NEWS
author paulson
Fri May 03 15:43:13 2019 +0100 (7 months ago)
changeset 70236 498ae040d47b
parent 70215 8371a25ca177
child 70237 7e9269c188d6
permissions -rw-r--r--
merged
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history of user-relevant changes
     2 =================================================
     3 
     4 (Note: Isabelle/jEdit shows a tree-view of the NEWS file in Sidekick.)
     5 
     6 
     7 New in Isabelle2019 (June 2019)
     8 -------------------------------
     9 
    10 *** General ***
    11 
    12 * The font collection "Isabelle DejaVu" is systematically derived from
    13 the existing "DejaVu" fonts, with variants "Sans Mono", "Sans", "Serif"
    14 and styles "Normal", "Bold", "Italic/Oblique", "Bold-Italic/Oblique".
    15 The DejaVu base fonts are retricted to well-defined Unicode ranges and
    16 augmented by special Isabelle symbols, taken from the former
    17 "IsabelleText" font (which is no longer provided separately). The line
    18 metrics and overall rendering quality is closer to original DejaVu.
    19 INCOMPATIBILITY with display configuration expecting the old
    20 "IsabelleText" font: use e.g. "Isabelle DejaVu Sans Mono" instead.
    21 
    22 * The Isabelle fonts render "\<inverse>" properly as superscript "-1".
    23 
    24 * Old-style inner comments (* ... *) within the term language are no
    25 longer supported (legacy feature in Isabelle2018).
    26 
    27 * Old-style {* verbatim *} tokens are explicitly marked as legacy
    28 feature and will be removed soon. Use \<open>cartouche\<close> syntax instead, e.g.
    29 via "isabelle update_cartouches -t" (available since Isabelle2015).
    30 
    31 * Infix operators that begin or end with a "*" can now be paranthesized
    32 without additional spaces, eg "(*)" instead of "( * )". Minor
    33 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    34 
    35 * Mixfix annotations may use cartouches instead of old-style double
    36 quotes, e.g. (infixl \<open>+\<close> 60). The command-line tool "isabelle update -u
    37 mixfix_cartouches" allows to update existing theory sources
    38 automatically.
    39 
    40 * ML setup commands (e.g. 'setup', 'method_setup', 'parse_translation')
    41 need to provide a closed expression -- without trailing semicolon. Minor
    42 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    43 
    44 * Commands 'generate_file', 'export_generated_files', and
    45 'compile_generated_files' support a stateless (PIDE-conformant) model
    46 for generated sources and compiled binaries of other languages. The
    47 compilation process is managed in Isabelle/ML, and results exported to
    48 the session database for further use (e.g. with "isabelle export" or
    49 "isabelle build -e").
    50 
    51 
    52 *** Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE ***
    53 
    54 * Fonts for the text area, gutter, GUI elements etc. use the "Isabelle
    55 DejaVu" collection by default, which provides uniform rendering quality
    56 with the usual Isabelle symbols. Line spacing no longer needs to be
    57 adjusted: properties for the old IsabelleText font had "Global Options /
    58 Text Area / Extra vertical line spacing (in pixels): -2", it now
    59 defaults to 1, but 0 works as well.
    60 
    61 * The jEdit File Browser is more prominent in the default GUI layout of
    62 Isabelle/jEdit: various virtual file-systems provide access to Isabelle
    63 resources, notably via "favorites:" (or "Edit Favorites").
    64 
    65 * Further markup and rendering for "plain text" (e.g. informal prose)
    66 and "raw text" (e.g. verbatim sources). This improves the visual
    67 appearance of formal comments inside the term language, or in general
    68 for repeated alternation of formal and informal text.
    69 
    70 * Action "isabelle-export-browser" points the File Browser to the theory
    71 exports of the current buffer, based on the "isabelle-export:" virtual
    72 file-system. The directory view needs to be reloaded manually to follow
    73 ongoing document processing.
    74 
    75 * Action "isabelle-session-browser" points the File Browser to session
    76 information, based on the "isabelle-session:" virtual file-system. Its
    77 entries are structured according to chapter / session names, the open
    78 operation is redirected to the session ROOT file.
    79 
    80 * Support for user-defined file-formats via class isabelle.File_Format
    81 in Isabelle/Scala (e.g. see isabelle.Bibtex.File_Format), configured via
    82 the shell function "isabelle_file_format" in etc/settings (e.g. of an
    83 Isabelle component).
    84 
    85 * System option "jedit_text_overview" allows to disable the text
    86 overview column.
    87 
    88 * Command-line options "-s" and "-u" of "isabelle jedit" override the
    89 default for system option "system_heaps" that determines the heap
    90 storage directory for "isabelle build". Option "-n" is now clearly
    91 separated from option "-s".
    92 
    93 * The Isabelle/jEdit desktop application uses the same options as
    94 "isabelle jedit" for its internal "isabelle build" process: the implicit
    95 option "-o system_heaps" (or "-s") has been discontinued. This reduces
    96 the potential for surprise wrt. command-line tools.
    97 
    98 * The official download of the Isabelle/jEdit application already
    99 contains heap images for Isabelle/HOL within its main directory: thus
   100 the first encounter becomes faster and more robust (e.g. when run from a
   101 read-only directory).
   102 
   103 * Isabelle DejaVu fonts are available with hinting by default, which is
   104 relevant for low-resolution displays. This may be disabled via system
   105 option "isabelle_fonts_hinted = false" in
   106 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/preferences -- it occasionally yields better
   107 results.
   108 
   109 * OpenJDK 11 has quite different font rendering, with better glyph
   110 shapes and improved sub-pixel anti-aliasing. In some situations results
   111 might be *worse* than Oracle Java 8, though -- a proper HiDPI / UHD
   112 display is recommended.
   113 
   114 
   115 *** Document preparation ***
   116 
   117 * Document markers are formal comments of the form \<^marker>\<open>marker_body\<close> that
   118 are stripped from document output: the effect is to modify the semantic
   119 presentation context or to emit markup to the PIDE document. Some
   120 predefined markers are taken from the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative,
   121 e.g. \<^marker>\<open>contributor arg\<close> or \<^marker>\<open>license arg\<close> and produce PIDE markup that
   122 can retrieved from the document database.
   123 
   124 * Old-style command tags %name are re-interpreted as markers with
   125 proof-scope \<^marker>\<open>tag (proof) name\<close> and produce LaTeX environments as
   126 before. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: multiple markers are composed in
   127 canonical order, resulting in a reversed list of tags in the
   128 presentation context.
   129 
   130 * Marker \<^marker>\<open>tag name\<close> does not apply to the proof of a top-level goal
   131 statement by default (e.g. 'theorem', 'lemma'). This is a subtle change
   132 of semantics wrt. old-style %name.
   133 
   134 * In Isabelle/jEdit, the string "\tag" may be completed to a "\<^marker>\<open>tag \<close>"
   135 template.
   136 
   137 * Document antiquotation option "cartouche" indicates if the output
   138 should be delimited as cartouche; this takes precedence over the
   139 analogous option "quotes".
   140 
   141 * Many document antiquotations are internally categorized as "embedded"
   142 and expect one cartouche argument, which is typically used with the
   143 \<^control>\<open>cartouche\<close> notation (e.g. \<^term>\<open>\<lambda>x y. x\<close>). The cartouche
   144 delimiters are stripped in output of the source (antiquotation option
   145 "source"), but it is possible to enforce delimiters via option
   146 "source_cartouche", e.g. @{term [source_cartouche] \<open>\<lambda>x y. x\<close>}.
   147 
   148 
   149 *** Isar ***
   150 
   151 * Implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc. have been discontinued
   152 (legacy feature since Isabelle2016).
   153 
   154 * More robust treatment of structural errors: begin/end blocks take
   155 precedence over goal/proof. This is particularly relevant for the
   156 headless PIDE session and server.
   157 
   158 * Command keywords of kind thy_decl / thy_goal may be more specifically
   159 fit into the traditional document model of "definition-statement-proof"
   160 via thy_defn / thy_stmt / thy_goal_defn / thy_goal_stmt.
   161 
   162 
   163 *** HOL ***
   164 
   165 * Command 'export_code' produces output as logical files within the
   166 theory context, as well as formal session exports that can be
   167 materialized via command-line tools "isabelle export" or "isabelle build
   168 -e" (with 'export_files' in the session ROOT). Isabelle/jEdit also
   169 provides a virtual file-system "isabelle-export:" that can be explored
   170 in the regular file-browser. A 'file_prefix' argument allows to specify
   171 an explicit name prefix for the target file (SML, OCaml, Scala) or
   172 directory (Haskell); the default is "export" with a consecutive number
   173 within each theory.
   174 
   175 * Command 'export_code': the 'file' argument is now legacy and will be
   176 removed soon: writing to the physical file-system is not well-defined in
   177 a reactive/parallel application like Isabelle. The empty 'file' argument
   178 has been discontinued already: it is superseded by the file-browser in
   179 Isabelle/jEdit on "isabelle-export:". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   180 
   181 * Command 'code_reflect' no longer supports the 'file' argument: it has
   182 been superseded by 'file_prefix' for stateless file management as in
   183 'export_code'. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   184 
   185 * Code generation for OCaml: proper strings are used for literals.
   186 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   187 
   188 * Code generation for OCaml: Zarith supersedes Nums as library for
   189 proper integer arithmetic. The library is located via standard
   190 invocations of "ocamlfind" (via ISABELLE_OCAMLFIND settings variable).
   191 The environment provided by "isabelle ocaml_setup" already contains this
   192 tool and the required packages. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   193 
   194 * Code generation for Haskell: code includes for Haskell must contain
   195 proper module frame, nothing is added magically any longer.
   196 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   197 
   198 * Code generation: slightly more conventional syntax for 'code_stmts'
   199 antiquotation. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   200 
   201 * Theory List: the precedence of the list_update operator has changed:
   202 "f a [n := x]" now needs to be written "(f a)[n := x]".
   203 
   204 * The functions \<Union>, \<Inter>, \<Squnion>, \<Sqinter> (not the corresponding binding operators)
   205 now have the same precedence as any other prefix function symbol. Minor
   206 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   207 
   208 * Simplified syntax setup for big operators under image. In rare
   209 situations, type conversions are not inserted implicitly any longer
   210 and need to be given explicitly. Auxiliary abbreviations INFIMUM,
   211 SUPREMUM, UNION, INTER should now rarely occur in output and are just
   212 retained as migration auxiliary. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   213 
   214 * The simplifier uses image_cong_simp as a congruence rule. The historic
   215 and not really well-formed congruence rules INF_cong*, SUP_cong*, are
   216 not used by default any longer. INCOMPATIBILITY; consider using declare
   217 image_cong_simp [cong del] in extreme situations.
   218 
   219 * INF_image and SUP_image are no default simp rules any longer.
   220 INCOMPATIBILITY, prefer image_comp as simp rule if needed.
   221 
   222 * Strong congruence rules (with =simp=> in the premises) for constant f
   223 are now uniformly called f_cong_simp, in accordance with congruence
   224 rules produced for mappers by the datatype package. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   225 
   226 * Retired lemma card_Union_image; use the simpler card_UN_disjoint
   227 instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   228 
   229 * Facts sum_mset.commute and prod_mset.commute have been renamed to
   230 sum_mset.swap and prod_mset.swap, similarly to sum.swap and prod.swap.
   231 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   232 
   233 * ML structure Inductive: slightly more conventional naming schema.
   234 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   235 
   236 * ML: Various _global variants of specification tools have been removed.
   237 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, prefer combinators
   238 Named_Target.theory_map[_result] to lift specifications to the global
   239 theory level.
   240 
   241 * Theory HOL-Library.Simps_Case_Conv: 'case_of_simps' now supports
   242 overlapping and non-exhaustive patterns and handles arbitrarily nested
   243 patterns. It uses on the same algorithm as HOL-Library.Code_Lazy, which
   244 assumes sequential left-to-right pattern matching. The generated
   245 equation no longer tuples the arguments on the right-hand side.
   246 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   247 
   248 * Theory HOL-Library.Multiset: the <Union># operator now has the same
   249 precedence as any other prefix function symbol.
   250 
   251 * Theory HOL-Library.Cardinal_Notations has been discontinued in favor
   252 of the bundle cardinal_syntax (available in theory Main). Minor
   253 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   254 
   255 * Session HOL-Library and HOL-Number_Theory: Exponentiation by squaring,
   256 used for computing powers in class "monoid_mult" and modular
   257 exponentiation.
   258 
   259 * Session HOL-Computational_Algebra: Formal Laurent series and overhaul
   260 of Formal power series.
   261 
   262 * Session HOL-Number_Theory: More material on residue rings in
   263 Carmichael's function, primitive roots, more properties for "ord".
   264 
   265 * Session HOL-Analysis: Better organization and much more material
   266 at the level of abstract topological spaces.
   267 
   268 * Session HOL-Algebra: Free abelian groups, etc., ported from HOL Light;
   269  algebraic closure of a field by de Vilhena and Baillon.
   270 
   271 * Session HOL-Homology has been added. It is a port of HOL Light's
   272 homology library, with new proofs of "invariance of domain" and related
   273 results.
   274 
   275 * Session HOL-SPARK: .prv files are no longer written to the
   276 file-system, but exported to the session database. Results may be
   277 retrieved via "isabelle build -e HOL-SPARK-Examples" on the
   278 command-line.
   279 
   280 * Sledgehammer:
   281   - The URL for SystemOnTPTP, which is used by remote provers, has been
   282     updated.
   283   - The machine-learning-based filter MaSh has been optimized to take
   284     less time (in most cases).
   285 
   286 * SMT: reconstruction is now possible using the SMT solver veriT.
   287 
   288 * Session HOL-Word:
   289   * New theory More_Word as comprehensive entrance point.
   290   * Merged type class bitss into type class bits.
   291   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   292 
   293 
   294 *** ML ***
   295 
   296 * Command 'generate_file' allows to produce sources for other languages,
   297 with antiquotations in the Isabelle context (only the control-cartouche
   298 form). The default "cartouche" antiquotation evaluates an ML expression
   299 of type string and inlines the result as a string literal of the target
   300 language. For example, this works for Haskell as follows:
   301 
   302   generate_file "Pure.hs" = \<open>
   303   module Isabelle.Pure where
   304     allConst, impConst, eqConst :: String
   305     allConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.all\<close>\<close>
   306     impConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.imp\<close>\<close>
   307     eqConst = \<open>\<^const_name>\<open>Pure.eq\<close>\<close>
   308   \<close>
   309 
   310 See also commands 'export_generated_files' and 'compile_generated_files'
   311 to use the results.
   312 
   313 * ML evaluation (notably via commands 'ML' and 'ML_file') is subject to
   314 option ML_environment to select a named environment, such as "Isabelle"
   315 for Isabelle/ML, or "SML" for official Standard ML. It is also possible
   316 to move toplevel bindings between environments, using a notation with
   317 ">" as separator. For example:
   318 
   319   declare [[ML_environment = "Isabelle>SML"]]
   320   ML \<open>val println = writeln\<close>
   321 
   322   declare [[ML_environment = "SML"]]
   323   ML \<open>println "test"\<close>
   324 
   325   declare [[ML_environment = "Isabelle"]]
   326   ML \<open>println\<close>  \<comment> \<open>not present\<close>
   327 
   328 The Isabelle/ML function ML_Env.setup defines new ML environments. This
   329 is useful to incorporate big SML projects in an isolated name space, and
   330 potentially with variations on ML syntax (existing ML_Env.SML_operations
   331 observes the official standard).
   332 
   333 * ML antiquotation @{master_dir} refers to the master directory of the
   334 underlying theory, i.e. the directory of the theory file.
   335 
   336 * ML antiquotation @{verbatim} inlines its argument as string literal,
   337 preserving newlines literally. The short form \<^verbatim>\<open>abc\<close> is particularly
   338 useful.
   339 
   340 * Local_Theory.reset is no longer available in user space. Regular
   341 definitional packages should use balanced blocks of
   342 Local_Theory.open_target versus Local_Theory.close_target instead, or
   343 the Local_Theory.subtarget(_result) combinator. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   344 
   345 * Original PolyML.pointerEq is retained as a convenience for tools that
   346 don't use Isabelle/ML (where this is called "pointer_eq").
   347 
   348 
   349 *** System ***
   350 
   351 * Update to OpenJDK 11: the current long-term support version of Java.
   352 
   353 * Update to Poly/ML 5.8 allows to use the native x86_64 platform without
   354 the full overhead of 64-bit values everywhere. This special x86_64_32
   355 mode provides up to 16GB ML heap, while program code and stacks are
   356 allocated elsewhere. Thus approx. 5 times more memory is available for
   357 applications compared to old x86 mode (which is no longer used by
   358 Isabelle). The switch to the x86_64 CPU architecture also avoids
   359 compatibility problems with Linux and macOS, where 32-bit applications
   360 are gradually phased out.
   361 
   362 * System option "checkpoint" has been discontinued: obsolete thanks to
   363 improved memory management in Poly/ML.
   364 
   365 * System option "system_heaps" determines where to store the session
   366 image of "isabelle build" (and other tools using that internally).
   367 Former option "-s" is superseded by option "-o system_heaps".
   368 INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line syntax.
   369 
   370 * Session directory $ISABELLE_HOME/src/Tools/Haskell provides some
   371 source modules for Isabelle tools implemented in Haskell, notably for
   372 Isabelle/PIDE.
   373 
   374 * The command-line tool "isabelle build -e" retrieves theory exports
   375 from the session build database, using 'export_files' in session ROOT
   376 entries.
   377 
   378 * The command-line tool "isabelle update" uses Isabelle/PIDE in
   379 batch-mode to update theory sources based on semantic markup produced in
   380 Isabelle/ML. Actual updates depend on system options that may be enabled
   381 via "-u OPT" (for "update_OPT"), see also $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/options
   382 section "Theory update". Theory sessions are specified as in "isabelle
   383 dump".
   384 
   385 * The command-line tool "isabelle update -u control_cartouches" changes
   386 antiquotations into control-symbol format (where possible): @{NAME}
   387 becomes \<^NAME> and @{NAME ARG} becomes \<^NAME>\<open>ARG\<close>.
   388 
   389 * Support for Isabelle command-line tools defined in Isabelle/Scala.
   390 Instances of class Isabelle_Scala_Tools may be configured via the shell
   391 function "isabelle_scala_tools" in etc/settings (e.g. of an Isabelle
   392 component).
   393 
   394 * Isabelle Server command "use_theories" supports "nodes_status_delay"
   395 for continuous output of node status information. The time interval is
   396 specified in seconds; a negative value means it is disabled (default).
   397 
   398 * Isabelle Server command "use_theories" terminates more robustly in the
   399 presence of structurally broken sources: full consolidation of theories
   400 is no longer required.
   401 
   402 * OCaml tools and libraries are now accesed via ISABELLE_OCAMLFIND,
   403 which needs to point to a suitable version of "ocamlfind" (e.g. via
   404 OPAM, see below). INCOMPATIBILITY: settings variables ISABELLE_OCAML and
   405 ISABELLE_OCAMLC are no longer supported.
   406 
   407 * Support for managed installations of Glasgow Haskell Compiler and
   408 OCaml via the following command-line tools:
   409 
   410   isabelle ghc_setup
   411   isabelle ghc_stack
   412 
   413   isabelle ocaml_setup
   414   isabelle ocaml_opam
   415 
   416 The global installation state is determined by the following settings
   417 (and corresponding directory contents):
   418 
   419   ISABELLE_STACK_ROOT
   420   ISABELLE_STACK_RESOLVER
   421   ISABELLE_GHC_VERSION
   422 
   423   ISABELLE_OPAM_ROOT
   424   ISABELLE_OCAML_VERSION
   425 
   426 After setup, the following Isabelle settings are automatically
   427 redirected (overriding existing user settings):
   428 
   429   ISABELLE_GHC
   430 
   431   ISABELLE_OCAMLFIND
   432 
   433 The old meaning of these settings as locally installed executables may
   434 be recovered by purging the directories ISABELLE_STACK_ROOT /
   435 ISABELLE_OPAM_ROOT, or by resetting these variables in
   436 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings.
   437 
   438 
   439 
   440 New in Isabelle2018 (August 2018)
   441 ---------------------------------
   442 
   443 *** General ***
   444 
   445 * Session-qualified theory names are mandatory: it is no longer possible
   446 to refer to unqualified theories from the parent session.
   447 INCOMPATIBILITY for old developments that have not been updated to
   448 Isabelle2017 yet (using the "isabelle imports" tool).
   449 
   450 * Only the most fundamental theory names are global, usually the entry
   451 points to major logic sessions: Pure, Main, Complex_Main, HOLCF, IFOL,
   452 FOL, ZF, ZFC etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified names for
   453 formerly global "HOL-Probability.Probability" and "HOL-SPARK.SPARK".
   454 
   455 * Global facts need to be closed: no free variables and no hypotheses.
   456 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   457 
   458 * Facts stemming from locale interpretation are subject to lazy
   459 evaluation for improved performance. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY: errors
   460 stemming from interpretation morphisms might be deferred and thus
   461 difficult to locate; enable system option "strict_facts" temporarily to
   462 avoid this.
   463 
   464 * Marginal comments need to be written exclusively in the new-style form
   465 "\<comment> \<open>text\<close>", old ASCII variants like "-- {* ... *}" are no longer
   466 supported. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the command-line tool "isabelle
   467 update_comments" to update existing theory files.
   468 
   469 * Old-style inner comments (* ... *) within the term language are legacy
   470 and will be discontinued soon: use formal comments "\<comment> \<open>...\<close>" or "\<^cancel>\<open>...\<close>"
   471 instead.
   472 
   473 * The "op <infix-op>" syntax for infix operators has been replaced by
   474 "(<infix-op>)". If <infix-op> begins or ends with a "*", there needs to
   475 be a space between the "*" and the corresponding parenthesis.
   476 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the command-line tool "isabelle update_op" to
   477 convert theory and ML files to the new syntax. Because it is based on
   478 regular expression matching, the result may need a bit of manual
   479 postprocessing. Invoking "isabelle update_op" converts all files in the
   480 current directory (recursively). In case you want to exclude conversion
   481 of ML files (because the tool frequently also converts ML's "op"
   482 syntax), use option "-m".
   483 
   484 * Theory header 'abbrevs' specifications need to be separated by 'and'.
   485 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   486 
   487 * Command 'external_file' declares the formal dependency on the given
   488 file name, such that the Isabelle build process knows about it, but
   489 without specific Prover IDE management.
   490 
   491 * Session ROOT entries no longer allow specification of 'files'. Rare
   492 INCOMPATIBILITY, use command 'external_file' within a proper theory
   493 context.
   494 
   495 * Session root directories may be specified multiple times: each
   496 accessible ROOT file is processed only once. This facilitates
   497 specification of $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/ROOTS or command-line options like
   498 -d or -D for "isabelle build" and "isabelle jedit". Example:
   499 
   500   isabelle build -D '~~/src/ZF'
   501 
   502 * The command 'display_drafts' has been discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   503 use action "isabelle.draft" (or "print") in Isabelle/jEdit instead.
   504 
   505 * In HTML output, the Isabelle symbol "\<hyphen>" is rendered as explicit
   506 Unicode hyphen U+2010, to avoid unclear meaning of the old "soft hyphen"
   507 U+00AD. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, e.g. copy-paste of historic Isabelle HTML
   508 output.
   509 
   510 
   511 *** Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE ***
   512 
   513 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" provides more flexible options
   514 for session management:
   515 
   516   - option -R builds an auxiliary logic image with all theories from
   517     other sessions that are not already present in its parent
   518 
   519   - option -S is like -R, with a focus on the selected session and its
   520     descendants (this reduces startup time for big projects like AFP)
   521 
   522   - option -A specifies an alternative ancestor session for options -R
   523     and -S
   524 
   525   - option -i includes additional sessions into the name-space of
   526     theories
   527 
   528   Examples:
   529     isabelle jedit -R HOL-Number_Theory
   530     isabelle jedit -R HOL-Number_Theory -A HOL
   531     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL
   532     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL-Analysis
   533     isabelle jedit -d '$AFP' -S Formal_SSA -A HOL-Analysis -i CryptHOL
   534 
   535 * PIDE markup for session ROOT files: allows to complete session names,
   536 follow links to theories and document files etc.
   537 
   538 * Completion supports theory header imports, using theory base name.
   539 E.g. "Prob" may be completed to "HOL-Probability.Probability".
   540 
   541 * Named control symbols (without special Unicode rendering) are shown as
   542 bold-italic keyword. This is particularly useful for the short form of
   543 antiquotations with control symbol: \<^name>\<open>argument\<close>. The action
   544 "isabelle.antiquoted_cartouche" turns an antiquotation with 0 or 1
   545 arguments into this format.
   546 
   547 * Completion provides templates for named symbols with arguments,
   548 e.g. "\<comment> \<open>ARGUMENT\<close>" or "\<^emph>\<open>ARGUMENT\<close>".
   549 
   550 * Slightly more parallel checking, notably for high priority print
   551 functions (e.g. State output).
   552 
   553 * The view title is set dynamically, according to the Isabelle
   554 distribution and the logic session name. The user can override this via
   555 set-view-title (stored persistently in $JEDIT_SETTINGS/perspective.xml).
   556 
   557 * System options "spell_checker_include" and "spell_checker_exclude"
   558 supersede former "spell_checker_elements" to determine regions of text
   559 that are subject to spell-checking. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   560 
   561 * Action "isabelle.preview" is able to present more file formats,
   562 notably bibtex database files and ML files.
   563 
   564 * Action "isabelle.draft" is similar to "isabelle.preview", but shows a
   565 plain-text document draft. Both are available via the menu "Plugins /
   566 Isabelle".
   567 
   568 * When loading text files, the Isabelle symbols encoding UTF-8-Isabelle
   569 is only used if there is no conflict with existing Unicode sequences in
   570 the file. Otherwise, the fallback encoding is plain UTF-8 and Isabelle
   571 symbols remain in literal \<symbol> form. This avoids accidental loss of
   572 Unicode content when saving the file.
   573 
   574 * Bibtex database files (.bib) are semantically checked.
   575 
   576 * Update to jedit-5.5.0, the latest release.
   577 
   578 
   579 *** Isabelle/VSCode Prover IDE ***
   580 
   581 * HTML preview of theories and other file-formats similar to
   582 Isabelle/jEdit.
   583 
   584 * Command-line tool "isabelle vscode_server" accepts the same options
   585 -A, -R, -S, -i for session selection as "isabelle jedit". This is
   586 relevant for isabelle.args configuration settings in VSCode. The former
   587 option -A (explore all known session files) has been discontinued: it is
   588 enabled by default, unless option -S is used to focus on a particular
   589 spot in the session structure. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   590 
   591 
   592 *** Document preparation ***
   593 
   594 * Formal comments work uniformly in outer syntax, inner syntax (term
   595 language), Isabelle/ML and some other embedded languages of Isabelle.
   596 See also "Document comments" in the isar-ref manual. The following forms
   597 are supported:
   598 
   599   - marginal text comment: \<comment> \<open>\<dots>\<close>
   600   - canceled source: \<^cancel>\<open>\<dots>\<close>
   601   - raw LaTeX: \<^latex>\<open>\<dots>\<close>
   602 
   603 * Outside of the inner theory body, the default presentation context is
   604 theory Pure. Thus elementary antiquotations may be used in markup
   605 commands (e.g. 'chapter', 'section', 'text') and formal comments.
   606 
   607 * System option "document_tags" specifies alternative command tags. This
   608 is occasionally useful to control the global visibility of commands via
   609 session options (e.g. in ROOT).
   610 
   611 * Document markup commands ('section', 'text' etc.) are implicitly
   612 tagged as "document" and visible by default. This avoids the application
   613 of option "document_tags" to these commands.
   614 
   615 * Isabelle names are mangled into LaTeX macro names to allow the full
   616 identifier syntax with underscore, prime, digits. This is relevant for
   617 antiquotations in control symbol notation, e.g. \<^const_name> becomes
   618 \isactrlconstUNDERSCOREname.
   619 
   620 * Document preparation with skip_proofs option now preserves the content
   621 more accurately: only terminal proof steps ('by' etc.) are skipped.
   622 
   623 * Document antiquotation @{theory name} requires the long
   624 session-qualified theory name: this is what users reading the text
   625 normally need to import.
   626 
   627 * Document antiquotation @{session name} checks and prints the given
   628 session name verbatim.
   629 
   630 * Document antiquotation @{cite} now checks the given Bibtex entries
   631 against the Bibtex database files -- only in batch-mode session builds.
   632 
   633 * Command-line tool "isabelle document" has been re-implemented in
   634 Isabelle/Scala, with simplified arguments and explicit errors from the
   635 latex and bibtex process. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   636 
   637 * Session ROOT entry: empty 'document_files' means there is no document
   638 for this session. There is no need to specify options [document = false]
   639 anymore.
