NEWS
author hoelzl
Wed May 07 12:25:35 2014 +0200 (2014-05-07)
changeset 56889 48a745e1bde7
parent 56879 ee2b61f37ad9
child 56901 2f73ef9eb272
permissions -rw-r--r--
avoid the Complex constructor, use the more natural Re/Im view; moved csqrt to Complex.
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
    25 supports input via ` (backquote).
    26 
    27 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
    28 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
    29 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
    30 
    31 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
    32 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
    33 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
    34 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
    35 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
    36 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
    37 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
    38 proof tools.
    39 
    40 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
    41 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
    42 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
    43 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
    44 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
    45 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
    46 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
    47 some examples.
    48 
    49 
    50 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    51 
    52 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism:
    53 
    54   - No completion for Isar keywords that have already been recognized
    55     by the prover, e.g. ":" within accepted Isar syntax looses its
    56     meaning as abbreviation for symbol "\<in>".
    57 
    58   - Completion context provides information about embedded languages
    59     of Isabelle: keywords are only completed for outer syntax, symbols
    60     or antiquotations for languages that support them.  E.g. no symbol
    61     completion for ML source, but within ML strings, comments,
    62     antiquotations.
    63 
    64   - Support for semantic completion based on failed name space lookup.
    65     The error produced by the prover contains information about
    66     alternative names that are accessible in a particular position.
    67     This may be used with explicit completion (C+b) or implicit
    68     completion after some delay.
    69 
    70   - Semantic completions may get extended by appending a suffix of
    71     underscores to an already recognized name, e.g. "foo_" to complete
    72     "foo" or "foobar" if these are known in the context.  The special
    73     identifier "__" serves as a wild-card in this respect: it
    74     completes to the full collection of names from the name space
    75     (truncated according to the system option "completion_limit").
    76 
    77   - Syntax completion of the editor and semantic completion of the
    78     prover are merged.  Since the latter requires a full round-trip of
    79     document update to arrive, the default for option
    80     jedit_completion_delay has been changed to 0.5s to improve the
    81     user experience.
    82 
    83   - Option jedit_completion_immediate may now get used with
    84     jedit_completion_delay > 0, to complete symbol abbreviations
    85     aggressively while benefiting from combined syntactic and semantic
    86     completion.
    87 
    88   - Support for simple completion templates (with single
    89     place-holder), e.g. "`" for text cartouche, or "@{" for
    90     antiquotation.
    91 
    92   - Support for path completion within the formal text, based on
    93     file-system content.
    94 
    95   - Improved treatment of completion vs. various forms of jEdit text
    96     selection (multiple selections, rectangular selections,
    97     rectangular selection as "tall caret").
    98 
    99   - More reliable treatment of GUI events vs. completion popups: avoid
   100     loosing keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
   101 
   102 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
   103 completion popup and context-menu.  See also "Plugin Options /
   104 Isabelle / General / Spell Checker" for some system options.
   105 
   106 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
   107 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
   108 
   109 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
   110 auxiliary ML files.
   111 
   112 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
   113 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
   114 
   115 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
   116 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
   117 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
   118 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
   119 
   120 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
   121 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
   122 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
   123 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
   124 
   125 * New panel: Simplifier trace.  Provides an interactive view of the
   126 simplification process, enabled by the newly-introduced
   127 "simplifier_trace" declaration.
   128 
   129 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons).
   130 
   131 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
   132 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
   133 
   134 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
   135 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
   136 
   137 
   138 *** Pure ***
   139 
   140 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
   141 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
   142 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
   143 renaming needs to be applied:
   144 
   145   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
   146   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
   147   all            ~>  Pure.all
   148   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
   149   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
   150 
   151 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
   152 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
   153 old constants:
   154 
   155 setup {*
   156   fn thy => thy
   157     |> Sign.root_path
   158     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
   159     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
   160     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
   161     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
   162 *}
   163 
   164 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
   165 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
   166 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
   167 
   168 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
   169 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
   170 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
   171 'instance' with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem might be
   172 postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof finished
   173 trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous (without
   174 any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
   175 Axclass.axiomatize_class, Axclass.axiomatize_classrel,
   176 Axclass.axiomatize_arity.
   177 
   178 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
   179 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
   180 instantiated theorem.
   181 
   182 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
   183 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
   184 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
   185 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
   186 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
   187 
   188   attribute_setup standard =
   189     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
   190 
   191 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
   192 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
   193 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
   194 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
   195 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
   196 
   197 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
   198 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
   199 differently).
   200 
   201 
   202 *** HOL ***
   203 
   204 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
   205   * Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
   206   * Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF
   207   and SUP instead uniformly.
   208   * More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
   209   or SUP and Sup.
   210   * INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
   211   * Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
   212   * Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong,
   213   with simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace
   214   former INT_cong, SUP_cong
   215 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   216 
   217 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
   218   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   219   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
   220   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   221   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
   222   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   223 
   224 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules
   225   can now deal with conjunctions.
   226   For help with converting proofs, the old behaviour of the simplifier
   227   can be restored like this:  declare/using [[simp_legacy_precond]]
   228   This configuration option will disappear again in the future.
   229 
   230 * HOL-Word:
   231   * Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a
   232   duplicate of "word_arith_wis".
   233   * Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
   234   "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
   235   "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
   236 
   237 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict
   238 target language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   239 
   240 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
   241 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   242 
   243 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.
   244 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   245 
   246 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures" option.
   247 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   248 
   249 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
   250 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   251 
   252 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
   253   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
   254   "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" commands are now part of "Main".
   255   Theory renamings:
   256     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
   257     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
   258     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
   259     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
   260     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
   261     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
   262     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
   263     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
   264     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
   265     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
   266     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
   267     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
   268     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
   269     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
   270     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
   271     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
   272     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
   273     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
   274     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
   275     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
   276     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
   277     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
   278   New theories:
   279     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
   280     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
   281     Library/BNF_Decl.thy
   282     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
   283     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
   284   Discontinued theories:
   285     BNF/BNF.thy
   286     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
   287   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   288 
   289 * New (co)datatype package:
   290   * "primcorec" is fully implemented.
   291   * "datatype_new" generates size functions ("size_xxx" and "size") as
   292     required by "fun".
   293   * BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style (co)datatypes
   294     with Transfer.
   295   * Renamed commands:
   296       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
   297       primrec_new ~> primrec
   298       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
   299     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   300   * The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
   301     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
   302     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   303   * The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer generated.
   304     Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually using "prim(co)rec".
   305     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   306 
   307 * Old datatype package:
   308   * The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been renamed
   309     "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" -> "sum.case").
   310     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   311   * The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have been
   312     renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~>
   313     "case_prod").
   314     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   315 
   316 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions, their
   317   relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new BNF-based
   318   datatype package.
   319   Renamed constants:
   320     Option.set ~> set_option
   321     Option.map ~> map_option
   322     option_rel ~> rel_option
   323   Renamed theorems:
   324     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
   325     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
   326     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
   327     option.recs ~> option.rec
   328     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
   329     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
   330     map.simps ~> list.map
   331     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
   332     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
   333     the.simps ~> option.sel
   334   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   335 
   336 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
   337     sum_map ~> map_sum
   338     map_pair ~> map_prod
   339     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
   340     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
   341     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
   342     set_rel ~> rel_set
   343     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
   344     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "Library/FSet.thy")
   345     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
   346     vset ~> rel_vset (in "Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
   347 
   348 * New theory:
   349     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   350 
   351 * Theory reorganizations:
   352   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   353 
   354 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof traces.
   355   This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and "dpll".
   356   Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT solvers should
   357   use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now the default SAT
   358   solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and corresponding tactics;
   359   the old default can be restored using
   360   "declare [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   361 
   362 * SMT module:
   363   * A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2
   364     and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g., 4.3). The new proof method is
   365     called "smt2", and the new Z3 is called "z3_new" in Sledgehammer and
   366     elsewhere.
   367 
   368 * Sledgehammer:
   369   - New prover "z3_new" with support for Isar proofs
   370   - New option:
   371       smt_proofs
   372   - Renamed options:
   373       isar_compress ~> compress_isar
   374       isar_try0 ~> try0_isar
   375     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   376 
   377 * Metis:
   378   - Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis (full_types)' instead.
   379     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   380 
   381 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
   382 
   383 * Command renaming: enriched_type ~> functor. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   384 
   385 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   386 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   387 
   388 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   389 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   390 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   391 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   392 
   393 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   394 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   395 
   396 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   397 with the given constants.
   398 
   399 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   400 
   401 Fact consolidations:
   402     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   403     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   404     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   405     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   406     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   407     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   408     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   409     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   410     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   411     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   412     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   413     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   414     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   415     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   416     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   417     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   418     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   419     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   420     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   421     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   422     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   423     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   424     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   425     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   426     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   427     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   428     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   429     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   430     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   431     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   432     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   433     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   434     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   435     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   436     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   437     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   438     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   439     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   440     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   441     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   442 
   443 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   444 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   445 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   446 
   447 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   448 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   449 
   450 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
   451 
   452 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   453 
   454 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   455 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   456 
   457 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   458 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   459 
   460 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   461 operations on records.
   462 
   463 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   464 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   465 
   466 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   467     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   468 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   469 
   470 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   471     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   472     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   473 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   474 
   475 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   476   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   477   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   478   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   479     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   480   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   481     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   482   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   483 INCOMPATBILITY.
   484 
   485 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   486     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   487     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   488     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   489     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   490 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   491 
   492 * Fact name consolidation:
   493     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   494     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   495     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   496     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   497     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   498 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   499 
   500 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   501 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   502 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   503 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   504 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   505 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   506 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   507 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   508 
   509 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   510 
   511 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   512 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   513 
   514 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   515 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   516 
   517 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   518 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   519 or the brute way with
   520 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   521 
   522 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   523 
   524 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   525 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   526 
   527 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   528 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   529 
   530 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   531 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   532 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   533 INCOMPATIBILITY
   534 
   535 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
   536   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
   537   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
   538   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
   539   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
   540   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
   541   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
   542   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
   543   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
   544   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
   545   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
   546   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
   547 
   548   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
   549 
   550   removed auxiliary lemmas:
   551     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
   552     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr, real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded,
   553     summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2, sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom,
   554     sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero, summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
   555 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   556 
   557 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
   558   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
   559 
   560   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
   561 
   562   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
   563 
   564   - removed constant isDiff
   565 
   566   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as input
   567     syntax.
