NEWS
author wenzelm
Fri Dec 06 23:36:28 2013 +0100 (2013-12-06)
changeset 54688 47e61b768814
parent 54683 cf48ddc266e5
child 54702 3daeba5130f0
permissions -rw-r--r--
NEWS;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
     8 
     9 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    10 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    11 
    12 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
    13 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
    14 
    15 
    16 *** HOL ***
    17 
    18 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
    19 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    20 
    21 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
    22     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
    23 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    24 
    25 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
    26     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
    27     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
    28 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    29 
    30 * Abolished neg_numeral.
    31   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
    32   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
    33   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
    34     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
    35   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
    36     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- … - _".
    37   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
    38 INCOMPATBILITY.
    39 
    40 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
    41     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
    42     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
    43     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
    44     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
    45 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    46 
    47 * Fact name consolidation:
    48     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
    49     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
    50     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
    51     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
    52     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
    53 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    54 
    55 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
    56 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
    57 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
    58 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
    59 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
    60 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
    61 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
    62 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    63 
    64 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
    65 
    66 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
    67 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
    68 
    69 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
    70 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [… "- _" …]" by simp".
    71 
    72 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
    73 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
    74 or the brute way with
    75 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
    76 
    77 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
    78 
    79 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
    80 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
    81 
    82 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
    83 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
    84 
    85 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
    86 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
    87 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
    88 INCOMPATIBILITY
    89 
    90 * Nitpick:
    91   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
    92     infinite values.
    93 
    94 
    95 *** ML ***
    96 
    97 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
    98 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
    99 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   100 formal context.
   101 
   102 
   103 *** System ***
   104 
   105 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   106 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   107 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   108 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   109 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   110 
   111 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   112 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   113 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   114 
   115 
   116 
   117 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   118 -------------------------------------
   119 
   120 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   121 
   122 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   123 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   124 
   125 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   126 after edits surrounding the command location.
   127 
   128 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   129 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   130 e.g. out-of-memory).
   131 
   132 
   133 *** System ***
   134 
   135 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   136 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   137 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   138 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   139 
   140 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   141 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   142 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   143 
   144 
   145 
   146 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   147 -------------------------------------
   148 
   149 *** General ***
   150 
   151 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   152 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   153 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   154 
   155 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   156 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   157 
   158 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   159 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   160 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   161 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   162 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   163 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   164 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   165 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   166 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   167 syntax.
   168 
   169 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   170 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   171 
   172 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   173 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   174 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   175 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   176 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   177 
   178 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   179 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   180 
   181 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   182 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   183 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   184 
   185 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   186 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   187 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   188 
   189 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   190 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   191 
   192 
   193 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   194 
   195 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   196 Documentation panel.
   197 
   198 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   199 documentation.
   200 
   201 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   202 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   203 
   204 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   205 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   206 normal editing and checking process.
   207 
   208 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   209 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   210 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   211 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   212 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   213 
   214 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   215 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   216 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   217 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   218 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   219 
   220 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   221 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   222 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   223 
   224 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   225 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   226 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   227 to resolve conflict.
   228 
   229 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   230 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   231 
   232 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   233 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   234 such command executions while editing.
   235 
   236 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   237 document content.
   238 
   239 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   240 toplevel theorem statements.
   241 
   242 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   243 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   244 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   245 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   246 
   247 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   248 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   249 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   250 
   251 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   252 / Global Options / Appearance".
   253 
   254 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   255 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   256 
   257 
   258 *** Pure ***
   259 
   260 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   261 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   262 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   263 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   264 details.
   265 
   266 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   267 
   268 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   269 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   270 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   271 
   272 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   273 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   274 
   275 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   276 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   277 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   278 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   279 
   280 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   281 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   282 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   283 
   284 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   285 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   286 
   287 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   288 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   289 situations.
   290 
   291 
   292 *** HOL ***
   293 
   294 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   295 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   296 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   297 
   298 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   299 
   300 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   301 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   302 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   303 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   304 
   305   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   306 
   307 * Code generator:
   308   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   309     'code_instance'.
   310   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   311     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   312 
   313 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   314 examples.
   315 
   316 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   317 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   318 to distinguish both when desired.
   319 
   320 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   321 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   322 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   323 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   324 
   325 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   326 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   327 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   328 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   329 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   330 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   331 
   332 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   333 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   334 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   335 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   336 
   337 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   338 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   339 
   340 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   341 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   342 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   343 
   344 * Lifting:
   345   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   346     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   347       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   348       transfer rules
   349     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   350       correspondence relation can be generated
   351     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   352       parametricity
   353     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   354   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   355   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   356     copies
   357   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   358     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   359     anonymous context)
   360   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   361     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   362   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   363     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   364   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   365     INCOMPATIBILITY
   366 
   367 * Transfer:
   368   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   369     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   370   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   371   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   372     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   373   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   374 
   375 * Reification and reflection:
   376   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   377     "Reification".
   378   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   379   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   380 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   381 
   382 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   383   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   384     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   385     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   386   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   387     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   388   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   389     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   390     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   391     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   392     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   393     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   394     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   395     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   396   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   397     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   398   - Fact renames:
   399       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   400       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   401 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   402 
   403 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   404 
   405 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   406 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   407 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   408 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   409 
   410 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   411 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   412 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   413 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   414 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   415 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   416 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   417 lemmas.
   418 
   419 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   420 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   421 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   422 
   423 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   424 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   425 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   426 
   427 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   428 top and bottom elements.
   429 
   430 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   431 
   432 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   433 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   434 
   435  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   436    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   437    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   438 
   439  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   440    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   441    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   442 
   443    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   444    arbitrary filter.
   445 
   446  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   447    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   448    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   449    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   450    on a compact set.
   451 
   452  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   453    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   454    linear_continuum_topology).
   455 
   456  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   457    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   458    on all sequences converging to x.
   459 
   460  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   461    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   462    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   463    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   464    left or right.
   465 
   466  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   467 
   468      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   469 
   470  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   471    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   472 
   473  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   474    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   475    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   476    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   477    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   478    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   479 
   480  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   481 
   482    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   483 
   484    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   485      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   486 
   487    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   488 
   489    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   490      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   491 
   492    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   493 
   494    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   495 
   496  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   497 
   498 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   499 
   500 * Nitpick:
   501   - Added option "spy"
   502   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   503 
   504 * Sledgehammer:
   505   - Renamed option:
   506       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   507     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   508   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   509   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   510   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   511 
   512 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   513 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   514 
   515 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   516   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   517   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   518     generated code.
   519   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   520   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   521   - Fact renames:
   522     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   523     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   524     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   525 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   526 
   527 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   528 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   529 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   530 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   531 
   532 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   533 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   534 
   535 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   536 
   537 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   538 
   539     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   540     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   541 
   542 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   543 
   544 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   545 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   546 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   547 
   548 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   549 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   550 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   551 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   552 
   553 * HOL-BNF:
   554   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   555     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   556     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   557     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   558   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   559     coinduct).
   560   - Renamed keywords:
   561     data ~> datatype_new
   562     codata ~> codatatype
   563     bnf_def ~> bnf
   564   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   565     discs ~> disc
   566     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   567     map_id' ~> map_id
   568     sels ~> sel
   569     set_map' ~> set_map
   570     sets ~> set
   571 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   572 
   573 
   574 *** ML ***
   575 
   576 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   577 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   578 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   579 Examples.thy in particular.
   580 
   581 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   582 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   583 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   584 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   585 
   586 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   587 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   588 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   589 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   590 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   591 
   592 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   593 
   594     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   595     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   596 
   597 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   598 
   599 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   600 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   601 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   602 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   603 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   604 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   605 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   606 
   607 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   608 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   609 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   610 clasets separately from the context.
   611 
   612 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   613 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   614 
   615 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   616 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   617 
   618 
   619 *** System ***
   620 
   621 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   622 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   623 
   624 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   625 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   626 
   627 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   628 settings variable.
   629 
   630 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   631 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   632 always pdf.
   633 
   634 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   635 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   636 
   637 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   638 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   639 
   640 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   641 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   642 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   643 
   644 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   645 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   646 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   647 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   648 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   649 for HTML presentation of theories.
   650 
   651 
   652 
   653 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   654 -----------------------------------
   655 
   656 *** General ***
   657 
   658 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   659 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   660 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   661 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   662 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   663 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   664 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   665 
   666 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   667 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   668 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   669 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   670 
   671 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   672 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   673 
   674 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   675 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   676 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   677 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   678 dependencies properly.
   679 
   680 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   681 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   682 
   683 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   684 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   685 
   686 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   687 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   688 and "class ... context ...".
   689 
   690 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   691 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   692 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   693 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   694 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   695 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   696 
   697 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   698 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   699 
   700 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   701 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   702 
   703 
   704 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   705 
   706 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   707 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   708 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   709 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   710 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   711 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   712 
   713 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   714 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   715 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   716 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   717 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   718 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   719 
   720 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   721 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   722 browser on demand.
   723 
   724 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   725 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   726 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   727 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   728 
   729 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   730 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   731 
   732 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   733 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   734 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   735 potentially infinite message streams.
   736 
   737 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   738 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   739 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   740 schemes.
   741 
   742 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   743 symbols.
   744 
   745 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   746 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   747 
   748 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   749 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   750 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   751 
   752 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   753 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   754 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   755 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   756 
   757 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   758 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   759 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   760 
   761 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   762 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   763 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   764 Isabelle distribution.
