NEWS
author haftmann
Sun Dec 15 15:10:16 2013 +0100 (2013-12-15)
changeset 54745 46e441e61ff5
parent 54742 7a86358a3c0b
child 54787 6d1670095414
permissions -rw-r--r--
disambiguation of interpretation prefixes
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 
    20 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    21 
    22 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    23 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    24 
    25 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
    26 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
    27 
    28 
    29 *** HOL ***
    30 
    31 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
    32 INCOMPATBILITY.
    33 
    34 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
    35 operations on records.
    36 
    37 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
    38 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    39 
    40 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
    41     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
    42 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    43 
    44 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
    45     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
    46     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
    47 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    48 
    49 * Abolished neg_numeral.
    50   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
    51   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
    52   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
    53     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
    54   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
    55     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- … - _".
    56   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
    57 INCOMPATBILITY.
    58 
    59 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
    60     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
    61     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
    62     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
    63     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
    64 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    65 
    66 * Fact name consolidation:
    67     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
    68     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
    69     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
    70     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
    71     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
    72 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    73 
    74 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
    75 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
    76 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
    77 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
    78 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
    79 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
    80 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
    81 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    82 
    83 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
    84 
    85 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
    86 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
    87 
    88 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
    89 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [… "- _" …]" by simp".
    90 
    91 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
    92 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
    93 or the brute way with
    94 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
    95 
    96 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
    97 
    98 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
    99 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   100 
   101 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   102 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   103 
   104 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   105 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   106 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   107 INCOMPATIBILITY
   108 
   109 * Nitpick:
   110   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   111     infinite values.
   112 
   113 
   114 *** ML ***
   115 
   116 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   117 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   118 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   119 formal context.
   120 
   121 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   122 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   123 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   124 actually belongs to it).
   125 
   126 
   127 *** System ***
   128 
   129 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   130 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   131 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   132 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   133 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   134 
   135 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   136 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   137 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   138 
   139 
   140 
   141 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   142 -------------------------------------
   143 
   144 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   145 
   146 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   147 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   148 
   149 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   150 after edits surrounding the command location.
   151 
   152 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   153 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   154 e.g. out-of-memory).
   155 
   156 
   157 *** System ***
   158 
   159 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   160 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   161 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   162 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   163 
   164 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   165 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   166 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   167 
   168 
   169 
   170 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   171 -------------------------------------
   172 
   173 *** General ***
   174 
   175 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   176 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   177 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   178 
   179 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   180 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   181 
   182 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   183 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   184 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   185 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   186 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   187 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   188 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   189 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   190 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   191 syntax.
   192 
   193 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   194 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   195 
   196 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   197 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   198 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   199 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   200 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   201 
   202 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   203 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   204 
   205 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   206 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   207 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   208 
   209 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   210 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   211 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   212 
   213 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   214 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   215 
   216 
   217 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   218 
   219 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   220 Documentation panel.
   221 
   222 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   223 documentation.
   224 
   225 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   226 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   227 
   228 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   229 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   230 normal editing and checking process.
   231 
   232 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   233 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   234 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   235 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   236 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   237 
   238 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   239 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   240 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   241 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   242 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   243 
   244 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   245 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   246 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   247 
   248 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   249 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   250 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   251 to resolve conflict.
   252 
   253 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   254 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   255 
   256 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   257 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   258 such command executions while editing.
   259 
   260 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   261 document content.
   262 
   263 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   264 toplevel theorem statements.
   265 
   266 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   267 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   268 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   269 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   270 
   271 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   272 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   273 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   274 
   275 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   276 / Global Options / Appearance".
   277 
   278 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   279 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   280 
   281 
   282 *** Pure ***
   283 
   284 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   285 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   286 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   287 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   288 details.
   289 
   290 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   291 
   292 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   293 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   294 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   295 
   296 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   297 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   298 
   299 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   300 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   301 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   302 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   303 
   304 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   305 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   306 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   307 
   308 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   309 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   310 
   311 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   312 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   313 situations.
   314 
   315 
   316 *** HOL ***
   317 
   318 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   319 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   320 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   321 
   322 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   323 
   324 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   325 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   326 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   327 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   328 
   329   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   330 
   331 * Code generator:
   332   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   333     'code_instance'.
   334   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   335     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   336 
   337 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   338 examples.
   339 
   340 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   341 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   342 to distinguish both when desired.
   343 
   344 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   345 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   346 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   347 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   348 
   349 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   350 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   351 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   352 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   353 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   354 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   355 
   356 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   357 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   358 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   359 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   360 
   361 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   362 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   363 
   364 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   365 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   366 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   367 
   368 * Lifting:
   369   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   370     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   371       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   372       transfer rules
   373     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   374       correspondence relation can be generated
   375     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   376       parametricity
   377     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   378   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   379   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   380     copies
   381   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   382     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   383     anonymous context)
   384   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   385     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   386   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   387     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   388   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   389     INCOMPATIBILITY
   390 
   391 * Transfer:
   392   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   393     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   394   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   395   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   396     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   397   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   398 
   399 * Reification and reflection:
   400   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   401     "Reification".
   402   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   403   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   404 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   405 
   406 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   407   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   408     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   409     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   410   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   411     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   412   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   413     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   414     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   415     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   416     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   417     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   418     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   419     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   420   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   421     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   422   - Fact renames:
   423       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   424       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   425 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   426 
   427 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   428 
   429 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   430 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   431 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   432 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   433 
   434 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   435 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   436 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   437 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   438 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   439 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   440 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   441 lemmas.
   442 
   443 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   444 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   445 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   446 
   447 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   448 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   449 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   450 
   451 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   452 top and bottom elements.
   453 
   454 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   455 
   456 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   457 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   458 
   459  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   460    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   461    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   462 
   463  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   464    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   465    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   466 
   467    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   468    arbitrary filter.
   469 
   470  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   471    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   472    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   473    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   474    on a compact set.
   475 
   476  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   477    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   478    linear_continuum_topology).
   479 
   480  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   481    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   482    on all sequences converging to x.
   483 
   484  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   485    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   486    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   487    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   488    left or right.
   489 
   490  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   491 
   492      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   493 
   494  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   495    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   496 
   497  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   498    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   499    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   500    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   501    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   502    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   503 
   504  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   505 
   506    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   507 
   508    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   509      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   510 
   511    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   512 
   513    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   514      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   515 
   516    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   517 
   518    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   519 
   520  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   521 
   522 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   523 
   524 * Nitpick:
   525   - Added option "spy"
   526   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   527 
   528 * Sledgehammer:
   529   - Renamed option:
   530       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   531     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   532   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   533   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   534   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   535 
   536 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   537 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   538 
   539 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   540   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   541   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   542     generated code.
   543   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   544   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   545   - Fact renames:
   546     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   547     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   548     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   549 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   550 
   551 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   552 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   553 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   554 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   555 
   556 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   557 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   558 
   559 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   560 
   561 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   562 
   563     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   564     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   565 
   566 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   567 
   568 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   569 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   570 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   571 
   572 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   573 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   574 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   575 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   576 
   577 * HOL-BNF:
   578   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   579     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   580     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   581     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   582   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   583     coinduct).
   584   - Renamed keywords:
   585     data ~> datatype_new
   586     codata ~> codatatype
   587     bnf_def ~> bnf
   588   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   589     discs ~> disc
   590     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   591     map_id' ~> map_id
   592     sels ~> sel
   593     set_map' ~> set_map
   594     sets ~> set
   595 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   596 
   597 
   598 *** ML ***
   599 
   600 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   601 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   602 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   603 Examples.thy in particular.
   604 
   605 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   606 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   607 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   608 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   609 
   610 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   611 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   612 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   613 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   614 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   615 
   616 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   617 
   618     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   619     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   620 
   621 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   622 
   623 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   624 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   625 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   626 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   627 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   628 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   629 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   630 
   631 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   632 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   633 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   634 clasets separately from the context.
   635 
   636 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   637 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   638 
   639 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   640 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   641 
   642 
   643 *** System ***
   644 
   645 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   646 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   647 
   648 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   649 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   650 
   651 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   652 settings variable.
   653 
   654 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   655 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   656 always pdf.
   657 
   658 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   659 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   660 
   661 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   662 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   663 
   664 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   665 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   666 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   667 
   668 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   669 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   670 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   671 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   672 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   673 for HTML presentation of theories.
   674 
   675 
   676 
   677 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   678 -----------------------------------
   679 
   680 *** General ***
   681 
   682 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   683 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   684 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   685 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   686 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   687 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   688 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   689 
   690 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   691 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   692 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   693 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   694 
   695 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   696 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   697 
   698 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   699 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   700 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   701 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   702 dependencies properly.
   703 
   704 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   705 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   706 
   707 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   708 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   709 
   710 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   711 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   712 and "class ... context ...".
   713 
   714 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   715 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   716 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   717 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   718 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   719 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   720 
   721 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   722 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   723 
   724 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   725 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   726 
   727 
   728 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   729 
   730 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   731 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   732 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   733 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   734 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   735 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   736 
   737 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   738 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   739 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   740 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   741 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   742 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   743 
   744 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   745 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   746 browser on demand.
   747 
   748 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   749 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   750 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   751 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   752 
   753 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   754 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   755 
   756 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   757 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   758 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   759 potentially infinite message streams.
   760 
   761 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   762 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   763 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   764 schemes.
   765 
   766 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   767 symbols.