   568 
   569   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed
   570 
   571   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
   572 
   573   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
   574 
   575   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
   576 
   577   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which includes now rules for
   578     DERIV, has_derivative and has_vector_derivative.
   579 
   580   - Other renamings:
   581     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
   582     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
   583     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
   584     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
   585     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
   586     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
   587     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
   588 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   589 
   590 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the continuous_on_intros,
   591   isCont_intros collections, these facts are now in continuous_intros.
   592 
   593 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im, the Complex
   594   constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use primcorec to defined the
   595   behaviour of a complex-valued function.
   596 
   597   Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they are
   598   available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This especially
   599   removes
   600     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
   601 
   602   Instead the reverse direction is supported with
   603     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
   604 
   605   Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
   606 
   607   Renamings:
   608     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
   609     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
   610     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
   611     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
   612     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
   613     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
   614     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
   615     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
   616     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
   617     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
   618     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
   619     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
   620 
   621     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
   622     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
   623     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
   624 
   625   Removed theorems:
   626     complex_zero_def
   627     complex_add_def
   628     complex_minus_def
   629     complex_diff_def
   630     complex_one_def
   631     complex_mult_def
   632     complex_inverse_def
   633     complex_scaleR_def
   634 
   635 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   636 
   637 * Nitpick:
   638   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   639     infinite values.
   640   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as "Abs_Integ" and
   641     "Rep_Integ".
   642   - Removed "std" option.
   643   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
   644     "hide_types".
   645 
   646 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   647   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   648   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   649     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   650     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   651     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   652     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   653     intervals.
   654 
   655   - renamed theorems:
   656     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
   657     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
   658     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
   659 
   660 
   661 *** Scala ***
   662 
   663 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
   664 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
   665 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
   666 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
   667 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
   668 
   669 
   670 *** ML ***
   671 
   672 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
   673 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   674 
   675 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
   676 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context via
   677 "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   678 
   679 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
   680 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   681 
   682 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
   683 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
   684 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
   685 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   686 
   687 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
   688 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
   689 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
   690 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
   691 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
   692 of schematic variables.
   693 
   694 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   695 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   696 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   697 formal context.
   698 
   699 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   700 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   701 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   702 actually belongs to it).
   703 
   704 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
   705 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
   706 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
   707 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
   708 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
   709 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
   710 
   711 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
   712 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   713 
   714 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
   715 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
   716 
   717 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
   718 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
   719 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
   720 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
   721 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
   722 
   723 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
   724 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
   725 purposes.
   726 
   727 
   728 *** System ***
   729 
   730 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
   731 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
   732 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
   733 processing is started.
   734 
   735 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   736 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   737 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   738 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   739 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   740 
   741 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   742 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   743 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   744 
   745 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
   746 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
   747 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
   748 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
   749 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the $ISABELLE_PROCESS
   750 settings variable yet.
   751 
   752 * Retired the now unused Isabelle tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality
   753 may be integrated into PIDE/jEdit at a later point.
   754 
   755 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   756 -------------------------------------
   757 
   758 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   759 
   760 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   761 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   762 
   763 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   764 after edits surrounding the command location.
   765 
   766 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   767 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   768 e.g. out-of-memory).
   769 
   770 
   771 *** System ***
   772 
   773 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   774 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   775 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   776 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   777 
   778 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   779 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   780 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   781 
   782 
   783 
   784 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   785 -------------------------------------
   786 
   787 *** General ***
   788 
   789 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   790 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   791 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   792 
   793 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   794 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   795 
   796 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   797 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   798 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   799 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   800 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   801 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   802 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   803 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   804 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   805 syntax.
   806 
   807 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   808 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   809 
   810 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   811 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   812 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   813 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   814 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   815 
   816 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   817 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   818 
   819 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   820 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   821 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   822 
   823 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   824 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   825 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   826 
   827 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   828 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   829 
   830 
   831 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   832 
   833 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   834 Documentation panel.
   835 
   836 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   837 documentation.
   838 
   839 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   840 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   841 
   842 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   843 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   844 normal editing and checking process.
   845 
   846 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   847 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   848 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   849 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   850 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   851 
   852 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   853 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   854 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   855 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   856 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   857 
   858 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   859 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   860 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   861 
   862 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   863 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   864 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   865 to resolve conflict.
   866 
   867 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   868 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   869 
   870 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   871 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   872 such command executions while editing.
   873 
   874 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   875 document content.
   876 
   877 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   878 toplevel theorem statements.
   879 
   880 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   881 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   882 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   883 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   884 
   885 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   886 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   887 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   888 
   889 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   890 / Global Options / Appearance".
   891 
   892 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   893 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   894 
   895 
   896 *** Pure ***
   897 
   898 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   899 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   900 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   901 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   902 details.
   903 
   904 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   905 
   906 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   907 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   908 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   909 
   910 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   911 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   912 
   913 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   914 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   915 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   916 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   917 
   918 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   919 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   920 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   921 
   922 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   923 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   924 
   925 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   926 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   927 situations.
   928 
   929 
   930 *** HOL ***
   931 
   932 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   933 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   934 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   935 
   936 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   937 
   938 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   939 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   940 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   941 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   942 
   943   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   944 
   945 * Code generator:
   946   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   947     'code_instance'.
   948   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   949     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   950 
   951 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   952 examples.
   953 
   954 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   955 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   956 to distinguish both when desired.
   957 
   958 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   959 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   960 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   961 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   962 
   963 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   964 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   965 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   966 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   967 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   968 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   969 
   970 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   971 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   972 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   973 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   974 
   975 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   976 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   977 
   978 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   979 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   980 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   981 
   982 * Lifting:
   983   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   984     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   985       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   986       transfer rules
   987     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   988       correspondence relation can be generated
   989     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   990       parametricity
   991     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   992   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   993   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   994     copies
   995   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   996     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   997     anonymous context)
   998   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   999     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1000   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  1001     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  1002   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  1003     INCOMPATIBILITY
  1004 
  1005 * Transfer:
  1006   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  1007     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  1008   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  1009   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  1010     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  1011   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  1012 
  1013 * Reification and reflection:
  1014   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  1015     "Reification".
  1016   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  1017   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  1018 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1019 
  1020 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  1021   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  1022     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  1023     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  1024   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  1025     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  1026   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  1027     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  1028     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  1029     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  1030     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  1031     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  1032     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  1033     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  1034   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  1035     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  1036   - Fact renames:
  1037       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  1038       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  1039 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1040 
  1041 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  1042 
  1043 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  1044 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  1045 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  1046 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1047 
  1048 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  1049 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  1050 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  1051 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  1052 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  1053 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  1054 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  1055 lemmas.
  1056 
  1057 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  1058 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  1059 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1060 
  1061 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  1062 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  1063 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  1064 
  1065 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  1066 top and bottom elements.
  1067 
  1068 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  1069 
  1070 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  1071 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  1072 
  1073  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  1074    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  1075    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  1076 
  1077  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  1078    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  1079    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  1080 
  1081    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  1082    arbitrary filter.
  1083 
  1084  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  1085    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  1086    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  1087    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  1088    on a compact set.
  1089 
  1090  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  1091    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  1092    linear_continuum_topology).
  1093 
  1094  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  1095    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  1096    on all sequences converging to x.
  1097 
  1098  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  1099    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  1100    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  1101    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  1102    left or right.
  1103 
  1104  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  1105 
  1106      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  1107 
  1108  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  1109    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  1110 
  1111  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  1112    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  1113    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  1114    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  1115    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  1116    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  1117 
  1118  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  1119 
  1120    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  1121 
  1122    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  1123      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  1124 
  1125    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  1126 
  1127    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  1128      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  1129 
  1130    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  1131 
  1132    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  1133 
  1134  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  1135 
  1136 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1137 
  1138 * Nitpick:
  1139   - Added option "spy".
  1140   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  1141 
  1142 * Sledgehammer:
  1143   - Renamed option:
  1144       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  1145     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1146   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  1147   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  1148   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  1149 
  1150 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  1151 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  1152 
  1153 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  1154   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  1155   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  1156     generated code.
  1157   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  1158   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  1159   - Fact renames:
  1160     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  1161     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  1162     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  1163 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1164 
  1165 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  1166 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  1167 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  1168 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  1169 
  1170 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  1171 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  1172 
  1173 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1174 
  1175 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  1176 
  1177     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  1178     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  1179 
  1180 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1181 
  1182 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  1183 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  1184 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  1185 
  1186 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  1187 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  1188 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  1189 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1190 
  1191 * HOL-BNF:
  1192   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  1193     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  1194     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  1195     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  1196   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  1197     coinduct).
  1198   - Renamed keywords:
  1199     data ~> datatype_new
  1200     codata ~> codatatype
  1201     bnf_def ~> bnf
  1202   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  1203     discs ~> disc
  1204     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  1205     map_id' ~> map_id
  1206     sels ~> sel
  1207     set_map' ~> set_map
  1208     sets ~> set
  1209 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  1210 
  1211 
  1212 *** ML ***
  1213 
  1214 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  1215 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  1216 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  1217 Examples.thy in particular.
  1218 
  1219 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  1220 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  1221 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  1222 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  1223 
  1224 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  1225 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  1226 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  1227 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  1228 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1229 
  1230 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  1231 
  1232     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  1233     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  1234 
  1235 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1236 
  1237 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  1238 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  1239 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  1240 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  1241 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  1242 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  1243 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  1244 
  1245 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  1246 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  1247 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  1248 clasets separately from the context.
  1249 
  1250 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  1251 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  1252 
  1253 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  1254 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  1255 
  1256 
  1257 *** System ***
  1258 
  1259 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  1260 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1261 
  1262 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  1263 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1264 
  1265 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  1266 settings variable.
  1267 
  1268 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  1269 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  1270 always pdf.
  1271 
  1272 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  1273 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  1274 
  1275 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  1276 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  1277 
  1278 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  1279 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  1280 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  1281 
  1282 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  1283 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  1284 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  1285 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  1286 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1287 for HTML presentation of theories.
  1288 
  1289 
  1290 
  1291 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  1292 -----------------------------------
  1293 
  1294 *** General ***
  1295 
  1296 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  1297 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  1298 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  1299 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  1300 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  1301 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  1302 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  1303 
  1304 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  1305 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  1306 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  1307 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  1308 
  1309 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  1310 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  1311 
  1312 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  1313 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  1314 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  1315 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  1316 dependencies properly.
  1317 
  1318 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  1319 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  1320 
  1321 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  1322 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  1323 
  1324 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  1325 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  1326 and "class ... context ...".