   640 
   641 
   642 *** Isar ***
   643 
   644 * Command 'interpret' no longer exposes resulting theorems as literal
   645 facts, notably for the \<open>prop\<close> notation or the "fact" proof method. This
   646 improves modularity of proofs and scalability of locale interpretation.
   647 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, need to refer to explicitly named facts instead
   648 (e.g. use 'find_theorems' or 'try' to figure this out).
   649 
   650 * The old 'def' command has been discontinued (legacy since
   651 Isbelle2016-1). INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'define' instead -- usually with
   652 object-logic equality or equivalence.
   653 
   654 
   655 *** Pure ***
   656 
   657 * The inner syntax category "sort" now includes notation "_" for the
   658 dummy sort: it is effectively ignored in type-inference.
   659 
   660 * Rewrites clauses (keyword 'rewrites') were moved into the locale
   661 expression syntax, where they are part of locale instances. In
   662 interpretation commands rewrites clauses now need to occur before 'for'
   663 and 'defines'. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY; definitions immediately subject to
   664 rewriting may need to be pulled up into the surrounding theory.
   665 
   666 * For 'rewrites' clauses, if activating a locale instance fails, fall
   667 back to reading the clause first. This helps avoid qualification of
   668 locale instances where the qualifier's sole purpose is avoiding
   669 duplicate constant declarations.
   670 
   671 * Proof method "simp" now supports a new modifier "flip:" followed by a
   672 list of theorems. Each of these theorems is removed from the simpset
   673 (without warning if it is not there) and the symmetric version of the
   674 theorem (i.e. lhs and rhs exchanged) is added to the simpset. For "auto"
   675 and friends the modifier is "simp flip:".
   676 
   677 
   678 *** HOL ***
   679 
   680 * Sledgehammer: bundled version of "vampire" (for non-commercial users)
   681 helps to avoid fragility of "remote_vampire" service.
   682 
   683 * Clarified relationship of characters, strings and code generation:
   684 
   685   - Type "char" is now a proper datatype of 8-bit values.
   686 
   687   - Conversions "nat_of_char" and "char_of_nat" are gone; use more
   688     general conversions "of_char" and "char_of" with suitable type
   689     constraints instead.
   690 
   691   - The zero character is just written "CHR 0x00", not "0" any longer.
   692 
   693   - Type "String.literal" (for code generation) is now isomorphic to
   694     lists of 7-bit (ASCII) values; concrete values can be written as
   695     "STR ''...''" for sequences of printable characters and "STR 0x..."
   696     for one single ASCII code point given as hexadecimal numeral.
   697 
   698   - Type "String.literal" supports concatenation "... + ..." for all
   699     standard target languages.
   700 
   701   - Theory HOL-Library.Code_Char is gone; study the explanations
   702     concerning "String.literal" in the tutorial on code generation to
   703     get an idea how target-language string literals can be converted to
   704     HOL string values and vice versa.
   705 
   706   - Session Imperative-HOL: operation "raise" directly takes a value of
   707     type "String.literal" as argument, not type "string".
   708 
   709 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   710 
   711 * Code generation: Code generation takes an explicit option
   712 "case_insensitive" to accomodate case-insensitive file systems.
   713 
   714 * Abstract bit operations as part of Main: push_bit, take_bit, drop_bit.
   715 
   716 * New, more general, axiomatization of complete_distrib_lattice. The
   717 former axioms:
   718 
   719   "sup x (Inf X) = Inf (sup x ` X)" and "inf x (Sup X) = Sup (inf x ` X)"
   720 
   721 are replaced by:
   722 
   723   "Inf (Sup ` A) <= Sup (Inf ` {f ` A | f . (! Y \<in> A . f Y \<in> Y)})"
   724 
   725 The instantiations of sets and functions as complete_distrib_lattice are
   726 moved to Hilbert_Choice.thy because their proofs need the Hilbert choice
   727 operator. The dual of this property is also proved in theory
   728 HOL.Hilbert_Choice.
   729 
   730 * New syntax for the minimum/maximum of a function over a finite set:
   731 MIN x\<in>A. B and even MIN x. B (only useful for finite types), also MAX.
   732 
   733 * Clarifed theorem names:
   734 
   735   Min.antimono ~> Min.subset_imp
   736   Max.antimono ~> Max.subset_imp
   737 
   738 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   739 
   740 * SMT module:
   741 
   742   - The 'smt_oracle' option is now necessary when using the 'smt' method
   743     with a solver other than Z3. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   744 
   745   - The encoding to first-order logic is now more complete in the
   746     presence of higher-order quantifiers. An 'smt_explicit_application'
   747     option has been added to control this. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   748 
   749 * Facts sum.commute(_restrict) and prod.commute(_restrict) renamed to
   750 sum.swap(_restrict) and prod.swap(_restrict), to avoid name clashes on
   751 interpretation of abstract locales. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   752 
   753 * Predicate coprime is now a real definition, not a mere abbreviation.
   754 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   755 
   756 * Predicate pairwise_coprime abolished, use "pairwise coprime" instead.
   757 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   758 
   759 * The relator rel_filter on filters has been strengthened to its
   760 canonical categorical definition with better properties.
   761 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   762 
   763 * Generalized linear algebra involving linear, span, dependent, dim
   764 from type class real_vector to locales module and vector_space.
   765 Renamed:
   766 
   767   span_inc ~> span_superset
   768   span_superset ~> span_base
   769   span_eq ~> span_eq_iff
   770 
   771 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   772 
   773 * Class linordered_semiring_1 covers zero_less_one also, ruling out
   774 pathologic instances. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   775 
   776 * Theory HOL.List: functions "sorted_wrt" and "sorted" now compare every
   777 element in a list to all following elements, not just the next one.
   778 
   779 * Theory HOL.List syntax:
   780 
   781   - filter-syntax "[x <- xs. P]" is no longer output syntax, but only
   782     input syntax
   783 
   784   - list comprehension syntax now supports tuple patterns in "pat <- xs"
   785 
   786 * Theory Map: "empty" must now be qualified as "Map.empty".
   787 
   788 * Removed nat-int transfer machinery. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
   789 
   790 * Fact mod_mult_self4 (on nat) renamed to Suc_mod_mult_self3, to avoid
   791 clash with fact mod_mult_self4 (on more generic semirings).
   792 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   793 
   794 * Eliminated some theorem aliasses:
   795   even_times_iff ~> even_mult_iff
   796   mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_nat ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   797   even_of_nat ~> even_int_iff
   798 
   799 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   800 
   801 * Eliminated some theorem duplicate variations:
   802 
   803   - dvd_eq_mod_eq_0_numeral can be replaced by dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
   804   - mod_Suc_eq_Suc_mod can be replaced by mod_Suc
   805   - mod_Suc_eq_Suc_mod [symmetrict] can be replaced by mod_simps
   806   - mod_eq_0_iff can be replaced by mod_eq_0_iff_dvd and dvd_def
   807   - the witness of mod_eqD can be given directly as "_ div _"
   808 
   809 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   810 
   811 * Classical setup: Assumption "m mod d = 0" (for m d :: nat) is no
   812 longer aggresively destroyed to "\<exists>q. m = d * q". INCOMPATIBILITY, adding
   813 "elim!: dvd" to classical proof methods in most situations restores
   814 broken proofs.
   815 
   816 * Theory HOL-Library.Conditional_Parametricity provides command
   817 'parametric_constant' for proving parametricity of non-recursive
   818 definitions. For constants that are not fully parametric the command
   819 will infer conditions on relations (e.g., bi_unique, bi_total, or type
   820 class conditions such as "respects 0") sufficient for parametricity. See
   821 theory HOL-ex.Conditional_Parametricity_Examples for some examples.
   822 
   823 * Theory HOL-Library.Code_Lazy provides a new preprocessor for the code
   824 generator to generate code for algebraic types with lazy evaluation
   825 semantics even in call-by-value target languages. See the theories
   826 HOL-ex.Code_Lazy_Demo and HOL-Codegenerator_Test.Code_Lazy_Test for some
   827 examples.
   828 
   829 * Theory HOL-Library.Landau_Symbols has been moved here from AFP.
   830 
   831 * Theory HOL-Library.Old_Datatype no longer provides the legacy command
   832 'old_datatype'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   833 
   834 * Theory HOL-Computational_Algebra.Polynomial_Factorial does not provide
   835 instances of rat, real, complex as factorial rings etc. Import
   836 HOL-Computational_Algebra.Field_as_Ring explicitly in case of need.
   837 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   838 
   839 * Session HOL-Algebra: renamed (^) to [^] to avoid conflict with new
   840 infix/prefix notation.
   841 
   842 * Session HOL-Algebra: revamped with much new material. The set of
   843 isomorphisms between two groups is now denoted iso rather than iso_set.
   844 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   845 
   846 * Session HOL-Analysis: the Arg function now respects the same interval
   847 as Ln, namely (-pi,pi]; the old Arg function has been renamed Arg2pi.
   848 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   849 
   850 * Session HOL-Analysis: the functions zorder, zer_poly, porder and
   851 pol_poly have been redefined. All related lemmas have been reworked.
   852 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   853 
   854 * Session HOL-Analysis: infinite products, Moebius functions, the
   855 Riemann mapping theorem, the Vitali covering theorem,
   856 change-of-variables results for integration and measures.
   857 
   858 * Session HOL-Real_Asymp: proof method "real_asymp" proves asymptotics
   859 or real-valued functions (limits, "Big-O", etc.) automatically.
   860 See also ~~/src/HOL/Real_Asymp/Manual for some documentation.
   861 
   862 * Session HOL-Types_To_Sets: more tool support (unoverload_type combines
   863 internalize_sorts and unoverload) and larger experimental application
   864 (type based linear algebra transferred to linear algebra on subspaces).
   865 
   866 
   867 *** ML ***
   868 
   869 * Operation Export.export emits theory exports (arbitrary blobs), which
   870 are stored persistently in the session build database.
   871 
   872 * Command 'ML_export' exports ML toplevel bindings to the global
   873 bootstrap environment of the ML process. This allows ML evaluation
   874 without a formal theory context, e.g. in command-line tools like
   875 "isabelle process".
   876 
   877 
   878 *** System ***
   879 
   880 * Mac OS X 10.10 Yosemite is now the baseline version; Mavericks is no
   881 longer supported.
   882 
   883 * Linux and Windows/Cygwin is for x86_64 only, old 32bit platform
   884 support has been discontinued.
   885 
   886 * Java runtime is for x86_64 only. Corresponding Isabelle settings have
   887 been renamed to ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS and JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS,
   888 instead of former 32/64 variants. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   889 
   890 * Old settings ISABELLE_PLATFORM and ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM should be
   891 phased out due to unclear preference of 32bit vs. 64bit architecture.
   892 Explicit GNU bash expressions are now preferred, for example (with
   893 quotes):
   894 
   895   #Posix executables (Unix or Cygwin), with preference for 64bit
   896   "${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}"
   897 
   898   #native Windows or Unix executables, with preference for 64bit
   899   "${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM64:-${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32:-${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}}}"
   900 
   901   #native Windows (32bit) or Unix executables (preference for 64bit)
   902   "${ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32:-${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM32}}"
   903 
   904 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" supports new options:
   905   - option -B NAME: include session NAME and all descendants
   906   - option -S: only observe changes of sources, not heap images
   907   - option -f: forces a fresh build
   908 
   909 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" options -c -x -B refer to
   910 descendants wrt. the session parent or import graph. Subtle
   911 INCOMPATIBILITY: options -c -x used to refer to the session parent graph
   912 only.
   913 
   914 * Command-line tool "isabelle build" takes "condition" options with the
   915 corresponding environment values into account, when determining the
   916 up-to-date status of a session.
   917 
   918 * The command-line tool "dump" dumps information from the cumulative
   919 PIDE session database: many sessions may be loaded into a given logic
   920 image, results from all loaded theories are written to the output
   921 directory.
   922 
   923 * Command-line tool "isabelle imports -I" also reports actual session
   924 imports. This helps to minimize the session dependency graph.
   925 
   926 * The command-line tool "export" and 'export_files' in session ROOT
   927 entries retrieve theory exports from the session build database.
   928 
   929 * The command-line tools "isabelle server" and "isabelle client" provide
   930 access to the Isabelle Server: it supports responsive session management
   931 and concurrent use of theories, based on Isabelle/PIDE infrastructure.
   932 See also the "system" manual.
   933 
   934 * The command-line tool "isabelle update_comments" normalizes formal
   935 comments in outer syntax as follows: \<comment> \<open>text\<close> (whith a single space to
   936 approximate the appearance in document output). This is more specific
   937 than former "isabelle update_cartouches -c": the latter tool option has
   938 been discontinued.
   939 
   940 * The command-line tool "isabelle mkroot" now always produces a document
   941 outline: its options have been adapted accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   942 
   943 * The command-line tool "isabelle mkroot -I" initializes a Mercurial
   944 repository for the generated session files.
   945 
   946 * Settings ISABELLE_HEAPS + ISABELLE_BROWSER_INFO (or
   947 ISABELLE_HEAPS_SYSTEM + ISABELLE_BROWSER_INFO_SYSTEM in "system build
   948 mode") determine the directory locations of the main build artefacts --
   949 instead of hard-wired directories in ISABELLE_HOME_USER (or
   950 ISABELLE_HOME).
   951 
   952 * Settings ISABELLE_PATH and ISABELLE_OUTPUT have been discontinued:
   953 heap images and session databases are always stored in
   954 $ISABELLE_HEAPS/$ML_IDENTIFIER (command-line default) or
   955 $ISABELLE_HEAPS_SYSTEM/$ML_IDENTIFIER (main Isabelle application or
   956 "isabelle jedit -s" or "isabelle build -s").
   957 
   958 * ISABELLE_LATEX and ISABELLE_PDFLATEX now include platform-specific
   959 options for improved error reporting. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY with
   960 unusual LaTeX installations, may have to adapt these settings.
   961 
   962 * Update to Poly/ML 5.7.1 with slightly improved performance and PIDE
   963 markup for identifier bindings. It now uses The GNU Multiple Precision
   964 Arithmetic Library (libgmp) on all platforms, notably Mac OS X with
   965 32/64 bit.
   966 
   967 
   968 
   969 New in Isabelle2017 (October 2017)
   970 ----------------------------------
   971 
   972 *** General ***
   973 
   974 * Experimental support for Visual Studio Code (VSCode) as alternative
   975 Isabelle/PIDE front-end, see also
   976 https://marketplace.visualstudio.com/items?itemName=makarius.Isabelle2017
   977 
   978 VSCode is a new type of application that continues the concepts of
   979 "programmer's editor" and "integrated development environment" towards
   980 fully semantic editing and debugging -- in a relatively light-weight
   981 manner. Thus it fits nicely on top of the Isabelle/PIDE infrastructure.
   982 Technically, VSCode is based on the Electron application framework
   983 (Node.js + Chromium browser + V8), which is implemented in JavaScript
   984 and TypeScript, while Isabelle/VSCode mainly consists of Isabelle/Scala
   985 modules around a Language Server implementation.
   986 
   987 * Theory names are qualified by the session name that they belong to.
   988 This affects imports, but not the theory name space prefix (which is
   989 just the theory base name as before).
   990 
   991 In order to import theories from other sessions, the ROOT file format
   992 provides a new 'sessions' keyword. In contrast, a theory that is
   993 imported in the old-fashioned manner via an explicit file-system path
   994 belongs to the current session, and might cause theory name conflicts
   995 later on. Theories that are imported from other sessions are excluded
   996 from the current session document. The command-line tool "isabelle
   997 imports" helps to update theory imports.
   998 
   999 * The main theory entry points for some non-HOL sessions have changed,
  1000 to avoid confusion with the global name "Main" of the session HOL. This
  1001 leads to the follow renamings:
  1002 
  1003   CTT/Main.thy    ~>  CTT/CTT.thy
  1004   ZF/Main.thy     ~>  ZF/ZF.thy
  1005   ZF/Main_ZF.thy  ~>  ZF/ZF.thy
  1006   ZF/Main_ZFC.thy ~>  ZF/ZFC.thy
  1007   ZF/ZF.thy       ~>  ZF/ZF_Base.thy
  1008 
  1009 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1010 
  1011 * Commands 'alias' and 'type_alias' introduce aliases for constants and
  1012 type constructors, respectively. This allows adhoc changes to name-space
  1013 accesses within global or local theory contexts, e.g. within a 'bundle'.
  1014 
  1015 * Document antiquotations @{prf} and @{full_prf} output proof terms
  1016 (again) in the same way as commands 'prf' and 'full_prf'.
  1017 
  1018 * Computations generated by the code generator can be embedded directly
  1019 into ML, alongside with @{code} antiquotations, using the following
  1020 antiquotations:
  1021 
  1022   @{computation ... terms: ... datatypes: ...} :
  1023     ((term -> term) -> 'ml option -> 'a) -> Proof.context -> term -> 'a
  1024   @{computation_conv ... terms: ... datatypes: ...} :
  1025     (Proof.context -> 'ml -> conv) -> Proof.context -> conv
  1026   @{computation_check terms: ... datatypes: ...} : Proof.context -> conv
  1027 
  1028 See src/HOL/ex/Computations.thy,
  1029 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Commutative_Ring.thy and
  1030 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Reflective_Field.thy for examples and the
  1031 tutorial on code generation.
  1032 
  1033 
  1034 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1035 
  1036 * Session-qualified theory imports allow the Prover IDE to process
  1037 arbitrary theory hierarchies independently of the underlying logic
  1038 session image (e.g. option "isabelle jedit -l"), but the directory
  1039 structure needs to be known in advance (e.g. option "isabelle jedit -d"
  1040 or a line in the file $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/ROOTS).
  1041 
  1042 * The PIDE document model maintains file content independently of the
  1043 status of jEdit editor buffers. Reloading jEdit buffers no longer causes
  1044 changes of formal document content. Theory dependencies are always
  1045 resolved internally, without the need for corresponding editor buffers.
  1046 The system option "jedit_auto_load" has been discontinued: it is
  1047 effectively always enabled.
  1048 
  1049 * The Theories dockable provides a "Purge" button, in order to restrict
  1050 the document model to theories that are required for open editor
  1051 buffers.
  1052 
  1053 * The Theories dockable indicates the overall status of checking of each
  1054 entry. When all forked tasks of a theory are finished, the border is
  1055 painted with thick lines; remaining errors in this situation are
  1056 represented by a different border color.
  1057 
  1058 * Automatic indentation is more careful to avoid redundant spaces in
  1059 intermediate situations. Keywords are indented after input (via typed
  1060 characters or completion); see also option "jedit_indent_input".
  1061 
  1062 * Action "isabelle.preview" opens an HTML preview of the current theory
  1063 document in the default web browser.
  1064 
  1065 * Command-line invocation "isabelle jedit -R -l LOGIC" opens the ROOT
  1066 entry of the specified logic session in the editor, while its parent is
  1067 used for formal checking.
  1068 
  1069 * The main Isabelle/jEdit plugin may be restarted manually (using the
  1070 jEdit Plugin Manager), as long as the "Isabelle Base" plugin remains
  1071 enabled at all times.
  1072 
  1073 * Update to current jedit-5.4.0.
  1074 
  1075 
  1076 *** Pure ***
  1077 
  1078 * Deleting the last code equations for a particular function using
  1079 [code del] results in function with no equations (runtime abort) rather
  1080 than an unimplemented function (generation time abort). Use explicit
  1081 [[code drop:]] to enforce the latter. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1082 
  1083 * Proper concept of code declarations in code.ML:
  1084   - Regular code declarations act only on the global theory level, being
  1085     ignored with warnings if syntactically malformed.
  1086   - Explicitly global code declarations yield errors if syntactically
  1087     malformed.
  1088   - Default code declarations are silently ignored if syntactically
  1089     malformed.
  1090 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1091 
  1092 * Clarified and standardized internal data bookkeeping of code
  1093 declarations: history of serials allows to track potentially
  1094 non-monotonous declarations appropriately. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1095 
  1096 
  1097 *** HOL ***
  1098 
  1099 * The Nunchaku model finder is now part of "Main".
  1100 
  1101 * SMT module:
  1102   - A new option, 'smt_nat_as_int', has been added to translate 'nat' to
  1103     'int' and benefit from the SMT solver's theory reasoning. It is
  1104     disabled by default.
  1105   - The legacy module "src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy" has been removed.
  1106   - Several small issues have been rectified in the 'smt' command.
  1107 
  1108 * (Co)datatype package: The 'size_gen_o_map' lemma is no longer
  1109 generated for datatypes with type class annotations. As a result, the
  1110 tactic that derives it no longer fails on nested datatypes. Slight
  1111 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1112 
  1113 * Command and antiquotation "value" with modified default strategy:
  1114 terms without free variables are always evaluated using plain evaluation
  1115 only, with no fallback on normalization by evaluation. Minor
  1116 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1117 
  1118 * Theories "GCD" and "Binomial" are already included in "Main" (instead
  1119 of "Complex_Main").
  1120 
  1121 * Constant "surj" is a full input/output abbreviation (again).
  1122 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1123 
  1124 * Dropped aliasses RangeP, DomainP for Rangep, Domainp respectively.
  1125 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1126 
  1127 * Renamed ii to imaginary_unit in order to free up ii as a variable
  1128 name. The syntax \<i> remains available. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1129 
  1130 * Dropped abbreviations transP, antisymP, single_valuedP; use constants
  1131 transp, antisymp, single_valuedp instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1132 
  1133 * Constant "subseq" in Topological_Spaces has been removed -- it is
  1134 subsumed by "strict_mono". Some basic lemmas specific to "subseq" have
  1135 been renamed accordingly, e.g. "subseq_o" -> "strict_mono_o" etc.
  1136 
  1137 * Theory List: "sublist" renamed to "nths" in analogy with "nth", and
  1138 "sublisteq" renamed to "subseq". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1139 
  1140 * Theory List: new generic function "sorted_wrt".
  1141 
  1142 * Named theorems mod_simps covers various congruence rules concerning
  1143 mod, replacing former zmod_simps. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1144 
  1145 * Swapped orientation of congruence rules mod_add_left_eq,
  1146 mod_add_right_eq, mod_add_eq, mod_mult_left_eq, mod_mult_right_eq,
  1147 mod_mult_eq, mod_minus_eq, mod_diff_left_eq, mod_diff_right_eq,
  1148 mod_diff_eq. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1149 
  1150 * Generalized some facts:
  1151     measure_induct_rule
  1152     measure_induct
  1153     zminus_zmod ~> mod_minus_eq
  1154     zdiff_zmod_left ~> mod_diff_left_eq
  1155     zdiff_zmod_right ~> mod_diff_right_eq
  1156     zmod_eq_dvd_iff ~> mod_eq_dvd_iff
  1157 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1158 
  1159 * Algebraic type class hierarchy of euclidean (semi)rings in HOL:
  1160 euclidean_(semi)ring, euclidean_(semi)ring_cancel,
  1161 unique_euclidean_(semi)ring; instantiation requires provision of a
  1162 euclidean size.
  1163 
  1164 * Theory "HOL-Number_Theory.Euclidean_Algorithm" has been reworked:
  1165   - Euclidean induction is available as rule eucl_induct.
  1166   - Constants Euclidean_Algorithm.gcd, Euclidean_Algorithm.lcm,
  1167     Euclidean_Algorithm.Gcd and Euclidean_Algorithm.Lcm allow
  1168     easy instantiation of euclidean (semi)rings as GCD (semi)rings.
  1169   - Coefficients obtained by extended euclidean algorithm are
  1170     available as "bezout_coefficients".
  1171 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1172 
  1173 * Theory "Number_Theory.Totient" introduces basic notions about Euler's
  1174 totient function previously hidden as solitary example in theory
  1175 Residues. Definition changed so that "totient 1 = 1" in agreement with
  1176 the literature. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1177 
  1178 * New styles in theory "HOL-Library.LaTeXsugar":
  1179   - "dummy_pats" for printing equations with "_" on the lhs;
  1180   - "eta_expand" for printing eta-expanded terms.
  1181 
  1182 * Theory "HOL-Library.Permutations": theorem bij_swap_ompose_bij has
  1183 been renamed to bij_swap_compose_bij. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1184 
  1185 * New theory "HOL-Library.Going_To_Filter" providing the "f going_to F"
  1186 filter for describing points x such that f(x) is in the filter F.
  1187 
  1188 * Theory "HOL-Library.Formal_Power_Series": constants X/E/L/F have been
  1189 renamed to fps_X/fps_exp/fps_ln/fps_hypergeo to avoid polluting the name
  1190 space. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1191 
  1192 * Theory "HOL-Library.FinFun" has been moved to AFP (again).
  1193 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1194 
  1195 * Theory "HOL-Library.FuncSet": some old and rarely used ASCII
  1196 replacement syntax has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax
  1197 with symbols should be used instead. The subsequent commands help to
  1198 reproduce the old forms, e.g. to simplify porting old theories:
  1199 
  1200 syntax (ASCII)
  1201   "_PiE" :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'b set \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) set"  ("(3PIE _:_./ _)" 10)
  1202   "_Pi"  :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'b set \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b) set"  ("(3PI _:_./ _)" 10)
  1203   "_lam" :: "pttrn \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> 'a \<Rightarrow> 'b \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> 'b)"  ("(3%_:_./ _)" [0,0,3] 3)
  1204 
  1205 * Theory "HOL-Library.Multiset": the simprocs on subsets operators of
  1206 multisets have been renamed:
  1207 
  1208   msetless_cancel_numerals ~> msetsubset_cancel
  1209   msetle_cancel_numerals ~> msetsubset_eq_cancel
  1210 
  1211 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1212 
  1213 * Theory "HOL-Library.Pattern_Aliases" provides input and output syntax
  1214 for pattern aliases as known from Haskell, Scala and ML.
  1215 
  1216 * Theory "HOL-Library.Uprod" formalizes the type of unordered pairs.
  1217 
  1218 * Session HOL-Analysis: more material involving arcs, paths, covering
  1219 spaces, innessential maps, retracts, infinite products, simplicial
  1220 complexes. Baire Category theorem. Major results include the Jordan
  1221 Curve Theorem and the Great Picard Theorem.
  1222 
  1223 * Session HOL-Algebra has been extended by additional lattice theory:
  1224 the Knaster-Tarski fixed point theorem and Galois Connections.
  1225 
  1226 * Sessions HOL-Computational_Algebra and HOL-Number_Theory: new notions
  1227 of squarefreeness, n-th powers, and prime powers.
  1228 
  1229 * Session "HOL-Computional_Algebra" covers many previously scattered
  1230 theories, notably Euclidean_Algorithm, Factorial_Ring,
  1231 Formal_Power_Series, Fraction_Field, Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra,
  1232 Normalized_Fraction, Polynomial_FPS, Polynomial, Primes. Minor
  1233 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1234 
  1235 
  1236 *** System ***
  1237 
  1238 * Isabelle/Scala: the SQL module supports access to relational
  1239 databases, either as plain file (SQLite) or full-scale server
  1240 (PostgreSQL via local port or remote ssh connection).
  1241 
  1242 * Results of "isabelle build" are recorded as SQLite database (i.e.
  1243 "Application File Format" in the sense of
  1244 https://www.sqlite.org/appfileformat.html). This allows systematic
  1245 access via operations from module Sessions.Store in Isabelle/Scala.
  1246 
  1247 * System option "parallel_proofs" is 1 by default (instead of more
  1248 aggressive 2). This requires less heap space and avoids burning parallel
  1249 CPU cycles, while full subproof parallelization is enabled for repeated
  1250 builds (according to parallel_subproofs_threshold).
  1251 
  1252 * System option "record_proofs" allows to change the global
  1253 Proofterm.proofs variable for a session. Regular values are are 0, 1, 2;
  1254 a negative value means the current state in the ML heap image remains
  1255 unchanged.
  1256 
  1257 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_SCALA_BUILD_OPTIONS has been
  1258 renamed to ISABELLE_SCALAC_OPTIONS. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1259 
  1260 * Isabelle settings variables ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM,
  1261 ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM32, ISABELLE_WINDOWS_PLATFORM64 indicate the
  1262 native Windows platform (independently of the Cygwin installation). This
  1263 is analogous to ISABELLE_PLATFORM, ISABELLE_PLATFORM32,
  1264 ISABELLE_PLATFORM64.
  1265 
  1266 * Command-line tool "isabelle build_docker" builds a Docker image from
  1267 the Isabelle application bundle for Linux. See also
  1268 https://hub.docker.com/r/makarius/isabelle
  1269 
  1270 * Command-line tool "isabelle vscode_server" provides a Language Server
  1271 Protocol implementation, e.g. for the Visual Studio Code editor. It
  1272 serves as example for alternative PIDE front-ends.