   765 
   766 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   767 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   768 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   769 
   770 
   771 *** Pure ***
   772 
   773 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   774 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   775 
   776 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   777 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   778 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   779 
   780 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   781 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   782 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   783 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   784 with some care where this is really required.
   785 
   786 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   787 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   788 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   789 
   790   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   791 
   792 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   793 a Hasse diagram.
   794 
   795 
   796 *** HOL ***
   797 
   798 * Sledgehammer:
   799 
   800   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   801     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   802   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   803   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   804   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   805   - Renamed options:
   806       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   807       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   808       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   809       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   810 
   811 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   812 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   813 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   814 
   815 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   816 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   817 
   818 * Lifting:
   819   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   820   - quot_del attribute
   821   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   822 
   823 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   824 expressions.
   825 
   826 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   827 pointfree expressions.
   828 
   829 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   830 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   831 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   832 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   833 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   834 
   835 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   836 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   837 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   838 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   839 accordingly.
   840 
   841 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   842 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   843 
   844 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   845 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   846 
   847 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   848 
   849 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   850 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   851 
   852 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   853 
   854 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   855 
   856   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   857   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   858 
   859 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   860 
   861 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   862 
   863   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   864   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   865 
   866 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   867 
   868 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   869 
   870   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   871     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   872     output f x converges to G.
   873 
   874   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   875     infinity (at_bot).
   876 
   877   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   878     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   879 
   880   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   881     at_top".
   882 
   883 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   884 
   885 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   886 lattice type classes.
   887 
   888 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   889 
   890     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   891     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   892 
   893 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   894 
   895 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   896 changes as follows.
   897 
   898   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   899 
   900       prefix ~> prefixeq
   901       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   902 
   903   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   904     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   905     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   906     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   907 
   908   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   909     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   910     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   911 
   912   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   913     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   914     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   915     Library/Prefix_Order.
   916 
   917   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   918     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   919 
   920       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   921       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   922       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   923       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   924       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   925       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   926       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   927       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   928       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   929       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   930       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   931       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   932       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   933       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   934       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   935       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   936 
   937 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   938 
   939 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   940 
   941 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   942 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   943 
   944 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   945 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   946 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   947 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   948 
   949   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   950   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   951   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   952   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   953   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   954   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   955   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   956   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   957   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   958   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   959 
   960 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   961 
   962 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   963 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   964 Data").
   965 
   966 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   967 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   968 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   969 code.
   970 
   971 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   972 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   973 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   974 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   975 
   976 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
   977 
   978 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
   979 
   980 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
   981 
   982   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
   983   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
   984 
   985 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
   986 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
   987 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
   988 
   989   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
   990 
   991     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
   992     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
   993     cart_base i  removed
   994     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
   995 
   996   Theorems about these constants where removed.
   997 
   998   Renamed lemmas:
   999 
  1000     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1001     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1002     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1003     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1004     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1005     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1006     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1007     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1008     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1009     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1010 
  1011 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1012 
  1013 * HOL/Probability:
  1014 
  1015   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1016 
  1017   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1018     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1019     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1020 
  1021   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1022     projective family).
  1023 
  1024 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1025 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1026 
  1027 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1028 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1029 datatypes.
  1030 
  1031 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1032 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1033 
  1034 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1035 trees for the code generator.
  1036 
  1037 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1038 Lifting/Transfer.
  1039 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1040 
  1041 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1042 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1043 
  1044 
  1045 *** Document preparation ***
  1046 
  1047 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1048 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1049 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1050 
  1051 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1052 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1053 
  1054 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1055 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1056 document/root.tex.
  1057 
  1058 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1059 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1060 
  1061 
  1062 *** ML ***
  1063 
  1064 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1065 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1066 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1067 
  1068 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1069 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1070 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1071 
  1072 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1073 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1074 necessarily printing visible text.
  1075 
  1076 
  1077 *** System ***
  1078 
  1079 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1080 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1081 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1082 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1083 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1084 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1085 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1086 
  1087 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1088 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1089 
  1090   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1091 
  1092 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1093 
  1094 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1095 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1096 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1097 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1098 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1099 
  1100 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1101 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1102 
  1103 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1104 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1105 
  1106 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1107 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1108 
  1109 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1110 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1111 version of Isabelle.
  1112 
  1113 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1114 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1115 
  1116 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1117 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1118 for home-made settings.
  1119 
  1120 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1121 
  1122 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1123 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1124 configuration.
  1125 
  1126 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1127 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1128 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1129 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1130 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1131 
  1132 
  1133 
  1134 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1135 ------------------------------
  1136 
  1137 *** General ***
  1138 
  1139 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1140 
  1141   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1142     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1143   - markup for bound variables
  1144   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1145   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1146   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1147     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1148 
  1149 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1150 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1151 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1152 
  1153 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1154 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1155 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1156 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1157 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1158 
  1159   context
  1160     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1161     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1162   begin
  1163 
  1164   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1165 
  1166   end
  1167 
  1168   thm my_trans
  1169 
  1170 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1171 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1172 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1173 
  1174 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1175 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1176 
  1177 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1178 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1179 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1180 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1181 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1182 
  1183 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1184 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1185 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1186 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1187 indices of schematic variables.
  1188 
  1189 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1190 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1191 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1192 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1193 etc. was exploited.
  1194 
  1195 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1196 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1197 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1198 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1199 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1200 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1201 
  1202 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1203 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1204 manual.
  1205 
  1206 
  1207 *** Pure ***
  1208 
  1209 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1210 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1211 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1212 
  1213 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1214 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1215 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1216 undocumented feature.)
  1217 
  1218 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1219 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1220 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1221 
  1222   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1223 
  1224   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1225     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1226 
  1227 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1228 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1229 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1230 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1231 
  1232 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1233 
  1234     num ~> num_token
  1235     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1236     xstr ~> str_token
  1237 
  1238 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1239 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1240 position information via constraints).
  1241 
  1242 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1243 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1244 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1245 
  1246 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1247 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1248 
  1249 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1250 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1251 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1252 
  1253 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1254 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1255 
  1256 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1257 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1258 
  1259   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1260 
  1261 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1262 
  1263 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1264 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1265 
  1266 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1267 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1268 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1269 
  1270 
  1271 *** HOL ***
  1272 
  1273 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1274 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1275 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1276 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1277 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1278 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1279 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1280 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1281 possible.
  1282 
  1283 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1284 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1285 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1286 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1287 
  1288 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1289 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1290 
  1291 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1292 
  1293 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1294 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1295 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1296 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1297 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1298 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1299 
  1300   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1301     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1302 
  1303   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1304     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1305     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1306 
  1307   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1308     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1309 
  1310   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1311     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1312     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1313 
  1314   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1315     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1316 
  1317 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1318 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1319 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1320 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1321 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1322 
  1323   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1324     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1325     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1326     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1327     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1328 
  1329     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1330     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1331 
  1332   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1333     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1334     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1335     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1336     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1337     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1338     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1339     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1340 
  1341   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1342     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1343     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1344     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1345 
  1346   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1347     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1348     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1349     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1350 
  1351   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1352     from type nat to type int.
  1353 
  1354 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1355 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1356 
  1357   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1358     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1359     type.  Example syntax:
  1360 
  1361     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1362       is List.insert
  1363 
  1364     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1365     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1366     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1367     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1368     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1369     by the package.
  1370 
  1371   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1372     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1373     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1374     code generation for each constant.
  1375 
  1376   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1377     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1378     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1379     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1380     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1381 
  1382   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1383     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1384     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1385 
  1386 * Quotient package:
  1387 
  1388   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1389     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1390 
  1391   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1392     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1393 
  1394   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1395     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1396     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1397 
  1398   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1399     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1400 
  1401 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1402 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1403 
  1404 * Quickcheck:
  1405 
  1406   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1407     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1408     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1409     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1410     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1411 
  1412     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1413     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1414     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1415 
  1416     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1417     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1418 
  1419     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1420     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1421     show genuine counterexamples.
  1422 
  1423   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1424     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1425 
  1426     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1427     constructors of that type.
  1428 
  1429   - Support for multisets.
  1430 
  1431   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1432 
  1433   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1434     conjectures in a locale context.
  1435 
  1436 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1437 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1438 
  1439 * Sledgehammer:
  1440   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1441     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1442   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1443   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1444     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1445   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1446   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1447   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1448   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1449 
  1450 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1451 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1452 
  1453 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1454 
  1455 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1456 
  1457 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1458 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1459 
  1460   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1461 
  1462 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1463 a list and a nat.
  1464 
  1465 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1466 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1467 
  1468 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1469 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1470 default.
  1471 
  1472 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1473 
  1474   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1475 
  1476 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1477 
  1478 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1479 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1480 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1481 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1482 one_case.
  1483 
  1484 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1485 the result of the fact expression.