  1327 
  1328 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  1329 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  1330 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  1331 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  1332 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  1333 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  1334 
  1335 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  1336 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  1337 
  1338 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  1339 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  1340 
  1341 
  1342 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1343 
  1344 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  1345 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  1346 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  1347 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  1348 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  1349 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  1350 
  1351 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  1352 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  1353 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  1354 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  1355 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  1356 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  1357 
  1358 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  1359 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  1360 browser on demand.
  1361 
  1362 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  1363 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  1364 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  1365 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  1366 
  1367 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  1368 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  1369 
  1370 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  1371 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  1372 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  1373 potentially infinite message streams.
  1374 
  1375 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  1376 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  1377 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  1378 schemes.
  1379 
  1380 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  1381 symbols.
  1382 
  1383 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  1384 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  1385 
  1386 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  1387 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  1388 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  1389 
  1390 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  1391 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  1392 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  1393 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  1394 
  1395 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  1396 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  1397 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  1398 
  1399 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  1400 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  1401 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  1402 Isabelle distribution.
  1403 
  1404 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  1405 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  1406 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  1407 
  1408 
  1409 *** Pure ***
  1410 
  1411 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  1412 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  1413 
  1414 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  1415 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  1416 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1417 
  1418 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1419 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  1420 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  1421 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  1422 with some care where this is really required.
  1423 
  1424 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  1425 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  1426 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  1427 
  1428   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  1429 
  1430 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  1431 a Hasse diagram.
  1432 
  1433 
  1434 *** HOL ***
  1435 
  1436 * Sledgehammer:
  1437 
  1438   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  1439     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  1440   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  1441   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  1442   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  1443   - Renamed options:
  1444       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  1445       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  1446       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  1447       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  1448 
  1449 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  1450 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  1451 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  1452 
  1453 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  1454 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1455 
  1456 * Lifting:
  1457   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1458   - quot_del attribute
  1459   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1460 
  1461 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1462 expressions.
  1463 
  1464 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1465 pointfree expressions.
  1466 
  1467 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1468 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1469 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1470 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1471 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1472 
  1473 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1474 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1475 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1476 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1477 accordingly.
  1478 
  1479 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1480 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1481 
  1482 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1483 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1484 
  1485 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1486 
  1487 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1488 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1489 
  1490 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1491 
  1492 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1493 
  1494   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1495   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1496 
  1497 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1498 
  1499 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1500 
  1501   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1502   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1503 
  1504 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1505 
  1506 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1507 
  1508   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1509     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1510     output f x converges to G.
  1511 
  1512   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1513     infinity (at_bot).
  1514 
  1515   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1516     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1517 
  1518   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1519     at_top".
  1520 
  1521 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1522 
  1523 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1524 lattice type classes.
  1525 
  1526 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1527 
  1528     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1529     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1530 
  1531 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1532 
  1533 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1534 changes as follows.
  1535 
  1536   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1537 
  1538       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1539       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1540 
  1541   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1542     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1543     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1544     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1545 
  1546   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1547     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1548     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1549 
  1550   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1551     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1552     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1553     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1554 
  1555   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1556     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1557 
  1558       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1559       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1560       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1561       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1562       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1563       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1564       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1565       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1566       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1567       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1568       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1569       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1570       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1571       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1572       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1573       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1574 
  1575 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1576 
  1577 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1578 
  1579 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1580 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1581 
  1582 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1583 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1584 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1585 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1586 
  1587   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1588   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1589   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1590   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1591   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1592   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1593   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1594   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1595   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1596   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1597 
  1598 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1599 
  1600 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1601 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1602 Data").
  1603 
  1604 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1605 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1606 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1607 code.
  1608 
  1609 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1610 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1611 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1612 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1613 
  1614 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1615 
  1616 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1617 
  1618 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1619 
  1620   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1621   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1622 
  1623 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1624 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1625 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1626 
  1627   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1628 
  1629     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1630     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1631     cart_base i  removed
  1632     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1633 
  1634   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1635 
  1636   Renamed lemmas:
  1637 
  1638     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1639     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1640     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1641     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1642     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1643     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1644     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1645     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1646     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1647     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1648 
  1649 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1650 
  1651 * HOL/Probability:
  1652 
  1653   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1654 
  1655   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1656     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1657     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1658 
  1659   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1660     projective family).
  1661 
  1662 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1663 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1664 
  1665 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1666 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1667 datatypes.
  1668 
  1669 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1670 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1671 
  1672 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1673 trees for the code generator.
  1674 
  1675 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1676 Lifting/Transfer.
  1677 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1678 
  1679 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1680 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1681 
  1682 
  1683 *** Document preparation ***
  1684 
  1685 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1686 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1687 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1688 
  1689 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1690 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1691 
  1692 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1693 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1694 document/root.tex.
  1695 
  1696 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1697 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1698 
  1699 
  1700 *** ML ***
  1701 
  1702 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1703 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1704 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1705 
  1706 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1707 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1708 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1709 
  1710 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1711 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1712 necessarily printing visible text.
  1713 
  1714 
  1715 *** System ***
  1716 
  1717 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1718 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1719 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1720 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1721 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1722 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1723 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1724 
  1725 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1726 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1727 
  1728   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1729 
  1730 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1731 
  1732 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1733 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1734 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1735 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1736 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1737 
  1738 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1739 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1740 
  1741 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1742 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1743 
  1744 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1745 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1746 
  1747 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1748 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1749 version of Isabelle.
  1750 
  1751 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1752 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1753 
  1754 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1755 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1756 for home-made settings.
  1757 
  1758 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1759 
  1760 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1761 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1762 configuration.
  1763 
  1764 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1765 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1766 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1767 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1768 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1769 
  1770 
  1771 
  1772 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1773 ------------------------------
  1774 
  1775 *** General ***
  1776 
  1777 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1778 
  1779   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1780     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1781   - markup for bound variables
  1782   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1783   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1784   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1785     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1786 
  1787 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1788 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1789 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1790 
  1791 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1792 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1793 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1794 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1795 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1796 
  1797   context
  1798     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1799     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1800   begin
  1801 
  1802   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1803 
  1804   end
  1805 
  1806   thm my_trans
  1807 
  1808 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1809 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1810 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1811 
  1812 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1813 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1814 
  1815 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1816 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1817 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1818 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1819 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1820 
  1821 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1822 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1823 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1824 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1825 indices of schematic variables.
  1826 
  1827 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1828 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1829 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1830 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1831 etc. was exploited.
  1832 
  1833 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1834 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1835 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1836 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1837 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1838 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1839 
  1840 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1841 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1842 manual.
  1843 
  1844 
  1845 *** Pure ***
  1846 
  1847 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1848 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1849 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1850 
  1851 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1852 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1853 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1854 undocumented feature.)
  1855 
  1856 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1857 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1858 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1859 
  1860   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1861 
  1862   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1863     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1864 
  1865 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1866 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1867 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1868 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1869 
  1870 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1871 
  1872     num ~> num_token
  1873     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1874     xstr ~> str_token
  1875 
  1876 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1877 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1878 position information via constraints).
  1879 
  1880 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1881 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1882 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1883 
  1884 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1885 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1886 
  1887 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1888 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1889 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1890 
  1891 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1892 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1893 
  1894 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1895 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1896 
  1897   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1898 
  1899 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1900 
  1901 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1902 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1903 
  1904 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1905 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1906 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1907 
  1908 
  1909 *** HOL ***
  1910 
  1911 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1912 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1913 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1914 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1915 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1916 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1917 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1918 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1919 possible.
  1920 
  1921 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1922 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1923 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1924 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1925 
  1926 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1927 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1928 
  1929 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1930 
  1931 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1932 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1933 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1934 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1935 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1936 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1937 
  1938   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1939     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1940 
  1941   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1942     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1943     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1944 
  1945   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1946     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1947 
  1948   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1949     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1950     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1951 
  1952   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1953     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1954 
  1955 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1956 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1957 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1958 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1959 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1960 
  1961   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1962     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1963     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1964     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1965     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1966 
  1967     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1968     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1969 
  1970   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1971     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1972     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1973     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1974     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1975     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1976     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1977     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1978 
  1979   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1980     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1981     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1982     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1983 
  1984   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1985     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1986     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1987     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1988 
  1989   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1990     from type nat to type int.
  1991 
  1992 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1993 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1994 
  1995   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1996     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1997     type.  Example syntax:
  1998 
  1999     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  2000       is List.insert
  2001 
  2002     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  2003     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  2004     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  2005     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  2006     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  2007     by the package.
  2008 
  2009   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  2010     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  2011     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  2012     code generation for each constant.
  2013 
  2014   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  2015     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  2016     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  2017     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  2018     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  2019 
  2020   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  2021     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  2022     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  2023 
  2024 * Quotient package:
  2025 
  2026   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  2027     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  2028 
  2029   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  2030     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  2031 
  2032   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  2033     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  2034     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2035 
  2036   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  2037     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2038 
  2039 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  2040 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  2041 
  2042 * Quickcheck:
  2043 
  2044   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  2045     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  2046     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  2047     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  2048     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  2049 
  2050     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  2051     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  2052     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  2053 
  2054     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  2055     continues searching for genuine ones.
  2056 
  2057     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  2058     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  2059     show genuine counterexamples.
  2060 
  2061   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  2062     value generators for a given type and operations.
  2063 
  2064     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  2065     constructors of that type.
  2066 
  2067   - Support for multisets.
  2068 
  2069   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  2070 
  2071   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  2072     conjectures in a locale context.
  2073 
  2074 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  2075 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  2076 
  2077 * Sledgehammer:
  2078   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  2079     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  2080   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  2081   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  2082     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  2083   - Sped up the minimizer.
  2084   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  2085   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  2086   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  2087 
  2088 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  2089 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  2090 
  2091 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  2092 
  2093 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2094 
  2095 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  2096 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  2097 
  2098   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  2099 
  2100 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  2101 a list and a nat.
  2102 
  2103 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  2104 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  2105 
  2106 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  2107 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  2108 default.
  2109 
  2110 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  2111 
  2112   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  2113 
  2114 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  2115 
  2116 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  2117 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  2118 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  2119 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  2120 one_case.
  2121 
  2122 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  2123 the result of the fact expression.
