NEWS
author hoelzl
Thu Jan 31 17:42:12 2013 +0100 (2013-01-31)
changeset 51002 496013a6eb38
parent 50994 aafd4270b4d4
child 51088 0a55ac5bdd92
permissions -rw-r--r--
remove unnecessary assumption from real_normed_vector
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** HOL ***
     8 
     9 * Theory "RealVector" and "Limits": Introduce type class
    10 (lin)order_topology. Allows to generalize theorems about limits and
    11 order. Instances are reals and extended reals.
    12 
    13 
    14 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
    15 -----------------------------------
    16 
    17 *** General ***
    18 
    19 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
    20 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
    21 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
    22 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
    23 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
    24 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
    25 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
    26 
    27 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
    28 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
    29 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
    30 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
    31 
    32 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
    33 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
    34 
    35 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
    36 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
    37 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
    38 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
    39 dependencies properly.
    40 
    41 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    42 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    43 
    44 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
    45 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
    46 
    47 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for
    48 specifications: nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
    49 and "class ... context ...".
    50 
    51 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
    52 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
    53 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
    54 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
    55 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
    56 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
    57 
    58 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
    59 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
    60 
    61 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
    62 to name patterns (with clickable results).
    63 
    64 
    65 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    66 
    67 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
    68 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
    69 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
    70 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
    71 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
    72 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
    73 
    74 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
    75 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
    76 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
    77 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
    78 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
    79 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
    80 
    81 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
    82 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
    83 browser on demand.
    84 
    85 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
    86 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
    87 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
    88 that frequently occur in user interaction.
    89 
    90 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
    91 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
    92 
    93 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
    94 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
    95 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
    96 potentially infinite message streams.
    97 
    98 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
    99 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   100 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   101 schemes.
   102 
   103 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   104 symbols.
   105 
   106 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.
   107 
   108 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   109 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   110 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   111 
   112 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   113 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   114 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   115 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   116 
   117 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   118 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   119 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   120 
   121 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   122 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   123 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   124 Isabelle distribution.
   125 
   126 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   127 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   128 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   129 
   130 
   131 *** Pure ***
   132 
   133 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   134 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   135 
   136 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   137 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   138 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   139 
   140 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   141 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   142 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   143 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   144 with some care where this is really required.
   145 
   146 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   147 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   148 given given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   149 
   150   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   151 
   152 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   153 a Hasse diagram.
   154 
   155 
   156 *** HOL ***
   157 
   158 * Sledgehammer:
   159 
   160   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   161     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   162   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   163   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   164   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   165   - Renamed options:
   166       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   167       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   168       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   169       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   170 
   171 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   172 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   173 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   174 
   175 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   176 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   177 
   178 * Lifting:
   179   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   180   - quot_del attribute
   181   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   182 
   183 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   184 expressions.
   185 
   186 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   187 pointfree expressions.
   188 
   189 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   190 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   191 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   192 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   193 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   194 
   195 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   196 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   197 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   198 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   199 accordingly.
   200 
   201 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   202 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   203 
   204 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   205 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   206 
   207 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   208 
   209 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   210 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   211 
   212 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   213 
   214 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   215 
   216   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   217   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   218 
   219 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   220 
   221 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   222 
   223   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   224   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   225 
   226 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   227 
   228 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   229 
   230   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   231     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   232     output f x converges to G.
   233 
   234   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   235     infinity (at_bot).
   236 
   237   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   238     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   239 
   240   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   241     at_top".
   242 
   243 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   244 
   245 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   246 lattice type classes.
   247 
   248 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   249 
   250     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   251     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   252 
   253 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   254 
   255 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   256 changes as follows.
   257 
   258   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   259 
   260       prefix ~> prefixeq
   261       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   262 
   263   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   264     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   265     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   266     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   267 
   268   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   269     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   270     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   271 
   272   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   273     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   274     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   275     Library/Prefix_Order.
   276 
   277   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   278     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   279 
   280       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   281       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   282       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   283       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   284       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   285       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   286       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   287       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   288       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   289       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   290       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   291       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   292       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   293       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   294       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   295       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   296 
   297 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   298 
   299 
   300 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   301 
   302 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   303 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   304 
   305 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   306 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   307 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   308 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   309 
   310   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   311   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   312   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   313   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   314   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   315   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   316   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   317   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   318   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   319   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   320 
   321 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   322 
   323 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   324 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   325 Data").
   326 
   327 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   328 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   329 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   330 code.
   331 
   332 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   333 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   334 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   335 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   336 
   337 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
   338 
   339 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
   340 
   341 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
   342 
   343   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
   344   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
   345 
   346 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
   347 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
   348 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
   349 
   350   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
   351 
   352     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
   353     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
   354     cart_base i  removed
   355     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
   356 
   357   Theorems about these constants where removed.
   358 
   359   Renamed lemmas:
   360 
   361     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
   362     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
   363     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
   364     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
   365     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
   366     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
   367     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
   368     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
   369     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
   370     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
   371 
   372 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   373 
   374 * HOL/Probability:
   375 
   376   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
   377 
   378   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
   379     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
   380     (borel_measurable_induct).
   381 
   382   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
   383     projective family).
   384 
   385 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
   386 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
   387 
   388 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
   389 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
   390 datatypes.
   391 
   392 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
   393 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
   394 
   395 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
   396 trees for the code generator.
   397 
   398 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
   399 Lifting/Transfer.
   400 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
   401 
   402 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
   403 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   404 
   405 
   406 *** Document preparation ***
   407 
   408 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
   409 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
   410 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
   411 
   412 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
   413 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
   414 
   415 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
   416 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
   417 document/root.tex.
   418 
   419 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
   420 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   421 
   422 
   423 *** ML ***
   424 
   425 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
   426 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
   427 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
   428 
   429 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
   430 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
   431 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
   432 
   433 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
   434 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
   435 necessarily printing visible text.
   436 
   437 
   438 *** System ***
   439 
   440 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
   441 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
   442 build" tool and its examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
   443 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
   444 
   445 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
   446 
   447 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
   448 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
   449 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
   450 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
   451 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
   452 
   453 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
   454 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
   455 
   456   isabelle build -s -b HOLCF
   457 
   458 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   459 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   460 
   461 * The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares session root directories for use
   462 with "isabelle build", similar to former "isabelle mkdir" for
   463 "isabelle usedir".
   464 
   465 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
   466 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
   467 
   468 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
   469 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   470 
   471 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
   472 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
   473 version of Isabelle.
   474 
   475 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
   476 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
   477 
   478 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
   479 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   480 for home-made settings.
   481 
   482 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
   483 
   484 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   485 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   486 configuration.
   487 
   488 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   489 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   490 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   491 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   492 bundled as Isabelle component.
   493 
   494 
   495 
   496 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   497 ------------------------------
   498 
   499 *** General ***
   500 
   501 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   502 
   503   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   504     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   505   - markup for bound variables
   506   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   507   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   508   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   509     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   510 
   511 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   512 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   513 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   514 
   515 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   516 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   517 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   518 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   519 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   520 
   521   context
   522     fixes x y z :: 'a
   523     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   524   begin
   525 
   526   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   527 
   528   end
   529 
   530   thm my_trans
   531 
   532 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   533 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   534 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   535 
   536 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   537 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   538 
   539 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   540 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   541 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   542 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   543 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   544 
   545 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   546 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   547 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   548 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   549 indices of schematic variables.
   550 
   551 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   552 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   553 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   554 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   555 etc. was exploited.
   556 
   557 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   558 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   559 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   560 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   561 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   562 of the material of that old tutorial.
   563 
   564 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   565 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   566 manual.
   567 
   568 
   569 *** Pure ***
   570 
   571 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   572 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   573 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   574 
   575 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   576 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   577 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   578 undocumented feature.)
   579 
   580 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   581 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   582 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   583 
   584   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   585 
   586   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   587     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   588 
   589 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   590 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   591 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   592 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   593 
   594 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   595 
   596     num ~> num_token
   597     xnum ~> xnum_token
   598     xstr ~> str_token
   599 
   600 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   601 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   602 position information via constraints).
   603 
   604 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   605 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   606 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   607 
   608 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   609 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   610 
   611 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   612 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   613 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   614 
   615 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   616 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   617 
   618 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   619 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   620 
   621   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   622 
   623 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   624 
   625 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   626 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   627 
   628 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   629 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   630 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   631 
   632 
   633 *** HOL ***
   634 
   635 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   636 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   637 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   638 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   639 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   640 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   641 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   642 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   643 possible.
   644 
   645 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   646 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   647 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   648 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   649 
   650 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   651 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   652 
   653 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   654 
   655 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   656 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   657 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   658 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   659 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   660 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   661 
   662   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   663     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   664 
   665   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   666     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   667     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   668 
   669   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   670     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   671 
   672   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   673     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   674     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   675 
   676   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   677     Redefine using other integer operations.
   678 
   679 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   680 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   681 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   682 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   683 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   684 
   685   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   686     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   687     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   688     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   689     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   690 
   691     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   692     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   693 
   694   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   695     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   696     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   697     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   698     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   699     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   700     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   701     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   702 
   703   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   704     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   705     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   706     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   707 
   708   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   709     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   710     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   711     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   712 
   713   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   714     from type nat to type int.
   715 
   716 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   717 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   718 
   719   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   720     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   721     type.  Example syntax:
   722 
   723     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   724       is List.insert
   725 
   726     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   727     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   728     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   729     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   730     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   731     by the package.
   732 
   733   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   734     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   735     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   736     code generation for each constant.
