package:
  5883 
  5884     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5885     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5886     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5887     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5888     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5889     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5890     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5891     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5892     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5893     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5894     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5895     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5896     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5897     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5898     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5899     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5900     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5901     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5902     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5903     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5904 
  5905 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5906 
  5907 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5908 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5909 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5910 names.
  5911 
  5912 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5913 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5914 
  5915 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5916 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5917 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5918 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5919 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5920 
  5921 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5922 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5923 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5924 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5925 
  5926 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5927 
  5928 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5929 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5930 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5931 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5932 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5933 
  5934 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5935 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5936 
  5937 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5938 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5939 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5940 
  5941 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5942 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5943 
  5944 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5945 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5946 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5947 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5948 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5949 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5950 in the current context.
  5951 
  5952 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5953 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5954 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5955 
  5956 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5957 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5958 
  5959 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5960 
  5961     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5962     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5963 
  5964     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5965       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5966     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5967     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5968 
  5969     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5970     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5971 
  5972   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5973 
  5974     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5975     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5976     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5977     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5978     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5979     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5980     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5981     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5982     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5983     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5984     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5985     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5986     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5987     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5988     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5989     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5990     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5991     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5992     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5993     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5994     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5995     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5996     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5997     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5998     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5999     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  6000     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  6001     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  6002     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  6003     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  6004     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  6005     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  6006     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  6007     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  6008     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  6009 
  6010     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  6011     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  6012     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  6013     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  6014     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  6015     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  6016     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  6017     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  6018     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  6019     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  6020     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  6021     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  6022     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  6023     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  6024     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  6025     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  6026     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  6027 
  6028     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  6029     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  6030     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  6031     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  6032     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  6033     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  6034     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  6035     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  6036     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  6037     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  6038     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  6039     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  6040     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  6041     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  6042     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  6043     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  6044     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  6045     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  6046     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  6047     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  6048     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  6049     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  6050     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  6051     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  6052     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  6053     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  6054     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  6055     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  6056 
  6057     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  6058     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  6059     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  6060     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  6061     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  6062     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  6063 
  6064     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  6065     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  6066     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  6067     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  6068 
  6069     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  6070     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  6071 
  6072     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  6073     join_max                ~> sup_max
  6074 
  6075 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  6076 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  6077 
  6078 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  6079 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  6080 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  6081 "*.size".
  6082 
  6083 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  6084 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6085 
  6086 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  6087 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  6088 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6089 
  6090 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6091 
  6092 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  6093 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  6094 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  6095 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  6096 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  6097 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  6098 numerals on all operations.
  6099 
  6100 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  6101 
  6102 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  6103 
  6104 * Code generator library theories:
  6105   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  6106     languages.
  6107   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  6108     languages.
  6109   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  6110     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  6111   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  6112   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  6113     denominator).
  6114   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  6115     representable by rational numbers.
  6116   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  6117     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  6118     includes Code_Integer.
  6119   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  6120     target-language built-in integers.
  6121   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  6122     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  6123 
  6124 * New package for inductive predicates
  6125 
  6126   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  6127 
  6128     inductive
  6129       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  6130       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  6131     where
  6132       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  6133     | ...
  6134 
  6135   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  6136 
  6137     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  6138 
  6139     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  6140     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6141 
  6142     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  6143     intros
  6144       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6145       ...
  6146 
  6147   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  6148   sets to be defined with the new package via
  6149 
  6150     inductive_set
  6151       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  6152       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  6153     where
  6154       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6155     | ...
  6156 
  6157   or
  6158 
  6159     inductive_set
  6160       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  6161       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  6162       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  6163     where
  6164       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6165     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  6166     | ...
  6167 
  6168   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  6169 
  6170   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  6171   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  6172 
  6173   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  6174 
  6175   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  6176     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  6177     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  6178     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  6179     than before the actual inductive definition.
  6180 
  6181   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  6182     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  6183     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  6184     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  6185     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  6186     statements of the form
  6187 
  6188       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  6189 
  6190     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  6191     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  6192 
  6193       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  6194 
  6195   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  6196 
  6197       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  6198         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  6199         ==> ... ==> P
  6200 
  6201     for predicates and
  6202 
  6203       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  6204         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  6205         ==> ... ==> P
  6206 
  6207     for sets rather than
  6208 
  6209       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  6210         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  6211         ==> ... ==> P
  6212 
  6213     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  6214     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  6215     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  6216 
  6217   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  6218     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  6219     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  6220 
  6221 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  6222 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  6223 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  6224 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  6225 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  6226 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  6227 
  6228 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  6229 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  6230 
  6231 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  6232 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  6233 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  6234 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  6235 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  6236 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  6237 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  6238 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  6239 variable.
  6240 
  6241 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  6242 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  6243 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  6244 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6245   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  6246   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  6247 
  6248 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  6249 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  6250 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for