   768 
   769 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   770 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   771 
   772 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   773 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   774 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   775 
   776 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   777 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   778 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   779 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   780 
   781 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   782 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   783 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   784 
   785 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   786 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   787 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   788 Isabelle distribution.
   789 
   790 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   791 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   792 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   793 
   794 
   795 *** Pure ***
   796 
   797 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   798 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   799 
   800 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   801 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   802 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   803 
   804 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   805 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   806 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   807 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   808 with some care where this is really required.
   809 
   810 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   811 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   812 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   813 
   814   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   815 
   816 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   817 a Hasse diagram.
   818 
   819 
   820 *** HOL ***
   821 
   822 * Sledgehammer:
   823 
   824   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   825     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   826   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   827   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   828   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   829   - Renamed options:
   830       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   831       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   832       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   833       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   834 
   835 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   836 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   837 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   838 
   839 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   840 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   841 
   842 * Lifting:
   843   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   844   - quot_del attribute
   845   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   846 
   847 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   848 expressions.
   849 
   850 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   851 pointfree expressions.
   852 
   853 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   854 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   855 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   856 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   857 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   858 
   859 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   860 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   861 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   862 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   863 accordingly.
   864 
   865 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   866 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   867 
   868 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   869 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   870 
   871 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   872 
   873 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   874 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   875 
   876 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   877 
   878 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   879 
   880   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   881   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   882 
   883 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   884 
   885 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   886 
   887   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   888   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   889 
   890 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   891 
   892 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   893 
   894   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   895     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   896     output f x converges to G.
   897 
   898   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   899     infinity (at_bot).
   900 
   901   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   902     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   903 
   904   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   905     at_top".
   906 
   907 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   908 
   909 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   910 lattice type classes.
   911 
   912 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   913 
   914     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   915     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   916 
   917 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   918 
   919 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   920 changes as follows.
   921 
   922   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   923 
   924       prefix ~> prefixeq
   925       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   926 
   927   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   928     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   929     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   930     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   931 
   932   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   933     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   934     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   935 
   936   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   937     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   938     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   939     Library/Prefix_Order.
   940 
   941   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   942     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   943 
   944       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   945       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   946       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   947       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   948       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   949       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   950       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   951       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   952       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   953       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   954       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   955       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   956       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   957       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   958       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   959       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   960 
   961 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   962 
   963 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   964 
   965 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   966 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   967 
   968 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   969 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   970 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   971 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   972 
   973   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   974   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   975   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   976   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   977   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   978   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   979   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   980   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   981   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   982   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   983 
   984 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   985 
   986 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   987 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   988 Data").
   989 
   990 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   991 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   992 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   993 code.
   994 
   995 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   996 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   997 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   998 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   999 
  1000 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1001 
  1002 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1003 
  1004 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1005 
  1006   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1007   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1008 
  1009 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1010 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1011 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1012 
  1013   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1014 
  1015     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1016     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1017     cart_base i  removed
  1018     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1019 
  1020   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1021 
  1022   Renamed lemmas:
  1023 
  1024     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1025     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1026     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1027     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1028     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1029     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1030     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1031     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1032     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1033     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1034 
  1035 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1036 
  1037 * HOL/Probability:
  1038 
  1039   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1040 
  1041   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1042     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1043     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1044 
  1045   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1046     projective family).
  1047 
  1048 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1049 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1050 
  1051 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1052 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1053 datatypes.
  1054 
  1055 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1056 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1057 
  1058 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1059 trees for the code generator.
  1060 
  1061 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1062 Lifting/Transfer.
  1063 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1064 
  1065 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1066 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1067 
  1068 
  1069 *** Document preparation ***
  1070 
  1071 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1072 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1073 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1074 
  1075 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1076 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1077 
  1078 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1079 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1080 document/root.tex.
  1081 
  1082 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1083 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1084 
  1085 
  1086 *** ML ***
  1087 
  1088 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1089 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1090 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1091 
  1092 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1093 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1094 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1095 
  1096 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1097 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1098 necessarily printing visible text.
  1099 
  1100 
  1101 *** System ***
  1102 
  1103 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1104 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1105 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1106 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1107 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1108 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1109 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1110 
  1111 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1112 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1113 
  1114   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1115 
  1116 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1117 
  1118 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1119 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1120 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1121 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1122 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1123 
  1124 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1125 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1126 
  1127 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1128 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1129 
  1130 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1131 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1132 
  1133 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1134 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1135 version of Isabelle.
  1136 
  1137 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1138 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1139 
  1140 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1141 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1142 for home-made settings.
  1143 
  1144 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1145 
  1146 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1147 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1148 configuration.
  1149 
  1150 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1151 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1152 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1153 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1154 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1155 
  1156 
  1157 
  1158 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1159 ------------------------------
  1160 
  1161 *** General ***
  1162 
  1163 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1164 
  1165   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1166     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1167   - markup for bound variables
  1168   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1169   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1170   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1171     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1172 
  1173 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1174 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1175 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1176 
  1177 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1178 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1179 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1180 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1181 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1182 
  1183   context
  1184     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1185     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1186   begin
  1187 
  1188   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1189 
  1190   end
  1191 
  1192   thm my_trans
  1193 
  1194 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1195 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1196 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1197 
  1198 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1199 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1200 
  1201 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1202 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1203 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1204 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1205 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1206 
  1207 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1208 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1209 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1210 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1211 indices of schematic variables.
  1212 
  1213 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1214 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1215 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1216 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1217 etc. was exploited.
  1218 
  1219 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1220 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1221 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1222 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1223 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1224 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1225 
  1226 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1227 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1228 manual.
  1229 
  1230 
  1231 *** Pure ***
  1232 
  1233 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1234 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1235 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1236 
  1237 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1238 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1239 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1240 undocumented feature.)
  1241 
  1242 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1243 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1244 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1245 
  1246   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1247 
  1248   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1249     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1250 
  1251 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1252 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1253 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1254 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1255 
  1256 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1257 
  1258     num ~> num_token
  1259     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1260     xstr ~> str_token
  1261 
  1262 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1263 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1264 position information via constraints).
  1265 
  1266 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1267 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1268 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1269 
  1270 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1271 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1272 
  1273 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1274 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1275 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1276 
  1277 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1278 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1279 
  1280 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1281 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1282 
  1283   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1284 
  1285 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1286 
  1287 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1288 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1289 
  1290 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1291 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1292 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1293 
  1294 
  1295 *** HOL ***
  1296 
  1297 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1298 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1299 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1300 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1301 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1302 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1303 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1304 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1305 possible.
  1306 
  1307 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1308 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1309 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1310 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1311 
  1312 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1313 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1314 
  1315 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1316 
  1317 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1318 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1319 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1320 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1321 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1322 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1323 
  1324   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1325     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1326 
  1327   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1328     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1329     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1330 
  1331   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1332     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1333 
  1334   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1335     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1336     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1337 
  1338   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1339     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1340 
  1341 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1342 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1343 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1344 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1345 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1346 
  1347   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1348     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1349     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1350     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1351     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1352 
  1353     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1354     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1355 
  1356   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1357     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1358     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1359     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1360     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1361     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1362     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1363     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1364 
  1365   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1366     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1367     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1368     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1369 
  1370   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1371     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1372     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1373     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1374 
  1375   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1376     from type nat to type int.
  1377 
  1378 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1379 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1380 
  1381   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1382     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1383     type.  Example syntax:
  1384 
  1385     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1386       is List.insert
  1387 
  1388     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1389     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1390     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1391     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1392     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1393     by the package.
  1394 
  1395   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1396     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1397     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1398     code generation for each constant.
  1399 
  1400   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1401     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1402     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1403     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1404     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1405 
  1406   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1407     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1408     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1409 
  1410 * Quotient package:
  1411 
  1412   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1413     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1414 
  1415   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1416     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1417 
  1418   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1419     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1420     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1421 
  1422   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1423     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1424 
  1425 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1426 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1427 
  1428 * Quickcheck:
  1429 
  1430   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1431     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1432     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1433     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1434     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1435 
  1436     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1437     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1438     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1439 
  1440     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1441     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1442 
  1443     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1444     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1445     show genuine counterexamples.
  1446 
  1447   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1448     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1449 
  1450     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1451     constructors of that type.
  1452 
  1453   - Support for multisets.
  1454 
  1455   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1456 
  1457   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1458     conjectures in a locale context.
  1459 
  1460 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1461 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1462 
  1463 * Sledgehammer:
  1464   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1465     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1466   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1467   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1468     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1469   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1470   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1471   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1472   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1473 
  1474 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1475 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1476 
  1477 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1478 
  1479 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1480 
  1481 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1482 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1483 
  1484   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1485 
  1486 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1487 a list and a nat.
  1488 
  1489 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1490 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1491 
  1492 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1493 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1494 default.
  1495 
  1496 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1497 
  1498   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1499 
  1500 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1501 
  1502 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1503 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1504 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1505 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1506 one_case.
  1507 
  1508 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1509 the result of the fact expression.