   737 
   738   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   739     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   740     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   741     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   742     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   743 
   744   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   745     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   746     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   747 
   748 * Quotient package:
   749 
   750   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   751     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   752 
   753   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   754     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   755 
   756   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   757     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   758     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   759 
   760   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   761     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   762 
   763 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   764 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   765 
   766 * Quickcheck:
   767 
   768   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   769     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   770     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   771     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   772     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   773 
   774     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   775     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   776     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   777 
   778     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   779     continues searching for genuine ones.
   780 
   781     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   782     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   783     show genuine counterexamples.
   784 
   785   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   786     value generators for a given type and operations.
   787 
   788     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   789     constructors of that type.
   790 
   791   - Support for multisets.
   792 
   793   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   794 
   795   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   796     conjectures in a locale context.
   797 
   798 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   799 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   800 
   801 * Sledgehammer:
   802   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   803     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   804   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   805   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   806     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   807   - Sped up the minimizer.
   808   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   809   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   810   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   811 
   812 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   813 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   814 
   815 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   816 
   817 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   818 
   819 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   820 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   821 
   822   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   823 
   824 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   825 a list and a nat.
   826 
   827 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   828 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   829 
   830 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   831 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   832 default.
   833 
   834 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   835 
   836   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   837 
   838 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   839 
   840 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   841 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   842 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   843 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   844 one_case.
   845 
   846 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   847 the result of the fact expression.
   848 
   849 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   850 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   851 of some relation theorems:
   852 
   853   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   854   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   855   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   856   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   857   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   858   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   859 
   860 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   861 
   862 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   863 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   864 
   865 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   866 
   867 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   868 to match the constant's name:
   869 
   870   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   871   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   872   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   873   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   874   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   875   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   876   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   877   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   878   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   879   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   880   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   881   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   882   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   883   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   884   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   885   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   886   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   887   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   888   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   889   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   890   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   891   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   892   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   893   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   894 
   895 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   896 
   897 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   898 and corresponding theorem names:
   899 
   900   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   901 
   902   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   903 
   904   - Renamed theorems:
   905 
   906     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   907     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   908     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   909     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   910     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   911     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   912     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   913     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   914     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   915     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   916     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   917     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   918     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   919     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   920     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   921     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   922     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   923     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   924     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   925     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   926     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   927     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   928     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   929 
   930     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   931 
   932     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   933 
   934 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   935 
   936 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   937 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   938 
   939   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   940   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   941   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   942   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   943   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   944   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   945   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   946   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   947   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   948   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   949   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   950   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   951   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   952   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   953   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   954   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   955   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   956   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   957   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   958   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   959   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   960 
   961 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   962 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   963 
   964 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   965 
   966 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   967 
   968   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   969   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   970   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   971   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   972   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   973   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   974   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   975   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   976   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   977   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   978   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   979   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   980   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   981   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   982   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   983   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   984   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   985   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   986 
   987 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   988 
   989 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   990 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   991 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   992 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   993 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   994 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   995 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   996 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   997 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   998 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   999 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1000 
  1001 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1002 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1003 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1004 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1005 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1006 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1007 
  1008 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1009 through option types.
  1010 
  1011 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1012 relations.
  1013 
  1014 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1015 
  1016 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1017 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1018 
  1019   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1020   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1021   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1022   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1023   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1024   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1025   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1026   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1027   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1028   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1029   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1030   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1031   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1032   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1033   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1034   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1035   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1036   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1037   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1038   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1039   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1040   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1041   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1042   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1043   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1044   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1045   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1046   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1047   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1048   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1049   zless_le ~> less_le
  1050   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1051   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1052   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1053 
  1054 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1055 
  1056   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1057 
  1058 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1059 
  1060 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1061 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1062 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1063 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1064 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1065 
  1066 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1067 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1068 
  1069 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1070 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1071 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1072 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1073 follows:
  1074 
  1075   Operations:
  1076   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1077   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1078   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1079   del -> rbt_del
  1080   delete -> rbt_delete
  1081   ins -> rbt_ins
  1082   insert -> rbt_insert
  1083   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1084   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1085   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1086   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1087   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1088   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1089   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1090   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1091   union -> rbt_union
  1092   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1093   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1094 
  1095   Lemmas:
  1096   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1097   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1098   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1099   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1100   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1101   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1102   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1103   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1104   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1105   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1106   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1107   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1108   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1109   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1110   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1111   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1112   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1113   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1114   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1115   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1116   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1117   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1118   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1119   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1120   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1121   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1122   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1123   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1124   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1125   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1126   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1127   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1128   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1129   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1130   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1131   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1132   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1133   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1134   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1135   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1136   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1137   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1138   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1139   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1140   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1141   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1142   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1143   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1144   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1145   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1146   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1147   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1148   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1149   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1150   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1151   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1152   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1153   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1154   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1155   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1156   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1157   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1158   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1159   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1160   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1161   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1162   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1163   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1164   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1165   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1166   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1167   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1168   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1169   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1170   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1171   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1172   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1173   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1174   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1175   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1176   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1177   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1178   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1179 
  1180 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1181 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1182 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1183 
  1184   Changed Operations:
  1185   float_abs -> abs
  1186   float_nprt -> nprt
  1187   float_pprt -> pprt
  1188   pow2 -> use powr
  1189   round_down -> float_round_down
  1190   round_up -> float_round_up
  1191   scale -> exponent
  1192 
  1193   Removed Operations:
  1194   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1195 
  1196   Renamed Lemmas:
  1197   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1198   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1199   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1200   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1201   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1202   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1203   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1204   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1205   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1206   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1207   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1208   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1209   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1210   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1211   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1212   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1213   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1214   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1215   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1216   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1217   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1218   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1219   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1220   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1221   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1222   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1223   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1224   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1225   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1226   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1227   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1228   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1229   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1230   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1231   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1232   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1233 
  1234   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1235   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1236   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1237   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1238   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1239   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1240   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1241   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1242   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1243   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1244 
  1245 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1246 association lists with distinct keys.
  1247 
  1248 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1249 annotated commands.
  1250 
  1251 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1252 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1253 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1254 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1255 
  1256 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1257 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1258 instead.
  1259 
  1260   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1261   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1262   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1263   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1264   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1265   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1266   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1267   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1268   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1269   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1270   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1271   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1272   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1273   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1274   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1275   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1276   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1277   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1278   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1279   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1280   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1281   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1282   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1283   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1284   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1285   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1286   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1287   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1288   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1289   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1290   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1291   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1292   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1293   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1294   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1295   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1296   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1297   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1298   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1299   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1300   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1301 
  1302 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1303 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1304 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1305 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1306 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1307 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1308 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1309 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1310 
  1311 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1312 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1313 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1314 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1315 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1316 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1317 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1318 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1319 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1320 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1321 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1322 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1323 
  1324   Renamed constants:
  1325   measure -> emeasure
  1326   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1327   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1328   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1329   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1330 
  1331   Removed locales:
  1332   completeable_measure_space
  1333   finite_measure_space
  1334   finite_prob_space
  1335   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1336   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1337   finite_sigma_algebra
  1338   measure_space
  1339   pair_finite_prob_space
  1340   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1341   pair_finite_space
  1342   pair_sigma_algebra
  1343   product_sigma_algebra
  1344 
  1345   Removed constants:
  1346   conditional_space
  1347   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1348   image_space
  1349   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1350   pair_measure_generator
  1351   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1352   subvimage
  1353 
  1354   Replacement theorems:
  1355   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  1356   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  1357   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  1358   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  1359   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  1360   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  1361   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  1362   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1363   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  1364   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  1365   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  1366   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1367   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  1368   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  1369   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  1370   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  1371   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1372   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1373   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  1374   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1375   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1376   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1377   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1378   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1379   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1380   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1381   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1382   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1383   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1384   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1385   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1386   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1387   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1388   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1389   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1390   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1391   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1392   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1393   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1394   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1395   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1396   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1397   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1398   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1399   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1400   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1401   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1402   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1403   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1404   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1405   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1406   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1407   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1408   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1409   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1410   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1411   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1412   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1413   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1414   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1415   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1416   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1417   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1418   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1419   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1420   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1421   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1422   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1423   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1424   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1425   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1426   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1427   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1428   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1429   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1430   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1431   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1432   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1433   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1434   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1435   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1436   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1437   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1438   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1439   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1440   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1441   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1442   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1443   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1444   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1445   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1446   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1447   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1448   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1449   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1450   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1451   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1452   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1453   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1454   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1455   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1456   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1457   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1458   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1459   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1460   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1461   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1462   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1463   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1464   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1465   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1466   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1467   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1468   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1469   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1470   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1471   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1472   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1473   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1474   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1475   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1476   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1477   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1478   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1479   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1480   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1481   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1482   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1483 
  1484 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1485 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1486 
  1487 
  1488 *** FOL ***
  1489 
  1490 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1491 
  1492 
  1493 *** ZF ***
  1494 
  1495 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1496 analysis.
  1497 
  1498 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1499 
  1500 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1501 
  1502 
  1503 *** ML ***
  1504 
  1505 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1506 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1507 
  1508 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1509 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1510 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1511 
  1512 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1513 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1514 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1515 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1516 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1517 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1518 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1519 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1520 
  1521 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1522 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1523 
  1524 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1525 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1526 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1527 
  1528 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1529 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1530 
  1531 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1532 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1533 context as well.