  2124 
  2125 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  2126 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  2127 of some relation theorems:
  2128 
  2129   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  2130   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2131   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  2132   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  2133   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  2134   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  2135 
  2136 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  2137 
  2138 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  2139 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  2140 
  2141 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2142 
  2143 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  2144 to match the constant's name:
  2145 
  2146   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  2147   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  2148   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  2149   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  2150   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  2151   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  2152   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  2153   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  2154   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  2155   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  2156   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  2157   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  2158   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  2159   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  2160   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  2161   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  2162   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  2163   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  2164   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  2165   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  2166   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  2167   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2168   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  2169   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  2170 
  2171 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2172 
  2173 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  2174 and corresponding theorem names:
  2175 
  2176   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  2177 
  2178   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  2179 
  2180   - Renamed theorems:
  2181 
  2182     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  2183     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  2184     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  2185     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  2186     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  2187     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  2188     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  2189     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  2190     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  2191     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  2192     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  2193     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  2194     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  2195     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  2196     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  2197     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  2198     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  2199     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  2200     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  2201     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  2202     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  2203     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  2204     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  2205 
  2206     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  2207 
  2208     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  2209 
  2210 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2211 
  2212 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  2213 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2214 
  2215   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  2216   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  2217   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  2218   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  2219   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  2220   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  2221   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  2222   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  2223   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  2224   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  2225   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  2226   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  2227   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  2228   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  2229   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  2230   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  2231   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  2232   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  2233   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  2234   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  2235   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  2236 
  2237 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  2238 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2239 
  2240 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2241 
  2242 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  2243 
  2244   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  2245   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  2246   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  2247   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  2248   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  2249   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  2250   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  2251   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  2252   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  2253   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  2254   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  2255   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  2256   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  2257   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  2258   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  2259   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  2260   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  2261   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  2262 
  2263 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2264 
  2265 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  2266 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  2267 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  2268 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  2269 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  2270 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  2271 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  2272 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  2273 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  2274 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  2275 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  2276 
  2277 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  2278 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  2279 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  2280 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  2281 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  2282 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  2283 
  2284 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  2285 through option types.
  2286 
  2287 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  2288 relations.
  2289 
  2290 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2291 
  2292 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  2293 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  2294 
  2295   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  2296   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  2297   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  2298   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  2299   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2300   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2301   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  2302   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2303   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  2304   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2305   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  2306   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  2307   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2308   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2309   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2310   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  2311   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  2312   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  2313   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2314   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2315   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  2316   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  2317   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2318   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2319   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  2320   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2321   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  2322   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  2323   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  2324   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  2325   zless_le ~> less_le
  2326   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  2327   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  2328   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  2329 
  2330 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  2331 
  2332   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  2333 
  2334 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  2335 
  2336 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  2337 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  2338 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  2339 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  2340 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2341 
  2342 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2343 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  2344 
  2345 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  2346 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  2347 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  2348 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  2349 follows:
  2350 
  2351   Operations:
  2352   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  2353   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  2354   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  2355   del -> rbt_del
  2356   delete -> rbt_delete
  2357   ins -> rbt_ins
  2358   insert -> rbt_insert
  2359   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  2360   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  2361   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  2362   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  2363   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  2364   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  2365   tree_less -> rbt_less
  2366   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  2367   union -> rbt_union
  2368   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  2369   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  2370 
  2371   Lemmas:
  2372   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  2373   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  2374   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  2375   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  2376   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  2377   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  2378   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  2379   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  2380   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  2381   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  2382   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  2383   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  2384   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  2385   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  2386   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  2387   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  2388   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  2389   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  2390   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  2391   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  2392   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  2393   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  2394   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  2395   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  2396   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  2397   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  2398   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  2399   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  2400   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  2401   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  2402   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  2403   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  2404   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  2405   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  2406   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  2407   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  2408   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  2409   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  2410   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  2411   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  2412   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  2413   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  2414   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  2415   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  2416   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  2417   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  2418   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  2419   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  2420   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  2421   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  2422   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  2423   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  2424   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  2425   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  2426   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  2427   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  2428   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  2429   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  2430   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  2431   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  2432   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  2433   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  2434   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  2435   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  2436   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  2437   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  2438   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  2439   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  2440   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  2441   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  2442   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  2443   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  2444   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  2445   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  2446   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  2447   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  2448   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  2449   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  2450   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  2451   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  2452   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  2453   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  2454   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  2455 
  2456 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  2457 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2458 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2459 
  2460   Changed Operations:
  2461   float_abs -> abs
  2462   float_nprt -> nprt
  2463   float_pprt -> pprt
  2464   pow2 -> use powr
  2465   round_down -> float_round_down
  2466   round_up -> float_round_up
  2467   scale -> exponent
  2468 
  2469   Removed Operations:
  2470   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2471 
  2472   Renamed Lemmas:
  2473   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2474   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2475   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2476   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2477   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2478   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2479   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2480   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2481   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2482   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2483   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2484   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2485   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2486   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2487   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2488   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2489   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2490   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2491   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2492   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2493   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2494   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2495   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2496   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2497   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2498   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2499   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2500   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2501   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2502   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2503   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2504   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2505   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2506   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2507   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2508   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2509 
  2510   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2511   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2512   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2513   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2514   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2515   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2516   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2517   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2518   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2519   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2520 
  2521 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2522 association lists with distinct keys.
  2523 
  2524 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2525 annotated commands.
  2526 
  2527 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2528 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2529 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2530 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2531 
  2532 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2533 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2534 instead.
  2535 
  2536   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2537   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2538   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2539   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2540   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2541   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2542   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2543   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2544   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2545   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2546   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2547   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2548   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2549   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2550   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2551   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2552   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2553   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2554   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2555   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2556   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2557   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2558   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2559   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2560   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2561   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2562   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2563   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2564   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2565   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2566   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2567   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2568   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2569   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2570   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2571   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2572   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2573   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2574   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2575   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2576   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2577 
  2578 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2579 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2580 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2581 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2582 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2583 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2584 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2585 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2586 
  2587 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2588 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2589 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2590 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2591 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2592 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2593 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2594 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2595 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2596 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2597 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2598 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2599 
  2600   Renamed constants:
  2601   measure -> emeasure
  2602   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2603   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2604   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2605   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2606 
  2607   Removed locales:
  2608   completeable_measure_space
  2609   finite_measure_space
  2610   finite_prob_space
  2611   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2612   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2613   finite_sigma_algebra
  2614   measure_space
  2615   pair_finite_prob_space
  2616   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2617   pair_finite_space
  2618   pair_sigma_algebra
  2619   product_sigma_algebra
  2620 
  2621   Removed constants:
  2622   conditional_space
  2623   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2624   image_space
  2625   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2626   pair_measure_generator
  2627   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2628   subvimage
  2629 
  2630   Replacement theorems:
  2631   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2632   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2633   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2634   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2635   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2636   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2637   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2638   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2639   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2640   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2641   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2642   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2643   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2644   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2645   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2646   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2647   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2648   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2649   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2650   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2651   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2652   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2653   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2654   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2655   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2656   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2657   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2658   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2659   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2660   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2661   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2662   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2663   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2664   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2665   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2666   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2667   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2668   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2669   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2670   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2671   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2672   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2673   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2674   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2675   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2676   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2677   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2678   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2679   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2680   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2681   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2682   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2683   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2684   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2685   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2686   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2687   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2688   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2689   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2690   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2691   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2692   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2693   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2694   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2695   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2696   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2697   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2698   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2699   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2700   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2701   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2702   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2703   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2704   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2705   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2706   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2707   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2708   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2709   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2710   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2711   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2712   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2713   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2714   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2715   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2716   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2717   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2718   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2719   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2720   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2721   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2722   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2723   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2724   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2725   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2726   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2727   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2728   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2729   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2730   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2731   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2732   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2733   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2734   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2735   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2736   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2737   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2738   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2739   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2740   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2741   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2742   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2743   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2744   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2745   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2746   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2747   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2748   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2749   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2750   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2751   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2752   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2753   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2754   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2755   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2756   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2757   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2758   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2759 
  2760 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2761 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2762 
  2763 
  2764 *** FOL ***
  2765 
  2766 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2767 
  2768 
  2769 *** ZF ***
  2770 
  2771 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2772 analysis.
  2773 
  2774 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2775 
  2776 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2777 
  2778 
  2779 *** ML ***
  2780 
  2781 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2782 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2783 
  2784 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2785 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2786 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2787 
  2788 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2789 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2790 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2791 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2792 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2793 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2794 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2795 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2796 
  2797 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2798 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2799 
  2800 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2801 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2802 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2803 
  2804 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2805 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2806 
  2807 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2808 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2809 context as well.
  2810 
  2811 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2812 
  2813   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2814   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2815   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2816   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2817   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2818   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2819   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2820   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2821   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2822   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2823   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2824   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2825 
  2826 
  2827 *** System ***
  2828 
  2829 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2830 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2831 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2832 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2833 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2834 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2835 the generic user home was intended.
  2836 
  2837 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2838 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2839 
  2840 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2841 (not just JRE).
  2842 
  2843 
  2844 
  2845 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2846 ------------------------------------
  2847 
  2848 *** General ***
  2849 
  2850 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2851 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2852 
  2853   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2854     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2855     files for checking).
  2856 
  2857   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2858     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2859     positions.
  2860 
  2861   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2862     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2863     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2864 
  2865   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2866     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2867     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2868 
  2869   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2870     cores.
  2871 
  2872   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2873     versions (garbage collection).
  2874 
  2875 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2876 including some remaining limitations.
  2877 
  2878 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2879 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2880 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2881 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2882 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2883 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2884 
  2885 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2886 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2887 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2888 
  2889 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2890 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2891 usedir option -Q.
  2892 
  2893 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2894 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2895 
  2896   long_names   ~> names_long
  2897   short_names  ~> names_short
  2898   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2899 
  2900 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2901 
  2902   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2903 
  2904 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2905 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2906 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2907 
  2908 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2909 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2910 
  2911 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2912   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2913   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2914   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2915     "Classical Reasoner".
  2916 
  2917 
  2918 *** HOL ***
  2919 
  2920 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2921 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2922 
  2923 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2924 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2925 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2926 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2927 class complete_linorder.