  1486 
  1487 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1488 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1489 of some relation theorems:
  1490 
  1491   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1492   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1493   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1494   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1495   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1496   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1497 
  1498 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1499 
  1500 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1501 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1502 
  1503 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1504 
  1505 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1506 to match the constant's name:
  1507 
  1508   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1509   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1510   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1511   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1512   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1513   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1514   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1515   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1516   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1517   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1518   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1519   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1520   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1521   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1522   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1523   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1524   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1525   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1526   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1527   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1528   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1529   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1530   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1531   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1532 
  1533 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1534 
  1535 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1536 and corresponding theorem names:
  1537 
  1538   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1539 
  1540   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1541 
  1542   - Renamed theorems:
  1543 
  1544     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1545     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1546     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1547     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1548     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1549     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1550     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1551     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1552     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1553     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1554     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1555     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1556     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1557     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1558     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1559     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1560     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1561     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1562     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1563     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1564     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1565     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1566     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1567 
  1568     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1569 
  1570     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1571 
  1572 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1573 
  1574 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1575 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1576 
  1577   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1578   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1579   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1580   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1581   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1582   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1583   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1584   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1585   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1586   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1587   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1588   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1589   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1590   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1591   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1592   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1593   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1594   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1595   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1596   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1597   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1598 
  1599 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1600 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1601 
  1602 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1603 
  1604 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1605 
  1606   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1607   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1608   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1609   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1610   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1611   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1612   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1613   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1614   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1615   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1616   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1617   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1618   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1619   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1620   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1621   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1622   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1623   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1624 
  1625 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1626 
  1627 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1628 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1629 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1630 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1631 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1632 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1633 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1634 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1635 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1636 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1637 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1638 
  1639 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1640 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1641 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1642 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1643 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1644 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1645 
  1646 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1647 through option types.
  1648 
  1649 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1650 relations.
  1651 
  1652 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1653 
  1654 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1655 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1656 
  1657   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1658   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1659   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1660   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1661   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1662   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1663   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1664   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1665   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1666   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1667   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1668   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1669   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1670   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1671   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1672   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1673   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1674   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1675   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1676   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1677   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1678   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1679   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1680   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1681   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1682   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1683   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1684   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1685   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1686   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1687   zless_le ~> less_le
  1688   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1689   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1690   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1691 
  1692 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1693 
  1694   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1695 
  1696 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1697 
  1698 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1699 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1700 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1701 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1702 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1703 
  1704 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1705 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1706 
  1707 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1708 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1709 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1710 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1711 follows:
  1712 
  1713   Operations:
  1714   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1715   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1716   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1717   del -> rbt_del
  1718   delete -> rbt_delete
  1719   ins -> rbt_ins
  1720   insert -> rbt_insert
  1721   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1722   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1723   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1724   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1725   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1726   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1727   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1728   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1729   union -> rbt_union
  1730   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1731   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1732 
  1733   Lemmas:
  1734   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1735   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1736   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1737   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1738   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1739   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1740   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1741   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1742   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1743   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1744   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1745   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1746   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1747   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1748   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1749   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1750   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1751   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1752   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1753   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1754   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1755   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1756   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1757   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1758   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1759   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1760   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1761   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1762   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1763   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1764   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1765   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1766   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1767   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1768   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1769   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1770   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1771   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1772   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1773   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1774   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1775   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1776   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1777   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1778   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1779   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1780   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1781   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1782   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1783   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1784   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1785   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1786   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1787   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1788   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1789   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1790   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1791   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1792   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1793   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1794   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1795   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1796   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1797   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1798   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1799   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1800   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1801   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1802   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1803   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1804   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1805   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1806   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1807   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1808   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1809   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1810   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1811   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1812   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1813   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1814   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1815   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1816   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1817 
  1818 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1819 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1820 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1821 
  1822   Changed Operations:
  1823   float_abs -> abs
  1824   float_nprt -> nprt
  1825   float_pprt -> pprt
  1826   pow2 -> use powr
  1827   round_down -> float_round_down
  1828   round_up -> float_round_up
  1829   scale -> exponent
  1830 
  1831   Removed Operations:
  1832   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1833 
  1834   Renamed Lemmas:
  1835   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1836   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1837   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1838   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1839   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1840   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1841   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1842   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1843   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1844   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1845   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1846   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1847   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1848   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1849   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1850   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1851   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1852   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1853   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1854   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1855   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1856   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1857   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1858   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1859   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1860   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1861   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1862   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1863   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1864   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1865   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1866   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1867   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1868   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1869   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1870   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1871 
  1872   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1873   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1874   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1875   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1876   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1877   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1878   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1879   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1880   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1881   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1882 
  1883 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1884 association lists with distinct keys.
  1885 
  1886 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1887 annotated commands.
  1888 
  1889 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1890 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1891 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1892 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1893 
  1894 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1895 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1896 instead.
  1897 
  1898   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1899   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1900   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1901   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1902   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1903   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1904   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1905   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1906   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1907   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1908   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1909   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1910   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1911   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1912   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1913   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1914   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1915   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1916   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1917   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1918   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1919   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1920   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1921   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1922   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1923   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1924   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1925   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1926   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1927   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1928   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1929   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1930   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1931   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1932   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1933   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1934   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1935   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1936   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1937   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1938   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1939 
  1940 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1941 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1942 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1943 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1944 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1945 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1946 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1947 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1948 
  1949 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1950 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1951 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1952 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1953 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1954 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1955 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1956 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1957 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1958 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1959 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1960 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1961 
  1962   Renamed constants:
  1963   measure -> emeasure
  1964   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1965   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1966   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1967   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1968 
  1969   Removed locales:
  1970   completeable_measure_space
  1971   finite_measure_space
  1972   finite_prob_space
  1973   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1974   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1975   finite_sigma_algebra
  1976   measure_space
  1977   pair_finite_prob_space
  1978   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1979   pair_finite_space
  1980   pair_sigma_algebra
  1981   product_sigma_algebra
  1982 
  1983   Removed constants:
  1984   conditional_space
  1985   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1986   image_space
  1987   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1988   pair_measure_generator
  1989   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1990   subvimage
  1991 
  1992   Replacement theorems:
  1993   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1994   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1995   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1996   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1997   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1998   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1999   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2000   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2001   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2002   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2003   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2004   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2005   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2006   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2007   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2008   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2009   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2010   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2011   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2012   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2013   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2014   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2015   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2016   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2017   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2018   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2019   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2020   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2021   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2022   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2023   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2024   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2025   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2026   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2027   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2028   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2029   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2030   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2031   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2032   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2033   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2034   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2035   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2036   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2037   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2038   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2039   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2040   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2041   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2042   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2043   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2044   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2045   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2046   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2047   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2048   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2049   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2050   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2051   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2052   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2053   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2054   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2055   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2056   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2057   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2058   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2059   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2060   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2061   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2062   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2063   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2064   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2065   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2066   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2067   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2068   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2069   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2070   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2071   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2072   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2073   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2074   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2075   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2076   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2077   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2078   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2079   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2080   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2081   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2082   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2083   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2084   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2085   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2086   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2087   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2088   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2089   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2090   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2091   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2092   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2093   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2094   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2095   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2096   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2097   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2098   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2099   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2100   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2101   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2102   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2103   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2104   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2105   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2106   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2107   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2108   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2109   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2110   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2111   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2112   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2113   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2114   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2115   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2116   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2117   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2118   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2119   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2120   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2121 
  2122 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2123 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2124 
  2125 
  2126 *** FOL ***
  2127 
  2128 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2129 
  2130 
  2131 *** ZF ***
  2132 
  2133 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2134 analysis.
  2135 
  2136 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2137 
  2138 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2139 
  2140 
  2141 *** ML ***
  2142 
  2143 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2144 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2145 
  2146 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2147 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2148 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2149 
  2150 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2151 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2152 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2153 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2154 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2155 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2156 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2157 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2158 
  2159 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2160 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2161 
  2162 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2163 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2164 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2165 
  2166 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2167 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2168 
  2169 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2170 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2171 context as well.
  2172 
  2173 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2174 
  2175   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2176   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2177   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2178   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2179   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2180   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2181   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2182   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2183   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2184   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2185   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2186   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2187 
  2188 
  2189 *** System ***
  2190 
  2191 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2192 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2193 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2194 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2195 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2196 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2197 the generic user home was intended.
  2198 
  2199 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2200 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2201 
  2202 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2203 (not just JRE).
  2204 
  2205 
  2206 
  2207 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2208 ------------------------------------
  2209 
  2210 *** General ***
  2211 
  2212 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2213 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2214 
  2215   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2216     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2217     files for checking).
  2218 
  2219   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2220     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2221     positions.
  2222 
  2223   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2224     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2225     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2226 
  2227   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2228     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2229     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2230 
  2231   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2232     cores.
  2233 
  2234   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2235     versions (garbage collection).
  2236 
  2237 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2238 including some remaining limitations.
  2239 
  2240 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2241 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2242 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2243 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2244 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2245 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2246 
  2247 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2248 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2249 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2250 
  2251 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2252 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2253 usedir option -Q.
  2254 
  2255 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2256 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2257 
  2258   long_names   ~> names_long
  2259   short_names  ~> names_short
  2260   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2261 
  2262 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2263 
  2264   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2265 
  2266 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2267 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2268 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2269 
  2270 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2271 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2272 
  2273 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2274   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2275   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2276   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2277     "Classical Reasoner".
  2278 
  2279 
  2280 *** HOL ***
  2281 
  2282 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2283 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2284 
  2285 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2286 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2287 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2288 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2289 class complete_linorder.