  1534 
  1535 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1536 
  1537   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1538   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1539   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1540   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1541   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1542   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1543   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1544   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1545   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1546   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1547   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1548   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1549 
  1550 
  1551 *** System ***
  1552 
  1553 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1554 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1555 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1556 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1557 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1558 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1559 the generic user home was intended.
  1560 
  1561 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1562 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1563 
  1564 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1565 (not just JRE).
  1566 
  1567 
  1568 
  1569 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1570 ------------------------------------
  1571 
  1572 *** General ***
  1573 
  1574 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1575 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1576 
  1577   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1578     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1579     files for checking).
  1580 
  1581   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1582     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1583     positions.
  1584 
  1585   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1586     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1587     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1588 
  1589   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1590     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1591     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1592 
  1593   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1594     cores.
  1595 
  1596   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1597     versions (garbage collection).
  1598 
  1599 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1600 including some remaining limitations.
  1601 
  1602 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1603 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1604 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1605 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1606 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1607 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1608 
  1609 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1610 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1611 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1612 
  1613 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1614 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1615 usedir option -Q.
  1616 
  1617 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1618 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1619 
  1620   long_names   ~> names_long
  1621   short_names  ~> names_short
  1622   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1623 
  1624 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1625 
  1626   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1627 
  1628 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1629 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1630 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1631 
  1632 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1633 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1634 
  1635 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1636   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1637   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1638   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1639     "Classical Reasoner".
  1640 
  1641 
  1642 *** HOL ***
  1643 
  1644 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1645 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1646 
  1647 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1648 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1649 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1650 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1651 class complete_linorder.
  1652 
  1653 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1654 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1655 
  1656 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1657 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1658 
  1659   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1660   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1661   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1662   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1663   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1664   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1665   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1666   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1667   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1668   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1669   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1670 
  1671 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1672 
  1673   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1674   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1675   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1676   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1677   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1678   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1679   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1680   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1681   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1682   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1683   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1684   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1685   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1686   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1687   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1688   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1689 
  1690 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1691 
  1692 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1693 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1694 
  1695 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1696 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1697 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1698 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1699 
  1700 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1701 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1702 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1703 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1704 
  1705 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1706 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1707 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1708 
  1709 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1710 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1711 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1712 
  1713 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1714 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1715 
  1716 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1717 
  1718     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1719     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1720 
  1721 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1722 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1723 
  1724 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1725 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1726 
  1727 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1728 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1729 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1730 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1731 
  1732   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1733   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1734   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1735   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1736   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1737   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1738   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1739 
  1740 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1741 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1742 
  1743   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1744   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1745   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1746   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1747   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1748   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1749   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1750   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1751   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1752   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1753   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1754   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1755   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1756   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1757   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1758   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1759   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1760   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1761   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1762   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1763   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1764   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1765   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1766   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1767   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1768   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1769   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1770   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1771   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1772   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1773   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1774   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1775   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1776   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1777   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1778   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1779   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1780   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1781   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1782   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1783   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1784   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1785   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1786   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1787   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1788   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1789   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1790   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1791   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1792   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1793   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1794   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1795   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1796   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1797   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1798   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1799   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1800   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1801   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1802   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1803   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1804   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1805   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1806   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1807   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1808   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1809   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1810   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1811   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1812   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1813   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1814   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1815   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1816   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1817   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1818   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1819   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1820   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1821   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1822   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1823   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1824   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1825 
  1826 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1827 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1828 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1829 
  1830 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1831 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1832 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1833 
  1834 * Code generation:
  1835 
  1836   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1837     characters in the target language.
  1838 
  1839   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1840     instead.
  1841 
  1842   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1843 
  1844   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1845     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1846 
  1847       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1848 
  1849 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1850 
  1851 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1852 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1853 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1854 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1855 syntax.
  1856 
  1857 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1858 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1859 
  1860 * Nitpick:
  1861   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1862   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1863   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1864     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1865 
  1866 * Sledgehammer:
  1867   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1868   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1869     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1870   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1871     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1872   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1873     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1874   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1875     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1876   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1877     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1878 
  1879 * Metis:
  1880   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1881   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1882     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1883 
  1884 * Command 'try':
  1885   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1886     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1887   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1888     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1889 
  1890 * Quickcheck:
  1891   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1892     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1893   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1894     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1895   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1896     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1897     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1898     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1899   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1900     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1901 
  1902 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1903 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1904 
  1905 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1906 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1907 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1908 
  1909 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1910 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1911 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1912 
  1913 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1914 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1915 
  1916 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1917 arithmetic.
  1918 
  1919 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1920 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1921 and lattice type classes.
  1922 
  1923 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1924 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1925 
  1926 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1927 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1928 
  1929 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1930 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1931 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1932 
  1933   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1934   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1935   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1936   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1937 
  1938 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1939 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1940 constants:
  1941 
  1942   type inat   ~> type enat
  1943   Fin         ~> enat
  1944   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1945   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1946   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1947 
  1948 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1949 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1950 
  1951 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1952 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1953 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1954 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1955 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1956 
  1957 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1958 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1959 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1960 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1961 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1962 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1963 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1964 
  1965   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1966   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1967   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1968   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1969 
  1970 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1971 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1972 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1973 
  1974   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1975   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1976   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1977   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1978   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1979   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1980   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1981   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1982   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1983   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1984   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1985   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1986   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1987   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1988   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1989   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1990   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1991   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1992   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1993   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1994   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1995   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1996   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1997   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1998   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1999   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2000   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2001   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2002   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2003   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2004   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2005   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2006   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2007   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2008   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2009   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2010   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2011   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2012   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2013   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2014   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2015   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2016   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2017   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2018   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2019   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2020   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2021   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2022   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2023   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2024   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2025 
  2026 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2027   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2028   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2029   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2030   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2031     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2032 
  2033 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2034 
  2035   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2036   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2037   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2038   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2039   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2040   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2041   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2042   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2043   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2044   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2045   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2046   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2047   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2048   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2049   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2050   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2051   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2052   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2053   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2054   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2055   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2056   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2057   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2058   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2059   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2060 
  2061 
  2062 *** Document preparation ***
  2063 
  2064 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2065 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2066 same.
  2067 
  2068 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2069 result.
  2070 
  2071 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2072 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2073 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2074 
  2075 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2076 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2077 
  2078 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2079 like this:
  2080 
  2081   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2082   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2083 
  2084 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2085 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2086 layouts.
  2087 
  2088 
  2089 *** ML ***
  2090 
  2091 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2092 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2093 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2094 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2095 under external program control.
  2096 
  2097 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2098 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2099 
  2100 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2101 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2102 (better known as Proof General).
  2103 
  2104 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2105 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2106 
  2107 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2108 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2109 
  2110 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2111 (including quotes etc.).
  2112 
  2113 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2114 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2115 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2116 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2117 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2118 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2119 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2120 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2121 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2122 
  2123 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2124 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2125 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2126 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2127 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2128 
  2129 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2130 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2131 
  2132 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2133 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2134 
  2135 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2136 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2137 
  2138 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2139 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2140 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2141 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2142 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2143 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2144 proper Proof.context.
  2145 
  2146 
  2147 *** System ***
  2148 
  2149 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2150 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2151 
  2152 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2153 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2154 
  2155 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2156 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2157 
  2158   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2159   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2160   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2161   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2162   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2163 
  2164 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2165 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2166 
  2167 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2168 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2169 example:
  2170 
  2171   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2172 
  2173 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2174 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2175 
  2176 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2177 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2178 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2179 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2180 
  2181 
  2182 
  2183 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2184 ----------------------------------
  2185 
  2186 *** General ***
  2187 
  2188 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2189 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2190 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2191 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2192 like this:
  2193 
  2194   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2195 
  2196 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2197 
  2198 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2199 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2200 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2201 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2202 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2203 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2204 
  2205 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2206 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2207 the following package declarations:
  2208 
  2209   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2210   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2211 
  2212 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2213 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2214 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2215 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2216 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2217 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2218 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2219 
  2220 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2221 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2222 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2223 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2224 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2225 
  2226 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2227 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2228 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2229 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2230 
  2231 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2232 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2233 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2234 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2235 
  2236   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2237 
  2238   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2239   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2240   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2241   show_types                    show_types
  2242   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2243   show_consts                   show_consts
  2244   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2245 
  2246   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2247   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2248   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2249 
  2250   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2251   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2252 
  2253   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2254 
  2255   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2256   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2257   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2258   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2259   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2260 
  2261 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2262 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2263 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2264 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2265 
  2266 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2267 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2268 
  2269   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2270   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2271 
  2272 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2273 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2274 float_token.
  2275 
  2276 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2277 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2278 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2279 
  2280 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2281 DejaVu Sans.
  2282 
  2283 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2284 
  2285 
  2286 *** Pure ***
  2287 
  2288 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2289 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2290 time.
  2291 
  2292 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2293 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2294 
  2295 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2296 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2297 
  2298 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2299 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2300 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2301 command already provided this functionality.
  2302 
  2303 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2304 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2305 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2306 without interpretations.
  2307 
  2308 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2309 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2310 
  2311 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2312 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2313 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2314 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2315 
  2316 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2317 'definition' instead.
  2318 
  2319 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2320 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2321 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2322 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2323 
  2324 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2325 constructors.
  2326 
  2327 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2328 the local file system.
  2329 
  2330 
  2331 *** HOL ***
  2332 
  2333 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2334 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2335 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2336 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2337 
  2338   declare [[coercion f]]
  2339 
  2340 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2341 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2342 
  2343   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2344 
  2345 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2346 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2347 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2348 other theories like this:
  2349 
  2350   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2351 
  2352 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2353 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2354 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2355 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  2356 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  2357 for examples.