  1273 
  1274 * Command-line tool "isabelle imports" helps to maintain theory imports
  1275 wrt. session structure. Examples for the main Isabelle distribution:
  1276 
  1277   isabelle imports -I -a
  1278   isabelle imports -U -a
  1279   isabelle imports -U -i -a
  1280   isabelle imports -M -a -d '~~/src/Benchmarks'
  1281 
  1282 
  1283 
  1284 New in Isabelle2016-1 (December 2016)
  1285 -------------------------------------
  1286 
  1287 *** General ***
  1288 
  1289 * Splitter in proof methods "simp", "auto" and friends:
  1290   - The syntax "split add" has been discontinued, use plain "split",
  1291     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1292   - For situations with many conditional or case expressions, there is
  1293     an alternative splitting strategy that can be much faster. It is
  1294     selected by writing "split!" instead of "split". It applies safe
  1295     introduction and elimination rules after each split rule. As a
  1296     result the subgoal may be split into several subgoals.
  1297 
  1298 * Command 'bundle' provides a local theory target to define a bundle
  1299 from the body of specification commands (such as 'declare',
  1300 'declaration', 'notation', 'lemmas', 'lemma'). For example:
  1301 
  1302 bundle foo
  1303 begin
  1304   declare a [simp]
  1305   declare b [intro]
  1306 end
  1307 
  1308 * Command 'unbundle' is like 'include', but works within a local theory
  1309 context. Unlike "context includes ... begin", the effect of 'unbundle'
  1310 on the target context persists, until different declarations are given.
  1311 
  1312 * Simplified outer syntax: uniform category "name" includes long
  1313 identifiers. Former "xname" / "nameref" / "name reference" has been
  1314 discontinued.
  1315 
  1316 * Embedded content (e.g. the inner syntax of types, terms, props) may be
  1317 delimited uniformly via cartouches. This works better than old-fashioned
  1318 quotes when sub-languages are nested.
  1319 
  1320 * Mixfix annotations support general block properties, with syntax
  1321 "(\<open>x=a y=b z \<dots>\<close>". Notable property names are "indent", "consistent",
  1322 "unbreakable", "markup". The existing notation "(DIGITS" is equivalent
  1323 to "(\<open>indent=DIGITS\<close>". The former notation "(00" for unbreakable blocks
  1324 is superseded by "(\<open>unbreabable\<close>" --- rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1325 
  1326 * Proof method "blast" is more robust wrt. corner cases of Pure
  1327 statements without object-logic judgment.
  1328 
  1329 * Commands 'prf' and 'full_prf' are somewhat more informative (again):
  1330 proof terms are reconstructed and cleaned from administrative thm nodes.
  1331 
  1332 * Code generator: config option "code_timing" triggers measurements of
  1333 different phases of code generation. See src/HOL/ex/Code_Timing.thy for
  1334 examples.
  1335 
  1336 * Code generator: implicits in Scala (stemming from type class
  1337 instances) are generated into companion object of corresponding type
  1338 class, to resolve some situations where ambiguities may occur.
  1339 
  1340 * Solve direct: option "solve_direct_strict_warnings" gives explicit
  1341 warnings for lemma statements with trivial proofs.
  1342 
  1343 
  1344 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  1345 
  1346 * More aggressive flushing of machine-generated input, according to
  1347 system option editor_generated_input_delay (in addition to existing
  1348 editor_input_delay for regular user edits). This may affect overall PIDE
  1349 reactivity and CPU usage.
  1350 
  1351 * Syntactic indentation according to Isabelle outer syntax. Action
  1352 "indent-lines" (shortcut C+i) indents the current line according to
  1353 command keywords and some command substructure. Action
  1354 "isabelle.newline" (shortcut ENTER) indents the old and the new line
  1355 according to command keywords only; see also option
  1356 "jedit_indent_newline".
  1357 
  1358 * Semantic indentation for unstructured proof scripts ('apply' etc.) via
  1359 number of subgoals. This requires information of ongoing document
  1360 processing and may thus lag behind, when the user is editing too
  1361 quickly; see also option "jedit_script_indent" and
  1362 "jedit_script_indent_limit".
  1363 
  1364 * Refined folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax: 'next' and 'qed'
  1365 are treated as delimiters for fold structure; 'begin' and 'end'
  1366 structure of theory specifications is treated as well.
  1367 
  1368 * Command 'proof' provides information about proof outline with cases,
  1369 e.g. for proof methods "cases", "induct", "goal_cases".
  1370 
  1371 * Completion templates for commands involving "begin ... end" blocks,
  1372 e.g. 'context', 'notepad'.
  1373 
  1374 * Sidekick parser "isabelle-context" shows nesting of context blocks
  1375 according to 'begin' and 'end' structure.
  1376 
  1377 * Highlighting of entity def/ref positions wrt. cursor.
  1378 
  1379 * Action "isabelle.select-entity" (shortcut CS+ENTER) selects all
  1380 occurrences of the formal entity at the caret position. This facilitates
  1381 systematic renaming.
  1382 
  1383 * PIDE document markup works across multiple Isar commands, e.g. the
  1384 results established at the end of a proof are properly identified in the
  1385 theorem statement.
  1386 
  1387 * Cartouche abbreviations work both for " and ` to accomodate typical
  1388 situations where old ASCII notation may be updated.
  1389 
  1390 * Dockable window "Symbols" also provides access to 'abbrevs' from the
  1391 outer syntax of the current theory buffer. This provides clickable
  1392 syntax templates, including entries with empty abbrevs name (which are
  1393 inaccessible via keyboard completion).
  1394 
  1395 * IDE support for the Isabelle/Pure bootstrap process, with the
  1396 following independent stages:
  1397 
  1398   src/Pure/ROOT0.ML
  1399   src/Pure/ROOT.ML
  1400   src/Pure/Pure.thy
  1401   src/Pure/ML_Bootstrap.thy
  1402 
  1403 The ML ROOT files act like quasi-theories in the context of theory
  1404 ML_Bootstrap: this allows continuous checking of all loaded ML files.
  1405 The theory files are presented with a modified header to import Pure
  1406 from the running Isabelle instance. Results from changed versions of
  1407 each stage are *not* propagated to the next stage, and isolated from the
  1408 actual Isabelle/Pure that runs the IDE itself. The sequential
  1409 dependencies of the above files are only observed for batch build.
  1410 
  1411 * Isabelle/ML and Standard ML files are presented in Sidekick with the
  1412 tree structure of section headings: this special comment format is
  1413 described in "implementation" chapter 0, e.g. (*** section ***).
  1414 
  1415 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified
  1416 within the theory header as 'abbrevs'. The theory syntax for 'keywords'
  1417 has been simplified accordingly: optional abbrevs need to go into the
  1418 new 'abbrevs' section.
  1419 
  1420 * Global abbreviations via $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and
  1421 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs are no longer supported. Minor
  1422 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'abbrevs' within theory header instead.
  1423 
  1424 * Action "isabelle.keymap-merge" asks the user to resolve pending
  1425 Isabelle keymap changes that are in conflict with the current jEdit
  1426 keymap; non-conflicting changes are always applied implicitly. This
  1427 action is automatically invoked on Isabelle/jEdit startup and thus
  1428 increases chances that users see new keyboard shortcuts when re-using
  1429 old keymaps.
  1430 
  1431 * ML and document antiquotations for file-systems paths are more uniform
  1432 and diverse:
  1433 
  1434   @{path NAME}   -- no file-system check
  1435   @{file NAME}   -- check for plain file
  1436   @{dir NAME}    -- check for directory
  1437 
  1438 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, former uses of @{file} and @{file_unchecked} may
  1439 have to be changed.
  1440 
  1441 
  1442 *** Document preparation ***
  1443 
  1444 * New symbol \<circle>, e.g. for temporal operator.
  1445 
  1446 * New document and ML antiquotation @{locale} for locales, similar to
  1447 existing antiquotation @{class}.
  1448 
  1449 * Mixfix annotations support delimiters like \<^control>\<open>cartouche\<close> --
  1450 this allows special forms of document output.
  1451 
  1452 * Raw LaTeX output now works via \<^latex>\<open>...\<close> instead of raw control
  1453 symbol \<^raw:...>. INCOMPATIBILITY, notably for LaTeXsugar.thy and its
  1454 derivatives.
  1455 
  1456 * \<^raw:...> symbols are no longer supported.
  1457 
  1458 * Old 'header' command is no longer supported (legacy since
  1459 Isabelle2015).
  1460 
  1461 
  1462 *** Isar ***
  1463 
  1464 * Many specification elements support structured statements with 'if' /
  1465 'for' eigen-context, e.g. 'axiomatization', 'abbreviation',
  1466 'definition', 'inductive', 'function'.
  1467 
  1468 * Toplevel theorem statements support eigen-context notation with 'if' /
  1469 'for' (in postfix), which corresponds to 'assumes' / 'fixes' in the
  1470 traditional long statement form (in prefix). Local premises are called
  1471 "that" or "assms", respectively. Empty premises are *not* bound in the
  1472 context: INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1473 
  1474 * Command 'define' introduces a local (non-polymorphic) definition, with
  1475 optional abstraction over local parameters. The syntax resembles
  1476 'definition' and 'obtain'. It fits better into the Isar language than
  1477 old 'def', which is now a legacy feature.
  1478 
  1479 * Command 'obtain' supports structured statements with 'if' / 'for'
  1480 context.
  1481 
  1482 * Command '\<proof>' is an alias for 'sorry', with different
  1483 typesetting. E.g. to produce proof holes in examples and documentation.
  1484 
  1485 * The defining position of a literal fact \<open>prop\<close> is maintained more
  1486 carefully, and made accessible as hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
  1487 
  1488 * Commands 'finally' and 'ultimately' used to expose the result as
  1489 literal fact: this accidental behaviour has been discontinued. Rare
  1490 INCOMPATIBILITY, use more explicit means to refer to facts in Isar.
  1491 
  1492 * Command 'axiomatization' has become more restrictive to correspond
  1493 better to internal axioms as singleton facts with mandatory name. Minor
  1494 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1495 
  1496 * Proof methods may refer to the main facts via the dynamic fact
  1497 "method_facts". This is particularly useful for Eisbach method
  1498 definitions.
  1499 
  1500 * Proof method "use" allows to modify the main facts of a given method
  1501 expression, e.g.
  1502 
  1503   (use facts in simp)
  1504   (use facts in \<open>simp add: ...\<close>)
  1505 
  1506 * The old proof method "default" has been removed (legacy since
  1507 Isabelle2016). INCOMPATIBILITY, use "standard" instead.
  1508 
  1509 
  1510 *** Pure ***
  1511 
  1512 * Pure provides basic versions of proof methods "simp" and "simp_all"
  1513 that only know about meta-equality (==). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in
  1514 theory imports that merge Pure with e.g. Main of Isabelle/HOL: the order
  1515 is relevant to avoid confusion of Pure.simp vs. HOL.simp.
  1516 
  1517 * The command 'unfolding' and proof method "unfold" include a second
  1518 stage where given equations are passed through the attribute "abs_def"
  1519 before rewriting. This ensures that definitions are fully expanded,
  1520 regardless of the actual parameters that are provided. Rare
  1521 INCOMPATIBILITY in some corner cases: use proof method (simp only:)
  1522 instead, or declare [[unfold_abs_def = false]] in the proof context.
  1523 
  1524 * Type-inference improves sorts of newly introduced type variables for
  1525 the object-logic, using its base sort (i.e. HOL.type for Isabelle/HOL).
  1526 Thus terms like "f x" or "\<And>x. P x" without any further syntactic context
  1527 produce x::'a::type in HOL instead of x::'a::{} in Pure. Rare
  1528 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide explicit type constraints for Pure
  1529 types where this is really intended.
  1530 
  1531 
  1532 *** HOL ***
  1533 
  1534 * New proof method "argo" using the built-in Argo solver based on SMT
  1535 technology. The method can be used to prove goals of quantifier-free
  1536 propositional logic, goals based on a combination of quantifier-free
  1537 propositional logic with equality, and goals based on a combination of
  1538 quantifier-free propositional logic with linear real arithmetic
  1539 including min/max/abs. See HOL/ex/Argo_Examples.thy for examples.
  1540 
  1541 * The new "nunchaku" command integrates the Nunchaku model finder. The
  1542 tool is experimental. See ~~/src/HOL/Nunchaku/Nunchaku.thy for details.
  1543 
  1544 * Metis: The problem encoding has changed very slightly. This might
  1545 break existing proofs. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1546 
  1547 * Sledgehammer:
  1548   - The MaSh relevance filter is now faster than before.
  1549   - Produce syntactically correct Vampire 4.0 problem files.
  1550 
  1551 * (Co)datatype package:
  1552   - New commands for defining corecursive functions and reasoning about
  1553     them in "~~/src/HOL/Library/BNF_Corec.thy": 'corec', 'corecursive',
  1554     'friend_of_corec', and 'corecursion_upto'; and 'corec_unique' proof
  1555     method. See 'isabelle doc corec'.
  1556   - The predicator :: ('a \<Rightarrow> bool) \<Rightarrow> 'a F \<Rightarrow> bool is now a first-class
  1557     citizen in bounded natural functors.
  1558   - 'primrec' now allows nested calls through the predicator in addition
  1559     to the map function.
  1560   - 'bnf' automatically discharges reflexive proof obligations.
  1561   - 'bnf' outputs a slightly modified proof obligation expressing rel in
  1562        terms of map and set
  1563        (not giving a specification for rel makes this one reflexive).
  1564   - 'bnf' outputs a new proof obligation expressing pred in terms of set
  1565        (not giving a specification for pred makes this one reflexive).
  1566     INCOMPATIBILITY: manual 'bnf' declarations may need adjustment.
  1567   - Renamed lemmas:
  1568       rel_prod_apply ~> rel_prod_inject
  1569       pred_prod_apply ~> pred_prod_inject
  1570     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1571   - The "size" plugin has been made compatible again with locales.
  1572   - The theorems about "rel" and "set" may have a slightly different (but
  1573     equivalent) form.
  1574     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1575 
  1576 * The 'coinductive' command produces a proper coinduction rule for
  1577 mutual coinductive predicates. This new rule replaces the old rule,
  1578 which exposed details of the internal fixpoint construction and was
  1579 hard to use. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1580 
  1581 * New abbreviations for negated existence (but not bounded existence):
  1582 
  1583   \<nexists>x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>x. P x)
  1584   \<nexists>!x. P x \<equiv> \<not> (\<exists>!x. P x)
  1585 
  1586 * The print mode "HOL" for ASCII syntax of binders "!", "?", "?!", "@"
  1587 has been removed for output. It is retained for input only, until it is
  1588 eliminated altogether.
  1589 
  1590 * The unique existence quantifier no longer provides 'binder' syntax,
  1591 but uses syntax translations (as for bounded unique existence). Thus
  1592 iterated quantification \<exists>!x y. P x y with its slightly confusing
  1593 sequential meaning \<exists>!x. \<exists>!y. P x y is no longer possible. Instead,
  1594 pattern abstraction admits simultaneous unique existence \<exists>!(x, y). P x y
  1595 (analogous to existing notation \<exists>!(x, y)\<in>A. P x y). Potential
  1596 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.
  1597 
  1598 * Conventional syntax "%(). t" for unit abstractions. Slight syntactic
  1599 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1600 
  1601 * Renamed constants and corresponding theorems:
  1602 
  1603     setsum ~> sum
  1604     setprod ~> prod
  1605     listsum ~> sum_list
  1606     listprod ~> prod_list
  1607 
  1608 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1609 
  1610 * Sligthly more standardized theorem names:
  1611     sgn_times ~> sgn_mult
  1612     sgn_mult' ~> Real_Vector_Spaces.sgn_mult
  1613     divide_zero_left ~> div_0
  1614     zero_mod_left ~> mod_0
  1615     divide_zero ~> div_by_0
  1616     divide_1 ~> div_by_1
  1617     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_left ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
  1618     div_mult_self1_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_left
  1619     nonzero_mult_divide_cancel_right ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
  1620     div_mult_self2_is_id ~> nonzero_mult_div_cancel_right
  1621     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_left ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_left
  1622     is_unit_divide_mult_cancel_right ~> is_unit_div_mult_cancel_right
  1623     mod_div_equality ~> div_mult_mod_eq
  1624     mod_div_equality2 ~> mult_div_mod_eq
  1625     mod_div_equality3 ~> mod_div_mult_eq
  1626     mod_div_equality4 ~> mod_mult_div_eq
  1627     minus_div_eq_mod ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod
  1628     minus_div_eq_mod2 ~> minus_mult_div_eq_mod
  1629     minus_mod_eq_div ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult
  1630     minus_mod_eq_div2 ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div
  1631     div_mod_equality' ~> minus_mod_eq_div_mult [symmetric]
  1632     mod_div_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
  1633     zmod_zdiv_equality ~> mult_div_mod_eq [symmetric]
  1634     zmod_zdiv_equality' ~> minus_div_mult_eq_mod [symmetric]
  1635     Divides.mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1636     mult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1637     zmult_div_cancel ~> minus_mod_eq_mult_div [symmetric]
  1638     div_1 ~> div_by_Suc_0
  1639     mod_1 ~> mod_by_Suc_0
  1640 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1641 
  1642 * New type class "idom_abs_sgn" specifies algebraic properties
  1643 of sign and absolute value functions.  Type class "sgn_if" has
  1644 disappeared.  Slight INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1645 
  1646 * Dedicated syntax LENGTH('a) for length of types.
  1647 
  1648 * Characters (type char) are modelled as finite algebraic type
  1649 corresponding to {0..255}.
  1650 
  1651   - Logical representation:
  1652     * 0 is instantiated to the ASCII zero character.
  1653     * All other characters are represented as "Char n"
  1654       with n being a raw numeral expression less than 256.
  1655     * Expressions of the form "Char n" with n greater than 255
  1656       are non-canonical.
  1657   - Printing and parsing:
  1658     * Printable characters are printed and parsed as "CHR ''\<dots>''"
  1659       (as before).
  1660     * The ASCII zero character is printed and parsed as "0".
  1661     * All other canonical characters are printed as "CHR 0xXX"
  1662       with XX being the hexadecimal character code.  "CHR n"
  1663       is parsable for every numeral expression n.
  1664     * Non-canonical characters have no special syntax and are
  1665       printed as their logical representation.
  1666   - Explicit conversions from and to the natural numbers are
  1667     provided as char_of_nat, nat_of_char (as before).
  1668   - The auxiliary nibble type has been discontinued.
  1669 
  1670 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1671 
  1672 * Type class "div" with operation "mod" renamed to type class "modulo"
  1673 with operation "modulo", analogously to type class "divide". This
  1674 eliminates the need to qualify any of those names in the presence of
  1675 infix "mod" syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1676 
  1677 * Statements and proofs of Knaster-Tarski fixpoint combinators lfp/gfp
  1678 have been clarified. The fixpoint properties are lfp_fixpoint, its
  1679 symmetric lfp_unfold (as before), and the duals for gfp. Auxiliary items
  1680 for the proof (lfp_lemma2 etc.) are no longer exported, but can be
  1681 easily recovered by composition with eq_refl. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1682 
  1683 * Constant "surj" is a mere input abbreviation, to avoid hiding an
  1684 equation in term output. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1685 
  1686 * Command 'code_reflect' accepts empty constructor lists for datatypes,
  1687 which renders those abstract effectively.
  1688 
  1689 * Command 'export_code' checks given constants for abstraction
  1690 violations: a small guarantee that given constants specify a safe
  1691 interface for the generated code.
  1692 
  1693 * Code generation for Scala: ambiguous implicts in class diagrams are
  1694 spelt out explicitly.
  1695 
  1696 * Static evaluators (Code_Evaluation.static_* in Isabelle/ML) rely on
  1697 explicitly provided auxiliary definitions for required type class
  1698 dictionaries rather than half-working magic. INCOMPATIBILITY, see the
  1699 tutorial on code generation for details.
  1700 
  1701 * Theory Set_Interval: substantial new theorems on indexed sums and
  1702 products.
  1703 
  1704 * Locale bijection establishes convenient default simp rules such as
  1705 "inv f (f a) = a" for total bijections.
  1706 
  1707 * Abstract locales semigroup, abel_semigroup, semilattice,
  1708 semilattice_neutr, ordering, ordering_top, semilattice_order,
  1709 semilattice_neutr_order, comm_monoid_set, semilattice_set,
  1710 semilattice_neutr_set, semilattice_order_set,
  1711 semilattice_order_neutr_set monoid_list, comm_monoid_list,
  1712 comm_monoid_list_set, comm_monoid_mset, comm_monoid_fun use boldified
  1713 syntax uniformly that does not clash with corresponding global syntax.
  1714 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1715 
  1716 * Former locale lifting_syntax is now a bundle, which is easier to
  1717 include in a local context or theorem statement, e.g. "context includes
  1718 lifting_syntax begin ... end". Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1719 
  1720 * Some old / obsolete theorems have been renamed / removed, potential
  1721 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1722 
  1723   nat_less_cases  --  removed, use linorder_cases instead
  1724   inv_image_comp  --  removed, use image_inv_f_f instead
  1725   image_surj_f_inv_f  ~>  image_f_inv_f
  1726 
  1727 * Some theorems about groups and orders have been generalised from
  1728   groups to semi-groups that are also monoids:
  1729     le_add_same_cancel1
  1730     le_add_same_cancel2
  1731     less_add_same_cancel1
  1732     less_add_same_cancel2
  1733     add_le_same_cancel1
  1734     add_le_same_cancel2
  1735     add_less_same_cancel1
  1736     add_less_same_cancel2
  1737 
  1738 * Some simplifications theorems about rings have been removed, since
  1739   superseeded by a more general version:
  1740     less_add_cancel_left_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel1
  1741     less_add_cancel_right_greater_zero ~> less_add_same_cancel2
  1742     less_eq_add_cancel_left_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel1
  1743     less_eq_add_cancel_right_greater_eq_zero ~> le_add_same_cancel2
  1744     less_eq_add_cancel_left_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel1
  1745     less_eq_add_cancel_right_less_eq_zero ~> add_le_same_cancel2
  1746     less_add_cancel_left_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel1
  1747     less_add_cancel_right_less_zero ~> add_less_same_cancel2
  1748 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1749 
  1750 * Renamed split_if -> if_split and split_if_asm -> if_split_asm to
  1751 resemble the f.split naming convention, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1752 
  1753 * Added class topological_monoid.
  1754 
  1755 * The following theorems have been renamed:
  1756 
  1757   setsum_left_distrib ~> sum_distrib_right
  1758   setsum_right_distrib ~> sum_distrib_left
  1759 
  1760 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1761 
  1762 * Compound constants INFIMUM and SUPREMUM are mere abbreviations now.
  1763 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1764 
  1765 * "Gcd (f ` A)" and "Lcm (f ` A)" are printed with optional
  1766 comprehension-like syntax analogously to "Inf (f ` A)" and "Sup (f `
  1767 A)".
  1768 
  1769 * Class semiring_Lcd merged into semiring_Gcd. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1770 
  1771 * The type class ordered_comm_monoid_add is now called
  1772 ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add. A new type class ordered_comm_monoid_add
  1773 is introduced as the combination of ordered_ab_semigroup_add +
  1774 comm_monoid_add. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1775 
  1776 * Introduced the type classes canonically_ordered_comm_monoid_add and
  1777 dioid.
  1778 
  1779 * Introduced the type class ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. When
  1780 instantiating linordered_semiring_strict and ordered_ab_group_add, an
  1781 explicit instantiation of ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le might
  1782 be required. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1783 
  1784 * Dropped various legacy fact bindings, whose replacements are often
  1785 of a more general type also:
  1786   lcm_left_commute_nat ~> lcm.left_commute
  1787   lcm_left_commute_int ~> lcm.left_commute
  1788   gcd_left_commute_nat ~> gcd.left_commute
  1789   gcd_left_commute_int ~> gcd.left_commute
  1790   gcd_greatest_iff_nat ~> gcd_greatest_iff
  1791   gcd_greatest_iff_int ~> gcd_greatest_iff
  1792   coprime_dvd_mult_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult
  1793   coprime_dvd_mult_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult
  1794   zpower_numeral_even ~> power_numeral_even
  1795   gcd_mult_cancel_nat ~> gcd_mult_cancel
  1796   gcd_mult_cancel_int ~> gcd_mult_cancel
  1797   div_gcd_coprime_nat ~> div_gcd_coprime
  1798   div_gcd_coprime_int ~> div_gcd_coprime
  1799   zpower_numeral_odd ~> power_numeral_odd
  1800   zero_less_int_conv ~> of_nat_0_less_iff
  1801   gcd_greatest_nat ~> gcd_greatest
  1802   gcd_greatest_int ~> gcd_greatest
  1803   coprime_mult_nat ~> coprime_mult
  1804   coprime_mult_int ~> coprime_mult
  1805   lcm_commute_nat ~> lcm.commute
  1806   lcm_commute_int ~> lcm.commute
  1807   int_less_0_conv ~> of_nat_less_0_iff
  1808   gcd_commute_nat ~> gcd.commute
  1809   gcd_commute_int ~> gcd.commute
  1810   Gcd_insert_nat ~> Gcd_insert
  1811   Gcd_insert_int ~> Gcd_insert
  1812   of_int_int_eq ~> of_int_of_nat_eq
  1813   lcm_least_nat ~> lcm_least
  1814   lcm_least_int ~> lcm_least
  1815   lcm_assoc_nat ~> lcm.assoc
  1816   lcm_assoc_int ~> lcm.assoc
  1817   int_le_0_conv ~> of_nat_le_0_iff
  1818   int_eq_0_conv ~> of_nat_eq_0_iff
  1819   Gcd_empty_nat ~> Gcd_empty
  1820   Gcd_empty_int ~> Gcd_empty
  1821   gcd_assoc_nat ~> gcd.assoc
  1822   gcd_assoc_int ~> gcd.assoc
  1823   zero_zle_int ~> of_nat_0_le_iff
  1824   lcm_dvd2_nat ~> dvd_lcm2
  1825   lcm_dvd2_int ~> dvd_lcm2
  1826   lcm_dvd1_nat ~> dvd_lcm1
  1827   lcm_dvd1_int ~> dvd_lcm1
  1828   gcd_zero_nat ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
  1829   gcd_zero_int ~> gcd_eq_0_iff
  1830   gcd_dvd2_nat ~> gcd_dvd2
  1831   gcd_dvd2_int ~> gcd_dvd2
  1832   gcd_dvd1_nat ~> gcd_dvd1
  1833   gcd_dvd1_int ~> gcd_dvd1
  1834   int_numeral ~> of_nat_numeral
  1835   lcm_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
  1836   lcm_ac_int ~> ac_simps
  1837   gcd_ac_nat ~> ac_simps
  1838   gcd_ac_int ~> ac_simps
  1839   abs_int_eq ~> abs_of_nat
  1840   zless_int ~> of_nat_less_iff
  1841   zdiff_int ~> of_nat_diff
  1842   zadd_int ~> of_nat_add
  1843   int_mult ~> of_nat_mult
  1844   int_Suc ~> of_nat_Suc
  1845   inj_int ~> inj_of_nat
  1846   int_1 ~> of_nat_1
  1847   int_0 ~> of_nat_0
  1848   Lcm_empty_nat ~> Lcm_empty
  1849   Lcm_empty_int ~> Lcm_empty
  1850   Lcm_insert_nat ~> Lcm_insert
  1851   Lcm_insert_int ~> Lcm_insert
  1852   comp_fun_idem_gcd_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
  1853   comp_fun_idem_gcd_int ~> comp_fun_idem_gcd
  1854   comp_fun_idem_lcm_nat ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
  1855   comp_fun_idem_lcm_int ~> comp_fun_idem_lcm
  1856   Lcm_eq_0 ~> Lcm_eq_0_I
  1857   Lcm0_iff ~> Lcm_0_iff
  1858   Lcm_dvd_int ~> Lcm_least
  1859   divides_mult_nat ~> divides_mult
  1860   divides_mult_int ~> divides_mult
  1861   lcm_0_nat ~> lcm_0_right
  1862   lcm_0_int ~> lcm_0_right
  1863   lcm_0_left_nat ~> lcm_0_left
  1864   lcm_0_left_int ~> lcm_0_left
  1865   dvd_gcd_D1_nat ~> dvd_gcdD1
  1866   dvd_gcd_D1_int ~> dvd_gcdD1
  1867   dvd_gcd_D2_nat ~> dvd_gcdD2
  1868   dvd_gcd_D2_int ~> dvd_gcdD2
  1869   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_nat ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
  1870   coprime_dvd_mult_iff_int ~> coprime_dvd_mult_iff
  1871   realpow_minus_mult ~> power_minus_mult
  1872   realpow_Suc_le_self ~> power_Suc_le_self
  1873   dvd_Gcd, dvd_Gcd_nat, dvd_Gcd_int removed in favour of Gcd_greatest
  1874 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1875 
  1876 * Renamed HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy to
  1877 HOL/Quotient_Examples/Quotient_FSet.thy INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1878 
  1879 * Session HOL-Library: theory FinFun bundles "finfun_syntax" and
  1880 "no_finfun_syntax" allow to control optional syntax in local contexts;
  1881 this supersedes former theory FinFun_Syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, e.g. use
  1882 "unbundle finfun_syntax" to imitate import of
  1883 "~~/src/HOL/Library/FinFun_Syntax".