  2290 
  2291 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2292 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2293 
  2294 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2295 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2296 
  2297   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2298   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2299   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2300   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2301   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2302   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2303   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2304   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2305   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2306   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2307   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2308 
  2309 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2310 
  2311   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2312   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2313   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2314   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2315   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2316   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2317   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2318   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2319   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2320   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2321   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2322   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2323   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2324   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2325   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2326   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2327 
  2328 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2329 
  2330 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2331 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2332 
  2333 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2334 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2335 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2336 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2337 
  2338 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2339 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2340 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2341 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2342 
  2343 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2344 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2345 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2346 
  2347 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2348 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2349 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2350 
  2351 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2352 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2353 
  2354 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2355 
  2356     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2357     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2358 
  2359 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2360 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2361 
  2362 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2363 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2364 
  2365 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2366 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2367 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2368 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2369 
  2370   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2371   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2372   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2373   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2374   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2375   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2376   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2377 
  2378 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2379 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2380 
  2381   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2382   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2383   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2384   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2385   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2386   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2387   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2388   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2389   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2390   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2391   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2392   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2393   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2394   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2395   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2396   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2397   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2398   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2399   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2400   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2401   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2402   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2403   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2404   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2405   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2406   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2407   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2408   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2409   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2410   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2411   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2412   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2413   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2414   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2415   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2416   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2417   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2418   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2419   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2420   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2421   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2422   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2423   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2424   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2425   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2426   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2427   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2428   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2429   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2430   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2431   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2432   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2433   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2434   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2435   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2436   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2437   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2438   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2439   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2440   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2441   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2442   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2443   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2444   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2445   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2446   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2447   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2448   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2449   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2450   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2451   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2452   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2453   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2454   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2455   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2456   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2457   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2458   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2459   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2460   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2461   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2462   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2463 
  2464 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2465 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2466 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2467 
  2468 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2469 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2470 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2471 
  2472 * Code generation:
  2473 
  2474   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2475     characters in the target language.
  2476 
  2477   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2478     instead.
  2479 
  2480   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2481 
  2482   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2483     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2484 
  2485       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2486 
  2487 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2488 
  2489 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2490 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2491 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2492 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2493 syntax.
  2494 
  2495 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2496 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2497 
  2498 * Nitpick:
  2499   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2500   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2501   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2502     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2503 
  2504 * Sledgehammer:
  2505   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2506   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2507     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2508   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2509     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2510   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2511     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2512   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2513     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2514   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2515     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2516 
  2517 * Metis:
  2518   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2519   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2520     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2521 
  2522 * Command 'try':
  2523   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2524     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2525   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2526     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2527 
  2528 * Quickcheck:
  2529   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2530     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2531   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2532     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2533   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2534     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2535     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2536     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2537   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2538     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2539 
  2540 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2541 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2542 
  2543 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2544 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2545 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2546 
  2547 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2548 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2549 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2550 
  2551 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2552 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2553 
  2554 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2555 arithmetic.
  2556 
  2557 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2558 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2559 and lattice type classes.
  2560 
  2561 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2562 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2563 
  2564 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2565 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2566 
  2567 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2568 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2569 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2570 
  2571   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2572   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2573   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2574   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2575 
  2576 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2577 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2578 constants:
  2579 
  2580   type inat   ~> type enat
  2581   Fin         ~> enat
  2582   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2583   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2584   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2585 
  2586 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2587 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2588 
  2589 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2590 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2591 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2592 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2593 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2594 
  2595 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2596 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2597 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2598 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2599 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2600 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2601 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2602 
  2603   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2604   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2605   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2606   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2607 
  2608 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2609 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2610 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2611 
  2612   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2613   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2614   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2615   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2616   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2617   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2618   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2619   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2620   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2621   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2622   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2623   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2624   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2625   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2626   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2627   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2628   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2629   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2630   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2631   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2632   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2633   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2634   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2635   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2636   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2637   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2638   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2639   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2640   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2641   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2642   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2643   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2644   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2645   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2646   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2647   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2648   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2649   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2650   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2651   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2652   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2653   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2654   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2655   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2656   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2657   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2658   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2659   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2660   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2661   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2662   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2663 
  2664 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2665   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2666   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2667   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2668   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2669     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2670 
  2671 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2672 
  2673   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2674   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2675   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2676   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2677   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2678   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2679   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2680   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2681   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2682   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2683   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2684   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2685   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2686   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2687   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2688   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2689   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2690   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2691   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2692   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2693   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2694   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2695   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2696   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2697   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2698 
  2699 
  2700 *** Document preparation ***
  2701 
  2702 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2703 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2704 same.
  2705 
  2706 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2707 result.
  2708 
  2709 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2710 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2711 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2712 
  2713 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2714 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2715 
  2716 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2717 like this:
  2718 
  2719   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2720   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2721 
  2722 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2723 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2724 layouts.
  2725 
  2726 
  2727 *** ML ***
  2728 
  2729 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2730 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2731 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2732 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2733 under external program control.
  2734 
  2735 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2736 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2737 
  2738 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2739 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2740 (better known as Proof General).
  2741 
  2742 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2743 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2744 
  2745 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2746 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2747 
  2748 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2749 (including quotes etc.).
  2750 
  2751 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2752 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2753 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2754 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2755 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2756 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2757 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2758 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2759 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2760 
  2761 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2762 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2763 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2764 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2765 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2766 
  2767 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2768 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2769 
  2770 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2771 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2772 
  2773 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2774 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2775 
  2776 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2777 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2778 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2779 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2780 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2781 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2782 proper Proof.context.
  2783 
  2784 
  2785 *** System ***
  2786 
  2787 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2788 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2789 
  2790 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2791 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2792 
  2793 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2794 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2795 
  2796   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2797   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2798   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2799   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2800   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2801 
  2802 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2803 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2804 
  2805 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2806 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2807 example:
  2808 
  2809   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2810 
  2811 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2812 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2813 
  2814 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2815 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2816 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2817 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2818 
  2819 
  2820 
  2821 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2822 ----------------------------------
  2823 
  2824 *** General ***
  2825 
  2826 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2827 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2828 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2829 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2830 like this:
  2831 
  2832   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2833 
  2834 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2835 
  2836 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2837 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2838 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2839 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2840 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2841 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2842 
  2843 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2844 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2845 the following package declarations:
  2846 
  2847   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2848   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2849 
  2850 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2851 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2852 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2853 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2854 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2855 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2856 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2857 
  2858 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2859 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2860 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2861 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2862 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2863 
  2864 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2865 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2866 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2867 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2868 
  2869 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2870 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2871 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2872 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2873 
  2874   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2875 
  2876   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2877   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2878   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2879   show_types                    show_types
  2880   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2881   show_consts                   show_consts
  2882   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2883 
  2884   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2885   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2886   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2887 
  2888   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2889   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2890 
  2891   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2892 
  2893   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2894   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2895   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2896   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2897   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2898 
  2899 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2900 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2901 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2902 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2903 
  2904 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2905 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2906 
  2907   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2908   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2909 
  2910 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2911 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2912 float_token.
  2913 
  2914 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2915 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2916 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2917 
  2918 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2919 DejaVu Sans.
  2920 
  2921 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2922 
  2923 
  2924 *** Pure ***
  2925 
  2926 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2927 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2928 time.
  2929 
  2930 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2931 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2932 
  2933 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2934 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2935 
  2936 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2937 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2938 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2939 command already provided this functionality.
  2940 
  2941 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2942 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2943 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2944 without interpretations.
  2945 
  2946 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2947 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2948 
  2949 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2950 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2951 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2952 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2953 
  2954 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2955 'definition' instead.
  2956 
  2957 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2958 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2959 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2960 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2961 
  2962 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2963 constructors.
  2964 
  2965 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2966 the local file system.
  2967 
  2968 
  2969 *** HOL ***
  2970 
  2971 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2972 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2973 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2974 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2975 
  2976   declare [[coercion f]]
  2977 
  2978 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2979 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2980 
  2981   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2982 
  2983 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2984 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2985 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2986 other theories like this:
  2987 
  2988   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2989 
  2990 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2991 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2992 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2993 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2994 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2995 for examples.
  2996 
  2997 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2998 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2999 
  3000 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3001 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3002 
  3003 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3004 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3005 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3006 
  3007 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3008 functorial structure of types.
  3009 
  3010 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3011 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3012 
  3013 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3014 languages.
  3015 
  3016 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3017 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3018 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3019 
  3020 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3021 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3022 
  3023 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3024 combinators any longer.
  3025 
  3026 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3027 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3028 
  3029 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3030 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3031 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3032 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3033 
  3034   record 'a foo = ...
  3035   ...
  3036   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3037 
  3038 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3039 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3040 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3041 
  3042 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3043 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3044 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3045 
  3046 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3047 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3048 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3049 
  3050 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3051 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3052 
  3053 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3054 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3055 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3056 independently.
  3057 
  3058 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3059 counter example search.
  3060 
  3061 * Sledgehammer:
  3062   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3063     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3064     sledgehammer").
  3065   - Renamed commands:
  3066     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3067     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3068     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3069     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3070   - Renamed options:
  3071     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3072     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3073     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3074     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3075     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3076 
  3077 * Nitpick:
  3078   - Renamed options:
  3079     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3080     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3081     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3082   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3083   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3084   - Added "whack" option.
  3085   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3086   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3087   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3088   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3089     higher cardinalities.
  3090   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3091 
  3092 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3093 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3094 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3095 
  3096     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3097 
  3098 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3099 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3100 
  3101 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3102 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3103 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3104 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3105 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3106 "smt_solver".
  3107 
  3108 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3109 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3110 
  3111 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3112 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3113 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3114 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3115 
  3116 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3117   - Renamed:
  3118     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3119     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3120     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3121   - Added:
  3122     smt_verbose
  3123     smt_random_seed
  3124     smt_datatypes
  3125     smt_infer_triggers
  3126     smt_monomorph_limit
  3127     cvc3_options
  3128     remote_cvc3_options
  3129     remote_z3_options
  3130     yices_options
  3131 
  3132 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3133 header.