  2358 
  2359 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  2360 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2361 
  2362 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  2363 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  2364 
  2365 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  2366 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  2367 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  2368 
  2369 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  2370 functorial structure of types.
  2371 
  2372 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  2373 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  2374 
  2375 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2376 languages.
  2377 
  2378 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2379 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2380 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2381 
  2382 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2383 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2384 
  2385 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2386 combinators any longer.
  2387 
  2388 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2389 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2390 
  2391 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2392 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2393 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2394 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2395 
  2396   record 'a foo = ...
  2397   ...
  2398   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2399 
  2400 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2401 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2402 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2403 
  2404 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2405 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2406 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2407 
  2408 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2409 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2410 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2411 
  2412 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2413 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2414 
  2415 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2416 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2417 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2418 independently.
  2419 
  2420 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2421 counter example search.
  2422 
  2423 * Sledgehammer:
  2424   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2425     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2426     sledgehammer").
  2427   - Renamed commands:
  2428     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2429     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2430     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2431     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2432   - Renamed options:
  2433     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2434     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2435     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2436     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2437     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2438 
  2439 * Nitpick:
  2440   - Renamed options:
  2441     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2442     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2443     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2444   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2445   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2446   - Added "whack" option.
  2447   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2448   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2449   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2450   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2451     higher cardinalities.
  2452   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2453 
  2454 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2455 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2456 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2457 
  2458     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2459 
  2460 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2461 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2462 
  2463 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2464 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2465 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2466 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2467 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2468 "smt_solver".
  2469 
  2470 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2471 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2472 
  2473 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2474 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2475 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2476 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2477 
  2478 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2479   - Renamed:
  2480     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2481     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2482     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2483   - Added:
  2484     smt_verbose
  2485     smt_random_seed
  2486     smt_datatypes
  2487     smt_infer_triggers
  2488     smt_monomorph_limit
  2489     cvc3_options
  2490     remote_cvc3_options
  2491     remote_z3_options
  2492     yices_options
  2493 
  2494 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2495 header.
  2496 
  2497 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2498 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2499 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2500 
  2501   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2502 
  2503 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2504 
  2505 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2506 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2507 
  2508 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2509 
  2510 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2511 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2512 
  2513 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2514 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2515 
  2516 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2517 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2518 
  2519 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2520 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2521 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2522 
  2523 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2524 
  2525 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2526 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2527 
  2528 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2529 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2530 
  2531 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2532 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2533 for congruent(2)).
  2534 
  2535 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2536 
  2537   types
  2538     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2539     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2540 
  2541   constants
  2542     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2543     True ~> HOL.True
  2544     False ~> HOL.False
  2545     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2546     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2547     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2548     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2549     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2550     The ~> HOL.The
  2551     All ~> HOL.All
  2552     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2553     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2554     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2555     If ~> HOL.If
  2556     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2557     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2558     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2559     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2560     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2561     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2562     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2563     op : ~> Set.member
  2564     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2565 
  2566 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2567 
  2568 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2569 
  2570     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2571     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2572     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2573     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2574     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2575     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2576     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2577     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2578 
  2579 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2580 
  2581 * More stylized fact names:
  2582 
  2583   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2584   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2585   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2586   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2587 
  2588 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2589 
  2590 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2591 
  2592   constants
  2593     null ~> List.null
  2594 
  2595   facts
  2596     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2597     null_empty ~> null_def
  2598 
  2599 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2600 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2601 generation.
  2602 
  2603 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2604 Haskell code.
  2605 
  2606 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2607 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2608 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2609 
  2610 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2611 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2612 
  2613 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2614 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2615 
  2616 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2617 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2618 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2619 
  2620 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2621 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2622 
  2623 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2624 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2625 
  2626 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2627 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2628 referred to by its qualified name.
  2629 
  2630   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2631   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2632   product ~>  Enum.product
  2633 
  2634 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2635 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2636 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2637 
  2638 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2639 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2640 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2641 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2642 
  2643 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2644 sort_key.
  2645 
  2646 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2647 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2648 
  2649 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2650 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2651 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2652 
  2653   types
  2654     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2655               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2656               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2657         (depends on your needs)
  2658 
  2659   constants
  2660      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2661      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2662      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2663 
  2664 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2665 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2666 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2667 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2668 
  2669 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2670 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2671 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2672 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2673 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2674 
  2675 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2676 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2677 
  2678 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2679 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2680 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2681 
  2682 
  2683 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2684 
  2685 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2686 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2687 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2688 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2689 compatibility.
  2690 
  2691 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2692 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2693 
  2694 
  2695 *** HOLCF ***
  2696 
  2697 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2698 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2699 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2700 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2701 
  2702 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2703 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2704 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2705 
  2706   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2707   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2708   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2709 
  2710 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2711 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2712 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2713 
  2714 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2715 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2716 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2717 domain definition now works:
  2718 
  2719   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2720 
  2721 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2722 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2723 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2724 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2725 
  2726   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2727     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2728 
  2729   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2730 
  2731 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2732 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2733 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2734 
  2735 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2736 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2737 
  2738 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2739 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2740 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2741 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2742 
  2743 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2744 
  2745 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2746 
  2747 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2748 
  2749 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2750 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2751 
  2752 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2753 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2754 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2755 
  2756 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2757 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2758 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2759 
  2760 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2761 still supported as an input translation.
  2762 
  2763 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2764 
  2765   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2766   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2767   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2768   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2769   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2770   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2771   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2772 
  2773 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2774 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2775 
  2776   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2777   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2778   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2779   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2780   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2781   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2782 
  2783 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2784 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2785 
  2786 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2787 
  2788   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2789   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2790   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2791   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2792 
  2793 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2794 
  2795 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2796 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2797 
  2798 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2799 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2800 
  2801   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2802   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2803   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2804   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2805   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2806   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2807   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2808   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2809   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2810   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2811   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2812   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2813   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2814   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2815   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2816   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2817   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2818   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2819   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2820   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2821 
  2822 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2823 
  2824   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2825   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2826   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2827   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2828   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2829   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2830   box_less             ~> box_below
  2831   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2832   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2833   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2834   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2835   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2836   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2837   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2838   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2839   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2840   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2841   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2842   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2843   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2844   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2845   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2846   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2847   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2848   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2849   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2850   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2851   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2852   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2853   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2854   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2855   up_less              ~> up_below
  2856   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2857   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2858   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2859   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2860   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2861   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2862   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2863   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2864   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2865   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2866   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2867   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2868   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2869 
  2870 
  2871 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2872 
  2873 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2874 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2875 
  2876 
  2877 *** ML ***
  2878 
  2879 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2880 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2881 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2882 
  2883 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2884 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2885 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2886 
  2887 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2888 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2889 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2890 
  2891 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2892 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2893 
  2894 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2895 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2896 
  2897 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2898 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2899 
  2900 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2901 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2902 
  2903 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2904 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2905 almost all situations.
  2906 
  2907 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2908 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2909 Isabelle/ML.
  2910 
  2911 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2912 meaning.
  2913 
  2914 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2915 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2916 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2917 
  2918 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2919 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2920 
  2921 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2922 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2923 
  2924 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2925 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2926 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2927 
  2928 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2929 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2930 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2931 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2932 configuration options.
  2933 
  2934 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2935 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2936 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2937 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2938 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2939 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2940 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2941 
  2942 
  2943 
  2944 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2945 ---------------------------------
  2946 
  2947 *** General ***
  2948 
  2949 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2950 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2951 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2952 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2953 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2954 their full internal name.
  2955 
  2956 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2957 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2958 Some hints on upgrading:
  2959 
  2960   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2961     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2962     which are independent of this issue.
  2963 
  2964   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2965     provides the following special forms:
  2966 
  2967       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2968       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2969       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2970 
  2971     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2972     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2973     extra variables".
  2974 
  2975     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2976     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2977     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2978     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2979     "logic".
  2980 
  2981   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2982     antiquotations:
  2983 
  2984       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2985       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2986       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2987       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2988 
  2989   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2990     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2991     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2992     antiquotations.
  2993 
  2994 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2995 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2996 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2997 diagnose syntax problems.
  2998 
  2999 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3000 
  3001 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3002 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3003 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3004 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3005 
  3006 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3007 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3008 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3009 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3010 
  3011 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3012 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3013 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3014 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3015 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3016 
  3017 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3018 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3019 
  3020 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3021 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3022 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3023 
  3024   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3025 
  3026 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3027 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3028 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3029 
  3030 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3031 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3032 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3033 
  3034 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3035 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3036 
  3037 
  3038 *** Pure ***
  3039 
  3040 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3041 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3042 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3043 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3044 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3045 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3046 inspect proof terms.
  3047 
  3048 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3049 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3050 are added internally.  For example:
  3051 
  3052   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3053 
  3054 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3055 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3056 
  3057 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3058 
  3059 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3060 'class' instead.
  3061 
  3062 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3063 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3064 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3065 
  3066 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3067 invariants.
  3068 
  3069 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3070 user space functionality any longer.