  1884 
  1885 * Session HOL-Library: theory Multiset_Permutations (executably) defines
  1886 the set of permutations of a given set or multiset, i.e. the set of all
  1887 lists that contain every element of the carrier (multi-)set exactly
  1888 once.
  1889 
  1890 * Session HOL-Library: multiset membership is now expressed using
  1891 set_mset rather than count.
  1892 
  1893   - Expressions "count M a > 0" and similar simplify to membership
  1894     by default.
  1895 
  1896   - Converting between "count M a = 0" and non-membership happens using
  1897     equations count_eq_zero_iff and not_in_iff.
  1898 
  1899   - Rules count_inI and in_countE obtain facts of the form
  1900     "count M a = n" from membership.
  1901 
  1902   - Rules count_in_diffI and in_diff_countE obtain facts of the form
  1903     "count M a = n + count N a" from membership on difference sets.
  1904 
  1905 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1906 
  1907 * Session HOL-Library: theory LaTeXsugar uses new-style "dummy_pats" for
  1908 displaying equations in functional programming style --- variables
  1909 present on the left-hand but not on the righ-hand side are replaced by
  1910 underscores.
  1911 
  1912 * Session HOL-Library: theory Combinator_PER provides combinator to
  1913 build partial equivalence relations from a predicate and an equivalence
  1914 relation.
  1915 
  1916 * Session HOL-Library: theory Perm provides basic facts about almost
  1917 everywhere fix bijections.
  1918 
  1919 * Session HOL-Library: theory Normalized_Fraction allows viewing an
  1920 element of a field of fractions as a normalized fraction (i.e. a pair of
  1921 numerator and denominator such that the two are coprime and the
  1922 denominator is normalized wrt. unit factors).
  1923 
  1924 * Session HOL-NSA has been renamed to HOL-Nonstandard_Analysis.
  1925 
  1926 * Session HOL-Multivariate_Analysis has been renamed to HOL-Analysis.
  1927 
  1928 * Session HOL-Analysis: measure theory has been moved here from
  1929 HOL-Probability. When importing HOL-Analysis some theorems need
  1930 additional name spaces prefixes due to name clashes. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1931 
  1932 * Session HOL-Analysis: more complex analysis including Cauchy's
  1933 inequality, Liouville theorem, open mapping theorem, maximum modulus
  1934 principle, Residue theorem, Schwarz Lemma.
  1935 
  1936 * Session HOL-Analysis: Theory of polyhedra: faces, extreme points,
  1937 polytopes, and the Krein–Milman Minkowski theorem.
  1938 
  1939 * Session HOL-Analysis: Numerous results ported from the HOL Light
  1940 libraries: homeomorphisms, continuous function extensions, invariance of
  1941 domain.
  1942 
  1943 * Session HOL-Probability: the type of emeasure and nn_integral was
  1944 changed from ereal to ennreal, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1945 
  1946   emeasure :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> 'a set \<Rightarrow> ennreal
  1947   nn_integral :: 'a measure \<Rightarrow> ('a \<Rightarrow> ennreal) \<Rightarrow> ennreal
  1948 
  1949 * Session HOL-Probability: Code generation and QuickCheck for
  1950 Probability Mass Functions.
  1951 
  1952 * Session HOL-Probability: theory Random_Permutations contains some
  1953 theory about choosing a permutation of a set uniformly at random and
  1954 folding over a list in random order.
  1955 
  1956 * Session HOL-Probability: theory SPMF formalises discrete
  1957 subprobability distributions.
  1958 
  1959 * Session HOL-Library: the names of multiset theorems have been
  1960 normalised to distinguish which ordering the theorems are about
  1961 
  1962     mset_less_eqI ~> mset_subset_eqI
  1963     mset_less_insertD ~> mset_subset_insertD
  1964     mset_less_eq_count ~> mset_subset_eq_count
  1965     mset_less_diff_self ~> mset_subset_diff_self
  1966     mset_le_exists_conv ~> mset_subset_eq_exists_conv
  1967     mset_le_mono_add_right_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel
  1968     mset_le_mono_add_left_cancel ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel
  1969     mset_le_mono_add ~> mset_subset_eq_mono_add
  1970     mset_le_add_left ~> mset_subset_eq_add_left
  1971     mset_le_add_right ~> mset_subset_eq_add_right
  1972     mset_le_single ~> mset_subset_eq_single
  1973     mset_le_multiset_union_diff_commute ~> mset_subset_eq_multiset_union_diff_commute
  1974     diff_le_self ~> diff_subset_eq_self
  1975     mset_leD ~> mset_subset_eqD
  1976     mset_lessD ~> mset_subsetD
  1977     mset_le_insertD ~> mset_subset_eq_insertD
  1978     mset_less_of_empty ~> mset_subset_of_empty
  1979     mset_less_size ~> mset_subset_size
  1980     wf_less_mset_rel ~> wf_subset_mset_rel
  1981     count_le_replicate_mset_le ~> count_le_replicate_mset_subset_eq
  1982     mset_remdups_le ~> mset_remdups_subset_eq
  1983     ms_lesseq_impl ~> subset_eq_mset_impl
  1984 
  1985 Some functions have been renamed:
  1986     ms_lesseq_impl -> subset_eq_mset_impl
  1987 
  1988 * HOL-Library: multisets are now ordered with the multiset ordering
  1989     #\<subseteq># ~> \<le>
  1990     #\<subset># ~> <
  1991     le_multiset ~> less_eq_multiset
  1992     less_multiset ~> le_multiset
  1993 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1994 
  1995 * Session HOL-Library: the prefix multiset_order has been discontinued:
  1996 the theorems can be directly accessed. As a consequence, the lemmas
  1997 "order_multiset" and "linorder_multiset" have been discontinued, and the
  1998 interpretations "multiset_linorder" and "multiset_wellorder" have been
  1999 replaced by instantiations. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2000 
  2001 * Session HOL-Library: some theorems about the multiset ordering have
  2002 been renamed:
  2003 
  2004     le_multiset_def ~> less_eq_multiset_def
  2005     less_multiset_def ~> le_multiset_def
  2006     less_eq_imp_le_multiset ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
  2007     mult_less_not_refl ~> mset_le_not_refl
  2008     mult_less_trans ~> mset_le_trans
  2009     mult_less_not_sym ~> mset_le_not_sym
  2010     mult_less_asym ~> mset_le_asym
  2011     mult_less_irrefl ~> mset_le_irrefl
  2012     union_less_mono2{,1,2} ~> union_le_mono2{,1,2}
  2013 
  2014     le_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O ~> less_eq_multiset\<^sub>H\<^sub>O
  2015     le_multiset_total ~> less_eq_multiset_total
  2016     less_multiset_right_total ~> subset_eq_imp_le_multiset
  2017     le_multiset_empty_left ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_left
  2018     le_multiset_empty_right ~> less_eq_multiset_empty_right
  2019     less_multiset_empty_right ~> le_multiset_empty_left
  2020     less_multiset_empty_left ~> le_multiset_empty_right
  2021     union_less_diff_plus ~> union_le_diff_plus
  2022     ex_gt_count_imp_less_multiset ~> ex_gt_count_imp_le_multiset
  2023     less_multiset_plus_left_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_left_nonempty
  2024     le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty ~> le_multiset_plus_right_nonempty
  2025 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2026 
  2027 * Session HOL-Library: the lemma mset_map has now the attribute [simp].
  2028 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2029 
  2030 * Session HOL-Library: some theorems about multisets have been removed.
  2031 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the following replacements:
  2032 
  2033     le_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
  2034     less_multiset_plus_plus_left_iff ~> add_less_cancel_right
  2035     le_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
  2036     less_multiset_plus_plus_right_iff ~> add_less_cancel_left
  2037     add_eq_self_empty_iff ~> add_cancel_left_right
  2038     mset_subset_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  2039     mset_less_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  2040     mset_le_add_bothsides ~> subset_mset.add_less_cancel_right
  2041     empty_inter ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_left
  2042     inter_empty ~> subset_mset.inf_bot_right
  2043     empty_sup ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_left
  2044     sup_empty ~> subset_mset.sup_bot_right
  2045     bdd_below_multiset ~> subset_mset.bdd_above_bot
  2046     subset_eq_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
  2047     le_empty ~> subset_mset.le_zero_eq
  2048     mset_subset_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
  2049     mset_less_empty_nonempty ~> subset_mset.zero_less_iff_neq_zero
  2050 
  2051 * Session HOL-Library: some typeclass constraints about multisets have
  2052 been reduced from ordered or linordered to preorder. Multisets have the
  2053 additional typeclasses order_bot, no_top,
  2054 ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le, ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_add,
  2055 linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add, and
  2056 ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2057 
  2058 * Session HOL-Library: there are some new simplification rules about
  2059 multisets, the multiset ordering, and the subset ordering on multisets.
  2060 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2061 
  2062 * Session HOL-Library: the subset ordering on multisets has now the
  2063 interpretations ordered_ab_semigroup_monoid_add_imp_le and
  2064 bounded_lattice_bot. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2065 
  2066 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: single has been removed in favor
  2067 of add_mset that roughly corresponds to Set.insert. Some theorems have
  2068 removed or changed:
  2069 
  2070   single_not_empty ~> add_mset_not_empty or empty_not_add_mset
  2071   fold_mset_insert ~> fold_mset_add_mset
  2072   image_mset_insert ~> image_mset_add_mset
  2073   union_single_eq_diff
  2074   multi_self_add_other_not_self
  2075   diff_single_eq_union
  2076 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2077 
  2078 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: some theorems have been changed
  2079 to use add_mset instead of single:
  2080 
  2081   mset_add
  2082   multi_self_add_other_not_self
  2083   diff_single_eq_union
  2084   union_single_eq_diff
  2085   union_single_eq_member
  2086   add_eq_conv_diff
  2087   insert_noteq_member
  2088   add_eq_conv_ex
  2089   multi_member_split
  2090   multiset_add_sub_el_shuffle
  2091   mset_subset_eq_insertD
  2092   mset_subset_insertD
  2093   insert_subset_eq_iff
  2094   insert_union_subset_iff
  2095   multi_psub_of_add_self
  2096   inter_add_left1
  2097   inter_add_left2
  2098   inter_add_right1
  2099   inter_add_right2
  2100   sup_union_left1
  2101   sup_union_left2
  2102   sup_union_right1
  2103   sup_union_right2
  2104   size_eq_Suc_imp_eq_union
  2105   multi_nonempty_split
  2106   mset_insort
  2107   mset_update
  2108   mult1I
  2109   less_add
  2110   mset_zip_take_Cons_drop_twice
  2111   rel_mset_Zero
  2112   msed_map_invL
  2113   msed_map_invR
  2114   msed_rel_invL
  2115   msed_rel_invR
  2116   le_multiset_right_total
  2117   multiset_induct
  2118   multiset_induct2_size
  2119   multiset_induct2
  2120 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2121 
  2122 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the definitions of some
  2123 constants have changed to use add_mset instead of adding a single
  2124 element:
  2125 
  2126   image_mset
  2127   mset
  2128   replicate_mset
  2129   mult1
  2130   pred_mset
  2131   rel_mset'
  2132   mset_insort
  2133 
  2134 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2135 
  2136 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: due to the above changes, the
  2137 attributes of some multiset theorems have been changed:
  2138 
  2139   insert_DiffM  [] ~> [simp]
  2140   insert_DiffM2 [simp] ~> []
  2141   diff_add_mset_swap [simp]
  2142   fold_mset_add_mset [simp]
  2143   diff_diff_add [simp] (for multisets only)
  2144   diff_cancel [simp] ~> []
  2145   count_single [simp] ~> []
  2146   set_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  2147   size_multiset_single [simp] ~> []
  2148   size_single [simp] ~> []
  2149   image_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  2150   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_right_cancel [simp] ~> []
  2151   mset_subset_eq_mono_add_left_cancel [simp] ~> []
  2152   fold_mset_single [simp] ~> []
  2153   subset_eq_empty [simp] ~> []
  2154   empty_sup [simp] ~> []
  2155   sup_empty [simp] ~> []
  2156   inter_empty [simp] ~> []
  2157   empty_inter [simp] ~> []
  2158 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2159 
  2160 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the order of the variables in
  2161 the second cases of multiset_induct, multiset_induct2_size,
  2162 multiset_induct2 has been changed (e.g. Add A a ~> Add a A).
  2163 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2164 
  2165 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: there is now a simplification
  2166 procedure on multisets. It mimics the behavior of the procedure on
  2167 natural numbers. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2168 
  2169 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: renamed sums and products of
  2170 multisets:
  2171 
  2172   msetsum ~> sum_mset
  2173   msetprod ~> prod_mset
  2174 
  2175 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the notation for intersection
  2176 and union of multisets have been changed:
  2177 
  2178   #\<inter> ~> \<inter>#
  2179   #\<union> ~> \<union>#
  2180 
  2181 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2182 
  2183 * Session HOL-Library, theory Multiset: the lemma
  2184 one_step_implies_mult_aux on multisets has been removed, use
  2185 one_step_implies_mult instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2186 
  2187 * Session HOL-Library: theory Complete_Partial_Order2 provides reasoning
  2188 support for monotonicity and continuity in chain-complete partial orders
  2189 and about admissibility conditions for fixpoint inductions.
  2190 
  2191 * Session HOL-Library: theory Library/Polynomial contains also
  2192 derivation of polynomials (formerly in Library/Poly_Deriv) but not
  2193 gcd/lcm on polynomials over fields. This has been moved to a separate
  2194 theory Library/Polynomial_GCD_euclidean.thy, to pave way for a possible
  2195 future different type class instantiation for polynomials over factorial
  2196 rings. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2197 
  2198 * Session HOL-Library: theory Sublist provides function "prefixes" with
  2199 the following renaming
  2200 
  2201   prefixeq -> prefix
  2202   prefix -> strict_prefix
  2203   suffixeq -> suffix
  2204   suffix -> strict_suffix
  2205 
  2206 Added theory of longest common prefixes.
  2207 
  2208 * Session HOL-Number_Theory: algebraic foundation for primes:
  2209 Generalisation of predicate "prime" and introduction of predicates
  2210 "prime_elem", "irreducible", a "prime_factorization" function, and the
  2211 "factorial_ring" typeclass with instance proofs for nat, int, poly. Some
  2212 theorems now have different names, most notably "prime_def" is now
  2213 "prime_nat_iff". INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2214 
  2215 * Session Old_Number_Theory has been removed, after porting remaining
  2216 theories.
  2217 
  2218 * Session HOL-Types_To_Sets provides an experimental extension of
  2219 Higher-Order Logic to allow translation of types to sets.
  2220 
  2221 
  2222 *** ML ***
  2223 
  2224 * Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm use efficient operations from the Poly/ML
  2225 library (notably for big integers). Subtle change of semantics:
  2226 Integer.gcd and Integer.lcm both normalize the sign, results are never
  2227 negative. This coincides with the definitions in HOL/GCD.thy.
  2228 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2229 
  2230 * Structure Rat for rational numbers is now an integral part of
  2231 Isabelle/ML, with special notation @int/nat or @int for numerals (an
  2232 abbreviation for antiquotation @{Pure.rat argument}) and ML pretty
  2233 printing. Standard operations on type Rat.rat are provided via ad-hoc
  2234 overloading of + - * / < <= > >= ~ abs. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  2235 use + instead of +/ etc. Moreover, exception Rat.DIVZERO has been
  2236 superseded by General.Div.
  2237 
  2238 * ML antiquotation @{path} is superseded by @{file}, which ensures that
  2239 the argument is a plain file. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2240 
  2241 * Antiquotation @{make_string} is available during Pure bootstrap --
  2242 with approximative output quality.
  2243 
  2244 * Low-level ML system structures (like PolyML and RunCall) are no longer
  2245 exposed to Isabelle/ML user-space. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2246 
  2247 * The ML function "ML" provides easy access to run-time compilation.
  2248 This is particularly useful for conditional compilation, without
  2249 requiring separate files.
  2250 
  2251 * Option ML_exception_debugger controls detailed exception trace via the
  2252 Poly/ML debugger. Relevant ML modules need to be compiled beforehand
  2253 with ML_file_debug, or with ML_file and option ML_debugger enabled. Note
  2254 debugger information requires consirable time and space: main
  2255 Isabelle/HOL with full debugger support may need ML_system_64.
  2256 
  2257 * Local_Theory.restore has been renamed to Local_Theory.reset to
  2258 emphasize its disruptive impact on the cumulative context, notably the
  2259 scope of 'private' or 'qualified' names. Note that Local_Theory.reset is
  2260 only appropriate when targets are managed, e.g. starting from a global
  2261 theory and returning to it. Regular definitional packages should use
  2262 balanced blocks of Local_Theory.open_target versus
  2263 Local_Theory.close_target instead. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2264 
  2265 * Structure TimeLimit (originally from the SML/NJ library) has been
  2266 replaced by structure Timeout, with slightly different signature.
  2267 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2268 
  2269 * Discontinued cd and pwd operations, which are not well-defined in a
  2270 multi-threaded environment. Note that files are usually located
  2271 relatively to the master directory of a theory (see also
  2272 File.full_path). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2273 
  2274 * Binding.empty_atts supersedes Thm.empty_binding and
  2275 Attrib.empty_binding. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2276 
  2277 
  2278 *** System ***
  2279 
  2280 * SML/NJ and old versions of Poly/ML are no longer supported.
  2281 
  2282 * Poly/ML heaps now follow the hierarchy of sessions, and thus require
  2283 much less disk space.
  2284 
  2285 * The Isabelle ML process is now managed directly by Isabelle/Scala, and
  2286 shell scripts merely provide optional command-line access. In
  2287 particular:
  2288 
  2289   . Scala module ML_Process to connect to the raw ML process,
  2290     with interaction via stdin/stdout/stderr or in batch mode;
  2291   . command-line tool "isabelle console" as interactive wrapper;
  2292   . command-line tool "isabelle process" as batch mode wrapper.
  2293 
  2294 * The executable "isabelle_process" has been discontinued. Tools and
  2295 prover front-ends should use ML_Process or Isabelle_Process in
  2296 Isabelle/Scala. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2297 
  2298 * New command-line tool "isabelle process" supports ML evaluation of
  2299 literal expressions (option -e) or files (option -f) in the context of a
  2300 given heap image. Errors lead to premature exit of the ML process with
  2301 return code 1.
  2302 
  2303 * The command-line tool "isabelle build" supports option -N for cyclic
  2304 shuffling of NUMA CPU nodes. This may help performance tuning on Linux
  2305 servers with separate CPU/memory modules.
  2306 
  2307 * System option "threads" (for the size of the Isabelle/ML thread farm)
  2308 is also passed to the underlying ML runtime system as --gcthreads,
  2309 unless there is already a default provided via ML_OPTIONS settings.
  2310 
  2311 * System option "checkpoint" helps to fine-tune the global heap space
  2312 management of isabelle build. This is relevant for big sessions that may
  2313 exhaust the small 32-bit address space of the ML process (which is used
  2314 by default).
  2315 
  2316 * System option "profiling" specifies the mode for global ML profiling
  2317 in "isabelle build". Possible values are "time", "allocations". The
  2318 command-line tool "isabelle profiling_report" helps to digest the
  2319 resulting log files.
  2320 
  2321 * System option "ML_process_policy" specifies an optional command prefix
  2322 for the underlying ML process, e.g. to control CPU affinity on
  2323 multiprocessor systems. The "isabelle jedit" tool allows to override the
  2324 implicit default via option -p.
  2325 
  2326 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" provides option -r to help to
  2327 bootstrapping Isabelle/Pure interactively.
  2328 
  2329 * Command-line tool "isabelle yxml" has been discontinued.
  2330 INCOMPATIBILITY, use operations from the modules "XML" and "YXML" in
  2331 Isabelle/ML or Isabelle/Scala.
  2332 
  2333 * Many Isabelle tools that require a Java runtime system refer to the
  2334 settings ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_TOOL_JAVA_OPTIONS64,
  2335 depending on the underlying platform. The settings for "isabelle build"
  2336 ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 / ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64 have been
  2337 discontinued. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2338 
  2339 * The Isabelle system environment always ensures that the main
  2340 executables are found within the shell search $PATH: "isabelle" and
  2341 "isabelle_scala_script".
  2342 
  2343 * Isabelle tools may consist of .scala files: the Scala compiler is
  2344 invoked on the spot. The source needs to define some object that extends
  2345 Isabelle_Tool.Body.
  2346 
  2347 * File.bash_string, File.bash_path etc. represent Isabelle/ML and
  2348 Isabelle/Scala strings authentically within GNU bash. This is useful to
  2349 produce robust shell scripts under program control, without worrying
  2350 about spaces or special characters. Note that user output works via
  2351 Path.print (ML) or Path.toString (Scala). INCOMPATIBILITY, the old (and
  2352 less versatile) operations File.shell_quote, File.shell_path etc. have
  2353 been discontinued.
  2354 
  2355 * The isabelle_java executable allows to run a Java process within the
  2356 name space of Java and Scala components that are bundled with Isabelle,
  2357 but without the Isabelle settings environment.
  2358 
  2359 * Isabelle/Scala: the SSH module supports ssh and sftp connections, for
  2360 remote command-execution and file-system access. This resembles
  2361 operations from module File and Isabelle_System to some extent. Note
  2362 that Path specifications need to be resolved remotely via
  2363 ssh.remote_path instead of File.standard_path: the implicit process
  2364 environment is different, Isabelle settings are not available remotely.
  2365 
  2366 * Isabelle/Scala: the Mercurial module supports repositories via the
  2367 regular hg command-line interface. The repositroy clone and working
  2368 directory may reside on a local or remote file-system (via ssh
  2369 connection).
  2370 
  2371 
  2372 
  2373 New in Isabelle2016 (February 2016)
  2374 -----------------------------------
  2375 
  2376 *** General ***
  2377 
  2378 * Eisbach is now based on Pure instead of HOL. Objects-logics may import
  2379 either the theory ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach (for HOL etc.) or
  2380 ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/Eisbach_Old_Appl_Syntax (for FOL, ZF etc.). Note that
  2381 the HOL-Eisbach session located in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/ contains further
  2382 examples that do require HOL.
  2383 
  2384 * Better resource usage on all platforms (Linux, Windows, Mac OS X) for
  2385 both Isabelle/ML and Isabelle/Scala.  Slightly reduced heap space usage.
  2386 
  2387 * Former "xsymbols" syntax with Isabelle symbols is used by default,
  2388 without any special print mode. Important ASCII replacement syntax
  2389 remains available under print mode "ASCII", but less important syntax
  2390 has been removed (see below).
  2391 
  2392 * Support for more arrow symbols, with rendering in LaTeX and Isabelle
  2393 fonts: \<Lleftarrow> \<Rrightarrow> \<longlongleftarrow> \<longlongrightarrow> \<longlonglongleftarrow> \<longlonglongrightarrow>.
  2394 
  2395 * Special notation \<struct> for the first implicit 'structure' in the
  2396 context has been discontinued. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit
  2397 structure name instead, notably in indexed notation with block-subscript
  2398 (e.g. \<odot>\<^bsub>A\<^esub>).
  2399 
  2400 * The glyph for \<diamond> in the IsabelleText font now corresponds better to its
  2401 counterpart \<box> as quantifier-like symbol. A small diamond is available as
  2402 \<diamondop>; the old symbol \<struct> loses this rendering and any special
  2403 meaning.
  2404 
  2405 * Syntax for formal comments "-- text" now also supports the symbolic
  2406 form "\<comment> text". Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -c" helps
  2407 to update old sources.
  2408 
  2409 * Toplevel theorem statements have been simplified as follows:
  2410 
  2411   theorems             ~>  lemmas
  2412   schematic_lemma      ~>  schematic_goal
  2413   schematic_theorem    ~>  schematic_goal
  2414   schematic_corollary  ~>  schematic_goal
  2415 
  2416 Command-line tool "isabelle update_theorems" updates theory sources
  2417 accordingly.
  2418 
  2419 * Toplevel theorem statement 'proposition' is another alias for
  2420 'theorem'.
  2421 
  2422 * The old 'defs' command has been removed (legacy since Isabelle2014).
  2423 INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular 'definition' instead. Overloaded and/or
  2424 deferred definitions require a surrounding 'overloading' block.
  2425 
  2426 
  2427 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  2428 
  2429 * IDE support for the source-level debugger of Poly/ML, to work with
  2430 Isabelle/ML and official Standard ML. Option "ML_debugger" and commands
  2431 'ML_file_debug', 'ML_file_no_debug', 'SML_file_debug',
  2432 'SML_file_no_debug' control compilation of sources with or without
  2433 debugging information. The Debugger panel allows to set breakpoints (via
  2434 context menu), step through stopped threads, evaluate local ML
  2435 expressions etc. At least one Debugger view needs to be active to have
  2436 any effect on the running ML program.
  2437 
  2438 * The State panel manages explicit proof state output, with dynamic
  2439 auto-update according to cursor movement. Alternatively, the jEdit
  2440 action "isabelle.update-state" (shortcut S+ENTER) triggers manual
  2441 update.
  2442 
  2443 * The Output panel no longer shows proof state output by default, to
  2444 avoid GUI overcrowding. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the State panel instead or
  2445 enable option "editor_output_state".
  2446 
  2447 * The text overview column (status of errors, warnings etc.) is updated
  2448 asynchronously, leading to much better editor reactivity. Moreover, the
  2449 full document node content is taken into account. The width of the
  2450 column is scaled according to the main text area font, for improved
  2451 visibility.
  2452 
  2453 * The main text area no longer changes its color hue in outdated
  2454 situations. The text overview column takes over the role to indicate
  2455 unfinished edits in the PIDE pipeline. This avoids flashing text display
  2456 due to ad-hoc updates by auxiliary GUI components, such as the State
  2457 panel.
  2458 
  2459 * Slightly improved scheduling for urgent print tasks (e.g. command
  2460 state output, interactive queries) wrt. long-running background tasks.
  2461 
  2462 * Completion of symbols via prefix of \<name> or \<^name> or \name is
  2463 always possible, independently of the language context. It is never
  2464 implicit: a popup will show up unconditionally.
  2465 
  2466 * Additional abbreviations for syntactic completion may be specified in
  2467 $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/abbrevs and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs, with
  2468 support for simple templates using ASCII 007 (bell) as placeholder.
  2469 
  2470 * Symbols \<oplus>, \<Oplus>, \<otimes>, \<Otimes>, \<odot>, \<Odot>, \<ominus>, \<oslash> no longer provide abbreviations for
  2471 completion like "+o", "*o", ".o" etc. -- due to conflicts with other
  2472 ASCII syntax. INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain backslash-completion or define
  2473 suitable abbreviations in $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/abbrevs.
  2474 
  2475 * Action "isabelle-emph" (with keyboard shortcut C+e LEFT) controls
  2476 emphasized text style; the effect is visible in document output, not in
  2477 the editor.
  2478 
  2479 * Action "isabelle-reset" now uses keyboard shortcut C+e BACK_SPACE,
  2480 instead of former C+e LEFT.
  2481 
  2482 * The command-line tool "isabelle jedit" and the isabelle.Main
  2483 application wrapper treat the default $USER_HOME/Scratch.thy more
  2484 uniformly, and allow the dummy file argument ":" to open an empty buffer
  2485 instead.
  2486 
  2487 * New command-line tool "isabelle jedit_client" allows to connect to an
  2488 already running Isabelle/jEdit process. This achieves the effect of
  2489 single-instance applications seen on common GUI desktops.
  2490 
  2491 * The default look-and-feel for Linux is the traditional "Metal", which
  2492 works better with GUI scaling for very high-resolution displays (e.g.
  2493 4K). Moreover, it is generally more robust than "Nimbus".
  2494 
  2495 * Update to jedit-5.3.0, with improved GUI scaling and support of
  2496 high-resolution displays (e.g. 4K).
  2497 
  2498 * The main Isabelle executable is managed as single-instance Desktop
  2499 application uniformly on all platforms: Linux, Windows, Mac OS X.