  1510 
  1511 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1512 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1513 of some relation theorems:
  1514 
  1515   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1516   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1517   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1518   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1519   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1520   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1521 
  1522 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1523 
  1524 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1525 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1526 
  1527 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1528 
  1529 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1530 to match the constant's name:
  1531 
  1532   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1533   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1534   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1535   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1536   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1537   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1538   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1539   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1540   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1541   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1542   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1543   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1544   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1545   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1546   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1547   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1548   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1549   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1550   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1551   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1552   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1553   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1554   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1555   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1556 
  1557 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1558 
  1559 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1560 and corresponding theorem names:
  1561 
  1562   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1563 
  1564   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1565 
  1566   - Renamed theorems:
  1567 
  1568     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1569     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1570     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1571     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1572     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1573     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1574     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1575     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1576     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1577     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1578     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1579     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1580     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1581     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1582     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1583     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1584     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1585     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1586     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1587     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1588     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1589     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1590     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1591 
  1592     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1593 
  1594     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1595 
  1596 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1597 
  1598 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1599 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1600 
  1601   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1602   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1603   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1604   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1605   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1606   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1607   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1608   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1609   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1610   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1611   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1612   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1613   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1614   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1615   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1616   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1617   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1618   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1619   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1620   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1621   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1622 
  1623 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1624 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1625 
  1626 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1627 
  1628 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1629 
  1630   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1631   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1632   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1633   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1634   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1635   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1636   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1637   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1638   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1639   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1640   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1641   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1642   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1643   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1644   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1645   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1646   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1647   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1648 
  1649 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1650 
  1651 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1652 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1653 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1654 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1655 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1656 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1657 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1658 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1659 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1660 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1661 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1662 
  1663 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1664 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1665 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1666 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1667 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1668 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1669 
  1670 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1671 through option types.
  1672 
  1673 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1674 relations.
  1675 
  1676 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1677 
  1678 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1679 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1680 
  1681   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1682   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1683   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1684   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1685   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1686   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1687   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1688   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1689   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1690   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1691   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1692   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1693   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1694   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1695   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1696   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1697   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1698   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1699   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1700   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1701   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1702   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1703   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1704   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1705   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1706   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1707   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1708   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1709   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1710   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1711   zless_le ~> less_le
  1712   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1713   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1714   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1715 
  1716 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1717 
  1718   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1719 
  1720 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1721 
  1722 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1723 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1724 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1725 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1726 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1727 
  1728 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1729 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1730 
  1731 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1732 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1733 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1734 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1735 follows:
  1736 
  1737   Operations:
  1738   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1739   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1740   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1741   del -> rbt_del
  1742   delete -> rbt_delete
  1743   ins -> rbt_ins
  1744   insert -> rbt_insert
  1745   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1746   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1747   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1748   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1749   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1750   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1751   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1752   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1753   union -> rbt_union
  1754   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1755   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1756 
  1757   Lemmas:
  1758   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1759   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1760   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1761   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1762   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1763   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1764   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1765   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1766   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1767   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1768   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1769   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1770   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1771   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1772   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1773   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1774   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1775   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1776   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1777   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1778   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1779   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1780   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1781   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1782   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1783   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1784   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1785   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1786   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1787   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1788   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1789   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1790   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1791   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1792   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1793   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1794   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1795   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1796   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1797   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1798   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1799   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1800   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1801   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1802   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1803   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1804   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1805   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1806   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1807   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1808   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1809   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1810   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1811   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1812   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1813   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1814   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1815   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1816   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1817   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1818   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1819   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1820   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1821   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1822   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1823   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1824   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1825   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1826   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1827   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1828   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1829   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1830   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1831   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1832   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1833   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1834   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1835   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1836   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1837   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1838   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1839   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1840   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1841 
  1842 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1843 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1844 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1845 
  1846   Changed Operations:
  1847   float_abs -> abs
  1848   float_nprt -> nprt
  1849   float_pprt -> pprt
  1850   pow2 -> use powr
  1851   round_down -> float_round_down
  1852   round_up -> float_round_up
  1853   scale -> exponent
  1854 
  1855   Removed Operations:
  1856   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1857 
  1858   Renamed Lemmas:
  1859   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1860   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1861   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1862   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1863   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1864   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1865   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1866   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1867   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1868   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1869   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1870   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1871   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1872   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1873   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1874   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1875   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1876   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1877   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1878   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1879   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1880   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1881   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1882   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1883   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1884   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1885   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1886   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1887   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1888   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1889   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1890   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1891   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1892   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1893   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1894   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1895 
  1896   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1897   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1898   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1899   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1900   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1901   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1902   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1903   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1904   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1905   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1906 
  1907 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1908 association lists with distinct keys.
  1909 
  1910 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1911 annotated commands.
  1912 
  1913 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1914 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1915 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1916 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1917 
  1918 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1919 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1920 instead.
  1921 
  1922   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1923   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1924   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1925   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1926   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1927   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1928   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1929   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1930   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1931   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1932   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1933   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1934   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1935   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1936   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1937   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1938   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1939   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1940   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1941   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1942   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1943   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1944   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1945   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1946   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1947   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1948   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1949   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1950   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1951   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1952   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1953   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1954   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1955   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1956   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1957   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1958   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1959   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1960   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1961   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1962   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1963 
  1964 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1965 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1966 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1967 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1968 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1969 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1970 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1971 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1972 
  1973 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1974 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1975 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1976 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1977 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1978 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1979 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1980 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1981 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1982 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1983 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1984 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1985 
  1986   Renamed constants:
  1987   measure -> emeasure
  1988   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1989   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1990   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1991   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1992 
  1993   Removed locales:
  1994   completeable_measure_space
  1995   finite_measure_space
  1996   finite_prob_space
  1997   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1998   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1999   finite_sigma_algebra
  2000   measure_space
  2001   pair_finite_prob_space
  2002   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2003   pair_finite_space
  2004   pair_sigma_algebra
  2005   product_sigma_algebra
  2006 
  2007   Removed constants:
  2008   conditional_space
  2009   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2010   image_space
  2011   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2012   pair_measure_generator
  2013   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2014   subvimage
  2015 
  2016   Replacement theorems:
  2017   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2018   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2019   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2020   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2021   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2022   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2023   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2024   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2025   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2026   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2027   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2028   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2029   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2030   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2031   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2032   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2033   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2034   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2035   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2036   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2037   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2038   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2039   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2040   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2041   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2042   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2043   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2044   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2045   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2046   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2047   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2048   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2049   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2050   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2051   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2052   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2053   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2054   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2055   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2056   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2057   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2058   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2059   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2060   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2061   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2062   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2063   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2064   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2065   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2066   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2067   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2068   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2069   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2070   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2071   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2072   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2073   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2074   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2075   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2076   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2077   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2078   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2079   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2080   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2081   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2082   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2083   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2084   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2085   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2086   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2087   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2088   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2089   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2090   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2091   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2092   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2093   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2094   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2095   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2096   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2097   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2098   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2099   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2100   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2101   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2102   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2103   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2104   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2105   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2106   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2107   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2108   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2109   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2110   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2111   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2112   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2113   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2114   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2115   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2116   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2117   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2118   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2119   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2120   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2121   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2122   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2123   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2124   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2125   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2126   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2127   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2128   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2129   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2130   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2131   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2132   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2133   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2134   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2135   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2136   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2137   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2138   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2139   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2140   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2141   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2142   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2143   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2144   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2145 
  2146 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2147 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2148 
  2149 
  2150 *** FOL ***
  2151 
  2152 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2153 
  2154 
  2155 *** ZF ***
  2156 
  2157 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2158 analysis.
  2159 
  2160 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2161 
  2162 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2163 
  2164 
  2165 *** ML ***
  2166 
  2167 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2168 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2169 
  2170 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2171 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2172 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2173 
  2174 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2175 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2176 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2177 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2178 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2179 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2180 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2181 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2182 
  2183 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2184 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2185 
  2186 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2187 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2188 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2189 
  2190 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2191 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2192 
  2193 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2194 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2195 context as well.
  2196 
  2197 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2198 
  2199   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2200   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2201   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2202   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2203   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2204   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2205   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2206   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2207   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2208   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2209   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2210   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2211 
  2212 
  2213 *** System ***
  2214 
  2215 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2216 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2217 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2218 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2219 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2220 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2221 the generic user home was intended.
  2222 
  2223 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2224 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2225 
  2226 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2227 (not just JRE).
  2228 
  2229 
  2230 
  2231 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2232 ------------------------------------
  2233 
  2234 *** General ***
  2235 
  2236 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2237 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2238 
  2239   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2240     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2241     files for checking).
  2242 
  2243   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2244     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2245     positions.
  2246 
  2247   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2248     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2249     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2250 
  2251   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2252     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2253     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2254 
  2255   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2256     cores.
  2257 
  2258   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2259     versions (garbage collection).
  2260 
  2261 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2262 including some remaining limitations.
  2263 
  2264 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2265 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2266 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2267 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2268 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2269 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2270 
  2271 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2272 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2273 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2274 
  2275 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2276 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2277 usedir option -Q.
  2278 
  2279 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2280 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2281 
  2282   long_names   ~> names_long
  2283   short_names  ~> names_short
  2284   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2285 
  2286 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2287 
  2288   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2289 
  2290 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2291 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2292 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2293 
  2294 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2295 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2296 
  2297 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2298   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2299   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2300   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2301     "Classical Reasoner".
  2302 
  2303 
  2304 *** HOL ***
  2305 
  2306 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2307 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2308 
  2309 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2310 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2311 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2312 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2313 class complete_linorder.