  3071 
  3072 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3073 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3074 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3075 
  3076 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3077 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3078 
  3079 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3080 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3081 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3082 
  3083 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3084 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3085 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3086 
  3087 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3088 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3089 
  3090 
  3091 *** HOL ***
  3092 
  3093 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3094 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3095 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3096 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3097 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3098 
  3099 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3100 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3101 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3102 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3103 
  3104   fun
  3105     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3106   where
  3107     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3108 
  3109   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3110     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3111 
  3112   quotient_definition
  3113     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3114 
  3115 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3116 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3117 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3118 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3119 
  3120 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3121 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3122 
  3123 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3124 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3125 
  3126 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3127 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3128 
  3129 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3130 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3131 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3132 
  3133 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3134 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3135 
  3136 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3137 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3138 
  3139 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3140 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3141 
  3142 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3143 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3144 
  3145 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3146 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3147 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3148 
  3149   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3150   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3151   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3152   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3153   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3154   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3155   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3156   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3157   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3158   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3159   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3160   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3161   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3162   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3163   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3164   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3165   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3166   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3167   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3168   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3169   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3170   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3171   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3172   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3173   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3174   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3175   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3176   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3177   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3178   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3179 
  3180 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3181 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3182 
  3183 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3184 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3185 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3186 
  3187 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3188 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3189 
  3190 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3191 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3192 
  3193 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3194 
  3195 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3196 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3197 
  3198 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3199 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3200 
  3201 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3202 
  3203 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3204 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3205 
  3206 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3207 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3208 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3209 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3210 
  3211 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3212   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3213   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3214   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3215 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3216 
  3217 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3218 lattices):
  3219 
  3220     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3221     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3222 
  3223     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3224 
  3225     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3226     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3227     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3228     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3229     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3230     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3231     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3232     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3233     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3234     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3235     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3236     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3237     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3238 
  3239     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3240     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3241     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3242     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3243     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3244     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3245     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3246     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3247     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3248     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3249     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3250     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3251     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3252     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3253     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3254     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3255     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3256     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3257 
  3258   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3259   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3260 
  3261     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3262     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3263     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3264     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3265     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3266 
  3267 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3268 
  3269 * Refined field classes:
  3270   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3271     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3272     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3273   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3274 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3275 
  3276 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3277   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3278   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3279   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3280     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3281   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3282     equal_neg_zero.
  3283 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3284 
  3285 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3286 sets to lattices:
  3287 
  3288   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3289   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3290   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3291   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3292   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3293   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3294   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3295   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3296   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3297   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3298 
  3299 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3300 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3301 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3302 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3303 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3304 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3305 
  3306 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3307 multiset order:
  3308 
  3309   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3310     <= and <;
  3311   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3312     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3313     multiset_order;
  3314   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3315     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3316     generation;
  3317   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3318     if needed.
  3319 
  3320 Renamed:
  3321 
  3322   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3323   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3324   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3325 
  3326 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3327 
  3328 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3329 
  3330 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3331 
  3332 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3333 
  3334 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3335 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3336 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3337 
  3338   Constants:
  3339   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3340   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3341   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3342   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3343   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3344   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3345   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3346   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3347   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3348   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3349   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3350   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3351   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3352 
  3353   Lemmas:
  3354   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3355   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  3356   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  3357   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  3358   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  3359   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  3360   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  3361   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  3362   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  3363   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  3364   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  3365   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  3366   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3367 
  3368 * Sledgehammer:
  3369   - Renamed ATP commands:
  3370     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  3371     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  3372     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  3373     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  3374     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  3375     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3376   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3377   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3378     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3379   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3380     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3381     is still experimental.)
  3382   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3383     full-typed mode.
  3384   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3385 
  3386 * Nitpick:
  3387   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3388   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3389   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3390     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3391   - Added support for quotient types.
  3392   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3393     constructs.
  3394   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3395     "termination" proofs).
  3396   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3397   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3398   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3399   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3400     record getters.
  3401   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3402   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3403   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3404   - Added "atoms" option.
  3405   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3406     problems.
  3407   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3408     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3409     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3410   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3411     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3412   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3413 
  3414 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3415   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3416   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3417   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3418   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3419   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3420   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3421   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3422   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3423   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3424 
  3425 
  3426 *** HOLCF ***
  3427 
  3428 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3429 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3430 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3431 
  3432 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3433 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3434 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3435 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3436 
  3437 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3438 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3439 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3440 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3441 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3442 
  3443 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3444 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3445 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3446 
  3447 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3448 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3449 
  3450   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3451   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3452 
  3453 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3454 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3455 
  3456   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3457   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3458   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3459   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3460   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3461 
  3462 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3463 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3464 
  3465   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3466   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3467   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3468 
  3469 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3470 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3471 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3472 
  3473 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3474 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3475 
  3476 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3477 
  3478 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3479 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3480 
  3481 
  3482 *** ML ***
  3483 
  3484 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3485 
  3486     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3487     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3488 
  3489     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3490     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3491     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3492     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3493 
  3494     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3495     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3496     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3497 
  3498 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3499 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3500 
  3501 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3502 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3503 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3504 
  3505 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3506 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3507 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3508 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3509 
  3510 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3511 the context or even global references.
  3512 
  3513 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3514 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3515 
  3516 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3517 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3518 
  3519   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3520   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3521   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3522   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3523   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3524   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3525   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3526   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3527   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3528   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3529 
  3530 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3531 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3532 
  3533 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3534 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3535 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3536 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3537 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3538 
  3539 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3540 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3541 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3542 Theory_Data version.
  3543 
  3544 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3545 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3546 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3547 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3548 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3549 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3550 explicitly in rare situations.
  3551 
  3552 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3553 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3554 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3555 
  3556 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3557 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3558 
  3559 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3560 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3561 quite rare).
  3562 
  3563 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3564 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3565 
  3566 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3567 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3568 terms.
  3569 
  3570 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3571 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3572 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3573 
  3574 
  3575 *** System ***
  3576 
  3577 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3578 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3579 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3580 
  3581 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3582 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3583 respectively.
  3584 
  3585 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3586 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3587 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3588 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3589 
  3590   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3591 
  3592 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3593 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3594 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3595 component.
  3596 
  3597 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3598 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3599 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3600 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3601 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3602 the user for manual installation.
  3603 
  3604 
  3605 
  3606 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3607 -------------------------------------
  3608 
  3609 *** General ***
  3610 
  3611 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3612 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3613 
  3614 
  3615 *** Pure ***
  3616 
  3617 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3618 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3619 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3620 
  3621 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3622 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3623 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3624 
  3625 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3626 interpretation.
  3627 
  3628 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3629 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3630 
  3631 
  3632 *** Document preparation ***
  3633 
  3634 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3635 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3636 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3637 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3638 
  3639 
  3640 *** HOL ***
  3641 
  3642 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3643 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3644 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3645 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3646 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3647 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3648 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3649 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3650 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3651 
  3652 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3653 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3654 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3655 
  3656 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3657 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3658 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3659 
  3660 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3661 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3662 
  3663 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3664 
  3665 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3666 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3667 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3668 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3669 
  3670 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3671 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3672 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3673 "mirabelle" utility.
  3674 
  3675 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3676 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3677 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3678 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3679 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3680 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3681 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3682 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3683 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3684 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3685 
  3686 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3687 procedure only.
  3688 
  3689 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3690 
  3691 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3692 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3693 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3694 that fail later.
  3695 
  3696 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3697 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3698 
  3699 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3700 the same method as the approximation method.
  3701 
  3702 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3703 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3704 series expansion.
  3705 
  3706 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3707 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3708 
  3709 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3710 reals.
  3711 
  3712 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3713 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3714 
  3715 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3716 fixpoint theorem.
  3717 
  3718 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3719   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3720     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3721   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3722     accordingly
  3723   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3724     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3725   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3726     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3727 
  3728 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3729 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3730 lattice.
  3731 
  3732 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3733 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3734 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3735 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3736 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3737 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3738 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3739 
  3740 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3741   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3742     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3743   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3744     le_inf_iff
  3745   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3746     sup_aci)
  3747   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3748   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3749   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3750     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3751     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3752     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3753     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3754     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3755     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3756     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3757     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3758     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3759     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3760   - authentic syntax for
  3761     Set.Pow
  3762     Set.image
  3763   - mere abbreviations:
  3764     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3765     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3766     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3767     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3768     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3769     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3770     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3771     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3772   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3773 
  3774 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3775 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3776 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3777 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3778 
  3779 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3780 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3781 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3782 
  3783 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3784 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3785 
  3786 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3787 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3788 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3789 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3790 
  3791 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3792 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3793 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3794 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3795 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3796 
  3797 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3798 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3799 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3800 
  3801 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3802 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3803 
  3804 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3805 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3806 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3807 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3808 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3809 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3810 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3811 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3812 
  3813 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3814     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3815     code_post       replaces    code post
  3816     etc.
  3817   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3818 
  3819 * Renamed methods:
  3820     sizechange -> size_change
  3821     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3822   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3823 
  3824 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3825 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3826 
  3827 * Renamed theorems:
  3828     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3829     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3830     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3831     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3832     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3833   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3834 
  3835 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3836 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3837 
  3838 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3839 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3840 
  3841 
  3842 *** HOLCF ***
  3843 
  3844 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3845 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3846 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3847 
  3848 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3849 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3850 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3851 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3852 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3853 
  3854 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3855 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3856 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3857 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3858 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3859 
  3860 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3861 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3862 constructor are pre-configured.
  3863 
  3864 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3865 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3866 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3867 
  3868 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3869 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3870 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3871 as well.)
  3872 
  3873 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3874 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3875 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3876 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3877 examples.
  3878 
  3879 
  3880 *** ML ***
  3881 
  3882 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3883 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3884 
  3885 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3886 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3887 position, logical grouping etc.
  3888 
  3889 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3890 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3891 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3892 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3893 
  3894 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3895 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3896 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3897 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3898 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3899 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3900 
  3901 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3902 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3903 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3904 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3905 experiments with references.