  2500 
  2501 
  2502 *** Document preparation ***
  2503 
  2504 * Commands 'paragraph' and 'subparagraph' provide additional section
  2505 headings. Thus there are 6 levels of standard headings, as in HTML.
  2506 
  2507 * Command 'text_raw' has been clarified: input text is processed as in
  2508 'text' (with antiquotations and control symbols). The key difference is
  2509 the lack of the surrounding isabelle markup environment in output.
  2510 
  2511 * Text is structured in paragraphs and nested lists, using notation that
  2512 is similar to Markdown. The control symbols for list items are as
  2513 follows:
  2514 
  2515   \<^item>  itemize
  2516   \<^enum>  enumerate
  2517   \<^descr>  description
  2518 
  2519 * There is a new short form for antiquotations with a single argument
  2520 that is a cartouche: \<^name>\<open>...\<close> is equivalent to @{name \<open>...\<close>} and
  2521 \<open>...\<close> without control symbol is equivalent to @{cartouche \<open>...\<close>}.
  2522 \<^name> without following cartouche is equivalent to @{name}. The
  2523 standard Isabelle fonts provide glyphs to render important control
  2524 symbols, e.g. "\<^verbatim>", "\<^emph>", "\<^bold>".
  2525 
  2526 * Antiquotations @{noindent}, @{smallskip}, @{medskip}, @{bigskip} with
  2527 corresponding control symbols \<^noindent>, \<^smallskip>, \<^medskip>, \<^bigskip> specify spacing formally, using
  2528 standard LaTeX macros of the same names.
  2529 
  2530 * Antiquotation @{cartouche} in Isabelle/Pure is the same as @{text}.
  2531 Consequently, \<open>...\<close> without any decoration prints literal quasi-formal
  2532 text. Command-line tool "isabelle update_cartouches -t" helps to update
  2533 old sources, by approximative patching of the content of string and
  2534 cartouche tokens seen in theory sources.
  2535 
  2536 * The @{text} antiquotation now ignores the antiquotation option
  2537 "source". The given text content is output unconditionally, without any
  2538 surrounding quotes etc. Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, put quotes into the
  2539 argument where they are really intended, e.g. @{text \<open>"foo"\<close>}. Initial
  2540 or terminal spaces are ignored.
  2541 
  2542 * Antiquotations @{emph} and @{bold} output LaTeX source recursively,
  2543 adding appropriate text style markup. These may be used in the short
  2544 form \<^emph>\<open>...\<close> and \<^bold>\<open>...\<close>.
  2545 
  2546 * Document antiquotation @{footnote} outputs LaTeX source recursively,
  2547 marked as \footnote{}. This may be used in the short form \<^footnote>\<open>...\<close>.
  2548 
  2549 * Antiquotation @{verbatim [display]} supports option "indent".
  2550 
  2551 * Antiquotation @{theory_text} prints uninterpreted theory source text
  2552 (Isar outer syntax with command keywords etc.). This may be used in the
  2553 short form \<^theory_text>\<open>...\<close>. @{theory_text [display]} supports option "indent".
  2554 
  2555 * Antiquotation @{doc ENTRY} provides a reference to the given
  2556 documentation, with a hyperlink in the Prover IDE.
  2557 
  2558 * Antiquotations @{command}, @{method}, @{attribute} print checked
  2559 entities of the Isar language.
  2560 
  2561 * HTML presentation uses the standard IsabelleText font and Unicode
  2562 rendering of Isabelle symbols like Isabelle/Scala/jEdit.  The former
  2563 print mode "HTML" loses its special meaning.
  2564 
  2565 
  2566 *** Isar ***
  2567 
  2568 * Local goals ('have', 'show', 'hence', 'thus') allow structured rule
  2569 statements like fixes/assumes/shows in theorem specifications, but the
  2570 notation is postfix with keywords 'if' (or 'when') and 'for'. For
  2571 example:
  2572 
  2573   have result: "C x y"
  2574     if "A x" and "B y"
  2575     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2576     <proof>
  2577 
  2578 The local assumptions are bound to the name "that". The result is
  2579 exported from context of the statement as usual. The above roughly
  2580 corresponds to a raw proof block like this:
  2581 
  2582   {
  2583     fix x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2584     assume that: "A x" "B y"
  2585     have "C x y" <proof>
  2586   }
  2587   note result = this
  2588 
  2589 The keyword 'when' may be used instead of 'if', to indicate 'presume'
  2590 instead of 'assume' above.
  2591 
  2592 * Assumptions ('assume', 'presume') allow structured rule statements
  2593 using 'if' and 'for', similar to 'have' etc. above. For example:
  2594 
  2595   assume result: "C x y"
  2596     if "A x" and "B y"
  2597     for x :: 'a and y :: 'a
  2598 
  2599 This assumes "\<And>x y::'a. A x \<Longrightarrow> B y \<Longrightarrow> C x y" and produces a general
  2600 result as usual: "A ?x \<Longrightarrow> B ?y \<Longrightarrow> C ?x ?y".
  2601 
  2602 Vacuous quantification in assumptions is omitted, i.e. a for-context
  2603 only effects propositions according to actual use of variables. For
  2604 example:
  2605 
  2606   assume "A x" and "B y" for x and y
  2607 
  2608 is equivalent to:
  2609 
  2610   assume "\<And>x. A x" and "\<And>y. B y"
  2611 
  2612 * The meaning of 'show' with Pure rule statements has changed: premises
  2613 are treated in the sense of 'assume', instead of 'presume'. This means,
  2614 a goal like "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x" can be solved completely as
  2615 follows:
  2616 
  2617   show "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2618 
  2619 or:
  2620 
  2621   show "C x" if "A x" "B x" for x
  2622 
  2623 Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, the old behaviour may be recovered as follows:
  2624 
  2625   show "C x" when "A x" "B x" for x
  2626 
  2627 * New command 'consider' states rules for generalized elimination and
  2628 case splitting. This is like a toplevel statement "theorem obtains" used
  2629 within a proof body; or like a multi-branch 'obtain' without activation
  2630 of the local context elements yet.
  2631 
  2632 * Proof method "cases" allows to specify the rule as first entry of
  2633 chained facts.  This is particularly useful with 'consider':
  2634 
  2635   consider (a) A | (b) B | (c) C <proof>
  2636   then have something
  2637   proof cases
  2638     case a
  2639     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2640   next
  2641     case b
  2642     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2643   next
  2644     case c
  2645     then show ?thesis <proof>
  2646   qed
  2647 
  2648 * Command 'case' allows fact name and attribute specification like this:
  2649 
  2650   case a: (c xs)
  2651   case a [attributes]: (c xs)
  2652 
  2653 Facts that are introduced by invoking the case context are uniformly
  2654 qualified by "a"; the same name is used for the cumulative fact. The old
  2655 form "case (c xs) [attributes]" is no longer supported. Rare
  2656 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt uses of case facts in exotic situations,
  2657 and always put attributes in front.
  2658 
  2659 * The standard proof method of commands 'proof' and '..' is now called
  2660 "standard" to make semantically clear what it is; the old name "default"
  2661 is still available as legacy for some time. Documentation now explains
  2662 '..' more accurately as "by standard" instead of "by rule".
  2663 
  2664 * Nesting of Isar goal structure has been clarified: the context after
  2665 the initial backwards refinement is retained for the whole proof, within
  2666 all its context sections (as indicated via 'next'). This is e.g.
  2667 relevant for 'using', 'including', 'supply':
  2668 
  2669   have "A \<and> A" if a: A for A
  2670     supply [simp] = a
  2671   proof
  2672     show A by simp
  2673   next
  2674     show A by simp
  2675   qed
  2676 
  2677 * Command 'obtain' binds term abbreviations (via 'is' patterns) in the
  2678 proof body as well, abstracted over relevant parameters.
  2679 
  2680 * Improved type-inference for theorem statement 'obtains': separate
  2681 parameter scope for of each clause.
  2682 
  2683 * Term abbreviations via 'is' patterns also work for schematic
  2684 statements: result is abstracted over unknowns.
  2685 
  2686 * Command 'subgoal' allows to impose some structure on backward
  2687 refinements, to avoid proof scripts degenerating into long of 'apply'
  2688 sequences. Further explanations and examples are given in the isar-ref
  2689 manual.
  2690 
  2691 * Command 'supply' supports fact definitions during goal refinement
  2692 ('apply' scripts).
  2693 
  2694 * Proof method "goal_cases" turns the current subgoals into cases within
  2695 the context; the conclusion is bound to variable ?case in each case. For
  2696 example:
  2697 
  2698 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2699   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  2700 proof goal_cases
  2701   case (1 x)
  2702   then show ?case using \<open>A x\<close> \<open>B x\<close> sorry
  2703 next
  2704   case (2 y z)
  2705   then show ?case using \<open>U y\<close> \<open>V z\<close> sorry
  2706 qed
  2707 
  2708 lemma "\<And>x. A x \<Longrightarrow> B x \<Longrightarrow> C x"
  2709   and "\<And>y z. U y \<Longrightarrow> V z \<Longrightarrow> W y z"
  2710 proof goal_cases
  2711   case prems: 1
  2712   then show ?case using prems sorry
  2713 next
  2714   case prems: 2
  2715   then show ?case using prems sorry
  2716 qed
  2717 
  2718 * The undocumented feature of implicit cases goal1, goal2, goal3, etc.
  2719 is marked as legacy, and will be removed eventually. The proof method
  2720 "goals" achieves a similar effect within regular Isar; often it can be
  2721 done more adequately by other means (e.g. 'consider').
  2722 
  2723 * The vacuous fact "TERM x" may be established "by fact" or as `TERM x`
  2724 as well, not just "by this" or "." as before.
  2725 
  2726 * Method "sleep" succeeds after a real-time delay (in seconds). This is
  2727 occasionally useful for demonstration and testing purposes.
  2728 
  2729 
  2730 *** Pure ***
  2731 
  2732 * Qualifiers in locale expressions default to mandatory ('!') regardless
  2733 of the command. Previously, for 'locale' and 'sublocale' the default was
  2734 optional ('?'). The old synatx '!' has been discontinued.
  2735 INCOMPATIBILITY, remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  2736 
  2737 * Keyword 'rewrites' identifies rewrite morphisms in interpretation
  2738 commands. Previously, the keyword was 'where'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2739 
  2740 * More gentle suppression of syntax along locale morphisms while
  2741 printing terms. Previously 'abbreviation' and 'notation' declarations
  2742 would be suppressed for morphisms except term identity. Now
  2743 'abbreviation' is also kept for morphims that only change the involved
  2744 parameters, and only 'notation' is suppressed. This can be of great help
  2745 when working with complex locale hierarchies, because proof states are
  2746 displayed much more succinctly. It also means that only notation needs
  2747 to be redeclared if desired, as illustrated by this example:
  2748 
  2749   locale struct = fixes composition :: "'a => 'a => 'a" (infixl "\<cdot>" 65)
  2750   begin
  2751     definition derived (infixl "\<odot>" 65) where ...
  2752   end
  2753 
  2754   locale morphism =
  2755     left: struct composition + right: struct composition'
  2756     for composition (infix "\<cdot>" 65) and composition' (infix "\<cdot>''" 65)
  2757   begin
  2758     notation right.derived ("\<odot>''")
  2759   end
  2760 
  2761 * Command 'global_interpretation' issues interpretations into global
  2762 theories, with optional rewrite definitions following keyword 'defines'.
  2763 
  2764 * Command 'sublocale' accepts optional rewrite definitions after keyword
  2765 'defines'.
  2766 
  2767 * Command 'permanent_interpretation' has been discontinued. Use
  2768 'global_interpretation' or 'sublocale' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2769 
  2770 * Command 'print_definitions' prints dependencies of definitional
  2771 specifications. This functionality used to be part of 'print_theory'.
  2772 
  2773 * Configuration option rule_insts_schematic has been discontinued
  2774 (intermediate legacy feature in Isabelle2015). INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2775 
  2776 * Abbreviations in type classes now carry proper sort constraint. Rare
  2777 INCOMPATIBILITY in situations where the previous misbehaviour has been
  2778 exploited.
  2779 
  2780 * Refinement of user-space type system in type classes: pseudo-local
  2781 operations behave more similar to abbreviations. Potential
  2782 INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  2783 
  2784 
  2785 *** HOL ***
  2786 
  2787 * The 'typedef' command has been upgraded from a partially checked
  2788 "axiomatization", to a full definitional specification that takes the
  2789 global collection of overloaded constant / type definitions into
  2790 account. Type definitions with open dependencies on overloaded
  2791 definitions need to be specified as "typedef (overloaded)". This
  2792 provides extra robustness in theory construction. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2793 
  2794 * Qualification of various formal entities in the libraries is done more
  2795 uniformly via "context begin qualified definition ... end" instead of
  2796 old-style "hide_const (open) ...". Consequently, both the defined
  2797 constant and its defining fact become qualified, e.g. Option.is_none and
  2798 Option.is_none_def. Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY in applications.
  2799 
  2800 * Some old and rarely used ASCII replacement syntax has been removed.
  2801 INCOMPATIBILITY, standard syntax with symbols should be used instead.
  2802 The subsequent commands help to reproduce the old forms, e.g. to
  2803 simplify porting old theories:
  2804 
  2805   notation iff  (infixr "<->" 25)
  2806 
  2807   notation Times  (infixr "<*>" 80)
  2808 
  2809   type_notation Map.map  (infixr "~=>" 0)
  2810   notation Map.map_comp  (infixl "o'_m" 55)
  2811 
  2812   type_notation FinFun.finfun ("(_ =>f /_)" [22, 21] 21)
  2813 
  2814   notation FuncSet.funcset  (infixr "->" 60)
  2815   notation FuncSet.extensional_funcset  (infixr "->\<^sub>E" 60)
  2816 
  2817   notation Omega_Words_Fun.conc (infixr "conc" 65)
  2818 
  2819   notation Preorder.equiv ("op ~~")
  2820     and Preorder.equiv ("(_/ ~~ _)" [51, 51] 50)
  2821 
  2822   notation (in topological_space) tendsto (infixr "--->" 55)
  2823   notation (in topological_space) LIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  2824   notation LIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  2825 
  2826   notation NSA.approx (infixl "@=" 50)
  2827   notation NSLIMSEQ ("((_)/ ----NS> (_))" [60, 60] 60)
  2828   notation NSLIM ("((_)/ -- (_)/ --NS> (_))" [60, 0, 60] 60)
  2829 
  2830 * The alternative notation "\<Colon>" for type and sort constraints has been
  2831 removed: in LaTeX document output it looks the same as "::".
  2832 INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain "::" instead.
  2833 
  2834 * Commands 'inductive' and 'inductive_set' work better when names for
  2835 intro rules are omitted: the "cases" and "induct" rules no longer
  2836 declare empty case_names, but no case_names at all. This allows to use
  2837 numbered cases in proofs, without requiring method "goal_cases".
  2838 
  2839 * Inductive definitions ('inductive', 'coinductive', etc.) expose
  2840 low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  2841 "inductive_internals" is enabled. This refers to the internal predicate
  2842 definition and its monotonicity result. Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2843 
  2844 * Recursive function definitions ('fun', 'function', 'partial_function')
  2845 expose low-level facts of the internal construction only if the option
  2846 "function_internals" is enabled. Its internal inductive definition is
  2847 also subject to "inductive_internals". Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2848 
  2849 * BNF datatypes ('datatype', 'codatatype', etc.) expose low-level facts
  2850 of the internal construction only if the option "bnf_internals" is
  2851 enabled. This supersedes the former option "bnf_note_all". Rare
  2852 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2853 
  2854 * Combinator to represent case distinction on products is named
  2855 "case_prod", uniformly, discontinuing any input aliasses. Very popular
  2856 theorem aliasses have been retained.
  2857 
  2858 Consolidated facts:
  2859   PairE ~> prod.exhaust
  2860   Pair_eq ~> prod.inject
  2861   pair_collapse ~> prod.collapse
  2862   Pair_fst_snd_eq ~> prod_eq_iff
  2863   split_twice ~> prod.case_distrib
  2864   split_weak_cong ~> prod.case_cong_weak
  2865   split_split ~> prod.split
  2866   split_split_asm ~> prod.split_asm
  2867   splitI ~> case_prodI
  2868   splitD ~> case_prodD
  2869   splitI2 ~> case_prodI2
  2870   splitI2' ~> case_prodI2'
  2871   splitE ~> case_prodE
  2872   splitE' ~> case_prodE'
  2873   split_pair ~> case_prod_Pair
  2874   split_eta ~> case_prod_eta
  2875   split_comp ~> case_prod_comp
  2876   mem_splitI ~> mem_case_prodI
  2877   mem_splitI2 ~> mem_case_prodI2
  2878   mem_splitE ~> mem_case_prodE
  2879   The_split ~> The_case_prod
  2880   cond_split_eta ~> cond_case_prod_eta
  2881   Collect_split_in_rel_leE ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leE
  2882   Collect_split_in_rel_leI ~> Collect_case_prod_in_rel_leI
  2883   in_rel_Collect_split_eq ~> in_rel_Collect_case_prod_eq
  2884   Collect_split_Grp_eqD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_eqD
  2885   Collect_split_Grp_inD ~> Collect_case_prod_Grp_in
  2886   Domain_Collect_split ~> Domain_Collect_case_prod
  2887   Image_Collect_split ~> Image_Collect_case_prod
  2888   Range_Collect_split ~> Range_Collect_case_prod
  2889   Eps_split ~> Eps_case_prod
  2890   Eps_split_eq ~> Eps_case_prod_eq
  2891   split_rsp ~> case_prod_rsp
  2892   curry_split ~> curry_case_prod
  2893   split_curry ~> case_prod_curry
  2894 
  2895 Changes in structure HOLogic:
  2896   split_const ~> case_prod_const
  2897   mk_split ~> mk_case_prod
  2898   mk_psplits ~> mk_ptupleabs
  2899   strip_psplits ~> strip_ptupleabs
  2900 
  2901 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2902 
  2903 * The coercions to type 'real' have been reorganised. The function
  2904 'real' is no longer overloaded, but has type 'nat => real' and
  2905 abbreviates of_nat for that type. Also 'real_of_int :: int => real'
  2906 abbreviates of_int for that type. Other overloaded instances of 'real'
  2907 have been replaced by 'real_of_ereal' and 'real_of_float'.
  2908 
  2909 Consolidated facts (among others):
  2910   real_of_nat_le_iff -> of_nat_le_iff
  2911   real_of_nat_numeral of_nat_numeral
  2912   real_of_int_zero of_int_0
  2913   real_of_nat_zero of_nat_0
  2914   real_of_one of_int_1
  2915   real_of_int_add of_int_add
  2916   real_of_nat_add of_nat_add
  2917   real_of_int_diff of_int_diff
  2918   real_of_nat_diff of_nat_diff
  2919   floor_subtract floor_diff_of_int
  2920   real_of_int_inject of_int_eq_iff
  2921   real_of_int_gt_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_less_iff
  2922   real_of_int_ge_zero_cancel_iff of_int_0_le_iff
  2923   real_of_nat_ge_zero of_nat_0_le_iff
  2924   real_of_int_ceiling_ge le_of_int_ceiling
  2925   ceiling_less_eq ceiling_less_iff
  2926   ceiling_le_eq ceiling_le_iff
  2927   less_floor_eq less_floor_iff
  2928   floor_less_eq floor_less_iff
  2929   floor_divide_eq_div floor_divide_of_int_eq
  2930   real_of_int_zero_cancel of_nat_eq_0_iff
  2931   ceiling_real_of_int ceiling_of_int
  2932 
  2933 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2934 
  2935 * Theory Map: lemma map_of_is_SomeD was a clone of map_of_SomeD and has
  2936 been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2937 
  2938 * Quickcheck setup for finite sets.
  2939 
  2940 * Discontinued simp_legacy_precond. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2941 
  2942 * Sledgehammer:
  2943   - The MaSh relevance filter has been sped up.
  2944   - Proof reconstruction has been improved, to minimize the incidence of
  2945     cases where Sledgehammer gives a proof that does not work.
  2946   - Auto Sledgehammer now minimizes and preplays the results.
  2947   - Handle Vampire 4.0 proof output without raising exception.
  2948   - Eliminated "MASH" environment variable. Use the "MaSh" option in
  2949     Isabelle/jEdit instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2950   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option and related subcommands.
  2951 
  2952 * Nitpick:
  2953   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "finite" predicate.
  2954   - Fixed soundness bug in "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  2955   - Fixed soundness bug in translation of "rat" type.
  2956   - Removed "check_potential" and "check_genuine" options.
  2957   - Eliminated obsolete "blocking" option.
  2958 
  2959 * (Co)datatype package:
  2960   - New commands "lift_bnf" and "copy_bnf" for lifting (copying) a BNF
  2961     structure on the raw type to an abstract type defined using typedef.
  2962   - Always generate "case_transfer" theorem.
  2963   - For mutual types, generate slightly stronger "rel_induct",
  2964     "rel_coinduct", and "coinduct" theorems. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2965   - Allow discriminators and selectors with the same name as the type
  2966     being defined.
  2967   - Avoid various internal name clashes (e.g., 'datatype f = f').
  2968 
  2969 * Transfer: new methods for interactive debugging of 'transfer' and
  2970 'transfer_prover': 'transfer_start', 'transfer_step', 'transfer_end',
  2971 'transfer_prover_start' and 'transfer_prover_end'.
  2972 
  2973 * New diagnostic command print_record for displaying record definitions.
  2974 
  2975 * Division on integers is bootstrapped directly from division on
  2976 naturals and uses generic numeral algorithm for computations. Slight
  2977 INCOMPATIBILITY, simproc numeral_divmod replaces and generalizes former
  2978 simprocs binary_int_div and binary_int_mod
  2979 
  2980 * Tightened specification of class semiring_no_zero_divisors. Minor
  2981 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2982 
  2983 * Class algebraic_semidom introduces common algebraic notions of
  2984 integral (semi)domains, particularly units. Although logically subsumed
  2985 by fields, is is not a super class of these in order not to burden
  2986 fields with notions that are trivial there.
  2987 
  2988 * Class normalization_semidom specifies canonical representants for
  2989 equivalence classes of associated elements in an integral (semi)domain.
  2990 This formalizes associated elements as well.
  2991 
  2992 * Abstract specification of gcd/lcm operations in classes semiring_gcd,
  2993 semiring_Gcd, semiring_Lcd. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: facts gcd_nat.commute
  2994 and gcd_int.commute are subsumed by gcd.commute, as well as
  2995 gcd_nat.assoc and gcd_int.assoc by gcd.assoc.
  2996 
  2997 * Former constants Fields.divide (_ / _) and Divides.div (_ div _) are
  2998 logically unified to Rings.divide in syntactic type class Rings.divide,
  2999 with infix syntax (_ div _). Infix syntax (_ / _) for field division is
  3000 added later as abbreviation in class Fields.inverse. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3001 instantiations must refer to Rings.divide rather than the former
  3002 separate constants, hence infix syntax (_ / _) is usually not available
  3003 during instantiation.
  3004 
  3005 * New cancellation simprocs for boolean algebras to cancel complementary
  3006 terms for sup and inf. For example, "sup x (sup y (- x))" simplifies to
  3007 "top". INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3008 
  3009 * Class uniform_space introduces uniform spaces btw topological spaces
  3010 and metric spaces. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: open_<type>_def needs to be
  3011 introduced in the form of an uniformity. Some constants are more general
  3012 now, it may be necessary to add type class constraints.
  3013 
  3014   open_real_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  3015   open_complex_def \<leadsto> open_dist
  3016 
  3017 * Library/Monad_Syntax: notation uses symbols \<bind> and \<then>. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3018 
  3019 * Library/Multiset:
  3020   - Renamed multiset inclusion operators:
  3021       < ~> <#
  3022       > ~> >#
  3023       <= ~> <=#
  3024       >= ~> >=#
  3025       \<le> ~> \<le>#
  3026       \<ge> ~> \<ge>#
  3027     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3028   - Added multiset inclusion operator syntax:
  3029       \<subset>#
  3030       \<subseteq>#
  3031       \<supset>#
  3032       \<supseteq>#
  3033   - "'a multiset" is no longer an instance of the "order",
  3034     "ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le", "ordered_cancel_comm_monoid_diff",
  3035     "semilattice_inf", and "semilattice_sup" type classes. The theorems
  3036     previously provided by these type classes (directly or indirectly)
  3037     are now available through the "subset_mset" interpretation
  3038     (e.g. add_mono ~> subset_mset.add_mono).
  3039     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3040   - Renamed conversions:
  3041       multiset_of ~> mset
  3042       multiset_of_set ~> mset_set
  3043       set_of ~> set_mset
  3044     INCOMPATIBILITY
  3045   - Renamed lemmas:
  3046       mset_le_def ~> subseteq_mset_def
  3047       mset_less_def ~> subset_mset_def
  3048       less_eq_multiset.rep_eq ~> subseteq_mset_def
  3049     INCOMPATIBILITY
  3050   - Removed lemmas generated by lift_definition:
  3051     less_eq_multiset.abs_eq, less_eq_multiset.rsp,
  3052     less_eq_multiset.transfer, less_eq_multiset_def
  3053     INCOMPATIBILITY
  3054 
  3055 * Library/Omega_Words_Fun: Infinite words modeled as functions nat \<Rightarrow> 'a.
  3056 
  3057 * Library/Bourbaki_Witt_Fixpoint: Added formalisation of the
  3058 Bourbaki-Witt fixpoint theorem for increasing functions in
  3059 chain-complete partial orders.
  3060 
  3061 * Library/Old_Recdef: discontinued obsolete 'defer_recdef' command.
  3062 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'function' instead.
  3063 
  3064 * Library/Periodic_Fun: a locale that provides convenient lemmas for
  3065 periodic functions.
  3066 
  3067 * Library/Formal_Power_Series: proper definition of division (with
  3068 remainder) for formal power series; instances for Euclidean Ring and
  3069 GCD.
  3070 
  3071 * HOL-Imperative_HOL: obsolete theory Legacy_Mrec has been removed.
  3072 
  3073 * HOL-Statespace: command 'statespace' uses mandatory qualifier for
  3074 import of parent, as for general 'locale' expressions. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3075 remove '!' and add '?' as required.
  3076 
  3077 * HOL-Decision_Procs: The "approximation" method works with "powr"
  3078 (exponentiation on real numbers) again.
  3079 
  3080 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: theory Cauchy_Integral_Thm with Contour
  3081 integrals (= complex path integrals), Cauchy's integral theorem, winding
  3082 numbers and Cauchy's integral formula, Liouville theorem, Fundamental
  3083 Theorem of Algebra. Ported from HOL Light.
  3084 
  3085 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: topological concepts such as connected
  3086 components, homotopic paths and the inside or outside of a set.
  3087 
  3088 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis: radius of convergence of power series and
  3089 various summability tests; Harmonic numbers and the Euler–Mascheroni
  3090 constant; the Generalised Binomial Theorem; the complex and real
  3091 Gamma/log-Gamma/Digamma/ Polygamma functions and their most important
  3092 properties.
  3093 
  3094 * HOL-Probability: The central limit theorem based on Levy's uniqueness
  3095 and continuity theorems, weak convergence, and characterisitc functions.
  3096 
  3097 * HOL-Data_Structures: new and growing session of standard data
  3098 structures.
  3099 
  3100 
  3101 *** ML ***
  3102 
  3103 * The following combinators for low-level profiling of the ML runtime
  3104 system are available:
  3105 
  3106   profile_time          (*CPU time*)
  3107   profile_time_thread   (*CPU time on this thread*)
  3108   profile_allocations   (*overall heap allocations*)
  3109 
  3110 * Antiquotation @{undefined} or \<^undefined> inlines (raise Match).
  3111 
  3112 * Antiquotation @{method NAME} inlines the (checked) name of the given
  3113 Isar proof method.
  3114 
  3115 * Pretty printing of Poly/ML compiler output in Isabelle has been
  3116 improved: proper treatment of break offsets and blocks with consistent
  3117 breaks.
  3118 
  3119 * The auxiliary module Pure/display.ML has been eliminated. Its
  3120 elementary thm print operations are now in Pure/more_thm.ML and thus
  3121 called Thm.pretty_thm, Thm.string_of_thm etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3122 
  3123 * Simproc programming interfaces have been simplified:
  3124 Simplifier.make_simproc and Simplifier.define_simproc supersede various
  3125 forms of Simplifier.mk_simproc, Simplifier.simproc_global etc. Note that
  3126 term patterns for the left-hand sides are specified with implicitly
  3127 fixed variables, like top-level theorem statements. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3128 
  3129 * Instantiation rules have been re-organized as follows:
  3130 
  3131   Thm.instantiate  (*low-level instantiation with named arguments*)
  3132   Thm.instantiate' (*version with positional arguments*)
  3133 
  3134   Drule.infer_instantiate  (*instantiation with type inference*)
  3135   Drule.infer_instantiate'  (*version with positional arguments*)
  3136 
  3137 The LHS only requires variable specifications, instead of full terms.
  3138 Old cterm_instantiate is superseded by infer_instantiate.
  3139 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to re-adjust some ML names and types accordingly.