  2314 
  2315 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2316 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2317 
  2318 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2319 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2320 
  2321   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2322   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2323   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2324   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2325   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2326   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2327   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2328   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2329   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2330   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2331   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2332 
  2333 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2334 
  2335   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2336   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2337   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2338   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2339   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2340   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2341   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2342   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2343   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2344   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2345   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2346   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2347   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2348   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2349   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2350   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2351 
  2352 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2353 
  2354 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2355 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2356 
  2357 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2358 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2359 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2360 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2361 
  2362 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2363 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2364 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2365 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2366 
  2367 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2368 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2369 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2370 
  2371 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2372 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2373 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2374 
  2375 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2376 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2377 
  2378 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2379 
  2380     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2381     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2382 
  2383 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2384 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2385 
  2386 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2387 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2388 
  2389 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2390 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2391 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2392 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2393 
  2394   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2395   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2396   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2397   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2398   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2399   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2400   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2401 
  2402 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2403 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2404 
  2405   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2406   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2407   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2408   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2409   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2410   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2411   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2412   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2413   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2414   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2415   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2416   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2417   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2418   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2419   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2420   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2421   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2422   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2423   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2424   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2425   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2426   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2427   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2428   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2429   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2430   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2431   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2432   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2433   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2434   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2435   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2436   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2437   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2438   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2439   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2440   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2441   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2442   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2443   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2444   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2445   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2446   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2447   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2448   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2449   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2450   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2451   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2452   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2453   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2454   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2455   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2456   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2457   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2458   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2459   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2460   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2461   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2462   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2463   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2464   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2465   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2466   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2467   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2468   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2469   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2470   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2471   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2472   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2473   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2474   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2475   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2476   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2477   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2478   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2479   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2480   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2481   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2482   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2483   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2484   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2485   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2486   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2487 
  2488 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2489 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2490 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2491 
  2492 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2493 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2494 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2495 
  2496 * Code generation:
  2497 
  2498   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2499     characters in the target language.
  2500 
  2501   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2502     instead.
  2503 
  2504   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2505 
  2506   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2507     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2508 
  2509       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2510 
  2511 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2512 
  2513 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2514 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2515 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2516 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2517 syntax.
  2518 
  2519 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2520 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2521 
  2522 * Nitpick:
  2523   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2524   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2525   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2526     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2527 
  2528 * Sledgehammer:
  2529   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2530   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2531     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2532   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2533     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2534   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2535     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2536   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2537     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2538   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2539     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2540 
  2541 * Metis:
  2542   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2543   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2544     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2545 
  2546 * Command 'try':
  2547   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2548     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2549   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2550     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2551 
  2552 * Quickcheck:
  2553   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2554     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2555   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2556     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2557   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2558     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2559     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2560     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2561   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2562     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2563 
  2564 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2565 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2566 
  2567 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2568 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2569 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2570 
  2571 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2572 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2573 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2574 
  2575 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2576 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2577 
  2578 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2579 arithmetic.
  2580 
  2581 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2582 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2583 and lattice type classes.
  2584 
  2585 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2586 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2587 
  2588 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2589 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2590 
  2591 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2592 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2593 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2594 
  2595   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2596   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2597   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2598   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2599 
  2600 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2601 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2602 constants:
  2603 
  2604   type inat   ~> type enat
  2605   Fin         ~> enat
  2606   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2607   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2608   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2609 
  2610 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2611 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2612 
  2613 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2614 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2615 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2616 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2617 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2618 
  2619 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2620 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2621 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2622 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2623 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2624 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2625 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2626 
  2627   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2628   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2629   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2630   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2631 
  2632 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2633 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2634 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2635 
  2636   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2637   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2638   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2639   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2640   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2641   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2642   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2643   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2644   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2645   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2646   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2647   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2648   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2649   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2650   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2651   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2652   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2653   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2654   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2655   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2656   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2657   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2658   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2659   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2660   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2661   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2662   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2663   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2664   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2665   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2666   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2667   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2668   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2669   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2670   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2671   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2672   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2673   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2674   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2675   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2676   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2677   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2678   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2679   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2680   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2681   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2682   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2683   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2684   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2685   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2686   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2687 
  2688 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2689   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2690   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2691   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2692   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2693     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2694 
  2695 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2696 
  2697   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2698   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2699   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2700   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2701   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2702   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2703   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2704   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2705   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2706   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2707   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2708   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2709   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2710   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2711   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2712   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2713   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2714   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2715   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2716   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2717   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2718   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2719   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2720   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2721   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2722 
  2723 
  2724 *** Document preparation ***
  2725 
  2726 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2727 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2728 same.
  2729 
  2730 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2731 result.
  2732 
  2733 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2734 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2735 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2736 
  2737 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2738 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2739 
  2740 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2741 like this:
  2742 
  2743   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2744   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2745 
  2746 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2747 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2748 layouts.
  2749 
  2750 
  2751 *** ML ***
  2752 
  2753 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2754 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2755 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2756 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2757 under external program control.
  2758 
  2759 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2760 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2761 
  2762 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2763 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2764 (better known as Proof General).
  2765 
  2766 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2767 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2768 
  2769 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2770 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2771 
  2772 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2773 (including quotes etc.).
  2774 
  2775 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2776 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2777 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2778 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2779 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2780 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2781 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2782 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2783 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2784 
  2785 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2786 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2787 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2788 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2789 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2790 
  2791 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2792 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2793 
  2794 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2795 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2796 
  2797 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2798 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2799 
  2800 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2801 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2802 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2803 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2804 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2805 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2806 proper Proof.context.
  2807 
  2808 
  2809 *** System ***
  2810 
  2811 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2812 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2813 
  2814 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2815 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2816 
  2817 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2818 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2819 
  2820   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2821   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2822   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2823   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2824   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2825 
  2826 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2827 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2828 
  2829 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2830 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2831 example:
  2832 
  2833   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2834 
  2835 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2836 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2837 
  2838 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2839 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2840 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2841 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2842 
  2843 
  2844 
  2845 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2846 ----------------------------------
  2847 
  2848 *** General ***
  2849 
  2850 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2851 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2852 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2853 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2854 like this:
  2855 
  2856   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2857 
  2858 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2859 
  2860 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2861 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2862 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2863 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2864 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2865 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2866 
  2867 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2868 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2869 the following package declarations:
  2870 
  2871   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2872   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2873 
  2874 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2875 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2876 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2877 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2878 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2879 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2880 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2881 
  2882 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2883 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2884 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2885 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2886 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2887 
  2888 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2889 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2890 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2891 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2892 
  2893 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2894 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2895 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2896 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2897 
  2898   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2899 
  2900   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2901   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2902   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2903   show_types                    show_types
  2904   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2905   show_consts                   show_consts
  2906   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2907 
  2908   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2909   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2910   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2911 
  2912   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2913   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2914 
  2915   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2916 
  2917   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2918   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2919   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2920   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2921   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2922 
  2923 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2924 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2925 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2926 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2927 
  2928 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2929 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2930 
  2931   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2932   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2933 
  2934 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2935 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2936 float_token.
  2937 
  2938 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2939 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2940 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2941 
  2942 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2943 DejaVu Sans.
  2944 
  2945 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2946 
  2947 
  2948 *** Pure ***
  2949 
  2950 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2951 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2952 time.
  2953 
  2954 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2955 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2956 
  2957 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2958 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2959 
  2960 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2961 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2962 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2963 command already provided this functionality.
  2964 
  2965 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2966 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2967 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2968 without interpretations.
  2969 
  2970 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2971 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2972 
  2973 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2974 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2975 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2976 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2977 
  2978 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2979 'definition' instead.
  2980 
  2981 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2982 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2983 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2984 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2985 
  2986 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2987 constructors.
  2988 
  2989 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2990 the local file system.
  2991 
  2992 
  2993 *** HOL ***
  2994 
  2995 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2996 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2997 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2998 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2999 
  3000   declare [[coercion f]]
  3001 
  3002 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3003 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3004 
  3005   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3006 
  3007 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3008 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3009 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3010 other theories like this:
  3011 
  3012   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3013 
  3014 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3015 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3016 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3017 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3018 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3019 for examples.
  3020 
  3021 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3022 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3023 
  3024 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3025 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3026 
  3027 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3028 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3029 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3030 
  3031 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3032 functorial structure of types.
  3033 
  3034 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3035 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3036 
  3037 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3038 languages.
  3039 
  3040 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3041 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3042 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3043 
  3044 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3045 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3046 
  3047 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3048 combinators any longer.
  3049 
  3050 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3051 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3052 
  3053 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3054 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3055 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3056 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3057 
  3058   record 'a foo = ...
  3059   ...
  3060   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3061 
  3062 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3063 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3064 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3065 
  3066 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3067 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3068 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3069 
  3070 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3071 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3072 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3073 
  3074 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3075 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3076 
  3077 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3078 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3079 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3080 independently.
  3081 
  3082 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3083 counter example search.
  3084 
  3085 * Sledgehammer:
  3086   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3087     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3088     sledgehammer").
  3089   - Renamed commands:
  3090     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3091     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3092     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3093     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3094   - Renamed options:
  3095     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3096     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3097     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3098     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3099     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3100 
  3101 * Nitpick:
  3102   - Renamed options:
  3103     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3104     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3105     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3106   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3107   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3108   - Added "whack" option.
  3109   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3110   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3111   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3112   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3113     higher cardinalities.
  3114   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3115 
  3116 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3117 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3118 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3119 
  3120     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3121 
  3122 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3123 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3124 
  3125 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3126 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3127 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3128 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3129 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3130 "smt_solver".
  3131 
  3132 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3133 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3134 
  3135 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3136 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3137 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3138 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3139 
  3140 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3141   - Renamed:
  3142     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3143     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3144     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3145   - Added:
  3146     smt_verbose
  3147     smt_random_seed
  3148     smt_datatypes
  3149     smt_infer_triggers
  3150     smt_monomorph_limit
  3151     cvc3_options
  3152     remote_cvc3_options
  3153     remote_z3_options
  3154     yices_options
  3155 
  3156 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3157 header.