  3906 
  3907 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3908 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3909 
  3910 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3911 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3912 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3913 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3914 
  3915 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3916 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3917 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3918 
  3919 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3920 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3921 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3922 
  3923 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3924 
  3925 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3926 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3927 
  3928 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3929 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3930 
  3931 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3932 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3933 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3934 
  3935 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3936 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3937 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3938 
  3939 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3940 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3941 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3942 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3943 
  3944 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3945 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3946 instead of global theory.
  3947 
  3948 
  3949 *** System ***
  3950 
  3951 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3952 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3953 usedir option -q.
  3954 
  3955 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3956 also the system manual.
  3957 
  3958 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3959 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3960 
  3961 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3962 this is always enabled.
  3963 
  3964 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3965 
  3966 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3967 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3968 currently supported on Linux only.
  3969 
  3970 
  3971 
  3972 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3973 --------------------------------
  3974 
  3975 *** General ***
  3976 
  3977 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3978 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3979 
  3980   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3981     "isatool."
  3982 
  3983   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3984     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3985 
  3986   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3987     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3988 
  3989 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3990 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3991 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3992 
  3993 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3994 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3995 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3996 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3997 via "isabelle emacs".
  3998 
  3999 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4000 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4001 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4002 
  4003 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4004 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4005 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4006 
  4007 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4008 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4009 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4010 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4011 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4012 
  4013 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4014 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4015 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4016 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4017 
  4018 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4019 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4020 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4021 
  4022 
  4023 *** Pure ***
  4024 
  4025 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4026 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4027 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4028 
  4029 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4030 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4031 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4032 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4033 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4034 
  4035 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4036 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4037 useful in locale declarations.
  4038 
  4039 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4040 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4041 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4042 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4043 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4044 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4045 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4046 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4047 no longer generated.
  4048 
  4049 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4050 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4051 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4052 
  4053 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4054 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4055 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4056 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4057 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4058 
  4059 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4060 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4061 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4062 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4063 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4064 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4065 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4066 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4067 
  4068 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4069 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4070 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4071 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4072 
  4073 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4074 
  4075 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4076 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4077 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4078 
  4079 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4080 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4081 
  4082 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4083 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4084 in HOL, write
  4085 
  4086     class foo = ...
  4087 
  4088 instead of
  4089 
  4090     class foo = type + ...
  4091 
  4092 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4093 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4094 
  4095 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4096 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4097 
  4098 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4099 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4100 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4101 
  4102 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4103 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4104 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4105 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4106 directly in regular applications.
  4107 
  4108 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4109 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4110 
  4111 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4112 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4113 
  4114 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4115 theory context.
  4116 
  4117 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4118 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4119 
  4120 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4121 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4122 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4123 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4124 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4125 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4126 
  4127   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4128 
  4129 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4130 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4131 normalization.
  4132 
  4133 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4134 addressing etc.
  4135 
  4136 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4137 
  4138   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4139   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4140 
  4141 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4142 
  4143   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4144      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4145      parts of the code generator framework).
  4146 
  4147   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4148      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4149      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4150 
  4151 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4152 
  4153 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4154 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4155 
  4156 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4157 patterns, e.g.
  4158 
  4159     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4160 
  4161 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4162 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4163 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4164 hyphen:
  4165 
  4166     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4167 
  4168 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4169 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4170 
  4171 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4172 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4173 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4174 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4175 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4176 higher-order unification.
  4177 
  4178 
  4179 *** Document preparation ***
  4180 
  4181 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4182 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4183 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4184 
  4185 
  4186 *** HOL ***
  4187 
  4188 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4189 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4190 
  4191 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4192 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4193 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4194 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4195 Main, as before.
  4196 
  4197 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4198 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4199 
  4200 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4201 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4202 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4203 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4204 
  4205 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4206 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4207 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4208 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4209 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4210 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4211 
  4212 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4213 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4214 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4215 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4216 
  4217 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4218 menu.
  4219 
  4220 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4221 (contains the empty clause).
  4222 
  4223 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4224 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4225 
  4226 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4227 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4228 
  4229 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4230 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4231 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4232 
  4233 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4234 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4235 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4236 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4237 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4238 
  4239 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4240 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4241 
  4242 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4243 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4244 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4245 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4246 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4247 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4248 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4249 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4250 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4251 
  4252 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4253 
  4254 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4255 
  4256 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4257 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4258 
  4259 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4260 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4261 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4262 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4263 
  4264 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4265 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4266 
  4267     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4268     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4269     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4270     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4271     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4272     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4273     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4274     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4275 
  4276 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4277 theory Set.
  4278 
  4279 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4280 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4281 
  4282 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4283 
  4284 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4285 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4286 
  4287 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4288 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4289 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4290 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4291 allowed. For examples see
  4292 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4293 
  4294 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4295 
  4296 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4297 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4298 
  4299 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4300 structure:
  4301 
  4302     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4303     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4304     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4305     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4306     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4307     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4308     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4309     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4310     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4311     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4312     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4313     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4314     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4315     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4316     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4317     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4318     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4319     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4320     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4321     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4322     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4323     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4324     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4325     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4326     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4327     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4328     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4329     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4330     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4331     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4332     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4333     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4334     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4335 
  4336     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4337     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4338     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4339     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4340     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4341     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4342     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4343     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4344     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4345     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4346 
  4347     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4348     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4349     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4350     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4351     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4352     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4353 
  4354 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4355 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  4356 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  4357 
  4358 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  4359 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  4360 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  4361 
  4362 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  4363 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4364 
  4365 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  4366 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  4367 
  4368 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  4369 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  4370 proofs, e.g.
  4371 
  4372   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  4373 
  4374 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  4375 
  4376 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4377 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4378 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4379 
  4380 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4381 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4382 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4383 
  4384 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4385 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4386 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4387 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4388 
  4389 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4390 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4391 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4392 preorder_class.*.
  4393 
  4394 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4395 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4396 
  4397 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4398 
  4399   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4400 
  4401 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4402 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4403 fold_image.
  4404 
  4405 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4406 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4407 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4408 the former will disappear at some point.
  4409 
  4410 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4411 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4412 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4413 
  4414 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4415 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4416 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4417 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4418 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4419 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4420 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4421 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4422 
  4423 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4424 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4425 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4426 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4427 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4428 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4429 
  4430     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4431     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4432     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4433     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4434     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4435     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4436     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4437 
  4438 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4439 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4440 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4441 
  4442 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4443 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4444 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4445 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4446 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4447 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4448 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4449 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4450 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4451 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4452 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4453 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4454 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4455 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4456 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4457 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4458 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4459 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4460 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4461 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4462 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4463 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4464 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4465 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4466 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4467 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4468 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4469 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4470 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4471 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4472 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4473 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4474 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4475 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4476 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4477 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4478 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4479 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4480 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4481 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4482 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4483 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4484 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4485 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4486 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4487 
  4488 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4489 
  4490 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4491 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4492 
  4493 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4494 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4495 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4496 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4497 
  4498 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4499 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4500 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4501 theory RealVector.
  4502 
  4503 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4504 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4505 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4506 and inner products are included.
  4507 
  4508 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4509 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4510 supported.
  4511 
  4512 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4513 first diagonalization argument.
  4514 
  4515 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4516 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4517 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4518 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4519 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4520 
  4521     hide (open) const gcd
  4522     abbreviation gcd where
  4523       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4524     notation (output)
  4525       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4526 
  4527 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4528 
  4529 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4530 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4531 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4532 
  4533 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4534 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4535 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4536 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4537 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4538 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4539 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4540 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4541 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4542 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4543 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4544 cases.
  4545 
  4546 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4547 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4548 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4549 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4550 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4551 
  4552     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4553     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4554     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4555     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4556     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4557 
  4558 
  4559 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4560 
  4561 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4562 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4563 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4564 
  4565 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4566 
  4567 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4568 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4569 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4570 
  4571 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4572 
  4573 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4574 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4575 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4576 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4577 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4578 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4579 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4580 
  4581 
  4582 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4583 
  4584 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4585 
  4586 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4587 theory targets.
  4588 
  4589 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4590 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4591 'inductive' etc.
  4592 
  4593 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4594 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4595 
  4596 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4597 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4598 
  4599 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4600 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4601 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4602 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4603 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4604 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4605 the algorithm W:
  4606 
  4607  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4608  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4609          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4610 
  4611 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4612 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4613 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4614 
  4615 
  4616 *** HOLCF ***
  4617 
  4618 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4619 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4620 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4621 
  4622 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4623 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4624 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4625 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4626 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4627 
  4628 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4629 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4630 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4631 
  4632 
  4633 *** ZF ***
  4634 
  4635 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4636 
  4637 
  4638 *** ML ***
  4639 
  4640 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4641 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4642 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4643 5.2.1!
  4644 
  4645 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4646 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4647 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4648 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4649 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4650 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4651 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4652 
  4653 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4654 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4655 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4656 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4657 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4658 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4659 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4660 
  4661 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4662 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4663 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4664 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4665 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4666 
  4667 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4668 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4669 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4670 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4671 Method.add_method.
  4672 
  4673 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4674 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4675 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4676 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4677 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4678 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4679 
  4680 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4681 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4682 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4683 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4684 examples.
  4685 
  4686 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4687 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4688 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4689 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4690 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4691 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4692 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4693 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4694 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4695 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4696 
  4697 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4698 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4699 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4700 
  4701 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4702 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4703 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4704 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4705 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4706 resort for legacy applications.
  4707 
  4708 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4709 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4710 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4711 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4712 explicit runtime argument.