  3140 
  3141 * Old tactic shorthands atac, rtac, etac, dtac, ftac have been
  3142 discontinued. INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular assume_tac, resolve_tac etc.
  3143 instead (with proper context).
  3144 
  3145 * Thm.instantiate (and derivatives) no longer require the LHS of the
  3146 instantiation to be certified: plain variables are given directly.
  3147 
  3148 * Subgoal.SUBPROOF and Subgoal.FOCUS combinators use anonymous
  3149 quasi-bound variables (like the Simplifier), instead of accidentally
  3150 named local fixes. This has the potential to improve stability of proof
  3151 tools, but can also cause INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that don't observe
  3152 the proof context discipline.
  3153 
  3154 * Isar proof methods are based on a slightly more general type
  3155 context_tactic, which allows to change the proof context dynamically
  3156 (e.g. to update cases) and indicate explicit Seq.Error results. Former
  3157 METHOD_CASES is superseded by CONTEXT_METHOD; further combinators are
  3158 provided in src/Pure/Isar/method.ML for convenience. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3159 
  3160 
  3161 *** System ***
  3162 
  3163 * Command-line tool "isabelle console" enables print mode "ASCII".
  3164 
  3165 * Command-line tool "isabelle update_then" expands old Isar command
  3166 conflations:
  3167 
  3168     hence  ~>  then have
  3169     thus   ~>  then show
  3170 
  3171 This syntax is more orthogonal and improves readability and
  3172 maintainability of proofs.
  3173 
  3174 * Global session timeout is multiplied by timeout_scale factor. This
  3175 allows to adjust large-scale tests (e.g. AFP) to overall hardware
  3176 performance.
  3177 
  3178 * Property values in etc/symbols may contain spaces, if written with the
  3179 replacement character "␣" (Unicode point 0x2324). For example:
  3180 
  3181     \<star>  code: 0x0022c6  group: operator  font: Deja␣Vu␣Sans␣Mono
  3182 
  3183 * Java runtime environment for x86_64-windows allows to use larger heap
  3184 space.
  3185 
  3186 * Java runtime options are determined separately for 32bit vs. 64bit
  3187 platforms as follows.
  3188 
  3189   - Isabelle desktop application: platform-specific files that are
  3190     associated with the main app bundle
  3191 
  3192   - isabelle jedit: settings
  3193     JEDIT_JAVA_SYSTEM_OPTIONS
  3194     JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. JEDIT_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  3195 
  3196   - isabelle build: settings
  3197     ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS32 vs. ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS64
  3198 
  3199 * Bash shell function "jvmpath" has been renamed to "platform_path": it
  3200 is relevant both for Poly/ML and JVM processes.
  3201 
  3202 * Poly/ML default platform architecture may be changed from 32bit to
  3203 64bit via system option ML_system_64. A system restart (and rebuild) is
  3204 required after change.
  3205 
  3206 * Poly/ML 5.6 runs natively on x86-windows and x86_64-windows, which
  3207 both allow larger heap space than former x86-cygwin.
  3208 
  3209 * Heap images are 10-15% smaller due to less wasteful persistent theory
  3210 content (using ML type theory_id instead of theory);
  3211 
  3212 
  3213 
  3214 New in Isabelle2015 (May 2015)
  3215 ------------------------------
  3216 
  3217 *** General ***
  3218 
  3219 * Local theory specification commands may have a 'private' or
  3220 'qualified' modifier to restrict name space accesses to the local scope,
  3221 as provided by some "context begin ... end" block. For example:
  3222 
  3223   context
  3224   begin
  3225 
  3226   private definition ...
  3227   private lemma ...
  3228 
  3229   qualified definition ...
  3230   qualified lemma ...
  3231 
  3232   lemma ...
  3233   theorem ...
  3234 
  3235   end
  3236 
  3237 * Command 'experiment' opens an anonymous locale context with private
  3238 naming policy.
  3239 
  3240 * Command 'notepad' requires proper nesting of begin/end and its proof
  3241 structure in the body: 'oops' is no longer supported here. Minor
  3242 INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'sorry' instead.
  3243 
  3244 * Command 'named_theorems' declares a dynamic fact within the context,
  3245 together with an attribute to maintain the content incrementally. This
  3246 supersedes functor Named_Thms in Isabelle/ML, but with a subtle change
  3247 of semantics due to external visual order vs. internal reverse order.
  3248 
  3249 * 'find_theorems': search patterns which are abstractions are
  3250 schematically expanded before search. Search results match the naive
  3251 expectation more closely, particularly wrt. abbreviations.
  3252 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3253 
  3254 * Commands 'method_setup' and 'attribute_setup' now work within a local
  3255 theory context.
  3256 
  3257 * Outer syntax commands are managed authentically within the theory
  3258 context, without implicit global state. Potential for accidental
  3259 INCOMPATIBILITY, make sure that required theories are really imported.
  3260 
  3261 * Historical command-line terminator ";" is no longer accepted (and
  3262 already used differently in Isar). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle
  3263 update_semicolons" to remove obsolete semicolons from old theory
  3264 sources.
  3265 
  3266 * Structural composition of proof methods (meth1; meth2) in Isar
  3267 corresponds to (tac1 THEN_ALL_NEW tac2) in ML.
  3268 
  3269 * The Eisbach proof method language allows to define new proof methods
  3270 by combining existing ones with their usual syntax. The "match" proof
  3271 method provides basic fact/term matching in addition to
  3272 premise/conclusion matching through Subgoal.focus, and binds fact names
  3273 from matches as well as term patterns within matches. The Isabelle
  3274 documentation provides an entry "eisbach" for the Eisbach User Manual.
  3275 Sources and various examples are in ~~/src/HOL/Eisbach/.
  3276 
  3277 
  3278 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3279 
  3280 * Improved folding mode "isabelle" based on Isar syntax. Alternatively,
  3281 the "sidekick" mode may be used for document structure.
  3282 
  3283 * Extended bracket matching based on Isar language structure. System
  3284 option jedit_structure_limit determines maximum number of lines to scan
  3285 in the buffer.
  3286 
  3287 * Support for BibTeX files: context menu, context-sensitive token
  3288 marker, SideKick parser.
  3289 
  3290 * Document antiquotation @{cite} provides formal markup, which is
  3291 interpreted semi-formally based on .bib files that happen to be open in
  3292 the editor (hyperlinks, completion etc.).
  3293 
  3294 * Less waste of vertical space via negative line spacing (see Global
  3295 Options / Text Area).
  3296 
  3297 * Improved graphview panel with optional output of PNG or PDF, for
  3298 display of 'thy_deps', 'class_deps' etc.
  3299 
  3300 * The commands 'thy_deps' and 'class_deps' allow optional bounds to
  3301 restrict the visualized hierarchy.
  3302 
  3303 * Improved scheduling for asynchronous print commands (e.g. provers
  3304 managed by the Sledgehammer panel) wrt. ongoing document processing.
  3305 
  3306 
  3307 *** Document preparation ***
  3308 
  3309 * Document markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection',
  3310 'subsubsection', 'text', 'txt', 'text_raw' work uniformly in any
  3311 context, even before the initial 'theory' command. Obsolete proof
  3312 commands 'sect', 'subsect', 'subsubsect', 'txt_raw' have been
  3313 discontinued, use 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection', 'text_raw'
  3314 instead. The old 'header' command is still retained for some time, but
  3315 should be replaced by 'chapter', 'section' etc. (using "isabelle
  3316 update_header"). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3317 
  3318 * Official support for "tt" style variants, via \isatt{...} or
  3319 \begin{isabellett}...\end{isabellett}. The somewhat fragile \verb or
  3320 verbatim environment of LaTeX is no longer used. This allows @{ML} etc.
  3321 as argument to other macros (such as footnotes).
  3322 
  3323 * Document antiquotation @{verbatim} prints ASCII text literally in "tt"
  3324 style.
  3325 
  3326 * Discontinued obsolete option "document_graph": session_graph.pdf is
  3327 produced unconditionally for HTML browser_info and PDF-LaTeX document.
  3328 
  3329 * Diagnostic commands and document markup commands within a proof do not
  3330 affect the command tag for output. Thus commands like 'thm' are subject
  3331 to proof document structure, and no longer "stick out" accidentally.
  3332 Commands 'text' and 'txt' merely differ in the LaTeX style, not their
  3333 tags. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in exotic situations.
  3334 
  3335 * System option "pretty_margin" is superseded by "thy_output_margin",
  3336 which is also accessible via document antiquotation option "margin".
  3337 Only the margin for document output may be changed, but not the global
  3338 pretty printing: that is 76 for plain console output, and adapted
  3339 dynamically in GUI front-ends. Implementations of document
  3340 antiquotations need to observe the margin explicitly according to
  3341 Thy_Output.string_of_margin. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3342 
  3343 * Specification of 'document_files' in the session ROOT file is
  3344 mandatory for document preparation. The legacy mode with implicit
  3345 copying of the document/ directory is no longer supported. Minor
  3346 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3347 
  3348 
  3349 *** Pure ***
  3350 
  3351 * Proof methods with explicit instantiation ("rule_tac", "subgoal_tac"
  3352 etc.) allow an optional context of local variables ('for' declaration):
  3353 these variables become schematic in the instantiated theorem; this
  3354 behaviour is analogous to 'for' in attributes "where" and "of".
  3355 Configuration option rule_insts_schematic (default false) controls use
  3356 of schematic variables outside the context. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3357 declare rule_insts_schematic = true temporarily and update to use local
  3358 variable declarations or dummy patterns instead.
  3359 
  3360 * Explicit instantiation via attributes "where", "of", and proof methods
  3361 "rule_tac" with derivatives like "subgoal_tac" etc. admit dummy patterns
  3362 ("_") that stand for anonymous local variables.
  3363 
  3364 * Generated schematic variables in standard format of exported facts are
  3365 incremented to avoid material in the proof context. Rare
  3366 INCOMPATIBILITY, explicit instantiation sometimes needs to refer to
  3367 different index.
  3368 
  3369 * Lexical separation of signed and unsigned numerals: categories "num"
  3370 and "float" are unsigned. INCOMPATIBILITY: subtle change in precedence
  3371 of numeral signs, particularly in expressions involving infix syntax
  3372 like "(- 1) ^ n".
  3373 
  3374 * Old inner token category "xnum" has been discontinued.  Potential
  3375 INCOMPATIBILITY for exotic syntax: may use mixfix grammar with "num"
  3376 token category instead.
  3377 
  3378 
  3379 *** HOL ***
  3380 
  3381 * New (co)datatype package:
  3382   - The 'datatype_new' command has been renamed 'datatype'. The old
  3383     command of that name is now called 'old_datatype' and is provided
  3384     by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  3385     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  3386     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3387   - Renamed theorems:
  3388       disc_corec ~> corec_disc
  3389       disc_corec_iff ~> corec_disc_iff
  3390       disc_exclude ~> distinct_disc
  3391       disc_exhaust ~> exhaust_disc
  3392       disc_map_iff ~> map_disc_iff
  3393       sel_corec ~> corec_sel
  3394       sel_exhaust ~> exhaust_sel
  3395       sel_map ~> map_sel
  3396       sel_set ~> set_sel
  3397       sel_split ~> split_sel
  3398       sel_split_asm ~> split_sel_asm
  3399       strong_coinduct ~> coinduct_strong
  3400       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  3401     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3402   - The "no_code" option to "free_constructors", "datatype_new", and
  3403     "codatatype" has been renamed "plugins del: code".
  3404     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3405   - The rules "set_empty" have been removed. They are easy
  3406     consequences of other set rules "by auto".
  3407     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3408   - The rule "set_cases" is now registered with the "[cases set]"
  3409     attribute. This can influence the behavior of the "cases" proof
  3410     method when more than one case rule is applicable (e.g., an
  3411     assumption is of the form "w : set ws" and the method "cases w"
  3412     is invoked). The solution is to specify the case rule explicitly
  3413     (e.g. "cases w rule: widget.exhaust").
  3414     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3415   - Renamed theories:
  3416       BNF_Comp ~> BNF_Composition
  3417       BNF_FP_Base ~> BNF_Fixpoint_Base
  3418       BNF_GFP ~> BNF_Greatest_Fixpoint
  3419       BNF_LFP ~> BNF_Least_Fixpoint
  3420       BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> BNF_Wellorder_Constructions
  3421       Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders ~> Cardinals/Wellorder_Constructions
  3422     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3423   - Lifting and Transfer setup for basic HOL types sum and prod (also
  3424     option) is now performed by the BNF package. Theories Lifting_Sum,
  3425     Lifting_Product and Lifting_Option from Main became obsolete and
  3426     were removed. Changed definitions of the relators rel_prod and
  3427     rel_sum (using inductive).
  3428     INCOMPATIBILITY: use rel_prod.simps and rel_sum.simps instead
  3429     of rel_prod_def and rel_sum_def.
  3430     Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: (rarely used by name) transfer theorem names
  3431     changed (e.g. map_prod_transfer ~> prod.map_transfer).
  3432   - Parametricity theorems for map functions, relators, set functions,
  3433     constructors, case combinators, discriminators, selectors and
  3434     (co)recursors are automatically proved and registered as transfer
  3435     rules.
  3436 
  3437 * Old datatype package:
  3438   - The old 'datatype' command has been renamed 'old_datatype', and
  3439     'rep_datatype' has been renamed 'old_rep_datatype'. They are
  3440     provided by "~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy". See
  3441     'isabelle doc datatypes' for information on porting.
  3442     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3443   - Renamed theorems:
  3444       weak_case_cong ~> case_cong_weak
  3445     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3446   - Renamed theory:
  3447       ~~/src/HOL/Datatype.thy ~> ~~/src/HOL/Library/Old_Datatype.thy
  3448     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3449 
  3450 * Nitpick:
  3451   - Fixed soundness bug related to the strict and non-strict subset
  3452     operations.
  3453 
  3454 * Sledgehammer:
  3455   - CVC4 is now included with Isabelle instead of CVC3 and run by
  3456     default.
  3457   - Z3 is now always enabled by default, now that it is fully open
  3458     source. The "z3_non_commercial" option is discontinued.
  3459   - Minimization is now always enabled by default.
  3460     Removed sub-command:
  3461       min
  3462   - Proof reconstruction, both one-liners and Isar, has been
  3463     dramatically improved.
  3464   - Improved support for CVC4 and veriT.
  3465 
  3466 * Old and new SMT modules:
  3467   - The old 'smt' method has been renamed 'old_smt' and moved to
  3468     'src/HOL/Library/Old_SMT.thy'. It is provided for compatibility,
  3469     until applications have been ported to use the new 'smt' method. For
  3470     the method to work, an older version of Z3 (e.g. Z3 3.2 or 4.0) must
  3471     be installed, and the environment variable "OLD_Z3_SOLVER" must
  3472     point to it.
  3473     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3474   - The 'smt2' method has been renamed 'smt'.
  3475     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3476   - New option 'smt_reconstruction_step_timeout' to limit the
  3477     reconstruction time of Z3 proof steps in the new 'smt' method.
  3478   - New option 'smt_statistics' to display statistics of the new 'smt'
  3479     method, especially runtime statistics of Z3 proof reconstruction.
  3480 
  3481 * Lifting: command 'lift_definition' allows to execute lifted constants
  3482 that have as a return type a datatype containing a subtype. This
  3483 overcomes long-time limitations in the area of code generation and
  3484 lifting, and avoids tedious workarounds.
  3485 
  3486 * Command and antiquotation "value" provide different evaluation slots
  3487 (again), where the previous strategy (NBE after ML) serves as default.
  3488 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3489 
  3490 * Add NO_MATCH-simproc, allows to check for syntactic non-equality.
  3491 
  3492 * field_simps: Use NO_MATCH-simproc for distribution rules, to avoid
  3493 non-termination in case of distributing a division. With this change
  3494 field_simps is in some cases slightly less powerful, if it fails try to
  3495 add algebra_simps, or use divide_simps. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3496 
  3497 * Separate class no_zero_divisors has been given up in favour of fully
  3498 algebraic semiring_no_zero_divisors. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3499 
  3500 * Class linordered_semidom really requires no zero divisors.
  3501 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3502 
  3503 * Classes division_ring, field and linordered_field always demand
  3504 "inverse 0 = 0". Given up separate classes division_ring_inverse_zero,
  3505 field_inverse_zero and linordered_field_inverse_zero. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3506 
  3507 * Classes cancel_ab_semigroup_add / cancel_monoid_add specify explicit
  3508 additive inverse operation. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3509 
  3510 * Complex powers and square roots. The functions "ln" and "powr" are now
  3511 overloaded for types real and complex, and 0 powr y = 0 by definition.
  3512 INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be necessary.
  3513 
  3514 * The functions "sin" and "cos" are now defined for any type of sort
  3515 "{real_normed_algebra_1,banach}" type, so in particular on "real" and
  3516 "complex" uniformly. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: type constraints may be
  3517 needed.
  3518 
  3519 * New library of properties of the complex transcendental functions sin,
  3520 cos, tan, exp, Ln, Arctan, Arcsin, Arccos. Ported from HOL Light.
  3521 
  3522 * The factorial function, "fact", now has type "nat => 'a" (of a sort
  3523 that admits numeric types including nat, int, real and complex.
  3524 INCOMPATIBILITY: an expression such as "fact 3 = 6" may require a type
  3525 constraint, and the combination "real (fact k)" is likely to be
  3526 unsatisfactory. If a type conversion is still necessary, then use
  3527 "of_nat (fact k)" or "real_of_nat (fact k)".
  3528 
  3529 * Removed functions "natfloor" and "natceiling", use "nat o floor" and
  3530 "nat o ceiling" instead. A few of the lemmas have been retained and
  3531 adapted: in their names "natfloor"/"natceiling" has been replaced by
  3532 "nat_floor"/"nat_ceiling".
  3533 
  3534 * Qualified some duplicated fact names required for boostrapping the
  3535 type class hierarchy:
  3536   ab_add_uminus_conv_diff ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  3537   field_inverse_zero ~> inverse_zero
  3538   field_divide_inverse ~> divide_inverse
  3539   field_inverse ~> left_inverse
  3540 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3541 
  3542 * Eliminated fact duplicates:
  3543   mult_less_imp_less_right ~> mult_right_less_imp_less
  3544   mult_less_imp_less_left ~> mult_left_less_imp_less
  3545 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3546 
  3547 * Fact consolidation: even_less_0_iff is subsumed by
  3548 double_add_less_zero_iff_single_add_less_zero (simp by default anyway).
  3549 
  3550 * Generalized and consolidated some theorems concerning divsibility:
  3551   dvd_reduce ~> dvd_add_triv_right_iff
  3552   dvd_plus_eq_right ~> dvd_add_right_iff
  3553   dvd_plus_eq_left ~> dvd_add_left_iff
  3554 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3555 
  3556 * "even" and "odd" are mere abbreviations for "2 dvd _" and "~ 2 dvd _"
  3557 and part of theory Main.
  3558   even_def ~> even_iff_mod_2_eq_zero
  3559 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3560 
  3561 * Lemma name consolidation: divide_Numeral1 ~> divide_numeral_1. Minor
  3562 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3563 
  3564 * Bootstrap of listsum as special case of abstract product over lists.
  3565 Fact rename:
  3566     listsum_def ~> listsum.eq_foldr
  3567 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3568 
  3569 * Product over lists via constant "listprod".
  3570 
  3571 * Theory List: renamed drop_Suc_conv_tl and nth_drop' to
  3572 Cons_nth_drop_Suc.
  3573 
  3574 * New infrastructure for compiling, running, evaluating and testing
  3575 generated code in target languages in HOL/Library/Code_Test. See
  3576 HOL/Codegenerator_Test/Code_Test* for examples.
  3577 
  3578 * Library/Multiset:
  3579   - Introduced "replicate_mset" operation.
  3580   - Introduced alternative characterizations of the multiset ordering in
  3581     "Library/Multiset_Order".
  3582   - Renamed multiset ordering:
  3583       <# ~> #<#
  3584       <=# ~> #<=#
  3585       \<subset># ~> #\<subset>#
  3586       \<subseteq># ~> #\<subseteq>#
  3587     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3588   - Introduced abbreviations for ill-named multiset operations:
  3589       <#, \<subset># abbreviate < (strict subset)
  3590       <=#, \<le>#, \<subseteq># abbreviate <= (subset or equal)
  3591     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3592   - Renamed
  3593       in_multiset_of ~> in_multiset_in_set
  3594       Multiset.fold ~> fold_mset
  3595       Multiset.filter ~> filter_mset
  3596     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3597   - Removed mcard, is equal to size.
  3598   - Added attributes:
  3599       image_mset.id [simp]
  3600       image_mset_id [simp]
  3601       elem_multiset_of_set [simp, intro]
  3602       comp_fun_commute_plus_mset [simp]
  3603       comp_fun_commute.fold_mset_insert [OF comp_fun_commute_plus_mset, simp]
  3604       in_mset_fold_plus_iff [iff]
  3605       set_of_Union_mset [simp]
  3606       in_Union_mset_iff [iff]
  3607     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3608 
  3609 * Library/Sum_of_Squares: simplified and improved "sos" method. Always
  3610 use local CSDP executable, which is much faster than the NEOS server.
  3611 The "sos_cert" functionality is invoked as "sos" with additional
  3612 argument. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3613 
  3614 * HOL-Decision_Procs: New counterexample generator quickcheck
  3615 [approximation] for inequalities of transcendental functions. Uses
  3616 hardware floating point arithmetic to randomly discover potential
  3617 counterexamples. Counterexamples are certified with the "approximation"
  3618 method. See HOL/Decision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Quickcheck_Ex.thy for
  3619 examples.
  3620 
  3621 * HOL-Probability: Reworked measurability prover
  3622   - applies destructor rules repeatedly
  3623   - removed application splitting (replaced by destructor rule)
  3624   - added congruence rules to rewrite measure spaces under the sets
  3625     projection
  3626 
  3627 * New proof method "rewrite" (in theory ~~/src/HOL/Library/Rewrite) for
  3628 single-step rewriting with subterm selection based on patterns.
  3629 
  3630 
  3631 *** ML ***
  3632 
  3633 * Subtle change of name space policy: undeclared entries are now
  3634 considered inaccessible, instead of accessible via the fully-qualified
  3635 internal name. This mainly affects Name_Space.intern (and derivatives),
  3636 which may produce an unexpected Long_Name.hidden prefix. Note that
  3637 contemporary applications use the strict Name_Space.check (and
  3638 derivatives) instead, which is not affected by the change. Potential
  3639 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare applications of Name_Space.intern.
  3640 
  3641 * Subtle change of error semantics of Toplevel.proof_of: regular user
  3642 ERROR instead of internal Toplevel.UNDEF.
  3643 
  3644 * Basic combinators map, fold, fold_map, split_list, apply are available
  3645 as parameterized antiquotations, e.g. @{map 4} for lists of quadruples.
  3646 
  3647 * Renamed "pairself" to "apply2", in accordance to @{apply 2}.
  3648 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3649 
  3650 * Former combinators NAMED_CRITICAL and CRITICAL for central critical
  3651 sections have been discontinued, in favour of the more elementary
  3652 Multithreading.synchronized and its high-level derivative
  3653 Synchronized.var (which is usually sufficient in applications). Subtle
  3654 INCOMPATIBILITY: synchronized access needs to be atomic and cannot be
  3655 nested.
  3656 
  3657 * Synchronized.value (ML) is actually synchronized (as in Scala): subtle
  3658 change of semantics with minimal potential for INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3659 
  3660 * The main operations to certify logical entities are Thm.ctyp_of and
  3661 Thm.cterm_of with a local context; old-style global theory variants are
  3662 available as Thm.global_ctyp_of and Thm.global_cterm_of.
  3663 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3664 
  3665 * Elementary operations in module Thm are no longer pervasive.
  3666 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use qualified Thm.prop_of, Thm.cterm_of,
  3667 Thm.term_of etc.
  3668 
  3669 * Proper context for various elementary tactics: assume_tac,
  3670 resolve_tac, eresolve_tac, dresolve_tac, forward_tac, match_tac,
  3671 compose_tac, Splitter.split_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3672 
  3673 * Tactical PARALLEL_ALLGOALS is the most common way to refer to
  3674 PARALLEL_GOALS.
  3675 
  3676 * Goal.prove_multi is superseded by the fully general Goal.prove_common,
  3677 which also allows to specify a fork priority.
  3678 
  3679 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "COMMAND"} is superseded by
  3680 @{command_keyword COMMAND} (usually without quotes and with PIDE
  3681 markup). Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3682 
  3683 * Cartouches within ML sources are turned into values of type
  3684 Input.source (with formal position information).
  3685 
  3686 
  3687 *** System ***
  3688 
  3689 * The Isabelle tool "update_cartouches" changes theory files to use
  3690 cartouches instead of old-style {* verbatim *} or `alt_string` tokens.
  3691 
  3692 * The Isabelle tool "build" provides new options -X, -k, -x.
  3693 
  3694 * Discontinued old-fashioned "codegen" tool. Code generation can always
  3695 be externally triggered using an appropriate ROOT file plus a
  3696 corresponding theory. Parametrization is possible using environment
  3697 variables, or ML snippets in the most extreme cases. Minor
  3698 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3699 
  3700 * JVM system property "isabelle.threads" determines size of Scala thread
  3701 pool, like Isabelle system option "threads" for ML.
  3702 
  3703 * JVM system property "isabelle.laf" determines the default Swing
  3704 look-and-feel, via internal class name or symbolic name as in the jEdit
  3705 menu Global Options / Appearance.
  3706 
  3707 * Support for Proof General and Isar TTY loop has been discontinued.
  3708 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use standard PIDE infrastructure instead.
  3709 
  3710 
  3711 
  3712 New in Isabelle2014 (August 2014)
  3713 ---------------------------------
  3714 
  3715 *** General ***
  3716 
  3717 * Support for official Standard ML within the Isabelle context.
  3718 Command 'SML_file' reads and evaluates the given Standard ML file.
  3719 Toplevel bindings are stored within the theory context; the initial
  3720 environment is restricted to the Standard ML implementation of
  3721 Poly/ML, without the add-ons of Isabelle/ML.  Commands 'SML_import'
  3722 and 'SML_export' allow to exchange toplevel bindings between the two
  3723 separate environments.  See also ~~/src/Tools/SML/Examples.thy for
  3724 some examples.
  3725 
  3726 * Standard tactics and proof methods such as "clarsimp", "auto" and
  3727 "safe" now preserve equality hypotheses "x = expr" where x is a free
  3728 variable.  Locale assumptions and chained facts containing "x"
  3729 continue to be useful.  The new method "hypsubst_thin" and the
  3730 configuration option "hypsubst_thin" (within the attribute name space)
  3731 restore the previous behavior.  INCOMPATIBILITY, especially where
  3732 induction is done after these methods or when the names of free and
  3733 bound variables clash.  As first approximation, old proofs may be
  3734 repaired by "using [[hypsubst_thin = true]]" in the critical spot.
  3735 
  3736 * More static checking of proof methods, which allows the system to
  3737 form a closure over the concrete syntax.  Method arguments should be
  3738 processed in the original proof context as far as possible, before
  3739 operating on the goal state.  In any case, the standard discipline for
  3740 subgoal-addressing needs to be observed: no subgoals or a subgoal
  3741 number that is out of range produces an empty result sequence, not an
  3742 exception.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for non-conformant tactical
  3743 proof tools.
  3744 
  3745 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
  3746 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.  The Prover IDE
  3747 supports input via ` (backquote).
  3748 
  3749 * The outer syntax categories "text" (for formal comments and document
  3750 markup commands) and "altstring" (for literal fact references) allow
  3751 cartouches as well, in addition to the traditional mix of quotations.
  3752 
  3753 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
  3754 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
  3755 string token.  General renovation of its syntax using text cartouches.
  3756 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3757 
  3758 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary workaround for
  3759 Isabelle/ML in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
  3760 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.  Potential
  3761 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3762 
  3763 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
  3764 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
  3765 
  3766 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
  3767 not check existence within the file-system.
  3768 
  3769 * Updated and extended manuals: codegen, datatypes, implementation,
  3770 isar-ref, jedit, system.
  3771 
  3772 
  3773 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  3774 
  3775 * Improved Document panel: simplified interaction where every single
  3776 mouse click (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit
  3777 buffer.