  3134 
  3135 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3136 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3137 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3138 
  3139   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3140 
  3141 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3142 
  3143 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3144 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3145 
  3146 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3147 
  3148 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3149 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3150 
  3151 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3152 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3153 
  3154 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3155 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3156 
  3157 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3158 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3159 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3160 
  3161 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3162 
  3163 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3164 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3165 
  3166 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3167 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3168 
  3169 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3170 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3171 for congruent(2)).
  3172 
  3173 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3174 
  3175   types
  3176     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3177     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3178 
  3179   constants
  3180     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3181     True ~> HOL.True
  3182     False ~> HOL.False
  3183     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3184     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3185     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3186     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3187     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3188     The ~> HOL.The
  3189     All ~> HOL.All
  3190     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3191     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3192     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3193     If ~> HOL.If
  3194     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3195     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3196     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3197     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3198     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3199     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3200     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3201     op : ~> Set.member
  3202     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3203 
  3204 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3205 
  3206 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3207 
  3208     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3209     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3210     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3211     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3212     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3213     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3214     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3215     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3216 
  3217 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3218 
  3219 * More stylized fact names:
  3220 
  3221   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3222   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3223   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3224   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3225 
  3226 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3227 
  3228 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3229 
  3230   constants
  3231     null ~> List.null
  3232 
  3233   facts
  3234     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3235     null_empty ~> null_def
  3236 
  3237 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3238 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3239 generation.
  3240 
  3241 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3242 Haskell code.
  3243 
  3244 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3245 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3246 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3247 
  3248 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3249 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3250 
  3251 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3252 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3253 
  3254 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3255 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3256 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3257 
  3258 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3259 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3260 
  3261 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3262 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3263 
  3264 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3265 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3266 referred to by its qualified name.
  3267 
  3268   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3269   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3270   product ~>  Enum.product
  3271 
  3272 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3273 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3274 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3275 
  3276 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3277 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3278 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3279 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3280 
  3281 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3282 sort_key.
  3283 
  3284 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3285 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3286 
  3287 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3288 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3289 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3290 
  3291   types
  3292     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3293               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3294               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3295         (depends on your needs)
  3296 
  3297   constants
  3298      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3299      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3300      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3301 
  3302 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3303 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3304 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3305 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3306 
  3307 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3308 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3309 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3310 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3311 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3312 
  3313 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3314 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3315 
  3316 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3317 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3318 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3319 
  3320 
  3321 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3322 
  3323 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3324 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3325 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3326 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3327 compatibility.
  3328 
  3329 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3330 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3331 
  3332 
  3333 *** HOLCF ***
  3334 
  3335 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3336 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3337 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3338 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3339 
  3340 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3341 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3342 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3343 
  3344   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3345   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3346   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3347 
  3348 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3349 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3350 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3351 
  3352 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3353 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3354 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3355 domain definition now works:
  3356 
  3357   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3358 
  3359 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3360 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3361 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3362 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3363 
  3364   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3365     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3366 
  3367   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3368 
  3369 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3370 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3371 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3372 
  3373 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3374 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3375 
  3376 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3377 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3378 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3379 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3380 
  3381 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3382 
  3383 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3384 
  3385 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3386 
  3387 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3388 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3389 
  3390 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3391 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3392 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3393 
  3394 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3395 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3396 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3397 
  3398 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3399 still supported as an input translation.
  3400 
  3401 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3402 
  3403   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3404   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3405   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3406   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3407   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3408   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3409   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3410 
  3411 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3412 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3413 
  3414   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3415   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3416   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3417   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3418   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3419   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3420 
  3421 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3422 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3423 
  3424 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3425 
  3426   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3427   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3428   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3429   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3430 
  3431 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3432 
  3433 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3434 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3435 
  3436 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3437 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3438 
  3439   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3440   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3441   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3442   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3443   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3444   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3445   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3446   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3447   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3448   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3449   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3450   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3451   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3452   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3453   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3454   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3455   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3456   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3457   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3458   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3459 
  3460 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3461 
  3462   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3463   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3464   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3465   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3466   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3467   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3468   box_less             ~> box_below
  3469   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3470   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3471   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3472   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3473   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3474   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3475   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3476   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3477   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3478   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3479   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3480   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3481   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3482   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3483   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3484   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3485   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3486   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3487   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3488   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3489   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3490   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3491   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3492   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3493   up_less              ~> up_below
  3494   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3495   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3496   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3497   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3498   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3499   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3500   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3501   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3502   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3503   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3504   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3505   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3506   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3507 
  3508 
  3509 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3510 
  3511 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3512 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3513 
  3514 
  3515 *** ML ***
  3516 
  3517 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3518 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3519 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3520 
  3521 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3522 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3523 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3524 
  3525 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3526 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3527 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3528 
  3529 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3530 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3531 
  3532 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3533 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3534 
  3535 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3536 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3537 
  3538 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3539 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3540 
  3541 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3542 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3543 almost all situations.
  3544 
  3545 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3546 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3547 Isabelle/ML.
  3548 
  3549 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3550 meaning.
  3551 
  3552 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3553 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3554 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3555 
  3556 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3557 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3558 
  3559 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3560 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3561 
  3562 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3563 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3564 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3565 
  3566 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3567 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3568 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3569 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3570 configuration options.
  3571 
  3572 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3573 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3574 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3575 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3576 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3577 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3578 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3579 
  3580 
  3581 
  3582 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3583 ---------------------------------
  3584 
  3585 *** General ***
  3586 
  3587 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3588 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3589 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3590 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3591 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3592 their full internal name.
  3593 
  3594 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3595 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3596 Some hints on upgrading:
  3597 
  3598   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3599     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3600     which are independent of this issue.
  3601 
  3602   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3603     provides the following special forms:
  3604 
  3605       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3606       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3607       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3608 
  3609     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3610     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3611     extra variables".
  3612 
  3613     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3614     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3615     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3616     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3617     "logic".
  3618 
  3619   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3620     antiquotations:
  3621 
  3622       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3623       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3624       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3625       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3626 
  3627   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3628     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3629     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3630     antiquotations.
  3631 
  3632 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3633 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3634 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3635 diagnose syntax problems.
  3636 
  3637 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3638 
  3639 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3640 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3641 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3642 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3643 
  3644 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3645 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3646 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3647 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3648 
  3649 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3650 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3651 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3652 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3653 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3654 
  3655 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3656 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3657 
  3658 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3659 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3660 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3661 
  3662   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3663 
  3664 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3665 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3666 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3667 
  3668 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3669 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3670 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3671 
  3672 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3673 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3674 
  3675 
  3676 *** Pure ***
  3677 
  3678 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3679 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3680 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3681 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3682 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3683 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3684 inspect proof terms.
  3685 
  3686 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3687 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3688 are added internally.  For example:
  3689 
  3690   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3691 
  3692 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3693 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3694 
  3695 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3696 
  3697 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3698 'class' instead.
  3699 
  3700 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3701 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3702 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3703 
  3704 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3705 invariants.
  3706 
  3707 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3708 user space functionality any longer.
  3709 
  3710 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3711 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3712 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3713 
  3714 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3715 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3716 
  3717 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3718 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3719 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3720 
  3721 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3722 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3723 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3724 
  3725 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3726 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3727 
  3728 
  3729 *** HOL ***
  3730 
  3731 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3732 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3733 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3734 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3735 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3736 
  3737 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3738 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3739 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3740 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3741 
  3742   fun
  3743     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3744   where
  3745     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3746 
  3747   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3748     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3749 
  3750   quotient_definition
  3751     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3752 
  3753 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3754 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3755 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3756 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3757 
  3758 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3759 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3760 
  3761 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3762 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3763 
  3764 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3765 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3766 
  3767 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3768 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3769 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3770 
  3771 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3772 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3773 
  3774 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3775 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3776 
  3777 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3778 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3779 
  3780 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3781 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3782 
  3783 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3784 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3785 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3786 
  3787   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3788   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3789   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3790   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3791   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3792   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3793   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3794   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3795   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3796   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3797   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3798   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3799   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3800   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3801   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3802   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3803   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3804   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3805   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3806   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3807   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3808   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3809   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3810   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3811   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3812   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3813   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3814   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3815   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3816   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3817 
  3818 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3819 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3820 
  3821 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3822 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3823 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3824 
  3825 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3826 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3827 
  3828 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3829 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3830 
  3831 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3832 
  3833 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3834 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3835 
  3836 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3837 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3838 
  3839 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3840 
  3841 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3842 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3843 
  3844 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3845 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3846 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3847 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3848 
  3849 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3850   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3851   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3852   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3853 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3854 
  3855 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3856 lattices):
  3857 
  3858     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3859     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3860 
  3861     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3862 
  3863     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3864     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3865     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3866     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3867     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3868     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3869     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3870     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3871     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3872     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3873     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3874     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3875     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3876 
  3877     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3878     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3879     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3880     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3881     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3882     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3883     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3884     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3885     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3886     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3887     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3888     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3889     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3890     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3891     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3892     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3893     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3894     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3895 
  3896   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3897   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3898 
  3899     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3900     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3901     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3902     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3903     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3904 
  3905 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3906 
  3907 * Refined field classes:
  3908   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3909     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3910     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3911   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3912 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3913 
  3914 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3915   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3916   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3917   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3918     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3919   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3920     equal_neg_zero.
  3921 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3922 
  3923 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3924 sets to lattices:
  3925 
  3926   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3927   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3928   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3929   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3930   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3931   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3932   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3933   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3934   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3935   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3936 
  3937 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3938 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3939 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3940 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3941 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3942 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3943 
  3944 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3945 multiset order:
  3946 
  3947   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3948     <= and <;
  3949   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3950     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3951     multiset_order;
  3952   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3953     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3954     generation;
  3955   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3956     if needed.