  3158 
  3159 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3160 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3161 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3162 
  3163   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3164 
  3165 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3166 
  3167 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3168 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3169 
  3170 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3171 
  3172 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3173 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3174 
  3175 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3176 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3177 
  3178 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3179 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3180 
  3181 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3182 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3183 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3184 
  3185 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3186 
  3187 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3188 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3189 
  3190 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3191 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3192 
  3193 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3194 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3195 for congruent(2)).
  3196 
  3197 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3198 
  3199   types
  3200     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3201     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3202 
  3203   constants
  3204     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3205     True ~> HOL.True
  3206     False ~> HOL.False
  3207     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3208     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3209     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3210     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3211     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3212     The ~> HOL.The
  3213     All ~> HOL.All
  3214     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3215     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3216     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3217     If ~> HOL.If
  3218     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3219     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3220     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3221     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3222     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3223     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3224     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3225     op : ~> Set.member
  3226     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3227 
  3228 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3229 
  3230 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3231 
  3232     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3233     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3234     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3235     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3236     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3237     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3238     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3239     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3240 
  3241 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3242 
  3243 * More stylized fact names:
  3244 
  3245   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3246   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3247   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3248   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3249 
  3250 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3251 
  3252 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3253 
  3254   constants
  3255     null ~> List.null
  3256 
  3257   facts
  3258     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3259     null_empty ~> null_def
  3260 
  3261 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3262 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3263 generation.
  3264 
  3265 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3266 Haskell code.
  3267 
  3268 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3269 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3270 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3271 
  3272 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3273 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3274 
  3275 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3276 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3277 
  3278 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3279 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3280 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3281 
  3282 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3283 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3284 
  3285 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3286 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3287 
  3288 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3289 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3290 referred to by its qualified name.
  3291 
  3292   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3293   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3294   product ~>  Enum.product
  3295 
  3296 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3297 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3298 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3299 
  3300 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3301 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3302 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3303 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3304 
  3305 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3306 sort_key.
  3307 
  3308 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3309 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3310 
  3311 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3312 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3313 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3314 
  3315   types
  3316     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3317               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3318               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3319         (depends on your needs)
  3320 
  3321   constants
  3322      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3323      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3324      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3325 
  3326 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3327 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3328 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3329 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3330 
  3331 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3332 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3333 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3334 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3335 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3336 
  3337 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3338 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3339 
  3340 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3341 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3342 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3343 
  3344 
  3345 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3346 
  3347 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3348 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3349 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3350 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3351 compatibility.
  3352 
  3353 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3354 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3355 
  3356 
  3357 *** HOLCF ***
  3358 
  3359 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3360 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3361 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3362 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3363 
  3364 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3365 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3366 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3367 
  3368   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3369   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3370   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3371 
  3372 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3373 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3374 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3375 
  3376 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3377 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3378 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3379 domain definition now works:
  3380 
  3381   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3382 
  3383 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3384 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3385 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3386 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3387 
  3388   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3389     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3390 
  3391   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3392 
  3393 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3394 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3395 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3396 
  3397 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3398 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3399 
  3400 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3401 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3402 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3403 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3404 
  3405 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3406 
  3407 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3408 
  3409 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3410 
  3411 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3412 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3413 
  3414 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3415 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3416 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3417 
  3418 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3419 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3420 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3421 
  3422 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3423 still supported as an input translation.
  3424 
  3425 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3426 
  3427   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3428   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3429   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3430   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3431   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3432   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3433   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3434 
  3435 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3436 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3437 
  3438   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3439   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3440   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3441   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3442   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3443   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3444 
  3445 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3446 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3447 
  3448 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3449 
  3450   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3451   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3452   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3453   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3454 
  3455 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3456 
  3457 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3458 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3459 
  3460 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3461 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3462 
  3463   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3464   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3465   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3466   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3467   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3468   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3469   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3470   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3471   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3472   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3473   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3474   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3475   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3476   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3477   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3478   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3479   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3480   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3481   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3482   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3483 
  3484 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3485 
  3486   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3487   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3488   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3489   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3490   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3491   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3492   box_less             ~> box_below
  3493   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3494   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3495   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3496   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3497   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3498   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3499   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3500   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3501   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3502   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3503   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3504   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3505   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3506   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3507   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3508   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3509   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3510   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3511   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3512   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3513   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3514   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3515   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3516   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3517   up_less              ~> up_below
  3518   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3519   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3520   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3521   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3522   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3523   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3524   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3525   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3526   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3527   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3528   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3529   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3530   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3531 
  3532 
  3533 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3534 
  3535 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3536 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3537 
  3538 
  3539 *** ML ***
  3540 
  3541 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3542 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3543 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3544 
  3545 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3546 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3547 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3548 
  3549 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3550 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3551 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3552 
  3553 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3554 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3555 
  3556 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3557 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3558 
  3559 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3560 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3561 
  3562 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3563 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3564 
  3565 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3566 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3567 almost all situations.
  3568 
  3569 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3570 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3571 Isabelle/ML.
  3572 
  3573 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3574 meaning.
  3575 
  3576 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3577 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3578 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3579 
  3580 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3581 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3582 
  3583 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3584 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3585 
  3586 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3587 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3588 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3589 
  3590 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3591 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3592 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3593 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3594 configuration options.
  3595 
  3596 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3597 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3598 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3599 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3600 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3601 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3602 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3603 
  3604 
  3605 
  3606 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3607 ---------------------------------
  3608 
  3609 *** General ***
  3610 
  3611 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3612 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3613 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3614 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3615 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3616 their full internal name.
  3617 
  3618 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3619 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3620 Some hints on upgrading:
  3621 
  3622   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3623     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3624     which are independent of this issue.
  3625 
  3626   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3627     provides the following special forms:
  3628 
  3629       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3630       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3631       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3632 
  3633     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3634     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3635     extra variables".
  3636 
  3637     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3638     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3639     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3640     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3641     "logic".
  3642 
  3643   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3644     antiquotations:
  3645 
  3646       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3647       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3648       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3649       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3650 
  3651   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3652     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3653     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3654     antiquotations.
  3655 
  3656 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3657 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3658 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3659 diagnose syntax problems.
  3660 
  3661 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3662 
  3663 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3664 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3665 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3666 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3667 
  3668 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3669 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3670 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3671 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3672 
  3673 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3674 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3675 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3676 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3677 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3678 
  3679 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3680 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3681 
  3682 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3683 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3684 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3685 
  3686   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3687 
  3688 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3689 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3690 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3691 
  3692 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3693 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3694 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3695 
  3696 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3697 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3698 
  3699 
  3700 *** Pure ***
  3701 
  3702 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3703 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3704 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3705 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3706 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3707 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3708 inspect proof terms.
  3709 
  3710 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3711 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3712 are added internally.  For example:
  3713 
  3714   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3715 
  3716 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3717 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3718 
  3719 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3720 
  3721 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3722 'class' instead.
  3723 
  3724 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3725 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3726 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3727 
  3728 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3729 invariants.
  3730 
  3731 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3732 user space functionality any longer.
  3733 
  3734 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3735 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3736 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3737 
  3738 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3739 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3740 
  3741 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3742 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3743 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3744 
  3745 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3746 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3747 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3748 
  3749 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3750 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3751 
  3752 
  3753 *** HOL ***
  3754 
  3755 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3756 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3757 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3758 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3759 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3760 
  3761 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3762 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3763 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3764 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3765 
  3766   fun
  3767     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3768   where
  3769     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3770 
  3771   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3772     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3773 
  3774   quotient_definition
  3775     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3776 
  3777 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3778 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3779 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3780 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3781 
  3782 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3783 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3784 
  3785 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3786 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3787 
  3788 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3789 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3790 
  3791 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3792 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3793 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3794 
  3795 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3796 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3797 
  3798 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3799 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3800 
  3801 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3802 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3803 
  3804 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3805 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3806 
  3807 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3808 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3809 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3810 
  3811   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3812   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3813   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3814   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3815   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3816   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3817   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3818   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3819   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3820   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3821   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3822   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3823   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3824   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3825   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3826   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3827   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3828   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3829   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3830   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3831   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3832   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3833   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3834   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3835   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3836   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3837   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3838   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3839   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3840   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3841 
  3842 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3843 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3844 
  3845 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3846 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3847 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3848 
  3849 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3850 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3851 
  3852 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3853 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3854 
  3855 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3856 
  3857 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3858 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3859 
  3860 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3861 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3862 
  3863 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3864 
  3865 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3866 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3867 
  3868 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3869 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3870 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3871 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3872 
  3873 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3874   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3875   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3876   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3877 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3878 
  3879 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3880 lattices):
  3881 
  3882     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3883     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3884 
  3885     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3886 
  3887     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3888     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3889     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3890     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3891     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3892     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3893     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3894     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3895     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3896     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3897     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3898     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3899     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3900 
  3901     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3902     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3903     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3904     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3905     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3906     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3907     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3908     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3909     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3910     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3911     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3912     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3913     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3914     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3915     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3916     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3917     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3918     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3919 
  3920   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3921   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3922 
  3923     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3924     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3925     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3926     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3927     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3928 
  3929 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3930 
  3931 * Refined field classes:
  3932   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3933     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3934     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3935   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3936 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3937 
  3938 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3939   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3940   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3941   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3942     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3943   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3944     equal_neg_zero.
