README_REPOSITORY
author haftmann
Mon, 05 Jul 2010 15:12:20 +0200
changeset 37715 44b27ea94a16
parent 36858 8eac822dec6c
child 40601 021278fdd0a8
permissions -rw-r--r--
tuned proof

Important notes on Mercurial repository access for Isabelle
===========================================================

Preamble
--------

Mercurial http://www.selenic.com/mercurial belongs to a new generation
of source code management systems, following the paradigm of
"distributed version control".  Compared to the old centralized model
of CVS or SVN, this gives considerable more power and freedom in
organizing the flow of changes, both between individual developers and
designated pull/push areas that are shared with others.

More power for the user also means more responsibility!  Due to its
decentralized nature, changesets that have been published once,
e.g. via "push" to a shared repository that is visible on the net,
cannot be easily retracted from the public again.  Regular Mercurial
operations are strictly monotonic, where changset transactions are
only added, but never deleted.  There are special tools to manipulate
individual repositories via non-monotonic actions, but this does not
yet retrieve any changesets that have escaped into the public by
accident.

Only global operations like "pull" and "push" fall into this critical
category.  Note that "incoming" / "outgoing" allow to inspect
changesets before exchanging them globally.  Anything else in
Mercurial is local to the user's repository clone (including "commit",
"update", "merge" etc.) and is in fact much simpler and safer to use
than the corresponding operations of CVS or SVN.


Initial configuration
---------------------

The official Isabelle repository can be cloned like this:

  hg clone http://isabelle.in.tum.de/repos/isabelle

This will create a local directory "isabelle", unless an alternative
name is specified.  The full repository meta-data and history of
changes is in isabelle/.hg; local configuration for this clone can be
added to isabelle/.hg/hgrc, but note that hgrc files are never copied
by another clone operation!


There is also $HOME/.hgrc for per-user Mercurial configuration.  The
initial configuration should include at least an entry to identify
yourself.  For example, something like this in /home/wenzelm/.hgrc:

  [ui]
  username = wenzelm

Of course, the user identity can be also configured in
isabelle/.hg/hgrc on per-repository basis.  Failing to specify the
username correctly makes the system invent funny machine names that
may persist indefinitely in the public flow of changesets.

In principle, user names can be chosen freely, but for longterm
committers of the Isabelle repository the obvious choice is to keep
with the old CVS naming scheme.  Others should use their regular "full
name"; including an email address is optional.


There are other useful configuration to go into $HOME/.hgrc,
e.g. defaults for common commands:

  [defaults]
  log = -l 10

The next example shows how to install some Mercurial extension:

  [extensions]
  hgext.graphlog =

Now the additional glog command will be available.


See also the fine documentation for further details, especially the
book http://hgbook.red-bean.com/

There is also a nice tutorial at http://hginit.com/


Shared pull/push access
-----------------------

The entry point http://isabelle.in.tum.de/repos/isabelle is world
readable, both via plain web browsing and the hg client as described
above.  Anybody can produce a clone, change it arbitrarily, and then
use regular mechanisms of Mercurial to report changes upstream, say
via e-mail to someone with write access to that file space.  It is
also quite easy to publish changed clones again on the web, using the
adhoc command "hg serve -v", or the hgweb.cgi or hgwebdir.cgi scripts
that are included in the Mercurial distribution.

The downstream/upstream mode of operation is quite common in the
distributed version control community, and works well for occasional
changes produced by anybody out there.  Of course, upstream
maintainers need to review and moderate changes being proposed, before
pushing anything onto the official Isabelle repository at TUM.


Write access to the Isabelle repository requires an account at TUM,
with properly configured ssh access to the local machines
(e.g. macbroy20, atbroy100).  You also need to be a member of the
"isabelle" Unix group.

Sharing a locally modified clone then works as follows, using your
user name instead of "wenzelm":

  hg out ssh://wenzelm@atbroy100//home/isabelle-repository/repos/isabelle

In fact, the "out" or "outgoing" command performs only a dry run: it
displays the changesets that would get published.  An actual "push",
with a lasting effect on the Isabelle repository, works like this:

  hg push ssh://wenzelm@atbroy100//home/isabelle-repository/repos/isabelle


Default paths for push and pull can be configure in isabelle/.hg/hgrc,
for example:

  [paths]
  default = ssh://wenzelm@atbroy100//home/isabelle-repository/repos/isabelle

Now "hg pull" or "hg push" will use that shared file space, unless a
different URL is specified explicitly.

When cloning a repository, the default path is set to the initial
source URL.  So we could have cloned via that ssh URL in the first
place, to get exactly to the same point:

  hg clone ssh://wenzelm@atbroy100//home/isabelle-repository/repos/isabelle


Simplified merges
-----------------

The main idea of Mercurial is to let individual users produce
independent branches of development first, but merge with others
frequently.  The basic hg merge operation is more general than
required for the mode of operation with a shared pull/push area.  The
hg fetch extension accommodates this case nicely, automating trivial
merges and requiring manual intervention for actual conflicts only.

The fetch extension can be configured via the user's ~/.hgrc like
this:

  [extensions]
  hgext.fetch =

  [defaults]
  fetch = -m "merged"

Note that the potential for merge conflicts can be greatly reduced by
doing "hg fetch" before any starting local changes!


Content discipline
------------------

Old-style centralized version control is occasionally compared to "a
library where everybody scribbles into the books".  Or seen the other
way round, the centralized model discourages individual
experimentation (with local branches etc.), because everything is
forced to happen on a shared file space.  With Mercurial, arbitrary
variations on local clones are no problem, but care is required again
when publishing changes eventually.

The following principles should be kept in mind when producing
changesets that might become public at some point.

  * The author of changes should be properly identified, using
    ui/username configuration as described above.

    While Mercurial also provides means for signed changesets, we want
    to keep things simple and trust that users specify their identity
    correctly.

  * The history of sources is an integral part of the sources
    themselves.  This means that private experiments and branches
    should not be published, unless they are really meant to become
    universally available.

    Note that exchanging local experiments with some other users can
    be done directly on peer-to-peer basis, without affecting the
    central pull/push area.

  * Log messages are an integral part of the history of sources.
    Other users will have to look there eventually, to understand why
    things have been done in a certain way at some point.

    Mercurial provides nice web presentation of incoming changes with
    a digest of log entries; this also includes RSS/Atom news feeds.
    Users should be aware that others will actually read what is
    written into log messages.  There are also add-on browsers,
    notably hgtk that is part of the TortoiseHg distribution and works
    for generic Python/GTk platforms.

    The usual changelog presentation style for the Isabelle repository
    admits log entries that consist of several lines, but without the
    special headline that is used in Mercurial projects elsewhere.
    Since some display styles strip newlines from text, it is
    advisable to separate lines via punctuation, and not rely on
    two-dimensional presentation too much.


Building a repository version of Isabelle
-----------------------------------------

Compared to a proper distribution or development snapshot, a
repository version of Isabelle lacks textual version identifiers in
some sources and scripts, and various components produced by
Admin/build are missing.  After applying that script with suitable
arguments, the regular user instructions for building and running
Isabelle from sources apply.

Needless to say, the results from the build process must not be added
to the repository!