  2928 
  2929 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2930 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2931 
  2932 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2933 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2934 
  2935   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2936   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2937   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2938   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2939   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2940   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2941   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2942   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2943   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2944   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2945   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2946 
  2947 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2948 
  2949   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2950   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2951   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2952   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2953   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2954   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2955   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2956   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2957   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2958   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2959   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2960   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2961   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2962   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2963   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2964   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2965 
  2966 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2967 
  2968 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2969 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2970 
  2971 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2972 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2973 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2974 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2975 
  2976 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2977 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2978 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2979 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2980 
  2981 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2982 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2983 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2984 
  2985 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2986 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2987 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2988 
  2989 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2990 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2991 
  2992 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2993 
  2994     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2995     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2996 
  2997 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2998 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2999 
  3000 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  3001 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3002 
  3003 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  3004 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  3005 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  3006 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3007 
  3008   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  3009   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  3010   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  3011   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  3012   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  3013   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  3014   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  3015 
  3016 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  3017 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3018 
  3019   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  3020   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  3021   real_less_def ~> less_le
  3022   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  3023   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  3024   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  3025   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  3026   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  3027   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  3028   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  3029   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  3030   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  3031   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  3032   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  3033   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  3034   real_le_linear ~> linear
  3035   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  3036   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  3037   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  3038   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  3039   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  3040   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  3041   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  3042   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  3043   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  3044   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  3045   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  3046   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  3047   expi_add ~> exp_add
  3048   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  3049   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  3050   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  3051   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  3052   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3053   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  3054   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3055   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  3056   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3057   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3058   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3059   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3060   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3061   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  3062   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  3063   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  3064   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  3065   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3066   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3067   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3068   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  3069   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3070   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3071   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  3072   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  3073   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  3074   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  3075   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  3076   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  3077   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  3078   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  3079   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  3080   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  3081   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  3082   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  3083   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  3084   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  3085   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  3086   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  3087   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  3088   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3089   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  3090   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  3091   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  3092   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  3093   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  3094   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3095   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  3096   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  3097   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  3098   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  3099   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  3100   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  3101 
  3102 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  3103 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  3104 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  3105 
  3106 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  3107 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  3108 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  3109 
  3110 * Code generation:
  3111 
  3112   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  3113     characters in the target language.
  3114 
  3115   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  3116     instead.
  3117 
  3118   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  3119 
  3120   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  3121     reactivated by the following theory command:
  3122 
  3123       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  3124 
  3125 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3126 
  3127 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  3128 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  3129 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  3130 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  3131 syntax.
  3132 
  3133 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  3134 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  3135 
  3136 * Nitpick:
  3137   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  3138   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  3139   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  3140     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3141 
  3142 * Sledgehammer:
  3143   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  3144   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  3145     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  3146   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  3147     this can be done within reasonable time.
  3148   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  3149     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3150   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  3151     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  3152   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  3153     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3154 
  3155 * Metis:
  3156   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3157   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  3158     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3159 
  3160 * Command 'try':
  3161   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  3162     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3163   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  3164     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  3165 
  3166 * Quickcheck:
  3167   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  3168     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3169   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  3170     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  3171   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  3172     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  3173     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  3174     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  3175   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  3176     (formly in HOL/Library).
  3177 
  3178 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3179 use 'partial_function' instead.
  3180 
  3181 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  3182 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  3183 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  3184 
  3185 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  3186 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  3187 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3188 
  3189 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  3190 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3191 
  3192 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  3193 arithmetic.
  3194 
  3195 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  3196 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  3197 and lattice type classes.
  3198 
  3199 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  3200 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  3201 
  3202 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  3203 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  3204 
  3205 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  3206 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  3207 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3208 
  3209   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  3210   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  3211   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  3212   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  3213 
  3214 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  3215 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  3216 constants:
  3217 
  3218   type inat   ~> type enat
  3219   Fin         ~> enat
  3220   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  3221   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  3222   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  3223 
  3224 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  3225 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3226 
  3227 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  3228 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  3229 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  3230 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  3231 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  3232 
  3233 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  3234 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  3235 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  3236 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  3237 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  3238 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  3239 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3240 
  3241   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  3242   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  3243   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  3244   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  3245 
  3246 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  3247 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  3248 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3249 
  3250   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  3251   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  3252   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  3253   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  3254   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  3255   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  3256   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  3257   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  3258   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  3259   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  3260   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  3261   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  3262   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  3263   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  3264   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  3265   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  3266   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  3267   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  3268   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  3269   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  3270   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  3271   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  3272   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  3273   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  3274   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  3275   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  3276   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  3277   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  3278   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  3279   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3280   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  3281   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  3282   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  3283   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  3284   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  3285   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  3286   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  3287   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  3288   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  3289   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  3290   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  3291   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  3292   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  3293   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  3294   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  3295   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  3296   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  3297   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  3298   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  3299   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  3300   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  3301 
  3302 * Session HOL-Probability:
  3303   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  3304   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  3305   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  3306   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  3307     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3308 
  3309 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3310 
  3311   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  3312   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  3313   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3314   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  3315   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  3316   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  3317   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  3318   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  3319   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  3320   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  3321   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3322   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  3323   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  3324   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  3325   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  3326   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  3327   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  3328   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  3329   UU_I ~> bottomI
  3330   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  3331   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3332   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  3333   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  3334   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  3335   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  3336 
  3337 
  3338 *** Document preparation ***
  3339 
  3340 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  3341 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  3342 same.
  3343 
  3344 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  3345 result.
  3346 
  3347 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  3348 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  3349 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  3350 
  3351 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  3352 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  3353 
  3354 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  3355 like this:
  3356 
  3357   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  3358   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  3359 
  3360 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  3361 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  3362 layouts.
  3363 
  3364 
  3365 *** ML ***
  3366 
  3367 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  3368 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  3369 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  3370 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  3371 under external program control.
  3372 
  3373 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  3374 data, which requires explicit setup.
  3375 
  3376 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  3377 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  3378 (better known as Proof General).
  3379 
  3380 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  3381 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  3382 
  3383 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  3384 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  3385 
  3386 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  3387 (including quotes etc.).
  3388 
  3389 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  3390 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  3391 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  3392 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  3393 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  3394 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  3395 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  3396 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  3397 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  3398 
  3399 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  3400 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  3401 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3402 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  3403 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  3404 
  3405 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  3406 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  3407 
  3408 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  3409 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  3410 
  3411 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  3412 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  3413 
  3414 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  3415 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  3416 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  3417 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  3418 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  3419 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  3420 proper Proof.context.
  3421 
  3422 
  3423 *** System ***
  3424 
  3425 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  3426 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  3427 
  3428 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  3429 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  3430 
  3431 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  3432 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  3433 
  3434   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  3435   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  3436   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  3437   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  3438   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  3439 
  3440 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  3441 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3442 
  3443 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  3444 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  3445 example:
  3446 
  3447   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  3448 
  3449 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  3450 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  3451 
  3452 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  3453 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  3454 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  3455 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  3456 
  3457 
  3458 
  3459 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3460 ----------------------------------
  3461 
  3462 *** General ***
  3463 
  3464 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3465 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3466 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3467 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3468 like this:
  3469 
  3470   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3471 
  3472 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3473 
  3474 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3475 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3476 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3477 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3478 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3479 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3480 
  3481 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3482 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3483 the following package declarations:
  3484 
  3485   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3486   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3487 
  3488 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3489 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3490 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3491 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3492 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3493 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3494 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3495 
  3496 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3497 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3498 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3499 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3500 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3501 
  3502 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3503 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3504 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3505 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3506 
  3507 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3508 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3509 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3510 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3511 
  3512   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3513 
  3514   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3515   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3516   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3517   show_types                    show_types
  3518   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3519   show_consts                   show_consts
  3520   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3521 
  3522   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3523   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3524   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3525 
  3526   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3527   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3528 
  3529   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3530 
  3531   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3532   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3533   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3534   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3535   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3536 
  3537 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3538 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3539 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3540 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3541 
  3542 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3543 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3544 
  3545   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3546   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3547 
  3548 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3549 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3550 float_token.
  3551 
  3552 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3553 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3554 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3555 
  3556 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3557 DejaVu Sans.
  3558 
  3559 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3560 
  3561 
  3562 *** Pure ***
  3563 
  3564 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3565 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3566 time.
  3567 
  3568 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3569 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3570 
  3571 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3572 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3573 
  3574 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3575 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3576 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3577 command already provided this functionality.
  3578 
  3579 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3580 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3581 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3582 without interpretations.
  3583 
  3584 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3585 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3586 
  3587 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3588 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3589 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3590 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3591 
  3592 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3593 'definition' instead.
  3594 
  3595 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3596 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3597 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3598 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3599 
  3600 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3601 constructors.
  3602 
  3603 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3604 the local file system.
  3605 
  3606 
  3607 *** HOL ***
  3608 
  3609 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3610 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3611 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3612 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3613 
  3614   declare [[coercion f]]
  3615 
  3616 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3617 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3618 
  3619   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3620 
  3621 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3622 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3623 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3624 other theories like this:
  3625 
  3626   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3627 
  3628 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3629 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3630 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3631 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3632 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3633 for examples.
  3634 
  3635 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3636 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3637 
  3638 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3639 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3640 
  3641 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3642 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3643 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3644 
  3645 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3646 functorial structure of types.
  3647 
  3648 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3649 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3650 
  3651 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3652 languages.
  3653 
  3654 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3655 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3656 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3657 
  3658 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3659 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3660 
  3661 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3662 combinators any longer.
  3663 
  3664 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3665 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3666 
  3667 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3668 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3669 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3670 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3671 
  3672   record 'a foo = ...
  3673   ...
  3674   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3675 
  3676 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3677 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3678 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3679 
  3680 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3681 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3682 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3683 
  3684 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3685 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3686 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3687 
  3688 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3689 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3690 
  3691 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3692 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3693 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3694 independently.
  3695 
  3696 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3697 counter example search.
  3698 
  3699 * Sledgehammer:
  3700   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3701     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3702     sledgehammer").
  3703   - Renamed commands:
  3704     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3705     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3706     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3707     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3708   - Renamed options:
  3709     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3710     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3711     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3712     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3713     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3714 
  3715 * Nitpick:
  3716   - Renamed options:
  3717     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3718     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3719     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3720   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3721   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3722   - Added "whack" option.
  3723   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3724   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3725   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3726   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3727     higher cardinalities.
  3728   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3729 
  3730 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3731 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3732 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3733 
  3734     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3735 
  3736 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3737 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3738 
  3739 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3740 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3741 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3742 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3743 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3744 "smt_solver".
  3745 
  3746 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3747 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3748 
  3749 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3750 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3751 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3752 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3753 
  3754 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3755   - Renamed:
  3756     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3757     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3758     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3759   - Added:
  3760     smt_verbose
  3761     smt_random_seed
  3762     smt_datatypes
  3763     smt_infer_triggers
  3764     smt_monomorph_limit
  3765     cvc3_options
  3766     remote_cvc3_options
  3767     remote_z3_options
  3768     yices_options
  3769 
  3770 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3771 header.
  3772 
  3773 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3774 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3775 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3776 
  3777   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3778 
  3779 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3780 
  3781 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3782 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3783 
  3784 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3785 
  3786 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3787 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3788 
  3789 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3790 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3791 
  3792 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3793 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3794 
  3795 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3796 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3797 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3798 
  3799 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3800 
  3801 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3802 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3803 
  3804 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3805 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3806 
  3807 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3808 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3809 for congruent(2)).