  3945 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3946 
  3947 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3948 sets to lattices:
  3949 
  3950   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3951   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3952   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3953   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3954   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3955   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3956   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3957   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3958   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3959   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3960 
  3961 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3962 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3963 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3964 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3965 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3966 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3967 
  3968 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3969 multiset order:
  3970 
  3971   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3972     <= and <;
  3973   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3974     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3975     multiset_order;
  3976   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3977     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3978     generation;
  3979   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3980     if needed.
  3981 
  3982 Renamed:
  3983 
  3984   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3985   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3986   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3987 
  3988 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3989 
  3990 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3991 
  3992 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3993 
  3994 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3995 
  3996 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3997 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3998 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3999 
  4000   Constants:
  4001   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4002   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4003   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4004   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4005   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4006   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4007   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4008   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4009   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4010   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4011   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4012   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4013   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4014 
  4015   Lemmas:
  4016   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4017   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4018   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4019   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4020   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4021   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4022   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4023   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4024   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4025   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4026   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4027   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4028   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4029 
  4030 * Sledgehammer:
  4031   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4032     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4033     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4034     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4035     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4036     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4037     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4038   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4039   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4040     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4041   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4042     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4043     is still experimental.)
  4044   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4045     full-typed mode.
  4046   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4047 
  4048 * Nitpick:
  4049   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4050   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4051   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4052     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4053   - Added support for quotient types.
  4054   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4055     constructs.
  4056   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4057     "termination" proofs).
  4058   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4059   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4060   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4061   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4062     record getters.
  4063   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4064   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4065   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4066   - Added "atoms" option.
  4067   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4068     problems.
  4069   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4070     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4071     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4072   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4073     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4074   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4075 
  4076 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4077   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4078   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4079   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4080   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4081   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4082   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4083   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4084   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4085   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4086 
  4087 
  4088 *** HOLCF ***
  4089 
  4090 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4091 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4092 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4093 
  4094 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4095 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4096 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4097 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4098 
  4099 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4100 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4101 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4102 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4103 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4104 
  4105 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4106 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4107 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4108 
  4109 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4110 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4111 
  4112   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4113   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4114 
  4115 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4116 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4117 
  4118   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4119   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4120   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4121   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4122   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4123 
  4124 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4125 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4126 
  4127   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4128   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4129   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4130 
  4131 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4132 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4133 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4134 
  4135 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4136 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4137 
  4138 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4139 
  4140 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4141 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4142 
  4143 
  4144 *** ML ***
  4145 
  4146 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4147 
  4148     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4149     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4150 
  4151     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4152     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4153     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4154     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4155 
  4156     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4157     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4158     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4159 
  4160 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4161 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4162 
  4163 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4164 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4165 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4166 
  4167 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4168 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4169 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4170 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4171 
  4172 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4173 the context or even global references.
  4174 
  4175 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4176 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4177 
  4178 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4179 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4180 
  4181   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4182   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4183   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4184   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4185   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4186   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4187   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4188   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4189   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4190   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4191 
  4192 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4193 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4194 
  4195 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4196 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4197 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4198 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4199 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4200 
  4201 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4202 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4203 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4204 Theory_Data version.
  4205 
  4206 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4207 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4208 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4209 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4210 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4211 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4212 explicitly in rare situations.
  4213 
  4214 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4215 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4216 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4217 
  4218 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4219 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4220 
  4221 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4222 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4223 quite rare).
  4224 
  4225 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4226 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4227 
  4228 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4229 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4230 terms.
  4231 
  4232 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4233 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4234 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4235 
  4236 
  4237 *** System ***
  4238 
  4239 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4240 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4241 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4242 
  4243 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4244 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4245 respectively.
  4246 
  4247 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4248 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4249 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4250 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4251 
  4252   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4253 
  4254 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4255 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4256 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4257 component.
  4258 
  4259 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4260 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4261 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4262 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4263 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4264 the user for manual installation.
  4265 
  4266 
  4267 
  4268 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4269 -------------------------------------
  4270 
  4271 *** General ***
  4272 
  4273 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4274 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4275 
  4276 
  4277 *** Pure ***
  4278 
  4279 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4280 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4281 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4282 
  4283 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4284 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4285 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4286 
  4287 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4288 interpretation.
  4289 
  4290 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4291 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4292 
  4293 
  4294 *** Document preparation ***
  4295 
  4296 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4297 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4298 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4299 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4300 
  4301 
  4302 *** HOL ***
  4303 
  4304 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4305 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4306 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4307 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4308 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4309 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4310 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4311 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4312 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4313 
  4314 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4315 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4316 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4317 
  4318 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4319 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4320 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4321 
  4322 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4323 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4324 
  4325 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4326 
  4327 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4328 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4329 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4330 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4331 
  4332 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4333 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4334 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4335 "mirabelle" utility.
  4336 
  4337 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4338 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4339 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4340 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4341 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4342 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4343 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4344 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4345 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4346 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4347 
  4348 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4349 procedure only.
  4350 
  4351 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4352 
  4353 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4354 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4355 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4356 that fail later.
  4357 
  4358 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4359 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4360 
  4361 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4362 the same method as the approximation method.
  4363 
  4364 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4365 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4366 series expansion.
  4367 
  4368 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4369 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4370 
  4371 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4372 reals.
  4373 
  4374 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4375 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4376 
  4377 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4378 fixpoint theorem.
  4379 
  4380 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4381   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4382     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4383   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4384     accordingly
  4385   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4386     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4387   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4388     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4389 
  4390 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4391 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4392 lattice.
  4393 
  4394 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4395 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4396 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4397 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4398 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4399 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4400 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4401 
  4402 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4403   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4404     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4405   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4406     le_inf_iff
  4407   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4408     sup_aci)
  4409   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4410   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4411   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4412     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4413     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4414     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4415     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4416     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4417     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4418     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4419     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4420     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4421     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4422   - authentic syntax for
  4423     Set.Pow
  4424     Set.image
  4425   - mere abbreviations:
  4426     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4427     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4428     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4429     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4430     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4431     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4432     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4433     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4434   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4435 
  4436 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4437 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4438 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4439 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4440 
  4441 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4442 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4443 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4444 
  4445 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4446 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4447 
  4448 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4449 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4450 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4451 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4452 
  4453 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4454 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4455 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4456 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4457 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4458 
  4459 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4460 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4461 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4462 
  4463 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4464 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4465 
  4466 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4467 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4468 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4469 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4470 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4471 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4472 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4473 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4474 
  4475 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4476     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4477     code_post       replaces    code post
  4478     etc.
  4479   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4480 
  4481 * Renamed methods:
  4482     sizechange -> size_change
  4483     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4484   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4485 
  4486 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4487 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4488 
  4489 * Renamed theorems:
  4490     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4491     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4492     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4493     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4494     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4495   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4496 
  4497 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4498 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4499 
  4500 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4501 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4502 
  4503 
  4504 *** HOLCF ***
  4505 
  4506 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4507 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4508 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4509 
  4510 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4511 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4512 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4513 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4514 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4515 
  4516 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4517 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4518 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4519 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4520 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4521 
  4522 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4523 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4524 constructor are pre-configured.
  4525 
  4526 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4527 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4528 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4529 
  4530 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4531 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4532 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4533 as well.)
  4534 
  4535 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4536 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4537 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4538 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4539 examples.
  4540 
  4541 
  4542 *** ML ***
  4543 
  4544 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4545 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4546 
  4547 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4548 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4549 position, logical grouping etc.
  4550 
  4551 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4552 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4553 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4554 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4555 
  4556 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4557 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4558 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4559 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4560 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4561 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4562 
  4563 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4564 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4565 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4566 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4567 experiments with references.
  4568 
  4569 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4570 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4571 
  4572 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4573 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4574 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4575 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4576 
  4577 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4578 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4579 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4580 
  4581 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4582 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4583 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4584 
  4585 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4586 
  4587 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4588 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4589 
  4590 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4591 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4592 
  4593 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4594 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4595 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4596 
  4597 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4598 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4599 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4600 
  4601 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4602 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4603 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4604 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4605 
  4606 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4607 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4608 instead of global theory.
  4609 
  4610 
  4611 *** System ***
  4612 
  4613 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4614 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4615 usedir option -q.
  4616 
  4617 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4618 also the system manual.
  4619 
  4620 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4621 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4622 
  4623 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4624 this is always enabled.
  4625 
  4626 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4627 
  4628 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4629 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4630 currently supported on Linux only.
  4631 
  4632 
  4633 
  4634 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4635 --------------------------------
  4636 
  4637 *** General ***
  4638 
  4639 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4640 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4641 
  4642   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4643     "isatool."
  4644 
  4645   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4646     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4647 
  4648   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4649     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4650 
  4651 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4652 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4653 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4654 
  4655 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4656 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4657 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4658 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4659 via "isabelle emacs".
  4660 
  4661 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4662 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4663 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4664 
  4665 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4666 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4667 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4668 
  4669 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4670 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4671 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4672 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4673 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4674 
  4675 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4676 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4677 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4678 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4679 
  4680 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4681 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4682 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4683 
  4684 
  4685 *** Pure ***
  4686 
  4687 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4688 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4689 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4690 
  4691 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4692 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4693 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4694 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4695 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4696 
  4697 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4698 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4699 useful in locale declarations.
  4700 
  4701 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4702 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4703 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4704 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4705 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4706 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4707 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4708 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4709 no longer generated.