  3957 
  3958 Renamed:
  3959 
  3960   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3961   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3962   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3963 
  3964 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3965 
  3966 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3967 
  3968 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3969 
  3970 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3971 
  3972 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3973 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3974 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3975 
  3976   Constants:
  3977   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3978   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3979   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3980   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3981   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3982   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3983   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3984   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3985   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3986   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3987   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3988   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3989   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3990 
  3991   Lemmas:
  3992   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3993   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3994   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3995   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3996   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3997   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3998   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3999   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4000   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4001   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4002   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4003   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4004   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4005 
  4006 * Sledgehammer:
  4007   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4008     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4009     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4010     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4011     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4012     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4013     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4014   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4015   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4016     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4017   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4018     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4019     is still experimental.)
  4020   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4021     full-typed mode.
  4022   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4023 
  4024 * Nitpick:
  4025   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4026   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4027   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4028     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4029   - Added support for quotient types.
  4030   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4031     constructs.
  4032   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4033     "termination" proofs).
  4034   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4035   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4036   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4037   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4038     record getters.
  4039   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4040   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4041   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4042   - Added "atoms" option.
  4043   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4044     problems.
  4045   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4046     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4047     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4048   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4049     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4050   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4051 
  4052 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4053   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4054   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4055   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4056   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4057   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4058   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4059   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4060   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4061   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4062 
  4063 
  4064 *** HOLCF ***
  4065 
  4066 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4067 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4068 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4069 
  4070 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4071 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4072 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4073 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4074 
  4075 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4076 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4077 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4078 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4079 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4080 
  4081 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4082 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4083 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4084 
  4085 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4086 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4087 
  4088   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4089   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4090 
  4091 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4092 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4093 
  4094   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4095   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4096   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4097   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4098   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4099 
  4100 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4101 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4102 
  4103   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4104   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4105   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4106 
  4107 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4108 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4109 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4110 
  4111 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4112 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4113 
  4114 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4115 
  4116 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4117 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4118 
  4119 
  4120 *** ML ***
  4121 
  4122 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4123 
  4124     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4125     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4126 
  4127     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4128     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4129     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4130     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4131 
  4132     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4133     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4134     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4135 
  4136 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4137 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4138 
  4139 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4140 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4141 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4142 
  4143 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4144 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4145 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4146 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4147 
  4148 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4149 the context or even global references.
  4150 
  4151 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4152 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4153 
  4154 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4155 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4156 
  4157   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4158   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4159   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4160   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4161   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4162   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4163   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4164   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4165   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4166   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4167 
  4168 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4169 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4170 
  4171 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4172 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4173 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4174 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4175 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4176 
  4177 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4178 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4179 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4180 Theory_Data version.
  4181 
  4182 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4183 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4184 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4185 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4186 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4187 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4188 explicitly in rare situations.
  4189 
  4190 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4191 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4192 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4193 
  4194 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4195 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4196 
  4197 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4198 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4199 quite rare).
  4200 
  4201 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4202 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4203 
  4204 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4205 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4206 terms.
  4207 
  4208 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4209 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4210 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4211 
  4212 
  4213 *** System ***
  4214 
  4215 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4216 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4217 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4218 
  4219 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4220 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4221 respectively.
  4222 
  4223 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4224 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4225 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4226 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4227 
  4228   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4229 
  4230 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4231 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4232 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4233 component.
  4234 
  4235 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4236 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4237 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4238 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4239 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4240 the user for manual installation.
  4241 
  4242 
  4243 
  4244 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4245 -------------------------------------
  4246 
  4247 *** General ***
  4248 
  4249 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4250 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4251 
  4252 
  4253 *** Pure ***
  4254 
  4255 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4256 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4257 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4258 
  4259 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4260 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4261 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4262 
  4263 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4264 interpretation.
  4265 
  4266 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4267 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4268 
  4269 
  4270 *** Document preparation ***
  4271 
  4272 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4273 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4274 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4275 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4276 
  4277 
  4278 *** HOL ***
  4279 
  4280 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4281 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4282 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4283 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4284 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4285 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4286 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4287 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4288 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4289 
  4290 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4291 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4292 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4293 
  4294 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4295 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4296 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4297 
  4298 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4299 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4300 
  4301 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4302 
  4303 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4304 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4305 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4306 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4307 
  4308 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4309 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4310 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4311 "mirabelle" utility.
  4312 
  4313 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4314 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4315 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4316 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4317 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4318 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4319 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4320 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4321 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4322 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4323 
  4324 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4325 procedure only.
  4326 
  4327 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4328 
  4329 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4330 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4331 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4332 that fail later.
  4333 
  4334 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4335 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4336 
  4337 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4338 the same method as the approximation method.
  4339 
  4340 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4341 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4342 series expansion.
  4343 
  4344 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4345 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4346 
  4347 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4348 reals.
  4349 
  4350 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4351 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4352 
  4353 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4354 fixpoint theorem.
  4355 
  4356 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4357   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4358     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4359   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4360     accordingly
  4361   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4362     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4363   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4364     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4365 
  4366 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4367 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4368 lattice.
  4369 
  4370 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4371 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4372 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4373 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4374 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4375 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4376 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4377 
  4378 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4379   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4380     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4381   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4382     le_inf_iff
  4383   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4384     sup_aci)
  4385   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4386   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4387   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4388     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4389     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4390     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4391     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4392     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4393     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4394     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4395     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4396     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4397     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4398   - authentic syntax for
  4399     Set.Pow
  4400     Set.image
  4401   - mere abbreviations:
  4402     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4403     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4404     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4405     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4406     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4407     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4408     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4409     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4410   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4411 
  4412 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4413 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4414 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4415 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4416 
  4417 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4418 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4419 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4420 
  4421 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4422 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4423 
  4424 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4425 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4426 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4427 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4428 
  4429 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4430 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4431 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4432 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4433 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4434 
  4435 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4436 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4437 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4438 
  4439 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4440 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4441 
  4442 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4443 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4444 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4445 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4446 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4447 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4448 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4449 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4450 
  4451 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4452     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4453     code_post       replaces    code post
  4454     etc.
  4455   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4456 
  4457 * Renamed methods:
  4458     sizechange -> size_change
  4459     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4460   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4461 
  4462 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4463 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4464 
  4465 * Renamed theorems:
  4466     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4467     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4468     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4469     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4470     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4471   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4472 
  4473 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4474 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4475 
  4476 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4477 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4478 
  4479 
  4480 *** HOLCF ***
  4481 
  4482 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4483 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4484 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4485 
  4486 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4487 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4488 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4489 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4490 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4491 
  4492 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4493 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4494 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4495 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4496 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4497 
  4498 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4499 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4500 constructor are pre-configured.
  4501 
  4502 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4503 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4504 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4505 
  4506 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4507 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4508 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4509 as well.)
  4510 
  4511 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4512 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4513 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4514 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4515 examples.
  4516 
  4517 
  4518 *** ML ***
  4519 
  4520 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4521 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4522 
  4523 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4524 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4525 position, logical grouping etc.
  4526 
  4527 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4528 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4529 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4530 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4531 
  4532 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4533 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4534 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4535 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4536 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4537 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4538 
  4539 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4540 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4541 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4542 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4543 experiments with references.
  4544 
  4545 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4546 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4547 
  4548 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4549 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4550 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4551 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4552 
  4553 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4554 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4555 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4556 
  4557 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4558 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4559 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4560 
  4561 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4562 
  4563 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4564 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4565 
  4566 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4567 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4568 
  4569 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4570 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4571 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4572 
  4573 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4574 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4575 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4576 
  4577 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4578 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4579 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4580 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4581 
  4582 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4583 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4584 instead of global theory.
  4585 
  4586 
  4587 *** System ***
  4588 
  4589 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4590 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4591 usedir option -q.
  4592 
  4593 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4594 also the system manual.
  4595 
  4596 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4597 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4598 
  4599 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4600 this is always enabled.
  4601 
  4602 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4603 
  4604 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4605 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4606 currently supported on Linux only.
  4607 
  4608 
  4609 
  4610 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4611 --------------------------------
  4612 
  4613 *** General ***
  4614 
  4615 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4616 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4617 
  4618   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4619     "isatool."
  4620 
  4621   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4622     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4623 
  4624   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4625     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4626 
  4627 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4628 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4629 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4630 
  4631 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4632 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4633 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4634 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4635 via "isabelle emacs".
  4636 
  4637 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4638 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4639 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4640 
  4641 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4642 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4643 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4644 
  4645 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4646 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4647 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4648 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4649 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4650 
  4651 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4652 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4653 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4654 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4655 
  4656 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4657 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4658 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4659 
  4660 
  4661 *** Pure ***
  4662 
  4663 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4664 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4665 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4666 
  4667 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4668 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4669 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4670 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4671 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4672 
  4673 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4674 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4675 useful in locale declarations.
  4676 
  4677 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4678 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4679 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4680 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4681 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4682 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4683 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4684 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4685 no longer generated.
  4686 
  4687 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4688 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4689 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4690 
  4691 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4692 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4693 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4694 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4695 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4696 
  4697 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4698 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4699 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4700 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4701 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4702 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4703 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4704 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4705 
  4706 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4707 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4708 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4709 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4710 
  4711 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4712 
  4713 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4714 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4715 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4716 
  4717 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4718 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4719 
  4720 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4721 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4722 in HOL, write
  4723 
  4724     class foo = ...