  3810 
  3811 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3812 
  3813   types
  3814     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3815     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3816 
  3817   constants
  3818     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3819     True ~> HOL.True
  3820     False ~> HOL.False
  3821     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3822     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3823     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3824     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3825     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3826     The ~> HOL.The
  3827     All ~> HOL.All
  3828     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3829     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3830     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3831     If ~> HOL.If
  3832     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3833     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3834     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3835     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3836     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3837     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3838     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3839     op : ~> Set.member
  3840     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3841 
  3842 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3843 
  3844 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3845 
  3846     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3847     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3848     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3849     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3850     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3851     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3852     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3853     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3854 
  3855 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3856 
  3857 * More stylized fact names:
  3858 
  3859   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3860   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3861   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3862   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3863 
  3864 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3865 
  3866 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3867 
  3868   constants
  3869     null ~> List.null
  3870 
  3871   facts
  3872     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3873     null_empty ~> null_def
  3874 
  3875 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3876 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3877 generation.
  3878 
  3879 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3880 Haskell code.
  3881 
  3882 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3883 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3884 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3885 
  3886 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3887 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3888 
  3889 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3890 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3891 
  3892 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3893 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3894 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3895 
  3896 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3897 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3898 
  3899 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3900 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3901 
  3902 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3903 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3904 referred to by its qualified name.
  3905 
  3906   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3907   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3908   product ~>  Enum.product
  3909 
  3910 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3911 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3912 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3913 
  3914 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3915 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3916 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3917 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3918 
  3919 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3920 sort_key.
  3921 
  3922 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3923 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3924 
  3925 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3926 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3927 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3928 
  3929   types
  3930     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3931               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3932               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3933         (depends on your needs)
  3934 
  3935   constants
  3936      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3937      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3938      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3939 
  3940 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3941 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3942 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3943 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3944 
  3945 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3946 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3947 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3948 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3949 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3950 
  3951 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3952 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3953 
  3954 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3955 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3956 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3957 
  3958 
  3959 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3960 
  3961 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3962 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3963 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3964 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3965 compatibility.
  3966 
  3967 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3968 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3969 
  3970 
  3971 *** HOLCF ***
  3972 
  3973 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3974 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3975 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3976 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3977 
  3978 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3979 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3980 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3981 
  3982   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3983   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3984   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3985 
  3986 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3987 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3988 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3989 
  3990 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3991 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3992 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3993 domain definition now works:
  3994 
  3995   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3996 
  3997 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3998 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3999 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  4000 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  4001 
  4002   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  4003     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  4004 
  4005   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  4006 
  4007 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  4008 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  4009 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4010 
  4011 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  4012 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4013 
  4014 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  4015 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  4016 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  4017 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  4018 
  4019 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  4020 
  4021 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4022 
  4023 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4024 
  4025 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  4026 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4027 
  4028 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  4029 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  4030 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  4031 
  4032 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  4033 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  4034 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4035 
  4036 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  4037 still supported as an input translation.
  4038 
  4039 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  4040 
  4041   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  4042   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  4043   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  4044   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  4045   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  4046   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  4047   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  4048 
  4049 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  4050 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4051 
  4052   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  4053   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  4054   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  4055   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  4056   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  4057   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  4058 
  4059 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  4060 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4061 
  4062 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  4063 
  4064   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  4065   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  4066   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  4067   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  4068 
  4069 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4070 
  4071 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  4072 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4073 
  4074 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  4075 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4076 
  4077   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  4078   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  4079   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  4080   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  4081   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  4082   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  4083   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  4084   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  4085   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  4086   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  4087   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  4088   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  4089   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  4090   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  4091   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  4092   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  4093   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  4094   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  4095   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  4096   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  4097 
  4098 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4099 
  4100   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  4101   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  4102   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  4103   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  4104   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  4105   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  4106   box_less             ~> box_below
  4107   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  4108   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  4109   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  4110   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  4111   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  4112   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  4113   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  4114   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  4115   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  4116   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  4117   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  4118   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  4119   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  4120   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  4121   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  4122   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  4123   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  4124   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  4125   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  4126   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  4127   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  4128   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  4129   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  4130   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  4131   up_less              ~> up_below
  4132   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  4133   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  4134   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  4135   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  4136   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  4137   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  4138   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  4139   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  4140   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  4141   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  4142   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  4143   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  4144   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  4145 
  4146 
  4147 *** FOL and ZF ***
  4148 
  4149 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  4150 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4151 
  4152 
  4153 *** ML ***
  4154 
  4155 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  4156 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  4157 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  4158 
  4159 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  4160 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  4161 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  4162 
  4163 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  4164 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  4165 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  4166 
  4167 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  4168 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  4169 
  4170 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  4171 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  4172 
  4173 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  4174 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  4175 
  4176 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  4177 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  4178 
  4179 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  4180 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  4181 almost all situations.
  4182 
  4183 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  4184 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  4185 Isabelle/ML.
  4186 
  4187 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  4188 meaning.
  4189 
  4190 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  4191 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  4192 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  4193 
  4194 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  4195 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  4196 
  4197 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  4198 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  4199 
  4200 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  4201 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  4202 @{thms} for most purposes.
  4203 
  4204 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  4205 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  4206 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  4207 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  4208 configuration options.
  4209 
  4210 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  4211 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  4212 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  4213 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  4214 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  4215 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  4216 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  4217 
  4218 
  4219 
  4220 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  4221 ---------------------------------
  4222 
  4223 *** General ***
  4224 
  4225 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  4226 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  4227 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  4228 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  4229 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  4230 their full internal name.
  4231 
  4232 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  4233 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  4234 Some hints on upgrading:
  4235 
  4236   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  4237     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  4238     which are independent of this issue.
  4239 
  4240   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  4241     provides the following special forms:
  4242 
  4243       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  4244       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  4245       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  4246 
  4247     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  4248     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  4249     extra variables".
  4250 
  4251     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  4252     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  4253     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  4254     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  4255     "logic".
  4256 
  4257   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  4258     antiquotations:
  4259 
  4260       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  4261       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  4262       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  4263       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  4264 
  4265   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  4266     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  4267     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  4268     antiquotations.
  4269 
  4270 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  4271 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  4272 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  4273 diagnose syntax problems.
  4274 
  4275 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  4276 
  4277 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  4278 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  4279 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  4280 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  4281 
  4282 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  4283 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  4284 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  4285 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4286 
  4287 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  4288 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  4289 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  4290 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  4291 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4292 
  4293 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  4294 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  4295 
  4296 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  4297 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  4298 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  4299 
  4300   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  4301 
  4302 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  4303 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  4304 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  4305 
  4306 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  4307 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  4308 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4309 
  4310 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  4311 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  4312 
  4313 
  4314 *** Pure ***
  4315 
  4316 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  4317 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  4318 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  4319 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  4320 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  4321 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  4322 inspect proof terms.
  4323 
  4324 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  4325 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  4326 are added internally.  For example:
  4327 
  4328   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  4329 
  4330 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  4331 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4332 
  4333 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4334 
  4335 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4336 'class' instead.
  4337 
  4338 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  4339 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  4340 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4341 
  4342 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  4343 invariants.
  4344 
  4345 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  4346 user space functionality any longer.
  4347 
  4348 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  4349 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  4350 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4351 
  4352 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  4353 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  4354 
  4355 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  4356 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  4357 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  4358 
  4359 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  4360 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  4361 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  4362 
  4363 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  4364 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4365 
  4366 
  4367 *** HOL ***
  4368 
  4369 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  4370 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  4371 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  4372 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  4373 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  4374 
  4375 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  4376 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  4377 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  4378 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  4379 
  4380   fun
  4381     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  4382   where
  4383     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  4384 
  4385   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  4386     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  4387 
  4388   quotient_definition
  4389     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  4390 
  4391 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  4392 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  4393 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  4394 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  4395 
  4396 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  4397 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  4398 
  4399 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  4400 separate HOL-SMT session.
  4401 
  4402 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  4403 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4404 
  4405 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  4406 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  4407 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  4408 
  4409 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  4410 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4411 
  4412 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  4413 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4414 
  4415 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  4416 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4417 
  4418 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  4419 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4420 
  4421 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  4422 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  4423 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4424 
  4425   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  4426   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  4427   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  4428   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  4429   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  4430   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  4431   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  4432   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  4433   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  4434   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  4435   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  4436   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  4437   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  4438   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  4439   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  4440   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  4441   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  4442   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  4443   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  4444   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  4445   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  4446   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  4447   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  4448   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  4449   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  4450   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  4451   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  4452   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  4453   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  4454   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  4455 
  4456 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  4457 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4458 
  4459 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4460 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4461 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4462 
  4463 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4464 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4465 
  4466 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4467 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4468 
  4469 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4470 
  4471 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4472 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4473 
  4474 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4475 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4476 
  4477 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4478 
  4479 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4480 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4481 
  4482 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4483 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4484 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4485 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4486 
  4487 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4488   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4489   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4490   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4491 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4492 
  4493 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4494 lattices):
  4495 
  4496     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4497     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4498 
  4499     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4500 
  4501     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4502     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4503     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4504     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4505     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4506     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4507     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4508     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4509     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4510     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4511     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4512     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4513     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4514 
  4515     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4516     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4517     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4518     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4519     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4520     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4521     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4522     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4523     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4524     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4525     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4526     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4527     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4528     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4529     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4530     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4531     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4532     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4533 
  4534   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4535   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4536 
  4537     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4538     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4539     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4540     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4541     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4542 
  4543 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4544 
  4545 * Refined field classes:
  4546   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4547     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4548     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4549   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4550 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4551 
  4552 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4553   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4554   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4555   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4556     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4557   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4558     equal_neg_zero.
  4559 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4560 
  4561 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4562 sets to lattices:
  4563 
  4564   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4565   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4566   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4567   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4568   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4569   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4570   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4571   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4572   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4573   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4574 
  4575 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4576 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4577 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4578 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4579 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4580 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4581 
  4582 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4583 multiset order:
  4584 
  4585   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4586     <= and <;
  4587   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4588     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4589     multiset_order;
  4590   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4591     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4592     generation;
  4593   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4594     if needed.