  4710 
  4711 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4712 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4713 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4714 
  4715 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4716 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4717 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4718 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4719 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4720 
  4721 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4722 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4723 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4724 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4725 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4726 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4727 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4728 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4729 
  4730 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4731 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4732 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4733 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4734 
  4735 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4736 
  4737 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4738 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4739 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4740 
  4741 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4742 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4743 
  4744 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4745 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4746 in HOL, write
  4747 
  4748     class foo = ...
  4749 
  4750 instead of
  4751 
  4752     class foo = type + ...
  4753 
  4754 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4755 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4756 
  4757 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4758 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4759 
  4760 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4761 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4762 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4763 
  4764 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4765 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4766 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4767 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4768 directly in regular applications.
  4769 
  4770 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4771 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4772 
  4773 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4774 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4775 
  4776 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4777 theory context.
  4778 
  4779 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4780 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4781 
  4782 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4783 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4784 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4785 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4786 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4787 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4788 
  4789   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4790 
  4791 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4792 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4793 normalization.
  4794 
  4795 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4796 addressing etc.
  4797 
  4798 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4799 
  4800   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4801   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4802 
  4803 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4804 
  4805   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4806      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4807      parts of the code generator framework).
  4808 
  4809   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4810      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4811      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4812 
  4813 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4814 
  4815 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4816 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4817 
  4818 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4819 patterns, e.g.
  4820 
  4821     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4822 
  4823 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4824 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4825 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4826 hyphen:
  4827 
  4828     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4829 
  4830 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4831 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4832 
  4833 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4834 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4835 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4836 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4837 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4838 higher-order unification.
  4839 
  4840 
  4841 *** Document preparation ***
  4842 
  4843 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4844 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4845 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4846 
  4847 
  4848 *** HOL ***
  4849 
  4850 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4851 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4852 
  4853 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4854 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4855 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4856 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4857 Main, as before.
  4858 
  4859 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4860 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4861 
  4862 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4863 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4864 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4865 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4866 
  4867 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4868 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4869 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4870 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4871 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4872 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4873 
  4874 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4875 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4876 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4877 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4878 
  4879 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4880 menu.
  4881 
  4882 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4883 (contains the empty clause).
  4884 
  4885 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4886 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4887 
  4888 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4889 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4890 
  4891 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4892 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4893 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4894 
  4895 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4896 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4897 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4898 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4899 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4900 
  4901 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4902 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4903 
  4904 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4905 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4906 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4907 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4908 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4909 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4910 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4911 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4912 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4913 
  4914 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4915 
  4916 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4917 
  4918 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4919 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4920 
  4921 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4922 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4923 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4924 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4925 
  4926 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4927 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4928 
  4929     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4930     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4931     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4932     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4933     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4934     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4935     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4936     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4937 
  4938 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4939 theory Set.
  4940 
  4941 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4942 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4943 
  4944 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4945 
  4946 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4947 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4948 
  4949 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4950 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4951 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4952 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4953 allowed. For examples see
  4954 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4955 
  4956 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4957 
  4958 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4959 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4960 
  4961 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4962 structure:
  4963 
  4964     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4965     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4966     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4967     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4968     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4969     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4970     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4971     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4972     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4973     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4974     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4975     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4976     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4977     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4978     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4979     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4980     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4981     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4982     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4983     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4984     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4985     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4986     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4987     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4988     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4989     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4990     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4991     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4992     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4993     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4994     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4995     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4996     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4997 
  4998     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4999     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5000     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5001     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5002     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5003     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5004     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5005     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5006     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5007     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5008 
  5009     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5010     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5011     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5012     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5013     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5014     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5015 
  5016 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5017 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5018 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5019 
  5020 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5021 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5022 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5023 
  5024 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5025 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5026 
  5027 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5028 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5029 
  5030 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5031 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5032 proofs, e.g.
  5033 
  5034   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5035 
  5036 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5037 
  5038 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5039 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5040 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5041 
  5042 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5043 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5044 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5045 
  5046 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5047 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5048 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5049 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5050 
  5051 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5052 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5053 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5054 preorder_class.*.
  5055 
  5056 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5057 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5058 
  5059 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5060 
  5061   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5062 
  5063 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5064 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5065 fold_image.
  5066 
  5067 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5068 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5069 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5070 the former will disappear at some point.
  5071 
  5072 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5073 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5074 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5075 
  5076 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5077 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5078 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5079 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5080 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5081 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5082 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5083 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5084 
  5085 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5086 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5087 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5088 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5089 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5090 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5091 
  5092     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5093     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5094     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5095     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5096     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5097     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5098     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5099 
  5100 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5101 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5102 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5103 
  5104 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5105 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5106 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5107 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5108 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5109 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5110 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5111 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5112 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5113 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5114 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5115 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5116 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5117 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5118 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5119 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5120 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5121 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5122 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5123 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5124 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5125 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5126 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5127 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5128 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5129 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5130 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5131 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5132 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5133 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5134 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5135 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5136 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5137 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5138 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5139 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5140 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5141 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5142 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5143 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5144 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5145 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5146 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5147 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5148 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5149 
  5150 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5151 
  5152 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5153 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5154 
  5155 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5156 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5157 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5158 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5159 
  5160 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5161 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5162 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5163 theory RealVector.
  5164 
  5165 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5166 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5167 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5168 and inner products are included.
  5169 
  5170 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5171 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5172 supported.
  5173 
  5174 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5175 first diagonalization argument.
  5176 
  5177 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5178 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5179 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5180 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5181 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5182 
  5183     hide (open) const gcd
  5184     abbreviation gcd where
  5185       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5186     notation (output)
  5187       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5188 
  5189 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5190 
  5191 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5192 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5193 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5194 
  5195 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5196 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5197 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5198 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5199 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5200 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5201 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5202 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5203 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5204 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5205 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5206 cases.
  5207 
  5208 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5209 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5210 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5211 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5212 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5213 
  5214     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5215     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5216     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5217     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5218     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5219 
  5220 
  5221 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5222 
  5223 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5224 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5225 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5226 
  5227 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5228 
  5229 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5230 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5231 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5232 
  5233 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5234 
  5235 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5236 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5237 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5238 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5239 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5240 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5241 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5242 
  5243 
  5244 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5245 
  5246 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5247 
  5248 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5249 theory targets.
  5250 
  5251 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5252 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5253 'inductive' etc.
  5254 
  5255 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5256 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5257 
  5258 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5259 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5260 
  5261 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5262 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5263 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5264 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5265 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5266 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5267 the algorithm W:
  5268 
  5269  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5270  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5271          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5272 
  5273 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5274 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5275 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5276 
  5277 
  5278 *** HOLCF ***
  5279 
  5280 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5281 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5282 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5283 
  5284 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5285 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5286 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5287 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5288 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5289 
  5290 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5291 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5292 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5293 
  5294 
  5295 *** ZF ***
  5296 
  5297 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5298 
  5299 
  5300 *** ML ***
  5301 
  5302 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5303 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5304 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5305 5.2.1!
  5306 
  5307 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5308 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5309 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5310 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5311 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5312 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5313 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5314 
  5315 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5316 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5317 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5318 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5319 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5320 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5321 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5322 
  5323 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5324 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5325 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5326 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5327 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5328 
  5329 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5330 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5331 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5332 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5333 Method.add_method.
  5334 
  5335 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5336 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5337 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5338 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5339 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5340 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5341 
  5342 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5343 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5344 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5345 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5346 examples.
  5347 
  5348 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5349 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5350 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5351 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5352 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5353 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5354 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5355 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5356 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5357 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5358 
  5359 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5360 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5361 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5362 
  5363 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5364 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5365 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5366 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5367 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5368 resort for legacy applications.
  5369 
  5370 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5371 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5372 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5373 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5374 explicit runtime argument.
  5375 
  5376 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5377 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5378 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5379 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5380 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5381 
  5382 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5383 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5384 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5385 theory state.
  5386 
  5387 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5388 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5389 
  5390   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5391   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5392   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5393   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5394   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5395   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5396   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5397   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5398   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5399   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5400 
  5401 
  5402 *** System ***
  5403 
  5404 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5405 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5406 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5407 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5408 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5409 
  5410 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5411 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5412 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5413 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5414 
  5415 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5416 
  5417 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5418 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5419 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5420 prover operations.
  5421 
  5422 
  5423 
  5424 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5425 -------------------------------
  5426 
  5427 *** General ***
  5428 
  5429 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5430 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5431 
  5432 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5433 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5434 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5435 provides a proper context already.
  5436 
  5437 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5438 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5439 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5440 
  5441 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5442 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5443 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5444 swap theory imports.
  5445 
  5446 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5447 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5448 
  5449 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5450 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5451 white space without escapes.
  5452 
  5453 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5454 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5455 "foo_bar".
  5456 
  5457 
  5458 *** Pure ***
  5459 
  5460 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5461 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5462 
  5463 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5464 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5465 
  5466 (1) unused_thms
  5467      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5468 
  5469 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5470      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5471      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5472 
  5473 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5474      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5475      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5476      their ancestors.
  5477 
  5478 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5479 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5480 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5481 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5482 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5483 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5484 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5485 
  5486 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5487 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5488 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5489 
  5490 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5491 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5492 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5493 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5494 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5495 
  5496 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5497 
  5498 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5499 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5500 update of theories within ML code.
  5501 
  5502 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5503 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5504 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5505 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5506 
  5507 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5508 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5509 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5510 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5511 
  5512 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5513 
  5514 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5515 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5516 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5517 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5518 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5519 
  5520 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5521 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5522 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5523 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5524 situations.
  5525 
  5526 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5527 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5528 proof text.