  3778 
  3779 * Support for Navigator plugin (with toolbar buttons), with connection
  3780 to PIDE hyperlinks.
  3781 
  3782 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
  3783 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
  3784 
  3785 * Improved support for Isabelle/ML, with jEdit mode "isabelle-ml" for
  3786 auxiliary ML files.
  3787 
  3788 * Improved syntactic and semantic completion mechanism, with simple
  3789 templates, completion language context, name-space completion,
  3790 file-name completion, spell-checker completion.
  3791 
  3792 * Refined GUI popup for completion: more robust key/mouse event
  3793 handling and propagation to enclosing text area -- avoid loosing
  3794 keystrokes with slow / remote graphics displays.
  3795 
  3796 * Completion popup supports both ENTER and TAB (default) to select an
  3797 item, depending on Isabelle options.
  3798 
  3799 * Refined insertion of completion items wrt. jEdit text: multiple
  3800 selections, rectangular selections, rectangular selection as "tall
  3801 caret".
  3802 
  3803 * Integrated spell-checker for document text, comments etc. with
  3804 completion popup and context-menu.
  3805 
  3806 * More general "Query" panel supersedes "Find" panel, with GUI access
  3807 to commands 'find_theorems' and 'find_consts', as well as print
  3808 operations for the context.  Minor incompatibility in keyboard
  3809 shortcuts etc.: replace action isabelle-find by isabelle-query.
  3810 
  3811 * Search field for all output panels ("Output", "Query", "Info" etc.)
  3812 to highlight text via regular expression.
  3813 
  3814 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
  3815 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
  3816 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
  3817 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
  3818 
  3819 * More support for remote files (e.g. http) using standard Java
  3820 networking operations instead of jEdit virtual file-systems.
  3821 
  3822 * Empty editors buffers that are no longer required (e.g.\ via theory
  3823 imports) are automatically removed from the document model.
  3824 
  3825 * Improved monitor panel.
  3826 
  3827 * Improved Console/Scala plugin: more uniform scala.Console output,
  3828 more robust treatment of threads and interrupts.
  3829 
  3830 * Improved management of dockable windows: clarified keyboard focus
  3831 and window placement wrt. main editor view; optional menu item to
  3832 "Detach" a copy where this makes sense.
  3833 
  3834 * New Simplifier Trace panel provides an interactive view of the
  3835 simplification process, enabled by the "simp_trace_new" attribute
  3836 within the context.
  3837 
  3838 
  3839 *** Pure ***
  3840 
  3841 * Low-level type-class commands 'classes', 'classrel', 'arities' have
  3842 been discontinued to avoid the danger of non-trivial axiomatization
  3843 that is not immediately visible.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use regular
  3844 'instance' command with proof.  The required OFCLASS(...) theorem
  3845 might be postulated via 'axiomatization' beforehand, or the proof
  3846 finished trivially if the underlying class definition is made vacuous
  3847 (without any assumptions).  See also Isabelle/ML operations
  3848 Axclass.class_axiomatization, Axclass.classrel_axiomatization,
  3849 Axclass.arity_axiomatization.
  3850 
  3851 * Basic constants of Pure use more conventional names and are always
  3852 qualified.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY, but with potentially serious
  3853 consequences, notably for tools in Isabelle/ML.  The following
  3854 renaming needs to be applied:
  3855 
  3856   ==             ~>  Pure.eq
  3857   ==>            ~>  Pure.imp
  3858   all            ~>  Pure.all
  3859   TYPE           ~>  Pure.type
  3860   dummy_pattern  ~>  Pure.dummy_pattern
  3861 
  3862 Systematic porting works by using the following theory setup on a
  3863 *previous* Isabelle version to introduce the new name accesses for the
  3864 old constants:
  3865 
  3866 setup {*
  3867   fn thy => thy
  3868     |> Sign.root_path
  3869     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding eq}) "=="
  3870     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding imp}) "==>"
  3871     |> Sign.const_alias (Binding.qualify true "Pure" @{binding all}) "all"
  3872     |> Sign.restore_naming thy
  3873 *}
  3874 
  3875 Thus ML antiquotations like @{const_name Pure.eq} may be used already.
  3876 Later the application is moved to the current Isabelle version, and
  3877 the auxiliary aliases are deleted.
  3878 
  3879 * Attributes "where" and "of" allow an optional context of local
  3880 variables ('for' declaration): these variables become schematic in the
  3881 instantiated theorem.
  3882 
  3883 * Obsolete attribute "standard" has been discontinued (legacy since
  3884 Isabelle2012).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use explicit 'for' context
  3885 where instantiations with schematic variables are intended (for
  3886 declaration commands like 'lemmas' or attributes like "of").  The
  3887 following temporary definition may help to port old applications:
  3888 
  3889   attribute_setup standard =
  3890     "Scan.succeed (Thm.rule_attribute (K Drule.export_without_context))"
  3891 
  3892 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
  3893 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
  3894 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
  3895 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
  3896 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
  3897 
  3898 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
  3899 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
  3900 differently, e.g. via cartouches).
  3901 
  3902 * Command 'print_term_bindings' supersedes 'print_binds' for clarity,
  3903 but the latter is retained some time as Proof General legacy.
  3904 
  3905 * Code generator preprocessor: explicit control of simp tracing on a
  3906 per-constant basis.  See attribute "code_preproc".
  3907 
  3908 
  3909 *** HOL ***
  3910 
  3911 * Code generator: enforce case of identifiers only for strict target
  3912 language requirements.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3913 
  3914 * Code generator: explicit proof contexts in many ML interfaces.
  3915 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3916 
  3917 * Code generator: minimize exported identifiers by default.  Minor
  3918 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3919 
  3920 * Code generation for SML and OCaml: dropped arcane "no_signatures"
  3921 option.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3922 
  3923 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
  3924 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3925 
  3926 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
  3927 with the given constants.
  3928 
  3929 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
  3930 operations on records.
  3931 
  3932 * Command and antiquotation "value" are now hardcoded against nbe and
  3933 ML.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3934 
  3935 * Renamed command 'enriched_type' to 'functor'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3936 
  3937 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
  3938 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
  3939 
  3940 * Qualified String.implode and String.explode.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3941 
  3942 * Simplifier: Enhanced solver of preconditions of rewrite rules can
  3943 now deal with conjunctions.  For help with converting proofs, the old
  3944 behaviour of the simplifier can be restored like this: declare/using
  3945 [[simp_legacy_precond]].  This configuration option will disappear
  3946 again in the future.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3947 
  3948 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
  3949 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3950 
  3951 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from session
  3952   "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".  The commands 'bnf', 'wrap_free_constructors',
  3953   'datatype_new', 'codatatype', 'primcorec', 'primcorecursive' are now
  3954   part of theory "Main".
  3955 
  3956   Theory renamings:
  3957     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
  3958     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
  3959     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
  3960     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
  3961     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
  3962     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
  3963     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
  3964     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
  3965     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
  3966     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
  3967     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
  3968     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
  3969     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
  3970     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
  3971     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
  3972     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
  3973     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
  3974     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
  3975     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
  3976     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
  3977     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
  3978     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
  3979 
  3980   New theories:
  3981     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
  3982     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
  3983     Library/BNF_Axomatization.thy
  3984     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
  3985     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
  3986 
  3987   Discontinued theories:
  3988     BNF/BNF.thy
  3989     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
  3990 
  3991 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3992 
  3993 * New (co)datatype package:
  3994   - Command 'primcorec' is fully implemented.
  3995   - Command 'datatype_new' generates size functions ("size_xxx" and
  3996     "size") as required by 'fun'.
  3997   - BNFs are integrated with the Lifting tool and new-style
  3998     (co)datatypes with Transfer.
  3999   - Renamed commands:
  4000       datatype_new_compat ~> datatype_compat
  4001       primrec_new ~> primrec
  4002       wrap_free_constructors ~> free_constructors
  4003     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4004   - The generated constants "xxx_case" and "xxx_rec" have been renamed
  4005     "case_xxx" and "rec_xxx" (e.g., "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").
  4006     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4007   - The constant "xxx_(un)fold" and related theorems are no longer
  4008     generated.  Use "xxx_(co)rec" or define "xxx_(un)fold" manually
  4009     using "prim(co)rec".
  4010     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4011   - No discriminators are generated for nullary constructors by
  4012     default, eliminating the need for the odd "=:" syntax.
  4013     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4014   - No discriminators or selectors are generated by default by
  4015     "datatype_new", unless custom names are specified or the new
  4016     "discs_sels" option is passed.
  4017     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4018 
  4019 * Old datatype package:
  4020   - The generated theorems "xxx.cases" and "xxx.recs" have been
  4021     renamed "xxx.case" and "xxx.rec" (e.g., "sum.cases" ->
  4022     "sum.case").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4023   - The generated constants "xxx_case", "xxx_rec", and "xxx_size" have
  4024     been renamed "case_xxx", "rec_xxx", and "size_xxx" (e.g.,
  4025     "prod_case" ~> "case_prod").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4026 
  4027 * The types "'a list" and "'a option", their set and map functions,
  4028   their relators, and their selectors are now produced using the new
  4029   BNF-based datatype package.
  4030 
  4031   Renamed constants:
  4032     Option.set ~> set_option
  4033     Option.map ~> map_option
  4034     option_rel ~> rel_option
  4035 
  4036   Renamed theorems:
  4037     set_def ~> set_rec[abs_def]
  4038     map_def ~> map_rec[abs_def]
  4039     Option.map_def ~> map_option_case[abs_def] (with "case_option" instead of "rec_option")
  4040     option.recs ~> option.rec
  4041     list_all2_def ~> list_all2_iff
  4042     set.simps ~> set_simps (or the slightly different "list.set")
  4043     map.simps ~> list.map
  4044     hd.simps ~> list.sel(1)
  4045     tl.simps ~> list.sel(2-3)
  4046     the.simps ~> option.sel
  4047 
  4048 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4049 
  4050 * The following map functions and relators have been renamed:
  4051     sum_map ~> map_sum
  4052     map_pair ~> map_prod
  4053     prod_rel ~> rel_prod
  4054     sum_rel ~> rel_sum
  4055     fun_rel ~> rel_fun
  4056     set_rel ~> rel_set
  4057     filter_rel ~> rel_filter
  4058     fset_rel ~> rel_fset (in "src/HOL/Library/FSet.thy")
  4059     cset_rel ~> rel_cset (in "src/HOL/Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy")
  4060     vset ~> rel_vset (in "src/HOL/Library/Quotient_Set.thy")
  4061 
  4062 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4063 
  4064 * Lifting and Transfer:
  4065   - a type variable as a raw type is supported
  4066   - stronger reflexivity prover
  4067   - rep_eq is always generated by lift_definition
  4068   - setup for Lifting/Transfer is now automated for BNFs
  4069     + holds for BNFs that do not contain a dead variable
  4070     + relator_eq, relator_mono, relator_distr, relator_domain,
  4071       relator_eq_onp, quot_map, transfer rules for bi_unique, bi_total,
  4072       right_unique, right_total, left_unique, left_total are proved
  4073       automatically
  4074     + definition of a predicator is generated automatically
  4075     + simplification rules for a predicator definition are proved
  4076       automatically for datatypes
  4077   - consolidation of the setup of Lifting/Transfer
  4078     + property that a relator preservers reflexivity is not needed any
  4079       more
  4080       Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4081     + left_total and left_unique rules are now transfer rules
  4082       (reflexivity_rule attribute not needed anymore)
  4083       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4084     + Domainp does not have to be a separate assumption in
  4085       relator_domain theorems (=> more natural statement)
  4086       INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4087   - registration of code equations is more robust
  4088     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4089   - respectfulness proof obligation is preprocessed to a more readable
  4090     form
  4091     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4092   - eq_onp is always unfolded in respectfulness proof obligation
  4093     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4094   - unregister lifting setup for Code_Numeral.integer and
  4095     Code_Numeral.natural
  4096     Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4097   - Lifting.invariant -> eq_onp
  4098     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4099 
  4100 * New internal SAT solver "cdclite" that produces models and proof
  4101 traces.  This solver replaces the internal SAT solvers "enumerate" and
  4102 "dpll".  Applications that explicitly used one of these two SAT
  4103 solvers should use "cdclite" instead. In addition, "cdclite" is now
  4104 the default SAT solver for the "sat" and "satx" proof methods and
  4105 corresponding tactics; the old default can be restored using "declare
  4106 [[sat_solver = zchaff_with_proofs]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4107 
  4108 * SMT module: A new version of the SMT module, temporarily called
  4109 "SMT2", uses SMT-LIB 2 and supports recent versions of Z3 (e.g.,
  4110 4.3). The new proof method is called "smt2". CVC3 and CVC4 are also
  4111 supported as oracles. Yices is no longer supported, because no version
  4112 of the solver can handle both SMT-LIB 2 and quantifiers.
  4113 
  4114 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
  4115 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
  4116 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
  4117 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
  4118 
  4119 * Sledgehammer:
  4120   - Z3 can now produce Isar proofs.
  4121   - MaSh overhaul:
  4122     . New SML-based learning algorithms eliminate the dependency on
  4123       Python and increase performance and reliability.
  4124     . MaSh and MeSh are now used by default together with the
  4125       traditional MePo (Meng-Paulson) relevance filter. To disable
  4126       MaSh, set the "MaSh" system option in Isabelle/jEdit Plugin
  4127       Options / Isabelle / General to "none".
  4128   - New option:
  4129       smt_proofs
  4130   - Renamed options:
  4131       isar_compress ~> compress
  4132       isar_try0 ~> try0
  4133 
  4134 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4135 
  4136 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
  4137 
  4138 * Nitpick:
  4139   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could
  4140     take infinite values.
  4141   - Fixed soundness bug with low-level number functions such as
  4142     "Abs_Integ" and "Rep_Integ".
  4143   - Removed "std" option.
  4144   - Renamed "show_datatypes" to "show_types" and "hide_datatypes" to
  4145     "hide_types".
  4146 
  4147 * Metis: Removed legacy proof method 'metisFT'. Use 'metis
  4148 (full_types)' instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4149 
  4150 * Try0: Added 'algebra' and 'meson' to the set of proof methods.
  4151 
  4152 * Adjustion of INF and SUP operations:
  4153   - Elongated constants INFI and SUPR to INFIMUM and SUPREMUM.
  4154   - Consolidated theorem names containing INFI and SUPR: have INF and
  4155     SUP instead uniformly.
  4156   - More aggressive normalization of expressions involving INF and Inf
  4157     or SUP and Sup.
  4158   - INF_image and SUP_image do not unfold composition.
  4159   - Dropped facts INF_comp, SUP_comp.
  4160   - Default congruence rules strong_INF_cong and strong_SUP_cong, with
  4161     simplifier implication in premises.  Generalize and replace former
  4162     INT_cong, SUP_cong
  4163 
  4164 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4165 
  4166 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice.
  4167 
  4168 * Swapped orientation of facts image_comp and vimage_comp:
  4169 
  4170   image_compose ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  4171   image_comp ~> image_comp [symmetric]
  4172   vimage_compose ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  4173   vimage_comp ~> vimage_comp [symmetric]
  4174 
  4175 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4176 
  4177 * Theory reorganization: split of Big_Operators.thy into
  4178 Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy.
  4179 
  4180 * Consolidated some facts about big group operators:
  4181 
  4182     setsum_0' ~> setsum.neutral
  4183     setsum_0 ~> setsum.neutral_const
  4184     setsum_addf ~> setsum.distrib
  4185     setsum_cartesian_product ~> setsum.cartesian_product
  4186     setsum_cases ~> setsum.If_cases
  4187     setsum_commute ~> setsum.commute
  4188     setsum_cong ~> setsum.cong
  4189     setsum_delta ~> setsum.delta
  4190     setsum_delta' ~> setsum.delta'
  4191     setsum_diff1' ~> setsum.remove
  4192     setsum_empty ~> setsum.empty
  4193     setsum_infinite ~> setsum.infinite
  4194     setsum_insert ~> setsum.insert
  4195     setsum_inter_restrict'' ~> setsum.inter_filter
  4196     setsum_mono_zero_cong_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_left
  4197     setsum_mono_zero_cong_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_cong_right
  4198     setsum_mono_zero_left ~> setsum.mono_neutral_left
  4199     setsum_mono_zero_right ~> setsum.mono_neutral_right
  4200     setsum_reindex ~> setsum.reindex
  4201     setsum_reindex_cong ~> setsum.reindex_cong
  4202     setsum_reindex_nonzero ~> setsum.reindex_nontrivial
  4203     setsum_restrict_set ~> setsum.inter_restrict
  4204     setsum_Plus ~> setsum.Plus
  4205     setsum_setsum_restrict ~> setsum.commute_restrict
  4206     setsum_Sigma ~> setsum.Sigma
  4207     setsum_subset_diff ~> setsum.subset_diff
  4208     setsum_Un_disjoint ~> setsum.union_disjoint
  4209     setsum_UN_disjoint ~> setsum.UNION_disjoint
  4210     setsum_Un_Int ~> setsum.union_inter
  4211     setsum_Union_disjoint ~> setsum.Union_disjoint
  4212     setsum_UNION_zero ~> setsum.Union_comp
  4213     setsum_Un_zero ~> setsum.union_inter_neutral
  4214     strong_setprod_cong ~> setprod.strong_cong
  4215     strong_setsum_cong ~> setsum.strong_cong
  4216     setprod_1' ~> setprod.neutral
  4217     setprod_1 ~> setprod.neutral_const
  4218     setprod_cartesian_product ~> setprod.cartesian_product
  4219     setprod_cong ~> setprod.cong
  4220     setprod_delta ~> setprod.delta
  4221     setprod_delta' ~> setprod.delta'
  4222     setprod_empty ~> setprod.empty
  4223     setprod_infinite ~> setprod.infinite
  4224     setprod_insert ~> setprod.insert
  4225     setprod_mono_one_cong_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_left
  4226     setprod_mono_one_cong_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_cong_right
  4227     setprod_mono_one_left ~> setprod.mono_neutral_left
  4228     setprod_mono_one_right ~> setprod.mono_neutral_right
  4229     setprod_reindex ~> setprod.reindex
  4230     setprod_reindex_cong ~> setprod.reindex_cong
  4231     setprod_reindex_nonzero ~> setprod.reindex_nontrivial
  4232     setprod_Sigma ~> setprod.Sigma
  4233     setprod_subset_diff ~> setprod.subset_diff
  4234     setprod_timesf ~> setprod.distrib
  4235     setprod_Un2 ~> setprod.union_diff2
  4236     setprod_Un_disjoint ~> setprod.union_disjoint
  4237     setprod_UN_disjoint ~> setprod.UNION_disjoint
  4238     setprod_Un_Int ~> setprod.union_inter
  4239     setprod_Union_disjoint ~> setprod.Union_disjoint
  4240     setprod_Un_one ~> setprod.union_inter_neutral
  4241 
  4242   Dropped setsum_cong2 (simple variant of setsum.cong).
  4243   Dropped setsum_inter_restrict' (simple variant of setsum.inter_restrict)
  4244   Dropped setsum_reindex_id, setprod_reindex_id
  4245     (simple variants of setsum.reindex [symmetric], setprod.reindex [symmetric]).
  4246 
  4247 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4248 
  4249 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
  4250 
  4251   Fact consolidations:
  4252     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
  4253     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
  4254     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
  4255     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
  4256     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
  4257     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
  4258     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
  4259     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
  4260     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
  4261     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
  4262     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
  4263     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
  4264     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
  4265     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
  4266     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
  4267     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
  4268     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
  4269     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
  4270     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
  4271     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
  4272     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
  4273     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
  4274     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
  4275     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
  4276     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
  4277     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
  4278     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
  4279     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
  4280     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
  4281     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
  4282     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
  4283     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
  4284     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
  4285     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
  4286     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
  4287     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
  4288     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
  4289     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
  4290     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
  4291     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
  4292 
  4293 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
  4294 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
  4295 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
  4296 
  4297 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1,
  4298 min.cobounded2, max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
  4299 
  4300 For min_ac or max_ac, prefer more general collection ac_simps.
  4301 
  4302 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4303 
  4304 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~>
  4305 Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4306 
  4307 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
  4308 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4309 
  4310 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
  4311     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
  4312 
  4313 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4314 
  4315 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and
  4316   consolidation:
  4317     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
  4318     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
  4319 
  4320 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4321 
  4322 * Abolished neg_numeral.
  4323   - Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
  4324   - Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
  4325   - When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
  4326     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
  4327   - HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
  4328     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
  4329   - Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
  4330 
  4331 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4332 
  4333 * Reduced name variants for rules on associativity and commutativity:
  4334 
  4335     add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  4336     add_commute ~> add.commute
  4337     add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  4338     mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  4339     mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  4340     mult_left_commute ~> mult.left_commute
  4341     nat_add_assoc ~> add.assoc
  4342     nat_add_commute ~> add.commute
  4343     nat_add_left_commute ~> add.left_commute
  4344     nat_mult_assoc ~> mult.assoc
  4345     nat_mult_commute ~> mult.commute
  4346     eq_assoc ~> iff_assoc
  4347     eq_left_commute ~> iff_left_commute
  4348 
  4349 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4350 
  4351 * Fact collections add_ac and mult_ac are considered old-fashioned.
  4352 Prefer ac_simps instead, or specify rules
  4353 (add|mult).(assoc|commute|left_commute) individually.
  4354 
  4355 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
  4356     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
  4357     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
  4358     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
  4359     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
  4360 
  4361 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4362 
  4363 * Fact name consolidation:
  4364     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
  4365     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
  4366     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
  4367     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
  4368     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
  4369 
  4370 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4371 
  4372 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
  4373 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
  4374 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
  4375 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
  4376 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
  4377 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly have
  4378 been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and field_simps.
  4379 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4380 
  4381 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
  4382 
  4383 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
  4384 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
  4385 
  4386 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
  4387 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
  4388 
  4389 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
  4390 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
  4391 or the brute way with
  4392 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
  4393 
  4394 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in theory
  4395 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them instead of explicitly
  4396 stating boundedness of sets.
  4397 
  4398 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow more
  4399 syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain shows up as
  4400 additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4401 
  4402 * Removed and renamed theorems in Series:
  4403   summable_le         ~>  suminf_le
  4404   suminf_le           ~>  suminf_le_const
  4405   series_pos_le       ~>  setsum_le_suminf
  4406   series_pos_less     ~>  setsum_less_suminf
  4407   suminf_ge_zero      ~>  suminf_nonneg
  4408   suminf_gt_zero      ~>  suminf_pos
  4409   suminf_gt_zero_iff  ~>  suminf_pos_iff
  4410   summable_sumr_LIMSEQ_suminf  ~>  summable_LIMSEQ
  4411   suminf_0_le         ~>  suminf_nonneg [rotate]
  4412   pos_summable        ~>  summableI_nonneg_bounded
  4413   ratio_test          ~>  summable_ratio_test
  4414 
  4415   removed series_zero, replaced by sums_finite
  4416 
  4417   removed auxiliary lemmas:
  4418 
  4419     sumr_offset, sumr_offset2, sumr_offset3, sumr_offset4, sumr_group,
  4420     half, le_Suc_ex_iff, lemma_realpow_diff_sumr,
  4421     real_setsum_nat_ivl_bounded, summable_le2, ratio_test_lemma2,
  4422     sumr_minus_one_realpow_zerom, sumr_one_lb_realpow_zero,
  4423     summable_convergent_sumr_iff, sumr_diff_mult_const
  4424 
  4425 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4426 
  4427 * Replace (F)DERIV syntax by has_derivative:
  4428   - "(f has_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "FDERIV f x : s : f'"
  4429 
  4430   - "(f has_field_derivative f') (at x within s)" replaces "DERIV f x : s : f'"
  4431 
  4432   - "f differentiable at x within s" replaces "_ differentiable _ in _" syntax
  4433 
  4434   - removed constant isDiff
  4435 
  4436   - "DERIV f x : f'" and "FDERIV f x : f'" syntax is only available as
  4437     input syntax.
  4438 
  4439   - "DERIV f x : s : f'" and "FDERIV f x : s : f'" syntax removed.
  4440 
  4441   - Renamed FDERIV_... lemmas to has_derivative_...
  4442 
  4443   - renamed deriv (the syntax constant used for "DERIV _ _ :> _") to DERIV
  4444 
  4445   - removed DERIV_intros, has_derivative_eq_intros
  4446 
  4447   - introduced derivative_intros and deriative_eq_intros which
  4448     includes now rules for DERIV, has_derivative and
  4449     has_vector_derivative.
  4450 
  4451   - Other renamings:
  4452     differentiable_def        ~>  real_differentiable_def
  4453     differentiableE           ~>  real_differentiableE
  4454     fderiv_def                ~>  has_derivative_at
  4455     field_fderiv_def          ~>  field_has_derivative_at
  4456     isDiff_der                ~>  differentiable_def
  4457     deriv_fderiv              ~>  has_field_derivative_def
  4458     deriv_def                 ~>  DERIV_def
  4459 
  4460 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4461 
  4462 * Include more theorems in continuous_intros. Remove the
  4463 continuous_on_intros, isCont_intros collections, these facts are now
  4464 in continuous_intros.
  4465 
  4466 * Theorems about complex numbers are now stated only using Re and Im,
  4467 the Complex constructor is not used anymore. It is possible to use
  4468 primcorec to defined the behaviour of a complex-valued function.
  4469 
  4470 Removed theorems about the Complex constructor from the simpset, they
  4471 are available as the lemma collection legacy_Complex_simps. This
  4472 especially removes
  4473 
  4474     i_complex_of_real: "ii * complex_of_real r = Complex 0 r".
  4475 
  4476 Instead the reverse direction is supported with
  4477     Complex_eq: "Complex a b = a + \<i> * b"
  4478 
  4479 Moved csqrt from Fundamental_Algebra_Theorem to Complex.
  4480 
  4481   Renamings:
  4482     Re/Im                  ~>  complex.sel
  4483     complex_Re/Im_zero     ~>  zero_complex.sel
  4484     complex_Re/Im_add      ~>  plus_complex.sel
  4485     complex_Re/Im_minus    ~>  uminus_complex.sel
  4486     complex_Re/Im_diff     ~>  minus_complex.sel
  4487     complex_Re/Im_one      ~>  one_complex.sel
  4488     complex_Re/Im_mult     ~>  times_complex.sel
  4489     complex_Re/Im_inverse  ~>  inverse_complex.sel
  4490     complex_Re/Im_scaleR   ~>  scaleR_complex.sel
  4491     complex_Re/Im_i        ~>  ii.sel
  4492     complex_Re/Im_cnj      ~>  cnj.sel
  4493     Re/Im_cis              ~>  cis.sel
  4494 
  4495     complex_divide_def   ~>  divide_complex_def
  4496     complex_norm_def     ~>  norm_complex_def
  4497     cmod_def             ~>  norm_complex_de
  4498 
  4499   Removed theorems:
  4500     complex_zero_def
  4501     complex_add_def
  4502     complex_minus_def
  4503     complex_diff_def
  4504     complex_one_def
  4505     complex_mult_def
  4506     complex_inverse_def
  4507     complex_scaleR_def
  4508 
  4509 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4510 
  4511 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
  4512 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4513 
  4514 * HOL-Library: new theory src/HOL/Library/Tree.thy.
  4515 
  4516 * HOL-Library: removed theory src/HOL/Library/Kleene_Algebra.thy; it
  4517 is subsumed by session Kleene_Algebra in AFP.
  4518 
  4519 * HOL-Library / theory RBT: various constants and facts are hidden;
  4520 lifting setup is unregistered.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4521 
  4522 * HOL-Cardinals: new theory src/HOL/Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy.
  4523 
  4524 * HOL-Word: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
  4525 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4526 
  4527 * HOL-Word:
  4528   - Abandoned fact collection "word_arith_alts", which is a duplicate
  4529     of "word_arith_wis".
  4530   - Dropped first (duplicated) element in fact collections
  4531     "sint_word_ariths", "word_arith_alts", "uint_word_ariths",
  4532     "uint_word_arith_bintrs".
  4533 
  4534 * HOL-Number_Theory:
  4535   - consolidated the proofs of the binomial theorem
  4536   - the function fib is again of type nat => nat and not overloaded
  4537   - no more references to Old_Number_Theory in the HOL libraries
  4538     (except the AFP)
  4539 
  4540 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4541 
  4542 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
  4543   - Type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces.
  4544   - New theory Complex_Basic_Analysis defining complex derivatives,
  4545     holomorphic functions, etc., ported from HOL Light's canal.ml.
  4546   - Changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
  4547     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
  4548     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
  4549     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
  4550     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-)open
  4551     intervals.