  4595 
  4596 Renamed:
  4597 
  4598   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4599   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4600   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4601 
  4602 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4603 
  4604 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4605 
  4606 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4607 
  4608 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4609 
  4610 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4611 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4612 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4613 
  4614   Constants:
  4615   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4616   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4617   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4618   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4619   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4620   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4621   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4622   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4623   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4624   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4625   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4626   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4627   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4628 
  4629   Lemmas:
  4630   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4631   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4632   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4633   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4634   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4635   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4636   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4637   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4638   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4639   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4640   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4641   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4642   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4643 
  4644 * Sledgehammer:
  4645   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4646     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4647     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4648     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4649     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4650     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4651     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4652   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4653   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4654     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4655   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4656     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4657     is still experimental.)
  4658   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4659     full-typed mode.
  4660   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4661 
  4662 * Nitpick:
  4663   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4664   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4665   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4666     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4667   - Added support for quotient types.
  4668   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4669     constructs.
  4670   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4671     "termination" proofs).
  4672   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4673   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4674   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4675   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4676     record getters.
  4677   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4678   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4679   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4680   - Added "atoms" option.
  4681   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4682     problems.
  4683   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4684     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4685     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4686   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4687     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4688   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4689 
  4690 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4691   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4692   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4693   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4694   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4695   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4696   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4697   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4698   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4699   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4700 
  4701 
  4702 *** HOLCF ***
  4703 
  4704 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4705 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4706 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4707 
  4708 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4709 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4710 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4711 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4712 
  4713 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4714 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4715 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4716 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4717 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4718 
  4719 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4720 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4721 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4722 
  4723 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4724 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4725 
  4726   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4727   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4728 
  4729 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4730 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4731 
  4732   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4733   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4734   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4735   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4736   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4737 
  4738 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4739 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4740 
  4741   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4742   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4743   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4744 
  4745 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4746 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4747 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4748 
  4749 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4750 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4751 
  4752 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4753 
  4754 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4755 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4756 
  4757 
  4758 *** ML ***
  4759 
  4760 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4761 
  4762     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4763     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4764 
  4765     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4766     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4767     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4768     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4769 
  4770     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4771     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4772     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4773 
  4774 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4775 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4776 
  4777 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4778 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4779 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4780 
  4781 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4782 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4783 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4784 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4785 
  4786 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4787 the context or even global references.
  4788 
  4789 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4790 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4791 
  4792 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4793 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4794 
  4795   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4796   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4797   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4798   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4799   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4800   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4801   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4802   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4803   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4804   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4805 
  4806 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4807 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4808 
  4809 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4810 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4811 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4812 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4813 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4814 
  4815 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4816 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4817 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4818 Theory_Data version.
  4819 
  4820 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4821 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4822 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4823 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4824 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4825 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4826 explicitly in rare situations.
  4827 
  4828 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4829 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4830 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4831 
  4832 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4833 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4834 
  4835 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4836 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4837 quite rare).
  4838 
  4839 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4840 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4841 
  4842 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4843 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4844 terms.
  4845 
  4846 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4847 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4848 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4849 
  4850 
  4851 *** System ***
  4852 
  4853 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4854 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4855 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4856 
  4857 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4858 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4859 respectively.
  4860 
  4861 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4862 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4863 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4864 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4865 
  4866   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4867 
  4868 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4869 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4870 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4871 component.
  4872 
  4873 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4874 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4875 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4876 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4877 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4878 the user for manual installation.
  4879 
  4880 
  4881 
  4882 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4883 -------------------------------------
  4884 
  4885 *** General ***
  4886 
  4887 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4888 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4889 
  4890 
  4891 *** Pure ***
  4892 
  4893 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4894 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4895 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4896 
  4897 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4898 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4899 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4900 
  4901 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4902 interpretation.
  4903 
  4904 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4905 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4906 
  4907 
  4908 *** Document preparation ***
  4909 
  4910 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4911 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4912 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4913 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4914 
  4915 
  4916 *** HOL ***
  4917 
  4918 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4919 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4920 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4921 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4922 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4923 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4924 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4925 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4926 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4927 
  4928 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4929 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4930 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4931 
  4932 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4933 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4934 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4935 
  4936 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4937 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4938 
  4939 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4940 
  4941 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4942 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4943 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4944 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4945 
  4946 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4947 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4948 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4949 "mirabelle" utility.
  4950 
  4951 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4952 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4953 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4954 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4955 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4956 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4957 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4958 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4959 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4960 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4961 
  4962 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4963 procedure only.
  4964 
  4965 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4966 
  4967 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4968 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4969 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4970 that fail later.
  4971 
  4972 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4973 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4974 
  4975 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4976 the same method as the approximation method.
  4977 
  4978 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4979 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4980 series expansion.
  4981 
  4982 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4983 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4984 
  4985 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4986 reals.
  4987 
  4988 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4989 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4990 
  4991 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4992 fixpoint theorem.
  4993 
  4994 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4995   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4996     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4997   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4998     accordingly
  4999   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  5000     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  5001   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  5002     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  5003 
  5004 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  5005 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  5006 lattice.
  5007 
  5008 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  5009 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  5010 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  5011 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  5012 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  5013 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  5014 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5015 
  5016 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  5017   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  5018     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  5019   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  5020     le_inf_iff
  5021   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  5022     sup_aci)
  5023   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  5024   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  5025   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  5026     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  5027     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  5028     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  5029     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  5030     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  5031     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  5032     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  5033     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  5034     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  5035     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  5036   - authentic syntax for
  5037     Set.Pow
  5038     Set.image
  5039   - mere abbreviations:
  5040     Set.empty               (for bot)
  5041     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  5042     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  5043     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  5044     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  5045     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  5046     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  5047     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  5048   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  5049 
  5050 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  5051 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  5052 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  5053 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  5054 
  5055 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  5056 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  5057 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5058 
  5059 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  5060 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5061 
  5062 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  5063 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  5064 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  5065 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5066 
  5067 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  5068 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5069 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  5070 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  5071 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  5072 
  5073 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  5074 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  5075 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5076 
  5077 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  5078 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5079 
  5080 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  5081 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  5082 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  5083 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  5084 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  5085 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  5086 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  5087 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5088 
  5089 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  5090     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  5091     code_post       replaces    code post
  5092     etc.
  5093   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5094 
  5095 * Renamed methods:
  5096     sizechange -> size_change
  5097     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  5098   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5099 
  5100 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  5101 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  5102 
  5103 * Renamed theorems:
  5104     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5105     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  5106     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  5107     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  5108     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  5109   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5110 
  5111 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  5112 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5113 
  5114 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  5115 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5116 
  5117 
  5118 *** HOLCF ***
  5119 
  5120 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  5121 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  5122 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  5123 
  5124 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  5125 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  5126 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  5127 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  5128 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  5129 
  5130 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  5131 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  5132 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  5133 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  5134 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  5135 
  5136 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  5137 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  5138 constructor are pre-configured.
  5139 
  5140 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  5141 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  5142 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  5143 
  5144 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  5145 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  5146 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  5147 as well.)
  5148 
  5149 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  5150 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  5151 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  5152 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5153 examples.
  5154 
  5155 
  5156 *** ML ***
  5157 
  5158 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  5159 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  5160 
  5161 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  5162 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  5163 position, logical grouping etc.
  5164 
  5165 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  5166 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  5167 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  5168 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  5169 
  5170 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  5171 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  5172 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  5173 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  5174 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  5175 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  5176 
  5177 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  5178 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  5179 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  5180 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  5181 experiments with references.
  5182 
  5183 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  5184 parallel tactical reasoning.
  5185 
  5186 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  5187 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  5188 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  5189 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  5190 
  5191 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  5192 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  5193 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  5194 
  5195 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  5196 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  5197 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5198 
  5199 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5200 
  5201 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  5202 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5203 
  5204 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  5205 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  5206 
  5207 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  5208 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  5209 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  5210 
  5211 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  5212 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  5213 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5214 
  5215 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  5216 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  5217 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  5218 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5219 
  5220 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5221 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  5222 instead of global theory.
  5223 
  5224 
  5225 *** System ***
  5226 
  5227 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  5228 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  5229 usedir option -q.
  5230 
  5231 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  5232 also the system manual.
  5233 
  5234 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  5235 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  5236 
  5237 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  5238 this is always enabled.
  5239 
  5240 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  5241 
  5242 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  5243 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  5244 currently supported on Linux only.
  5245 
  5246 
  5247 
  5248 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  5249 --------------------------------
  5250 
  5251 *** General ***
  5252 
  5253 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  5254 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5255 
  5256   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  5257     "isatool."
  5258 
  5259   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  5260     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  5261 
  5262   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  5263     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  5264 
  5265 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  5266 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  5267 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  5268 
  5269 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  5270 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  5271 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  5272 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  5273 via "isabelle emacs".
  5274 
  5275 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  5276 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  5277 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  5278 
  5279 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  5280 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  5281 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  5282 
  5283 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  5284 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  5285 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  5286 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  5287 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  5288 
  5289 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  5290 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  5291 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  5292 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5293 
  5294 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  5295 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  5296 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  5297 
  5298 
  5299 *** Pure ***
  5300 
  5301 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  5302 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  5303 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  5304 
  5305 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  5306 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  5307 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  5308 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  5309 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  5310 
  5311 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  5312 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  5313 useful in locale declarations.
  5314 
  5315 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  5316 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  5317 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  5318 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  5319 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  5320 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  5321 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  5322 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  5323 no longer generated.
  5324 
  5325 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  5326 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  5327 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  5328 
  5329 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  5330 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  5331 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  5332 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  5333 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  5334 
  5335 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5336 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  5337 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  5338 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  5339 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  5340 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  5341 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  5342 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  5343 
  5344 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  5345 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  5346 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  5347 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  5348 
  5349 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5350 
  5351 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  5352 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  5353 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  5354 
  5355 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  5356 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5357 
  5358 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  5359 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  5360 in HOL, write
  5361 
  5362     class foo = ...
  5363 
  5364 instead of
  5365 
  5366     class foo = type + ...
  5367 
  5368 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  5369 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5370 
  5371 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  5372 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  5373 
  5374 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  5375 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  5376 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  5377 
  5378 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  5379 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  5380 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  5381 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  5382 directly in regular applications.
  5383 
  5384 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  5385 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  5386 
  5387 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  5388 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  5389 
  5390 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  5391 theory context.
  5392 
  5393 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  5394 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5395 
  5396 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  5397 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  5398 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  5399 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  5400 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  5401 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  5402 
  5403   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  5404 
  5405 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  5406 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  5407 normalization.
  5408 
  5409 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  5410 addressing etc.
  5411 
  5412 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  5413 
  5414   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  5415   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  5416 
  5417 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5418 
  5419   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  5420      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  5421      parts of the code generator framework).