  4725 
  4726 instead of
  4727 
  4728     class foo = type + ...
  4729 
  4730 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4731 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4732 
  4733 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4734 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4735 
  4736 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4737 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4738 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4739 
  4740 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4741 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4742 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4743 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4744 directly in regular applications.
  4745 
  4746 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4747 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4748 
  4749 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4750 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4751 
  4752 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4753 theory context.
  4754 
  4755 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4756 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4757 
  4758 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4759 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4760 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4761 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4762 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4763 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4764 
  4765   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4766 
  4767 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4768 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4769 normalization.
  4770 
  4771 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4772 addressing etc.
  4773 
  4774 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4775 
  4776   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4777   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4778 
  4779 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4780 
  4781   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4782      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4783      parts of the code generator framework).
  4784 
  4785   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4786      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4787      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4788 
  4789 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4790 
  4791 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4792 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4793 
  4794 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4795 patterns, e.g.
  4796 
  4797     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4798 
  4799 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4800 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4801 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4802 hyphen:
  4803 
  4804     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4805 
  4806 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4807 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4808 
  4809 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4810 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4811 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4812 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4813 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4814 higher-order unification.
  4815 
  4816 
  4817 *** Document preparation ***
  4818 
  4819 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4820 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4821 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4822 
  4823 
  4824 *** HOL ***
  4825 
  4826 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4827 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4828 
  4829 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4830 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4831 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4832 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4833 Main, as before.
  4834 
  4835 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4836 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4837 
  4838 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4839 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4840 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4841 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4842 
  4843 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4844 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4845 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4846 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4847 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4848 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4849 
  4850 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4851 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4852 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4853 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4854 
  4855 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4856 menu.
  4857 
  4858 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4859 (contains the empty clause).
  4860 
  4861 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4862 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4863 
  4864 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4865 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4866 
  4867 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4868 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4869 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4870 
  4871 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4872 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4873 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4874 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4875 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4876 
  4877 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4878 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4879 
  4880 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4881 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4882 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4883 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4884 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4885 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4886 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4887 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4888 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4889 
  4890 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4891 
  4892 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4893 
  4894 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4895 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4896 
  4897 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4898 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4899 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4900 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4901 
  4902 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4903 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4904 
  4905     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4906     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4907     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4908     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4909     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4910     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4911     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4912     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4913 
  4914 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4915 theory Set.
  4916 
  4917 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4918 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4919 
  4920 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4921 
  4922 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4923 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4924 
  4925 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4926 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4927 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4928 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4929 allowed. For examples see
  4930 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4931 
  4932 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4933 
  4934 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4935 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4936 
  4937 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4938 structure:
  4939 
  4940     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4941     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4942     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4943     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4944     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4945     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4946     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4947     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4948     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4949     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4950     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4951     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4952     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4953     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4954     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4955     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4956     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4957     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4958     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4959     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4960     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4961     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4962     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4963     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4964     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4965     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4966     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4967     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4968     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4969     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4970     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4971     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4972     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4973 
  4974     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4975     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4976     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4977     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4978     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4979     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4980     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4981     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4982     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4983     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4984 
  4985     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4986     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4987     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4988     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4989     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4990     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4991 
  4992 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4993 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4994 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4995 
  4996 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4997 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4998 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4999 
  5000 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5001 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5002 
  5003 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5004 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5005 
  5006 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5007 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5008 proofs, e.g.
  5009 
  5010   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5011 
  5012 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5013 
  5014 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5015 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5016 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5017 
  5018 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5019 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5020 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5021 
  5022 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5023 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5024 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5025 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5026 
  5027 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5028 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5029 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5030 preorder_class.*.
  5031 
  5032 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5033 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5034 
  5035 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5036 
  5037   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5038 
  5039 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5040 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5041 fold_image.
  5042 
  5043 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5044 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5045 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5046 the former will disappear at some point.
  5047 
  5048 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5049 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5050 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5051 
  5052 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5053 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5054 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5055 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5056 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5057 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5058 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5059 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5060 
  5061 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5062 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5063 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5064 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5065 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5066 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5067 
  5068     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5069     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5070     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5071     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5072     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5073     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5074     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5075 
  5076 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5077 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5078 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5079 
  5080 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5081 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5082 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5083 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5084 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5085 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5086 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5087 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5088 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5089 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5090 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5091 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5092 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5093 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5094 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5095 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5096 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5097 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5098 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5099 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5100 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5101 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5102 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5103 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5104 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5105 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5106 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5107 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5108 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5109 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5110 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5111 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5112 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5113 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5114 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5115 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5116 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5117 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5118 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5119 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5120 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5121 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5122 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5123 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5124 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5125 
  5126 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5127 
  5128 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5129 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5130 
  5131 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5132 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5133 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5134 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5135 
  5136 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5137 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5138 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5139 theory RealVector.
  5140 
  5141 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5142 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5143 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5144 and inner products are included.
  5145 
  5146 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5147 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5148 supported.
  5149 
  5150 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5151 first diagonalization argument.
  5152 
  5153 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5154 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5155 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5156 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5157 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5158 
  5159     hide (open) const gcd
  5160     abbreviation gcd where
  5161       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5162     notation (output)
  5163       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5164 
  5165 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5166 
  5167 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5168 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5169 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5170 
  5171 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5172 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5173 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5174 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5175 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5176 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5177 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5178 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5179 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5180 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5181 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5182 cases.
  5183 
  5184 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5185 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5186 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5187 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5188 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5189 
  5190     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5191     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5192     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5193     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5194     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5195 
  5196 
  5197 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5198 
  5199 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5200 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5201 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5202 
  5203 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5204 
  5205 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5206 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5207 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5208 
  5209 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5210 
  5211 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5212 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5213 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5214 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5215 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5216 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5217 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5218 
  5219 
  5220 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5221 
  5222 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5223 
  5224 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5225 theory targets.
  5226 
  5227 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5228 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5229 'inductive' etc.
  5230 
  5231 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5232 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5233 
  5234 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5235 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5236 
  5237 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5238 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5239 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5240 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5241 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5242 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5243 the algorithm W:
  5244 
  5245  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5246  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5247          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5248 
  5249 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5250 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5251 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5252 
  5253 
  5254 *** HOLCF ***
  5255 
  5256 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5257 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5258 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5259 
  5260 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5261 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5262 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5263 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5264 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5265 
  5266 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5267 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5268 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5269 
  5270 
  5271 *** ZF ***
  5272 
  5273 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5274 
  5275 
  5276 *** ML ***
  5277 
  5278 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5279 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5280 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5281 5.2.1!
  5282 
  5283 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5284 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5285 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5286 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5287 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5288 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5289 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5290 
  5291 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5292 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5293 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5294 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5295 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5296 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5297 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5298 
  5299 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5300 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5301 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5302 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5303 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5304 
  5305 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5306 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5307 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5308 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5309 Method.add_method.
  5310 
  5311 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5312 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5313 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5314 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5315 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5316 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5317 
  5318 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5319 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5320 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5321 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5322 examples.
  5323 
  5324 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5325 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5326 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5327 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5328 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5329 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5330 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5331 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5332 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5333 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5334 
  5335 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5336 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5337 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5338 
  5339 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5340 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5341 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5342 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5343 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5344 resort for legacy applications.
  5345 
  5346 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5347 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5348 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5349 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5350 explicit runtime argument.
  5351 
  5352 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5353 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5354 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5355 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5356 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5357 
  5358 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5359 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5360 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5361 theory state.
  5362 
  5363 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5364 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5365 
  5366   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5367   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5368   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5369   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5370   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5371   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5372   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5373   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5374   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5375   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5376 
  5377 
  5378 *** System ***
  5379 
  5380 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5381 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5382 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5383 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5384 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5385 
  5386 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5387 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5388 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5389 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5390 
  5391 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5392 
  5393 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5394 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5395 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5396 prover operations.
  5397 
  5398 
  5399 
  5400 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5401 -------------------------------
  5402 
  5403 *** General ***
  5404 
  5405 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5406 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5407 
  5408 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5409 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5410 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5411 provides a proper context already.
  5412 
  5413 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5414 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5415 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5416 
  5417 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5418 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5419 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5420 swap theory imports.
  5421 
  5422 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5423 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5424 
  5425 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5426 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5427 white space without escapes.
  5428 
  5429 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5430 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5431 "foo_bar".
  5432 
  5433 
  5434 *** Pure ***
  5435 
  5436 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5437 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5438 
  5439 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5440 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5441 
  5442 (1) unused_thms
  5443      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5444 
  5445 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5446      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5447      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5448 
  5449 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5450      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5451      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5452      their ancestors.
  5453 
  5454 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5455 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5456 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5457 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5458 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5459 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5460 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5461 
  5462 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5463 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5464 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5465 
  5466 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5467 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5468 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5469 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5470 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5471 
  5472 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5473 
  5474 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5475 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5476 update of theories within ML code.
  5477 
  5478 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5479 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5480 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5481 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5482 
  5483 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5484 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5485 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5486 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5487 
  5488 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5489 
  5490 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5491 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5492 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5493 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5494 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5495 
  5496 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5497 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5498 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5499 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5500 situations.
  5501 
  5502 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5503 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5504 proof text.
  5505 
  5506 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5507 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5508 
  5509 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5510 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5511 predicates.
  5512 
  5513 
  5514 *** Document preparation ***
  5515 
  5516 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5517 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5518 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5519 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5520 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5521 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5522 
  5523 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5524 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5525 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5526 
  5527 
  5528 *** HOL ***
  5529 
  5530 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5531 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5532 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5533 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5534 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5535 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5536 
  5537 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5538 with multithreading.