  5529 
  5530 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5531 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5532 
  5533 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5534 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5535 predicates.
  5536 
  5537 
  5538 *** Document preparation ***
  5539 
  5540 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5541 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5542 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5543 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5544 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5545 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5546 
  5547 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5548 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5549 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5550 
  5551 
  5552 *** HOL ***
  5553 
  5554 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5555 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5556 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5557 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5558 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5559 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5560 
  5561 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5562 with multithreading.
  5563 
  5564 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5565 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5566 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5567 
  5568 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5569 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5570 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5571 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5572 
  5573 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5574 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5575 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5576 and makes them available separately.  See
  5577 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5578 
  5579 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5580 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5581 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5582 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5583 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5584 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5585 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5586 the declared rules.
  5587 
  5588 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5589 
  5590   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5591 
  5592 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5593 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5594 
  5595 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5596 
  5597   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5598 
  5599   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5600     definitions on => and bool.
  5601 
  5602   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5603     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5604     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5605 
  5606       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5607       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5608       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5609       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5610       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5611       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5612       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5613       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5614 
  5615   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5616     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5617     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5618 
  5619   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5620     The proof pattern
  5621 
  5622       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5623       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5624 
  5625     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5626     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5627 
  5628       have "EX S. P S"
  5629       proof
  5630         show "P S" <...>
  5631       qed
  5632 
  5633   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5634     The proof pattern
  5635 
  5636       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5637       also have "S = T" <...>
  5638       finally have "P T" .
  5639 
  5640     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5641     must be replaced by something like
  5642 
  5643       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5644       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5645       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5646 
  5647   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5648     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5649 
  5650       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5651 
  5652     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5653     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5654     type of the form
  5655 
  5656       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5657 
  5658     rather than
  5659 
  5660       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5661 
  5662 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5663 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5664 
  5665 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5666 
  5667 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5668 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5669 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5670 
  5671 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5672 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5673 
  5674 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5675 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5676 
  5677 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5678 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5679 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5680 
  5681 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5682 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5683 
  5684   less_trans
  5685   less_linear
  5686   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5687   le_less_trans
  5688   less_le_trans
  5689   less_not_sym
  5690   less_asym
  5691 
  5692 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5693 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5694 and different variable names.
  5695 
  5696 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5697 
  5698 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5699 finite maps.
  5700 
  5701 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5702 
  5703 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5704 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5705 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5706 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5707 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5708 accordingly.
  5709 
  5710 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5711 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5712 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5713 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5714 
  5715 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5716 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5717 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5718 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5719 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5720 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5721 
  5722 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5723 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5724 
  5725 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5726 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5727 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5728 
  5729 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5730 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5731 
  5732 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5733 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5734 
  5735 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5736 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5737 
  5738 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5739 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5740 
  5741 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5742 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5743 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5744 
  5745 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5746 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5747 
  5748 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5749 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5750 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5751 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5752 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5753 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5754 
  5755 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5756 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5757 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5758 
  5759 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5760 
  5761 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5762 
  5763 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5764 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5765 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5766 
  5767 
  5768 *** ZF ***
  5769 
  5770 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5771 same session:
  5772 
  5773   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5774   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5775   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5776   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5777   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5778   List      -> List_ZF
  5779   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5780 
  5781 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5782 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5783 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5784 
  5785 
  5786 *** ML ***
  5787 
  5788 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5789 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5790 
  5791 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5792 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5793 
  5794 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5795 
  5796 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5797 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5798 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5799 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5800 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5801 
  5802 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5803 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5804 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5805 
  5806 
  5807 *** System ***
  5808 
  5809 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5810 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5811 
  5812 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5813 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5814 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5815 
  5816 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5817 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5818 
  5819 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5820 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5821 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5822 
  5823 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5824 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5825 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5826 
  5827 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5828 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5829 
  5830 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5831 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5832 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5833 script.
  5834 
  5835 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5836 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5837 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5838 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5839 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5840 
  5841 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5842 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5843 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5844 
  5845 
  5846 
  5847 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5848 -----------------------------------
  5849 
  5850 *** General ***
  5851 
  5852 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5853 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5854 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5855 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5856 
  5857 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5858 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5859 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5860 
  5861 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5862 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5863 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5864 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5865 
  5866 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5867 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5868 quotes.
  5869 
  5870 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5871 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5872 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5873 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5874 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5875 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5876 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5877 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5878 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5879 
  5880 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5881 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5882 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5883 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5884 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5885 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5886 
  5887 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5888 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5889 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5890 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5891 
  5892 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5893 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5894 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5895 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5896 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5897 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5898 
  5899 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5900 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5901 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5902 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5903 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5904 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5905 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5906 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5907 
  5908 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5909 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5910 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5911 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5912 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5913 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5914 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5915 
  5916 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5917 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5918 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5919 
  5920 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5921 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5922 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5923 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5924 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5925 limit is imposed.
  5926 
  5927 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5928 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5929 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5930 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5931 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5932 and scalability.
  5933 
  5934 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5935 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5936 
  5937 
  5938 *** Document preparation ***
  5939 
  5940 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5941 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5942 current context.
  5943 
  5944 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5945 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5946 
  5947 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5948 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5949 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5950 
  5951 
  5952 *** Pure ***
  5953 
  5954 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5955 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5956 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5957 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5958 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5959 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5960 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5961 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5962 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5963 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5964 
  5965 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5966 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5967 sketch:
  5968 
  5969     internal compilation:
  5970         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5971     writing SML code to a file:
  5972         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5973     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5974         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5975     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5976         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5977 
  5978     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5979         method ``eval''
  5980 
  5981 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5982 
  5983 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5984 
  5985     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5986     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5987     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5988     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5989 
  5990 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5991 
  5992     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5993       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5994 
  5995     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5996       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5997 
  5998     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5999       {(target)}+
  6000         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  6001 
  6002     code_class <and_list of classes>
  6003       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  6004         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  6005 
  6006 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  6007 
  6008 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  6009 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  6010 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  6011 codegen".
  6012 
  6013 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  6014 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  6015 annotations).
  6016 
  6017 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  6018 syntax.
  6019 
  6020 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  6021 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  6022 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  6023 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  6024 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  6025 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  6026 
  6027 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  6028 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  6029 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  6030 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  6031 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  6032 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  6033 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  6034 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  6035 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  6036 equations, see section "definitions".
  6037 
  6038 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  6039 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  6040 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  6041 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  6042 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  6043 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  6044 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  6045 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  6046 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  6047 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  6048 
  6049 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  6050 configuration options:
  6051 
  6052   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  6053   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  6054   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  6055   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  6056   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  6057   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  6058   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  6059   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  6060   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  6061 
  6062 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  6063 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  6064 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  6065 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  6066 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  6067 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  6068 order.
  6069 
  6070 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  6071 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  6072 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  6073 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  6074 context encountered later on.
  6075 
  6076 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  6077 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  6078 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  6079 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  6080 
  6081 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  6082 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  6083 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  6084 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  6085 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  6086 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  6087 
  6088 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  6089 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  6090 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  6091 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  6092 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  6093 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  6094 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  6095 more permissive.
  6096 
  6097 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  6098 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  6099 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  6100 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  6101 maintainability of proof texts.
  6102 
  6103 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  6104 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  6105 
  6106   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  6107   then guess x and y by clarify
  6108 
  6109 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  6110 proof tools being involved here.
  6111 
  6112 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  6113 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  6114 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  6115 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  6116 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  6117 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  6118 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  6119 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  6120 
  6121 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  6122 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  6123 certain special cases of literal facts:
  6124 
  6125   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  6126   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  6127   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  6128   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  6129 
  6130 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  6131 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  6132 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  6133 
  6134 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  6135 both named and unnamed ones.
  6136 
  6137 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  6138 
  6139   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  6140 
  6141 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  6142 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  6143 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  6144 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  6145 
  6146 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  6147 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  6148 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  6149 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  6150 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  6151 
  6152 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  6153 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  6154 
  6155 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  6156 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  6157 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  6158 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  6159 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  6160 originally first one.
  6161 
  6162 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  6163 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  6164 expected.
  6165 
  6166 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  6167 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  6168 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  6169 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  6170 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  6171 
  6172   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6173     assumes "EX x. P x"
  6174     obtains x where "P x"
  6175 
  6176   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6177     assumes "A & B"
  6178     obtains A and B
  6179 
  6180   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6181     assumes "A | B"
  6182     obtains
  6183       A
  6184     | B
  6185 
  6186 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  6187 explicitly:
  6188 
  6189   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6190     obtains "~ thesis"
  6191 
  6192   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6193     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  6194 
  6195 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  6196 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  6197 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  6198 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  6199 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  6200 case_names).
  6201 
  6202 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  6203 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  6204 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  6205 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  6206 
  6207 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  6208 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  6209 top-level lemma.
  6210 
  6211 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  6212 introduction rule (default "that").
  6213 
  6214 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6215 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  6216 to occur.
  6217 
  6218 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  6219 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  6220 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  6221 representations independently of name spaces.
  6222 
  6223 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  6224 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  6225 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6226 
  6227 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  6228 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  6229 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  6230 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  6231 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  6232 current context.
  6233 
  6234 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  6235 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  6236 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  6237 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  6238 
  6239   axiomatization
  6240     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  6241     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  6242 
  6243   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  6244   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  6245 
  6246   abbreviation
  6247     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  6248     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  6249 
  6250 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  6251 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  6252 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  6253 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  6254 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  6255 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  6256 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  6257 
  6258 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  6259 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  6260 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  6261 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print