  4713 
  4714 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4715 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4716 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4717 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4718 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4719 
  4720 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4721 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4722 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4723 theory state.
  4724 
  4725 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4726 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4727 
  4728   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4729   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4730   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4731   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4732   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4733   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4734   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4735   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4736   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4737   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4738 
  4739 
  4740 *** System ***
  4741 
  4742 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4743 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4744 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4745 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4746 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4747 
  4748 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4749 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4750 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4751 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4752 
  4753 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4754 
  4755 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4756 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4757 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4758 prover operations.
  4759 
  4760 
  4761 
  4762 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4763 -------------------------------
  4764 
  4765 *** General ***
  4766 
  4767 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4768 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4769 
  4770 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4771 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4772 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4773 provides a proper context already.
  4774 
  4775 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4776 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4777 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4778 
  4779 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4780 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4781 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4782 swap theory imports.
  4783 
  4784 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4785 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4786 
  4787 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4788 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4789 white space without escapes.
  4790 
  4791 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4792 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4793 "foo_bar".
  4794 
  4795 
  4796 *** Pure ***
  4797 
  4798 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4799 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4800 
  4801 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4802 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4803 
  4804 (1) unused_thms
  4805      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4806 
  4807 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4808      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4809      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4810 
  4811 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4812      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4813      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4814      their ancestors.
  4815 
  4816 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4817 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4818 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4819 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4820 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4821 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4822 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4823 
  4824 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4825 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4826 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4827 
  4828 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4829 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4830 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4831 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4832 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4833 
  4834 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4835 
  4836 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4837 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4838 update of theories within ML code.
  4839 
  4840 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4841 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4842 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4843 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4844 
  4845 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4846 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4847 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4848 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4849 
  4850 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4851 
  4852 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4853 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4854 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4855 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4856 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4857 
  4858 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4859 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4860 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4861 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4862 situations.
  4863 
  4864 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4865 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4866 proof text.
  4867 
  4868 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4869 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4870 
  4871 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4872 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4873 predicates.
  4874 
  4875 
  4876 *** Document preparation ***
  4877 
  4878 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4879 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4880 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4881 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4882 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4883 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4884 
  4885 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4886 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4887 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4888 
  4889 
  4890 *** HOL ***
  4891 
  4892 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4893 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4894 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4895 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4896 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4897 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4898 
  4899 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4900 with multithreading.
  4901 
  4902 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4903 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4904 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4905 
  4906 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4907 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4908 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4909 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4910 
  4911 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4912 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4913 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4914 and makes them available separately.  See
  4915 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4916 
  4917 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4918 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4919 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4920 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4921 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4922 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4923 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4924 the declared rules.
  4925 
  4926 This setup also deals with rules like 
  4927 
  4928   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4929 
  4930 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4931 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4932 
  4933 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4934 
  4935   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4936 
  4937   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4938     definitions on => and bool.
  4939 
  4940   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4941     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4942     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4943 
  4944       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4945       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4946       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4947       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4948       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4949       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4950       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4951       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4952 
  4953   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4954     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4955     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4956 
  4957   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4958     The proof pattern
  4959 
  4960       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4961       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4962 
  4963     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4964     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4965 
  4966       have "EX S. P S"
  4967       proof
  4968         show "P S" <...>
  4969       qed
  4970 
  4971   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4972     The proof pattern
  4973 
  4974       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4975       also have "S = T" <...>
  4976       finally have "P T" .
  4977 
  4978     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4979     must be replaced by something like
  4980 
  4981       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4982       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4983       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4984 
  4985   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4986     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4987 
  4988       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4989 
  4990     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4991     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4992     type of the form
  4993 
  4994       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4995 
  4996     rather than
  4997 
  4998       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4999 
  5000 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5001 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5002 
  5003 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5004 
  5005 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5006 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5007 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5008 
  5009 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5010 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5011 
  5012 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5013 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5014 
  5015 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5016 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5017 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5018 
  5019 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5020 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5021 
  5022   less_trans
  5023   less_linear
  5024   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5025   le_less_trans
  5026   less_le_trans
  5027   less_not_sym
  5028   less_asym
  5029 
  5030 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5031 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5032 and different variable names.
  5033 
  5034 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5035 
  5036 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5037 finite maps.
  5038 
  5039 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5040 
  5041 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5042 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5043 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5044 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5045 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5046 accordingly.
  5047 
  5048 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5049 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5050 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5051 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5052 
  5053 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5054 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5055 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5056 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5057 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5058 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5059 
  5060 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5061 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5062 
  5063 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5064 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5065 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5066 
  5067 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5068 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5069 
  5070 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5071 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5072 
  5073 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5074 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5075 
  5076 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5077 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5078 
  5079 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5080 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5081 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5082 
  5083 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5084 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5085 
  5086 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5087 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5088 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5089 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5090 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5091 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5092 
  5093 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5094 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5095 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5096 
  5097 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5098 
  5099 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5100 
  5101 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5102 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5103 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5104 
  5105 
  5106 *** ZF ***
  5107 
  5108 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5109 same session:
  5110 
  5111   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5112   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5113   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5114   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5115   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5116   List      -> List_ZF
  5117   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5118 
  5119 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5120 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5121 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5122 
  5123 
  5124 *** ML ***
  5125 
  5126 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5127 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5128 
  5129 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5130 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5131 
  5132 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5133 
  5134 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5135 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5136 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5137 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5138 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5139 
  5140 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5141 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5142 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5143 
  5144 
  5145 *** System ***
  5146 
  5147 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5148 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5149 
  5150 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5151 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5152 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5153 
  5154 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5155 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5156 
  5157 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5158 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5159 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5160 
  5161 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5162 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5163 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5164 
  5165 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5166 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5167 
  5168 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5169 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5170 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5171 script.
  5172 
  5173 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5174 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5175 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5176 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5177 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5178 
  5179 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5180 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5181 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5182 
  5183 
  5184 
  5185 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5186 -----------------------------------
  5187 
  5188 *** General ***
  5189 
  5190 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5191 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5192 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5193 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5194 
  5195 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5196 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5197 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5198 
  5199 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5200 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5201 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5202 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5203 
  5204 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5205 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5206 quotes.
  5207 
  5208 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5209 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5210 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5211 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5212 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5213 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5214 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5215 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5216 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5217 
  5218 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5219 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5220 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5221 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5222 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5223 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5224 
  5225 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5226 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5227 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5228 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5229 
  5230 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5231 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5232 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5233 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5234 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5235 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5236 
  5237 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5238 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5239 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5240 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5241 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5242 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5243 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5244 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5245 
  5246 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5247 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5248 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5249 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5250 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5251 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5252 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5253 
  5254 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5255 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5256 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5257 
  5258 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5259 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5260 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5261 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5262 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5263 limit is imposed.
  5264 
  5265 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5266 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5267 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5268 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5269 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5270 and scalability.
  5271 
  5272 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5273 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5274 
  5275 
  5276 *** Document preparation ***
  5277 
  5278 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5279 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5280 current context.
  5281 
  5282 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5283 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5284 
  5285 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5286 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5287 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5288 
  5289 
  5290 *** Pure ***
  5291 
  5292 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5293 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5294 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5295 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5296 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5297 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5298 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5299 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5300 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5301 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5302 
  5303 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5304 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5305 sketch:
  5306 
  5307     internal compilation:
  5308         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5309     writing SML code to a file:
  5310         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5311     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5312         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5313     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5314         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5315 
  5316     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5317         method ``eval''
  5318 
  5319 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5320 
  5321 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5322 
  5323     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5324     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5325     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5326     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5327 
  5328 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5329 
  5330     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5331       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5332 
  5333     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5334       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5335 
  5336     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5337       {(target)}+
  5338         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5339 
  5340     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5341       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5342         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5343 
  5344 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5345 
  5346 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5347 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5348 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5349 codegen".
  5350 
  5351 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5352 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5353 annotations).
  5354 
  5355 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  5356 syntax.
  5357 
  5358 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  5359 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  5360 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  5361 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  5362 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  5363 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  5364 
  5365 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  5366 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  5367 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  5368 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  5369 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  5370 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  5371 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  5372 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  5373 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  5374 equations, see section "definitions".
  5375 
  5376 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5377 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5378 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5379 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5380 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5381 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5382 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5383 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5384 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5385 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5386 
  5387 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5388 configuration options:
  5389 
  5390   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5391   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5392   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5393   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5394   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5395   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5396   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5397   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5398   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5399 
  5400 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5401 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5402 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5403 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5404 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5405 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5406 order.
  5407 
  5408 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5409 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5410 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5411 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5412 context encountered later on.
  5413 
  5414 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5415 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5416 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5417 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5418 
  5419 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5420 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5421 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5422 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5423 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5424 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5425 
  5426 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5427 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5428 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5429 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5430 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5431 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5432 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5433 more permissive.
  5434 
  5435 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5436 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5437 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5438 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5439 maintainability of proof texts.
  5440 
  5441 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5442 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5443 
  5444   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5445   then guess x and y by clarify
  5446 
  5447 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5448 proof tools being involved here.
  5449 
  5450 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5451 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5452 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5453 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5454 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5455 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5456 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5457 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5458 
  5459 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5460 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5461 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5462 
  5463   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5464   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5465   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5466   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5467 
  5468 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5469 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5470 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5471 
  5472 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5473 both named and unnamed ones.
  5474 
  5475 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5476 
  5477   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5478 
  5479 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5480 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5481 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5482 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5483 
  5484 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5485 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5486 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5487 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5488 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5489 
  5490 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5491 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5492 
  5493 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5494 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5495 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5496 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5497 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5498 originally first one.