  5539 
  5540 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5541 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5542 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5543 
  5544 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5545 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5546 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5547 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5548 
  5549 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5550 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5551 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5552 and makes them available separately.  See
  5553 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5554 
  5555 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5556 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5557 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5558 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5559 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5560 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5561 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5562 the declared rules.
  5563 
  5564 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5565 
  5566   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5567 
  5568 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5569 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5570 
  5571 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5572 
  5573   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5574 
  5575   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5576     definitions on => and bool.
  5577 
  5578   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5579     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5580     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5581 
  5582       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5583       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5584       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5585       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5586       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5587       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5588       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5589       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5590 
  5591   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5592     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5593     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5594 
  5595   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5596     The proof pattern
  5597 
  5598       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5599       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5600 
  5601     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5602     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5603 
  5604       have "EX S. P S"
  5605       proof
  5606         show "P S" <...>
  5607       qed
  5608 
  5609   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5610     The proof pattern
  5611 
  5612       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5613       also have "S = T" <...>
  5614       finally have "P T" .
  5615 
  5616     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5617     must be replaced by something like
  5618 
  5619       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5620       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5621       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5622 
  5623   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5624     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5625 
  5626       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5627 
  5628     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5629     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5630     type of the form
  5631 
  5632       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5633 
  5634     rather than
  5635 
  5636       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5637 
  5638 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5639 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5640 
  5641 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5642 
  5643 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5644 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5645 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5646 
  5647 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5648 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5649 
  5650 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5651 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5652 
  5653 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5654 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5655 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5656 
  5657 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5658 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5659 
  5660   less_trans
  5661   less_linear
  5662   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5663   le_less_trans
  5664   less_le_trans
  5665   less_not_sym
  5666   less_asym
  5667 
  5668 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5669 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5670 and different variable names.
  5671 
  5672 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5673 
  5674 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5675 finite maps.
  5676 
  5677 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5678 
  5679 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5680 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5681 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5682 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5683 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5684 accordingly.
  5685 
  5686 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5687 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5688 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5689 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5690 
  5691 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5692 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5693 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5694 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5695 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5696 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5697 
  5698 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5699 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5700 
  5701 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5702 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5703 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5704 
  5705 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5706 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5707 
  5708 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5709 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5710 
  5711 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5712 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5713 
  5714 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5715 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5716 
  5717 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5718 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5719 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5720 
  5721 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5722 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5723 
  5724 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5725 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5726 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5727 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5728 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5729 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5730 
  5731 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5732 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5733 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5734 
  5735 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5736 
  5737 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5738 
  5739 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5740 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5741 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5742 
  5743 
  5744 *** ZF ***
  5745 
  5746 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5747 same session:
  5748 
  5749   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5750   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5751   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5752   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5753   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5754   List      -> List_ZF
  5755   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5756 
  5757 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5758 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5759 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5760 
  5761 
  5762 *** ML ***
  5763 
  5764 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5765 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5766 
  5767 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5768 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5769 
  5770 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5771 
  5772 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5773 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5774 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5775 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5776 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5777 
  5778 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5779 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5780 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5781 
  5782 
  5783 *** System ***
  5784 
  5785 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5786 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5787 
  5788 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5789 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5790 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5791 
  5792 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5793 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5794 
  5795 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5796 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5797 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5798 
  5799 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5800 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5801 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5802 
  5803 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5804 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5805 
  5806 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5807 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5808 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5809 script.
  5810 
  5811 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5812 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5813 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5814 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5815 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5816 
  5817 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5818 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5819 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5820 
  5821 
  5822 
  5823 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5824 -----------------------------------
  5825 
  5826 *** General ***
  5827 
  5828 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5829 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5830 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5831 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5832 
  5833 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5834 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5835 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5836 
  5837 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5838 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5839 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5840 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5841 
  5842 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5843 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5844 quotes.
  5845 
  5846 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5847 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5848 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5849 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5850 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5851 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5852 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5853 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5854 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5855 
  5856 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5857 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5858 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5859 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5860 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5861 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5862 
  5863 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5864 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5865 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5866 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5867 
  5868 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5869 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5870 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5871 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5872 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5873 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5874 
  5875 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5876 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5877 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5878 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5879 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5880 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5881 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5882 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5883 
  5884 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5885 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5886 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5887 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5888 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5889 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5890 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5891 
  5892 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5893 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5894 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5895 
  5896 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5897 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5898 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5899 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5900 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5901 limit is imposed.
  5902 
  5903 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5904 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5905 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5906 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5907 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5908 and scalability.
  5909 
  5910 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5911 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5912 
  5913 
  5914 *** Document preparation ***
  5915 
  5916 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5917 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5918 current context.
  5919 
  5920 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5921 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5922 
  5923 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5924 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5925 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5926 
  5927 
  5928 *** Pure ***
  5929 
  5930 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5931 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5932 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5933 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5934 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5935 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5936 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5937 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5938 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5939 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5940 
  5941 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5942 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5943 sketch:
  5944 
  5945     internal compilation:
  5946         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5947     writing SML code to a file:
  5948         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5949     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5950         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5951     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5952         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5953 
  5954     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5955         method ``eval''
  5956 
  5957 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5958 
  5959 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5960 
  5961     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5962     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5963     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5964     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5965 
  5966 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5967 
  5968     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5969       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5970 
  5971     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5972       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5973 
  5974     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5975       {(target)}+
  5976         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5977 
  5978     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5979       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5980         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5981 
  5982 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5983 
  5984 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5985 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5986 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5987 codegen".
  5988 
  5989 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5990 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5991 annotations).
  5992 
  5993 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5994 syntax.
  5995 
  5996 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5997 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5998 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5999 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  6000 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  6001 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  6002 
  6003 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  6004 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  6005 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  6006 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  6007 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  6008 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  6009 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  6010 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  6011 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  6012 equations, see section "definitions".
  6013 
  6014 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  6015 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  6016 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  6017 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  6018 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  6019 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  6020 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  6021 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  6022 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  6023 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  6024 
  6025 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  6026 configuration options:
  6027 
  6028   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  6029   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  6030   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  6031   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  6032   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  6033   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  6034   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  6035   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  6036   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  6037 
  6038 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  6039 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  6040 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  6041 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  6042 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  6043 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  6044 order.
  6045 
  6046 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  6047 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  6048 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  6049 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  6050 context encountered later on.
  6051 
  6052 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  6053 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  6054 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  6055 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  6056 
  6057 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  6058 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  6059 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  6060 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  6061 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  6062 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  6063 
  6064 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  6065 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  6066 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  6067 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  6068 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  6069 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  6070 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  6071 more permissive.
  6072 
  6073 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  6074 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  6075 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  6076 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  6077 maintainability of proof texts.
  6078 
  6079 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  6080 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  6081 
  6082   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  6083   then guess x and y by clarify
  6084 
  6085 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  6086 proof tools being involved here.
  6087 
  6088 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  6089 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  6090 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  6091 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  6092 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  6093 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  6094 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  6095 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  6096 
  6097 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  6098 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  6099 certain special cases of literal facts:
  6100 
  6101   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  6102   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  6103   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  6104   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  6105 
  6106 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  6107 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  6108 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  6109 
  6110 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  6111 both named and unnamed ones.
  6112 
  6113 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  6114 
  6115   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  6116 
  6117 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  6118 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  6119 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  6120 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  6121 
  6122 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  6123 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  6124 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  6125 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  6126 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  6127 
  6128 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  6129 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  6130 
  6131 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  6132 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  6133 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  6134 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  6135 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  6136 originally first one.
  6137 
  6138 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  6139 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  6140 expected.
  6141 
  6142 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  6143 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  6144 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  6145 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  6146 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  6147 
  6148   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6149     assumes "EX x. P x"
  6150     obtains x where "P x"
  6151 
  6152   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6153     assumes "A & B"
  6154     obtains A and B
  6155 
  6156   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6157     assumes "A | B"
  6158     obtains
  6159       A
  6160     | B
  6161 
  6162 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  6163 explicitly:
  6164 
  6165   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6166     obtains "~ thesis"
  6167 
  6168   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6169     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  6170 
  6171 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  6172 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  6173 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  6174 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  6175 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  6176 case_names).
  6177 
  6178 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  6179 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  6180 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  6181 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  6182 
  6183 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  6184 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  6185 top-level lemma.
  6186 
  6187 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  6188 introduction rule (default "that").
  6189 
  6190 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6191 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  6192 to occur.
  6193 
  6194 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  6195 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  6196 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  6197 representations independently of name spaces.
  6198 
  6199 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  6200 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  6201 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6202 
  6203 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  6204 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  6205 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  6206 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  6207 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  6208 current context.
  6209 
  6210 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  6211 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  6212 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  6213 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  6214 
  6215   axiomatization
  6216     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  6217     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  6218 
  6219   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  6220   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  6221 
  6222   abbreviation
  6223     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  6224     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  6225 
  6226 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  6227 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  6228 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  6229 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  6230 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  6231 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  6232 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  6233 
  6234 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  6235 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  6236 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  6237 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  6238 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  6239 
  6240 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  6241 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  6242 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  6243 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  6244 
  6245 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  6246 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  6247 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  6248 
  6249   definition "K x _ = x"
  6250 
  6251   inductive conj for A B
  6252   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  6253 
  6254 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  6255 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  6256 abbreviations on output.
  6257 
  6258 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  6259 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  6260 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to d