  5422 
  5423   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  5424      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  5425      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  5426 
  5427 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5428 
  5429 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  5430 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5431 
  5432 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  5433 patterns, e.g.
  5434 
  5435     find_consts "_ => bool"
  5436 
  5437 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  5438 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  5439 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  5440 hyphen:
  5441 
  5442     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  5443 
  5444 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  5445 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  5446 
  5447 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  5448 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  5449 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  5450 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  5451 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  5452 higher-order unification.
  5453 
  5454 
  5455 *** Document preparation ***
  5456 
  5457 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5458 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5459 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5460 
  5461 
  5462 *** HOL ***
  5463 
  5464 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5465 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5466 
  5467 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5468 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5469 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5470 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5471 Main, as before.
  5472 
  5473 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5474 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5475 
  5476 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5477 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5478 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5479 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5480 
  5481 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5482 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5483 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5484 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5485 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5486 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5487 
  5488 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5489 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5490 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5491 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5492 
  5493 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5494 menu.
  5495 
  5496 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5497 (contains the empty clause).
  5498 
  5499 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5500 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5501 
  5502 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5503 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5504 
  5505 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5506 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5507 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5508 
  5509 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5510 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5511 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5512 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5513 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5514 
  5515 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5516 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5517 
  5518 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5519 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5520 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5521 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5522 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5523 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5524 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5525 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5526 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5527 
  5528 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5529 
  5530 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5531 
  5532 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5533 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5534 
  5535 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5536 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5537 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5538 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5539 
  5540 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5541 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5542 
  5543     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5544     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5545     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5546     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5547     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5548     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5549     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5550     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5551 
  5552 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5553 theory Set.
  5554 
  5555 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5556 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5557 
  5558 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5559 
  5560 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5561 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5562 
  5563 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5564 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5565 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5566 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5567 allowed. For examples see
  5568 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5569 
  5570 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5571 
  5572 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5573 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5574 
  5575 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5576 structure:
  5577 
  5578     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5579     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5580     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5581     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5582     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5583     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5584     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5585     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5586     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5587     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5588     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5589     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5590     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5591     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5592     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5593     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5594     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5595     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5596     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5597     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5598     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5599     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5600     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5601     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5602     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5603     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5604     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5605     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5606     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5607     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5608     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5609     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5610     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5611 
  5612     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5613     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5614     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5615     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5616     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5617     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5618     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5619     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5620     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5621     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5622 
  5623     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5624     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5625     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5626     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5627     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5628     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5629 
  5630 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5631 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5632 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5633 
  5634 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5635 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5636 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5637 
  5638 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5639 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5640 
  5641 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5642 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5643 
  5644 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5645 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5646 proofs, e.g.
  5647 
  5648   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5649 
  5650 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5651 
  5652 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5653 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5654 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5655 
  5656 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5657 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5658 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5659 
  5660 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5661 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5662 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5663 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5664 
  5665 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5666 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5667 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5668 preorder_class.*.
  5669 
  5670 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5671 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5672 
  5673 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5674 
  5675   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5676 
  5677 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5678 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5679 fold_image.
  5680 
  5681 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5682 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5683 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5684 the former will disappear at some point.
  5685 
  5686 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5687 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5688 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5689 
  5690 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5691 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5692 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5693 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5694 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5695 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5696 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5697 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5698 
  5699 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5700 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5701 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5702 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5703 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5704 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5705 
  5706     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5707     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5708     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5709     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5710     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5711     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5712     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5713 
  5714 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5715 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5716 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5717 
  5718 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5719 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5720 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5721 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5722 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5723 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5724 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5725 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5726 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5727 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5728 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5729 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5730 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5731 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5732 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5733 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5734 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5735 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5736 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5737 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5738 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5739 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5740 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5741 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5742 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5743 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5744 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5745 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5746 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5747 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5748 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5749 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5750 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5751 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5752 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5753 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5754 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5755 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5756 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5757 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5758 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5759 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5760 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5761 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5762 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5763 
  5764 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5765 
  5766 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5767 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5768 
  5769 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5770 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5771 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5772 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5773 
  5774 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5775 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5776 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5777 theory RealVector.
  5778 
  5779 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5780 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5781 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5782 and inner products are included.
  5783 
  5784 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5785 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5786 supported.
  5787 
  5788 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5789 first diagonalization argument.
  5790 
  5791 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5792 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5793 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5794 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5795 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5796 
  5797     hide (open) const gcd
  5798     abbreviation gcd where
  5799       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5800     notation (output)
  5801       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5802 
  5803 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5804 
  5805 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5806 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5807 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5808 
  5809 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5810 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5811 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5812 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5813 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5814 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5815 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5816 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5817 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5818 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5819 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5820 cases.
  5821 
  5822 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5823 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5824 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5825 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5826 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5827 
  5828     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5829     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5830     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5831     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5832     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5833 
  5834 
  5835 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5836 
  5837 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5838 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5839 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5840 
  5841 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5842 
  5843 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5844 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5845 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5846 
  5847 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5848 
  5849 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5850 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5851 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5852 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5853 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5854 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5855 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5856 
  5857 
  5858 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5859 
  5860 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5861 
  5862 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5863 theory targets.
  5864 
  5865 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5866 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5867 'inductive' etc.
  5868 
  5869 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5870 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5871 
  5872 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5873 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5874 
  5875 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5876 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5877 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5878 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5879 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5880 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5881 the algorithm W:
  5882 
  5883  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5884  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5885          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5886 
  5887 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5888 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5889 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5890 
  5891 
  5892 *** HOLCF ***
  5893 
  5894 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5895 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5896 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5897 
  5898 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5899 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5900 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5901 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5902 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5903 
  5904 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5905 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5906 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5907 
  5908 
  5909 *** ZF ***
  5910 
  5911 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5912 
  5913 
  5914 *** ML ***
  5915 
  5916 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5917 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5918 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5919 5.2.1!
  5920 
  5921 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5922 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5923 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5924 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5925 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5926 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5927 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5928 
  5929 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5930 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5931 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5932 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5933 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5934 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5935 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5936 
  5937 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5938 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5939 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5940 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5941 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5942 
  5943 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5944 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5945 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5946 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5947 Method.add_method.
  5948 
  5949 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5950 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5951 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5952 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5953 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5954 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5955 
  5956 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5957 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5958 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5959 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5960 examples.
  5961 
  5962 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5963 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5964 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5965 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5966 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5967 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5968 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5969 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5970 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5971 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5972 
  5973 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5974 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5975 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5976 
  5977 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5978 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5979 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5980 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5981 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5982 resort for legacy applications.
  5983 
  5984 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5985 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5986 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5987 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5988 explicit runtime argument.
  5989 
  5990 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5991 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5992 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5993 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5994 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5995 
  5996 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5997 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5998 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5999 theory state.
  6000 
  6001 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  6002 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  6003 
  6004   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  6005   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  6006   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  6007   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  6008   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  6009   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  6010   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  6011   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  6012   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  6013   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  6014 
  6015 
  6016 *** System ***
  6017 
  6018 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  6019 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  6020 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  6021 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  6022 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  6023 
  6024 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  6025 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  6026 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  6027 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  6028 
  6029 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  6030 
  6031 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  6032 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  6033 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  6034 prover operations.
  6035 
  6036 
  6037 
  6038 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  6039 -------------------------------
  6040 
  6041 *** General ***
  6042 
  6043 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  6044 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  6045 
  6046 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  6047 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  6048 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  6049 provides a proper context already.
  6050 
  6051 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  6052 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  6053 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  6054 
  6055 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  6056 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  6057 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  6058 swap theory imports.
  6059 
  6060 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  6061 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  6062 
  6063 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  6064 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6065 white space without escapes.
  6066 
  6067 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  6068 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  6069 "foo_bar".
  6070 
  6071 
  6072 *** Pure ***
  6073 
  6074 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  6075 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  6076 
  6077 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  6078 There are three ways of invoking it:
  6079 
  6080 (1) unused_thms
  6081      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  6082 
  6083 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  6084      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  6085      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  6086 
  6087 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  6088      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  6089      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  6090      their ancestors.
  6091 
  6092 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  6093 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  6094 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  6095 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  6096 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  6097 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  6098 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  6099 
  6100 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  6101 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  6102 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  6103 
  6104 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  6105 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  6106 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  6107 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  6108 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  6109 
  6110 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  6111 
  6112 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  6113 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  6114 update of theories within ML code.
  6115 
  6116 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  6117 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  6118 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  6119 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  6120 
  6121 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  6122 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  6123 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  6124 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6125 
  6126 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  6127 
  6128 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  6129 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  6130 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  6131 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  6132 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  6133 
  6134 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  6135 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  6136 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  6137 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  6138 situations.
  6139 
  6140 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  6141 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  6142 proof text.
  6143 
  6144 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  6145 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  6146 
  6147 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  6148 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  6149 predicates.
  6150 
  6151 
  6152 *** Document preparation ***
  6153 
  6154 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  6155 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  6156 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  6157 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  6158 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  6159 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  6160 
  6161 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  6162 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  6163 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  6164 
  6165 
  6166 *** HOL ***
  6167 
  6168 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  6169 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  6170 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  6171 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  6172 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  6173 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  6174 
  6175 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  6176 with multithreading.
  6177 
  6178 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  6179 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  6180 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  6181 
  6182 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  6183 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  6184 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  6185 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6186 
  6187 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  6188 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  6189 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  6190 and makes them available separately.  See
  6191 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  6192 
  6193 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  6194 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  6195 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  6196 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  6197 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  6198 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  6199 type and generates all solutions by Prolog-style backward proof using
  6200 the declared rules.
  6201 
  6202 This setup also deals with rules like 
  6203 
  6204   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  6205 
  6206 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  6207 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  6208 
  6209 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  6210 
  6211   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  6212 
  6213   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  6214     definitions on => and bool.
  6215 
  6216   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  6217     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  6218     the following theorems have been renamed:
  6219 
  6220       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  6221       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  6222       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  6223       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  6224       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  6225       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  6226       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  6227       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  6228 
  6229   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  6230     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  6231     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  6232 
  6233   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  6234     The proof pattern
  6235 
  6236       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6237       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  6238 
  6239     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  6240     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  6241 
  6242       have "EX S. P S"
  6243       proof
  6244         show "P S" <...>
  6245       qed
  6246 
  6247   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  6248     The proof pattern
  6249 
  6250       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6251       also have "S = T" <...>
  6252       finally have "P T" .
  6253 
  6254     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  6255     must be replaced by something like
  6256 
  6257       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  6258       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  6259       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  6260 
  6261   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  6262     Code performing pattern matching on types via