  5499 
  5500 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5501 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5502 expected.
  5503 
  5504 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5505 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5506 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5507 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5508 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5509 
  5510   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5511     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5512     obtains x where "P x"
  5513 
  5514   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5515     assumes "A & B"
  5516     obtains A and B
  5517 
  5518   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5519     assumes "A | B"
  5520     obtains
  5521       A
  5522     | B
  5523 
  5524 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5525 explicitly:
  5526 
  5527   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5528     obtains "~ thesis"
  5529 
  5530   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5531     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5532 
  5533 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5534 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5535 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5536 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5537 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5538 case_names).
  5539 
  5540 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5541 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5542 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5543 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5544 
  5545 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5546 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5547 top-level lemma.
  5548 
  5549 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5550 introduction rule (default "that").
  5551 
  5552 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5553 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5554 to occur.
  5555 
  5556 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5557 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5558 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5559 representations independently of name spaces.
  5560 
  5561 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5562 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5563 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5564 
  5565 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5566 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5567 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5568 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5569 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5570 current context.
  5571 
  5572 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5573 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5574 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5575 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5576 
  5577   axiomatization
  5578     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5579     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5580 
  5581   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5582   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5583 
  5584   abbreviation
  5585     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5586     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5587 
  5588 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5589 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5590 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5591 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5592 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5593 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5594 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5595 
  5596 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5597 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5598 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5599 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5600 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5601 
  5602 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5603 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5604 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5605 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5606 
  5607 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5608 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5609 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5610 
  5611   definition "K x _ = x"
  5612 
  5613   inductive conj for A B
  5614   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5615 
  5616 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5617 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5618 abbreviations on output.
  5619 
  5620 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5621 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5622 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5623 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5624 
  5625 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5626 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5627 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5628 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5629 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5630 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5631 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5632 
  5633 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5634 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5635 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5636 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5637 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5638 
  5639 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5640 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5641 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5642 
  5643 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5644 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5645 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5646 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5647 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5648 
  5649   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5650     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5651 
  5652 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5653 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5654 partial_order.
  5655 
  5656 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5657 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5658 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5659 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5660 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5661 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5662 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5663 examples.
  5664 
  5665 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5666 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5667 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5668 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5669 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5670 
  5671 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5672 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5673 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5674 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5675 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5676 
  5677   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5678   (induct set: foo bar)
  5679   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5680   (induct type: foo bar)
  5681 
  5682 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5683 new format.
  5684 
  5685 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5686 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5687 
  5688 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5689 considered a legacy feature.
  5690 
  5691 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5692 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5693 
  5694 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5695 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5696 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5697 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5698   
  5699 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5700 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5701 manipulating the claset.
  5702 
  5703 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5704 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5705 least one premise.
  5706 
  5707 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5708 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5709 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5710 rule steps.
  5711 
  5712 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5713 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5714 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5715 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5716 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5717 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5718 
  5719 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5720 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5721 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5722 
  5723 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5724 the graph browser tool.
  5725 
  5726 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5727 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5728 
  5729 
  5730 *** HOL ***
  5731 
  5732 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5733 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5734 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5735 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5736 multi-threading.
  5737   
  5738 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5739 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5740 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5741 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5742 work with multi-threading.
  5743 
  5744 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5745 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5746 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5747 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5748 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5749 
  5750 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5751 
  5752 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5753 equality.
  5754 
  5755 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5756 the new 'class' package:
  5757 
  5758     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5759     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5760     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5761     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5762     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5763     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5764     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5765     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5766     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5767     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5768     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5769     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5770     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5771     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5772     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5773     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5774     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5775     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5776     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5777     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5778 
  5779 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5780 
  5781 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5782 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5783 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5784 names.
  5785 
  5786 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5787 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5788 
  5789 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5790 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5791 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5792 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5793 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5794 
  5795 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5796 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5797 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5798 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5799 
  5800 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5801 
  5802 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5803 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5804 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5805 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5806 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5807 
  5808 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5809 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5810 
  5811 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5812 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5813 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5814 
  5815 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5816 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5817 
  5818 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5819 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5820 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5821 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5822 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5823 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5824 in the current context.
  5825 
  5826 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5827 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5828 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5829 
  5830 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5831 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5832 
  5833 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5834 
  5835     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5836     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5837 
  5838     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5839       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5840     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5841     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5842 
  5843     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5844     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5845 
  5846   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5847 
  5848     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5849     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5850     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5851     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5852     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5853     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5854     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5855     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5856     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5857     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5858     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5859     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5860     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5861     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5862     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5863     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5864     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5865     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5866     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5867     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5868     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5869     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5870     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5871     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5872     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5873     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5874     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5875     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5876     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5877     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5878     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5879     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5880     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5881     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5882     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5883 
  5884     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5885     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5886     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5887     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5888     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5889     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5890     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5891     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5892     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5893     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5894     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5895     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5896     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5897     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5898     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5899     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5900     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5901 
  5902     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5903     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5904     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5905     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5906     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5907     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5908     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5909     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5910     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5911     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5912     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5913     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5914     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5915     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5916     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5917     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5918     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5919     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5920     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5921     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5922     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5923     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5924     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5925     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5926     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5927     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5928     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5929     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5930 
  5931     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5932     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5933     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5934     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5935     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5936     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5937 
  5938     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5939     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5940     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5941     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5942 
  5943     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5944     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5945 
  5946     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5947     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5948 
  5949 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5950 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5951 
  5952 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5953 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5954 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5955 "*.size".
  5956 
  5957 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5958 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5959 
  5960 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5961 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5962 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5963 
  5964 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5965 
  5966 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5967 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5968 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5969 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5970 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5971 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5972 numerals on all operations.
  5973 
  5974 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5975 
  5976 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5977 
  5978 * Code generator library theories:
  5979   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5980     languages.
  5981   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5982     languages.
  5983   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5984     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5985   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5986   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5987     denominator).
  5988   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5989     representable by rational numbers.
  5990   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5991     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5992     includes Code_Integer.
  5993   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5994     target-language built-in integers.
  5995   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5996     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5997 
  5998 * New package for inductive predicates
  5999 
  6000   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  6001 
  6002     inductive
  6003       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  6004       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  6005     where
  6006       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  6007     | ...
  6008 
  6009   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  6010 
  6011     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  6012 
  6013     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  6014     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6015 
  6016     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  6017     intros
  6018       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6019       ...
  6020 
  6021   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  6022   sets to be defined with the new package via
  6023 
  6024     inductive_set
  6025       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  6026       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  6027     where
  6028       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6029     | ...
  6030 
  6031   or
  6032 
  6033     inductive_set
  6034       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  6035       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  6036       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  6037     where
  6038       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  6039     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  6040     | ...
  6041 
  6042   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  6043 
  6044   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  6045   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  6046 
  6047   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  6048 
  6049   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  6050     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  6051     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  6052     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  6053     than before the actual inductive definition.
  6054 
  6055   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  6056     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  6057     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  6058     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  6059     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  6060     statements of the form
  6061 
  6062       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  6063 
  6064     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  6065     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  6066 
  6067       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  6068 
  6069   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  6070 
  6071       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  6072         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  6073         ==> ... ==> P
  6074 
  6075     for predicates and
  6076 
  6077       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  6078         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  6079         ==> ... ==> P
  6080 
  6081     for sets rather than
  6082 
  6083       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  6084         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  6085         ==> ... ==> P
  6086 
  6087     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  6088     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  6089     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  6090 
  6091   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  6092     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  6093     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  6094 
  6095 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  6096 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  6097 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  6098 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  6099 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  6100 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  6101 
  6102 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  6103 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  6104 
  6105 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  6106 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  6107 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  6108 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  6109 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  6110 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  6111 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  6112 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  6113 variable.
  6114 
  6115 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  6116 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  6117 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  6118 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6119   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  6120   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  6121 
  6122 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  6123 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  6124 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  6125 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  6126 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  6127 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  6128 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  6129 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  6130 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  6131 
  6132 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  6133 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  6134 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  6135 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  6136 rat, etc.
  6137 
  6138 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  6139 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  6140 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  6141 
  6142 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  6143 
  6144 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  6145 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  6146 
  6147 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  6148 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  6149 
  6150 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  6151 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  6152 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6153 
  6154 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  6155 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  6156 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6157 
  6158 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  6159 
  6160 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  6161 
  6162 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  6163 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  6164 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  6165 positive/negative (in inequations).
  6166 
  6167 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  6168 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  6169 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  6170 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6171 
  6172 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  6173 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  6174 algebraic operations.
  6175 
  6176 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  6177 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6178 
  6179 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  6180 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6181 
  6182 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  6183 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  6184 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  6185 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  6186 adapted.
  6187  
  6188 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  6189 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  6190 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  6191 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  6192 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  6193 
  6194 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  6195 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  6196 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  6197 
  6198 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  6199 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  6200 better use 'abbreviation'.
  6201 
  6202 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6203 
  6204 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  6205 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  6206 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  6207   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  6208       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  6209   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  6210   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  6211   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  6212 
  6213 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  6214 
  6215 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  6216 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  6217 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  6218 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  6219 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  6220 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  6221 
  6222 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  6223 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  6224 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  6225 
  6226 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  6227 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  6228 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  6229 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6230 
  6231 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  6232 
  6233 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  6234 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6235 
  6236 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  6237 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  6238 
  6239 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  6240 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  6241 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  6242 
  6243 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to