  4552   - removed dependencies on type class ordered_euclidean_space with
  4553     introduction of "cbox" on euclidean_space
  4554     - renamed theorems:
  4555         interval ~> box
  4556         mem_interval ~> mem_box
  4557         interval_eq_empty ~> box_eq_empty
  4558         interval_ne_empty ~> box_ne_empty
  4559         interval_sing(1) ~> cbox_sing
  4560         interval_sing(2) ~> box_sing
  4561         subset_interval_imp ~> subset_box_imp
  4562         subset_interval ~> subset_box
  4563         open_interval ~> open_box
  4564         closed_interval ~> closed_cbox
  4565         interior_closed_interval ~> interior_cbox
  4566         bounded_closed_interval ~> bounded_cbox
  4567         compact_interval ~> compact_cbox
  4568         bounded_subset_closed_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_cbox_symmetric
  4569         bounded_subset_closed_interval ~> bounded_subset_cbox
  4570         mem_interval_componentwiseI ~> mem_box_componentwiseI
  4571         convex_box ~> convex_prod
  4572         rel_interior_real_interval ~> rel_interior_real_box
  4573         convex_interval ~> convex_box
  4574         convex_hull_eq_real_interval ~> convex_hull_eq_real_cbox
  4575         frechet_derivative_within_closed_interval ~> frechet_derivative_within_cbox
  4576         content_closed_interval' ~> content_cbox'
  4577         elementary_subset_interval ~> elementary_subset_box
  4578         diameter_closed_interval ~> diameter_cbox
  4579         frontier_closed_interval ~> frontier_cbox
  4580         frontier_open_interval ~> frontier_box
  4581         bounded_subset_open_interval_symmetric ~> bounded_subset_box_symmetric
  4582         closure_open_interval ~> closure_box
  4583         open_closed_interval_convex ~> open_cbox_convex
  4584         open_interval_midpoint ~> box_midpoint
  4585         content_image_affinity_interval ~> content_image_affinity_cbox
  4586         is_interval_interval ~> is_interval_cbox + is_interval_box + is_interval_closed_interval
  4587         bounded_interval ~> bounded_closed_interval + bounded_boxes
  4588 
  4589     - respective theorems for intervals over the reals:
  4590         content_closed_interval + content_cbox
  4591         has_integral + has_integral_real
  4592         fine_division_exists + fine_division_exists_real
  4593         has_integral_null + has_integral_null_real
  4594         tagged_division_union_interval + tagged_division_union_interval_real
  4595         has_integral_const + has_integral_const_real
  4596         integral_const + integral_const_real
  4597         has_integral_bound + has_integral_bound_real
  4598         integrable_continuous + integrable_continuous_real
  4599         integrable_subinterval + integrable_subinterval_real
  4600         has_integral_reflect_lemma + has_integral_reflect_lemma_real
  4601         integrable_reflect + integrable_reflect_real
  4602         integral_reflect + integral_reflect_real
  4603         image_affinity_interval + image_affinity_cbox
  4604         image_smult_interval + image_smult_cbox
  4605         integrable_const + integrable_const_ivl
  4606         integrable_on_subinterval + integrable_on_subcbox
  4607 
  4608   - renamed theorems:
  4609     derivative_linear         ~>  has_derivative_bounded_linear
  4610     derivative_is_linear      ~>  has_derivative_linear
  4611     bounded_linear_imp_linear ~>  bounded_linear.linear
  4612 
  4613 * HOL-Probability:
  4614   - Renamed positive_integral to nn_integral:
  4615 
  4616     . Renamed all lemmas "*positive_integral*" to *nn_integral*"
  4617       positive_integral_positive ~> nn_integral_nonneg
  4618 
  4619     . Renamed abbreviation integral\<^sup>P to integral\<^sup>N.
  4620 
  4621   - replaced the Lebesgue integral on real numbers by the more general
  4622     Bochner integral for functions into a real-normed vector space.
  4623 
  4624     integral_zero               ~>  integral_zero / integrable_zero
  4625     integral_minus              ~>  integral_minus / integrable_minus
  4626     integral_add                ~>  integral_add / integrable_add
  4627     integral_diff               ~>  integral_diff / integrable_diff
  4628     integral_setsum             ~>  integral_setsum / integrable_setsum
  4629     integral_multc              ~>  integral_mult_left / integrable_mult_left
  4630     integral_cmult              ~>  integral_mult_right / integrable_mult_right
  4631     integral_triangle_inequality~>  integral_norm_bound
  4632     integrable_nonneg           ~>  integrableI_nonneg
  4633     integral_positive           ~>  integral_nonneg_AE
  4634     integrable_abs_iff          ~>  integrable_abs_cancel
  4635     positive_integral_lim_INF   ~>  nn_integral_liminf
  4636     lebesgue_real_affine        ~>  lborel_real_affine
  4637     borel_integral_has_integral ~>  has_integral_lebesgue_integral
  4638     integral_indicator          ~>
  4639          integral_real_indicator / integrable_real_indicator
  4640     positive_integral_fst       ~>  nn_integral_fst'
  4641     positive_integral_fst_measurable ~> nn_integral_fst
  4642     positive_integral_snd_measurable ~> nn_integral_snd
  4643 
  4644     integrable_fst_measurable   ~>
  4645          integral_fst / integrable_fst / AE_integrable_fst
  4646 
  4647     integrable_snd_measurable   ~>
  4648          integral_snd / integrable_snd / AE_integrable_snd
  4649 
  4650     integral_monotone_convergence  ~>
  4651          integral_monotone_convergence / integrable_monotone_convergence
  4652 
  4653     integral_monotone_convergence_at_top  ~>
  4654          integral_monotone_convergence_at_top /
  4655          integrable_monotone_convergence_at_top
  4656 
  4657     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lebesgue  ~>
  4658          has_integral_iff_has_bochner_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  4659 
  4660     lebesgue_integral_has_integral  ~>
  4661          has_integral_integrable_lebesgue_nonneg
  4662 
  4663     positive_integral_lebesgue_has_integral  ~>
  4664          integral_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg /
  4665          integrable_has_integral_lebesgue_nonneg
  4666 
  4667     lebesgue_integral_real_affine  ~>
  4668          nn_integral_real_affine
  4669 
  4670     has_integral_iff_positive_integral_lborel  ~>
  4671          integral_has_integral_nonneg / integrable_has_integral_nonneg
  4672 
  4673     The following theorems where removed:
  4674 
  4675     lebesgue_integral_nonneg
  4676     lebesgue_integral_uminus
  4677     lebesgue_integral_cmult
  4678     lebesgue_integral_multc
  4679     lebesgue_integral_cmult_nonneg
  4680     integral_cmul_indicator
  4681     integral_real
  4682 
  4683   - Formalized properties about exponentially, Erlang, and normal
  4684     distributed random variables.
  4685 
  4686 * HOL-Decision_Procs: Separate command 'approximate' for approximative
  4687 computation in src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation.  Minor
  4688 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4689 
  4690 
  4691 *** Scala ***
  4692 
  4693 * The signature and semantics of Document.Snapshot.cumulate_markup /
  4694 select_markup have been clarified.  Markup is now traversed in the
  4695 order of reports given by the prover: later markup is usually more
  4696 specific and may override results accumulated so far.  The elements
  4697 guard is mandatory and checked precisely.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4698 
  4699 * Substantial reworking of internal PIDE protocol communication
  4700 channels.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4701 
  4702 
  4703 *** ML ***
  4704 
  4705 * Subtle change of semantics of Thm.eq_thm: theory stamps are not
  4706 compared (according to Thm.thm_ord), but assumed to be covered by the
  4707 current background theory.  Thus equivalent data produced in different
  4708 branches of the theory graph usually coincides (e.g. relevant for
  4709 theory merge).  Note that the softer Thm.eq_thm_prop is often more
  4710 appropriate than Thm.eq_thm.
  4711 
  4712 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
  4713 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
  4714 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
  4715 actually belongs to it).
  4716 
  4717 * Proper context discipline for read_instantiate and instantiate_tac:
  4718 variables that are meant to become schematic need to be given as
  4719 fixed, and are generalized by the explicit context of local variables.
  4720 This corresponds to Isar attributes "where" and "of" with 'for'
  4721 declaration.  INCOMPATIBILITY, also due to potential change of indices
  4722 of schematic variables.
  4723 
  4724 * Moved ML_Compiler.exn_trace and other operations on exceptions to
  4725 structure Runtime.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4726 
  4727 * Discontinued old Toplevel.debug in favour of system option
  4728 "ML_exception_trace", which may be also declared within the context
  4729 via "declare [[ML_exception_trace = true]]".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4730 
  4731 * Renamed configuration option "ML_trace" to "ML_source_trace". Minor
  4732 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4733 
  4734 * Configuration option "ML_print_depth" controls the pretty-printing
  4735 depth of the ML compiler within the context.  The old print_depth in
  4736 ML is still available as default_print_depth, but rarely used.  Minor
  4737 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4738 
  4739 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
  4740 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4741 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
  4742 formal context.
  4743 
  4744 * Simplified programming interface to define ML antiquotations, see
  4745 structure ML_Antiquotation.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4746 
  4747 * ML antiquotation @{here} refers to its source position, which is
  4748 occasionally useful for experimentation and diagnostic purposes.
  4749 
  4750 * ML antiquotation @{path} produces a Path.T value, similarly to
  4751 Path.explode, but with compile-time check against the file-system and
  4752 some PIDE markup.  Note that unlike theory source, ML does not have a
  4753 well-defined master directory, so an absolute symbolic path
  4754 specification is usually required, e.g. "~~/src/HOL".
  4755 
  4756 * ML antiquotation @{print} inlines a function to print an arbitrary
  4757 ML value, which is occasionally useful for diagnostic or demonstration
  4758 purposes.
  4759 
  4760 
  4761 *** System ***
  4762 
  4763 * Proof General with its traditional helper scripts is now an optional
  4764 Isabelle component, e.g. see ProofGeneral-4.2-2 from the Isabelle
  4765 component repository http://isabelle.in.tum.de/components/.  Note that
  4766 the "system" manual provides general explanations about add-on
  4767 components, especially those that are not bundled with the release.
  4768 
  4769 * The raw Isabelle process executable has been renamed from
  4770 "isabelle-process" to "isabelle_process", which conforms to common
  4771 shell naming conventions, and allows to define a shell function within
  4772 the Isabelle environment to avoid dynamic path lookup.  Rare
  4773 incompatibility for old tools that do not use the ISABELLE_PROCESS
  4774 settings variable.
  4775 
  4776 * Former "isabelle tty" has been superseded by "isabelle console",
  4777 with implicit build like "isabelle jedit", and without the mostly
  4778 obsolete Isar TTY loop.
  4779 
  4780 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
  4781 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
  4782 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
  4783 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
  4784 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
  4785 
  4786 * Removed obsolete "isabelle unsymbolize".  Note that the usual format
  4787 for email communication is the Unicode rendering of Isabelle symbols,
  4788 as produced by Isabelle/jEdit, for example.
  4789 
  4790 * Removed obsolete tool "wwwfind". Similar functionality may be
  4791 integrated into Isabelle/jEdit eventually.
  4792 
  4793 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
  4794 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
  4795 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
  4796 
  4797 * Session ROOT specifications require explicit 'document_files' for
  4798 robust dependencies on LaTeX sources.  Only these explicitly given
  4799 files are copied to the document output directory, before document
  4800 processing is started.
  4801 
  4802 * Windows: support for regular TeX installation (e.g. MiKTeX) instead
  4803 of TeX Live from Cygwin.
  4804 
  4805 
  4806 
  4807 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
  4808 -------------------------------------
  4809 
  4810 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  4811 
  4812 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
  4813 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
  4814 
  4815 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
  4816 after edits surrounding the command location.
  4817 
  4818 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
  4819 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
  4820 e.g. out-of-memory).
  4821 
  4822 
  4823 *** System ***
  4824 
  4825 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
  4826 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
  4827 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
  4828 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
  4829 
  4830 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
  4831 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
  4832 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
  4833 
  4834 
  4835 
  4836 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
  4837 -------------------------------------
  4838 
  4839 *** General ***
  4840 
  4841 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
  4842 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
  4843 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4844 
  4845 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
  4846 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4847 
  4848 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
  4849 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
  4850 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
  4851 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
  4852 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
  4853 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
  4854 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
  4855 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
  4856 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
  4857 syntax.
  4858 
  4859 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
  4860 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4861 
  4862 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
  4863 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
  4864 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
  4865 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
  4866 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
  4867 
  4868 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
  4869 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4870 
  4871 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
  4872 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
  4873 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
  4874 
  4875 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
  4876 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
  4877 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
  4878 
  4879 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
  4880 eliminated old "ref" manual.
  4881 
  4882 
  4883 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  4884 
  4885 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
  4886 Documentation panel.
  4887 
  4888 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
  4889 documentation.
  4890 
  4891 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
  4892 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
  4893 
  4894 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
  4895 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
  4896 normal editing and checking process.
  4897 
  4898 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
  4899 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
  4900 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
  4901 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
  4902 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
  4903 
  4904 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
  4905 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
  4906 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
  4907 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
  4908 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
  4909 
  4910 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
  4911 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
  4912 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
  4913 
  4914 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
  4915 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
  4916 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
  4917 to resolve conflict.
  4918 
  4919 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
  4920 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
  4921 
  4922 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
  4923 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
  4924 such command executions while editing.
  4925 
  4926 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
  4927 document content.
  4928 
  4929 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
  4930 toplevel theorem statements.
  4931 
  4932 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
  4933 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
  4934 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
  4935 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
  4936 
  4937 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
  4938 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
  4939 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
  4940 
  4941 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
  4942 / Global Options / Appearance".
  4943 
  4944 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
  4945 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
  4946 
  4947 
  4948 *** Pure ***
  4949 
  4950 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
  4951 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
  4952 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
  4953 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
  4954 details.
  4955 
  4956 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
  4957 
  4958 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
  4959 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
  4960 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
  4961 
  4962 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
  4963 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4964 
  4965 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
  4966 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
  4967 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
  4968 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4969 
  4970 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
  4971 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
  4972 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4973 
  4974 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
  4975 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
  4976 
  4977 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
  4978 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
  4979 situations.
  4980 
  4981 
  4982 *** HOL ***
  4983 
  4984 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
  4985 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
  4986 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4987 
  4988 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
  4989 
  4990 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
  4991 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
  4992 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
  4993 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
  4994 
  4995   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
  4996 
  4997 * Code generator:
  4998   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
  4999     'code_instance'.
  5000   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
  5001     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
  5002 
  5003 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
  5004 examples.
  5005 
  5006 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
  5007 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
  5008 to distinguish both when desired.
  5009 
  5010 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
  5011 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
  5012 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
  5013 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5014 
  5015 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
  5016 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
  5017 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
  5018 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
  5019 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
  5020 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5021 
  5022 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
  5023 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
  5024 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5025 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
  5026 
  5027 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
  5028 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
  5029 
  5030 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
  5031 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
  5032 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
  5033 
  5034 * Lifting:
  5035   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
  5036     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
  5037       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
  5038       transfer rules
  5039     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
  5040       correspondence relation can be generated
  5041     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
  5042       parametricity
  5043     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
  5044   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
  5045   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
  5046     copies
  5047   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
  5048     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
  5049     anonymous context)
  5050   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
  5051     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5052   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
  5053     lifting_forget, lifting_update
  5054   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
  5055     INCOMPATIBILITY
  5056 
  5057 * Transfer:
  5058   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
  5059     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
  5060   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
  5061   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
  5062     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
  5063   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
  5064 
  5065 * Reification and reflection:
  5066   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
  5067     "Reification".
  5068   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
  5069   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
  5070 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5071 
  5072 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
  5073   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
  5074     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5075     This is now identity on infinite sets.
  5076   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
  5077     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
  5078   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
  5079     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
  5080     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
  5081     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
  5082     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
  5083     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
  5084     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
  5085     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
  5086   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
  5087     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
  5088   - Fact renames:
  5089       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
  5090       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
  5091 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5092 
  5093 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
  5094 
  5095 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
  5096 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
  5097 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
  5098 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5099 
  5100 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
  5101 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
  5102 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
  5103 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
  5104 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
  5105 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
  5106 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
  5107 lemmas.
  5108 
  5109 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
  5110 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
  5111 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5112 
  5113 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
  5114 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5115 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
  5116 
  5117 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
  5118 top and bottom elements.
  5119 
  5120 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
  5121 
  5122 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
  5123 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
  5124 
  5125  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
  5126    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
  5127    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
  5128 
  5129  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
  5130    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
  5131    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
  5132 
  5133    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
  5134    arbitrary filter.
  5135 
  5136  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
  5137    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
  5138    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
  5139    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
  5140    on a compact set.
  5141 
  5142  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
  5143    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
  5144    linear_continuum_topology).
  5145 
  5146  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
  5147    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
  5148    on all sequences converging to x.
  5149 
  5150  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
  5151    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
  5152    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
  5153    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
  5154    left or right.
  5155 
  5156  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
  5157 
  5158      F within X = inf F (principal X)
  5159 
  5160  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
  5161    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
  5162 
  5163  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
  5164    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
  5165    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
  5166    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
  5167    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
  5168    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
  5169 
  5170  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
  5171 
  5172    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
  5173 
  5174    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
  5175      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
  5176 
  5177    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
  5178 
  5179    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
  5180      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
  5181 
  5182    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
  5183 
  5184    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
  5185 
  5186  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
  5187 
  5188 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5189 
  5190 * Nitpick:
  5191   - Added option "spy".
  5192   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors.
  5193 
  5194 * Sledgehammer:
  5195   - Renamed option:
  5196       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
  5197     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5198   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy".
  5199   - Better support for "isar_proofs".
  5200   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server.
  5201 
  5202 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
  5203 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
  5204 
  5205 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
  5206   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
  5207   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
  5208     generated code.
  5209   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
  5210   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
  5211   - Fact renames:
  5212     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
  5213     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
  5214     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
  5215 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  5216 
  5217 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
  5218 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
  5219 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
  5220 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
  5221 
  5222 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
  5223 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
  5224 
  5225 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5226 
  5227 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
  5228 
  5229     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
  5230     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
  5231 
  5232 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5233 
  5234 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
  5235 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
  5236 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
  5237 
  5238 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
  5239 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
  5240 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
  5241 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5242 
  5243 * HOL-BNF:
  5244   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
  5245     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
  5246     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
  5247     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
  5248   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
  5249     coinduct).
  5250   - Renamed keywords:
  5251     data ~> datatype_new
  5252     codata ~> codatatype
  5253     bnf_def ~> bnf
  5254   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
  5255     discs ~> disc
  5256     map_comp' ~> map_comp
  5257     map_id' ~> map_id
  5258     sels ~> sel
  5259     set_map' ~> set_map
  5260     sets ~> set
  5261 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
  5262 
  5263 
  5264 *** ML ***
  5265 
  5266 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
  5267 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
  5268 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
  5269 Examples.thy in particular.
  5270 
  5271 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
  5272 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
  5273 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
  5274 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
  5275 
  5276 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
  5277 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
  5278 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
  5279 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
  5280 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5281 
  5282 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
  5283 
  5284     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
  5285     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
  5286 
  5287 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5288 
  5289 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
  5290 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
  5291 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
  5292 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
  5293 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
  5294 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
  5295 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
  5296 
  5297 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
  5298 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
  5299 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
  5300 clasets separately from the context.
  5301 
  5302 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
  5303 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
  5304 
  5305 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
  5306 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
  5307 
  5308 
  5309 *** System ***
  5310 
  5311 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
  5312 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5313 
  5314 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
  5315 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5316 
  5317 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
  5318 settings variable.
  5319 
  5320 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
  5321 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
  5322 always pdf.
  5323 
  5324 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
  5325 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
  5326 
  5327 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
  5328 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
  5329 
  5330 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
  5331 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
  5332 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
  5333 
  5334 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
  5335 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
  5336 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
  5337 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
  5338 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5339 for HTML presentation of theories.
  5340 
  5341 
  5342 
  5343 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
  5344 -----------------------------------
  5345 
  5346 *** General ***
  5347 
  5348 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
  5349 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
  5350 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
  5351 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
  5352 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
  5353 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
  5354 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
  5355 
  5356 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
  5357 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
  5358 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
  5359 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
  5360 
  5361 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
  5362 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
  5363 
  5364 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
  5365 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
  5366 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
  5367 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
  5368 dependencies properly.
  5369 
  5370 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
  5371 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
  5372 
  5373 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
  5374 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
  5375 
  5376 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
  5377 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
  5378 and "class ... context ...".
  5379 
  5380 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
  5381 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
  5382 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
  5383 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
  5384 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
  5385 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
  5386 
  5387 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
  5388 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
  5389 
  5390 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
  5391 to name patterns (with clickable results).
  5392 
  5393 
  5394 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
  5395 
  5396 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
  5397 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
  5398 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
  5399 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
  5400 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
  5401 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
  5402 
  5403 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
  5404 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
  5405 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
  5406 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
  5407 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
  5408 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
  5409 
  5410 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
  5411 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
  5412 browser on demand.
  5413 
  5414 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
  5415 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
  5416 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
  5417 that frequently occur in user interaction.
  5418 
  5419 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
  5420 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
  5421 
  5422 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
  5423 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
  5424 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
  5425 potentially infinite message streams.
  5426 
  5427 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
  5428 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
  5429 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
  5430 schemes.
  5431 
  5432 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
  5433 symbols.
  5434 
  5435 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
  5436 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
  5437 
  5438 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
  5439 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
  5440 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
  5441 
  5442 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
  5443 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
  5444 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
  5445 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
  5446 
  5447 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
  5448 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
  5449 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
  5450 
  5451 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
  5452 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
  5453 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
  5454 Isabelle distribution.
  5455 
  5456 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
  5457 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
  5458 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
  5459 
  5460 
  5461 *** Pure ***
  5462 
  5463 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
  5464 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
  5465 
  5466 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
  5467 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
  5468 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5469 
  5470 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5471 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
  5472 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
  5473 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
  5474 with some care where this is really required.
  5475 
  5476 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
  5477 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
  5478 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
  5479 
  5480   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
  5481 
  5482 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
  5483 a Hasse diagram.
  5484 
  5485 
  5486 *** HOL ***
  5487 
  5488 * Sledgehammer:
  5489 
  5490   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
  5491     Sledgehammer manual for details.
  5492   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
  5493   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
  5494   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
  5495   - Renamed options:
  5496       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
  5497       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
  5498       max_relevant ~> max_facts
  5499       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
  5500 
  5501 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
  5502 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
  5503 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
  5504 
  5505 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
  5506 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5507 
  5508 * Lifting:
  5509   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  5510   - quot_del attribute
  5511   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  5512 
  5513 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  5514 expressions.
  5515 
  5516 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  5517 pointfree expressions.
  5518 
  5519 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  5520 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  5521 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  5522 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  5523 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5524 
  5525 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  5526 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  5527 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  5528 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  5529 accordingly.
  5530 
  5531 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  5532 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5533 
  5534 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  5535 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5536 
  5537 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5538 
  5539 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  5540 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  5541 
  5542 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  5543 
  5544 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  5545 
  5546   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  5547   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  5548 
  5549 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5550 
  5551 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  5552 
  5553   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  5554   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  5555 
  5556 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5557 
  5558 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  5559 
  5560   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  5561     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  5562     output f x converges to G.
  5563 
  5564   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  5565     infinity (at_bot).
  5566 
  5567   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  5568     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  5569 
  5570   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  5571     at_top".
  5572 
  5573 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5574 
  5575 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  5576 lattice type classes.
  5577 
  5578 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  5579 
  5580     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  5581     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  5582 
  5583 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5584 
  5585 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  5586 changes as follows.
  5587 
  5588   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  5589 
  5590       prefix ~> prefixeq
  5591       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  5592 
  5593   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  5594     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  5595     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  5596     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  5597 
  5598   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  5599     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  5600     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  5601 
  5602   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  5603     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  5604     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  5605     Library/Prefix_Order.
  5606 
  5607   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  5608     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  5609 
  5610       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  5611       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  5612       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  5613       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  5614       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  5615       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  5616       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  5617       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  5618       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  5619       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  5620       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  5621       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  5622       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  5623       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  5624       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  5625       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  5626 
  5627 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5628 
  5629 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  5630 
  5631 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  5632 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  5633 
  5634 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  5635 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  5636 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  5637 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  5638 
  5639   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  5640   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  5641   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  5642   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  5643   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  5644   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  5645   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  5646   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  5647   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  5648   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  5649 
  5650 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5651 
  5652 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  5653 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  5654 Data").
  5655 
  5656 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  5657 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  5658 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  5659 code.
  5660 
  5661 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  5662 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  5663 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  5664 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5665 
  5666 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  5667 
  5668 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  5669 
  5670 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  5671 
  5672   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  5673   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  5674 
  5675 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  5676 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  5677 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  5678 
  5679   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  5680 
  5681     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  5682     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  5683     cart_base i  removed
  5684     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  5685 
  5686   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  5687 
  5688   Renamed lemmas:
  5689 
  5690     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  5691     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  5692     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  5693     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  5694     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  5695     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  5696     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  5697     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  5698     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  5699     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  5700 
  5701 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5702 
  5703 * HOL/Probability:
  5704 
  5705   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  5706 
  5707   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  5708     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  5709     (borel_measurable_induct).
  5710 
  5711   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  5712     projective family).
  5713 
  5714 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  5715 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  5716 
  5717 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  5718 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  5719 datatypes.
  5720 
  5721 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  5722 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  5723 
  5724 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  5725 trees for the code generator.
  5726 
  5727 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  5728 Lifting/Transfer.
  5729 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5730 
  5731 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  5732 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5733 
  5734 
  5735 *** Document preparation ***
  5736 
  5737 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  5738 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  5739 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  5740 
  5741 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  5742 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  5743 
  5744 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  5745 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  5746 document/root.tex.
  5747 
  5748 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  5749 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5750 
  5751 
  5752 *** ML ***
  5753 
  5754 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  5755 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  5756 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  5757 
  5758 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  5759 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  5760 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  5761 
  5762 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  5763 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  5764 necessarily printing visible text.
  5765 
  5766 
  5767 *** System ***
  5768 
  5769 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  5770 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  5771 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  5772 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  5773 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  5774 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  5775 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  5776 
  5777 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  5778 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  5779 
  5780   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  5781 
  5782 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  5783 
  5784 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  5785 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  5786 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  5787 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  5788 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  5789 
  5790 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  5791 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  5792 
  5793 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  5794 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  5795 
  5796 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  5797 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5798 
  5799 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  5800 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  5801 version of Isabelle.
  5802 
  5803 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  5804 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  5805 
  5806 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  5807 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  5808 for home-made settings.
  5809 
  5810 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  5811 
  5812 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  5813 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  5814 configuration.
  5815 
  5816 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  5817 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  5818 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  5819 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  5820 bundled as Isabelle component.
  5821 
  5822 
  5823 
  5824 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  5825 ------------------------------
  5826 
  5827 *** General ***
  5828 
  5829 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  5830 
  5831   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  5832     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  5833   - markup for bound variables
  5834   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  5835   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  5836   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  5837     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  5838 
  5839 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  5840 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  5841 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  5842 
  5843 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  5844 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  5845 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  5846 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  5847 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  5848 
  5849   context
  5850     fixes x y z :: 'a
  5851     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  5852   begin
  5853 
  5854   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  5855 
  5856   end
  5857 
  5858   thm my_trans
  5859 
  5860 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  5861 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  5862 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  5863 
  5864 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  5865 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  5866 
  5867 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  5868 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  5869 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  5870 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  5871 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  5872 
  5873 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  5874 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  5875 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  5876 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  5877 indices of schematic variables.
  5878 
  5879 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  5880 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  5881 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  5882 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  5883 etc. was exploited.
  5884 
  5885 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  5886 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  5887 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  5888 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  5889 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  5890 of the material of that old tutorial.
  5891 
  5892 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  5893 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  5894 manual.
  5895 
  5896 
  5897 *** Pure ***
  5898 
  5899 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  5900 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  5901 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  5902 
  5903 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  5904 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  5905 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  5906 undocumented feature.)
  5907 
  5908 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  5909 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  5910 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  5911 
  5912   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  5913 
  5914   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  5915     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  5916 
  5917 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  5918 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  5919 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  5920 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  5921 
  5922 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  5923 
  5924     num ~> num_token
  5925     xnum ~> xnum_token
  5926     xstr ~> str_token
  5927 
  5928 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  5929 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  5930 position information via constraints).
  5931 
  5932 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  5933 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  5934 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5935 
  5936 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  5937 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  5938 
  5939 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  5940 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  5941 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5942 
  5943 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  5944 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5945 
  5946 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  5947 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  5948 
  5949   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  5950 
  5951 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5952 
  5953 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  5954 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5955 
  5956 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  5957 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  5958 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  5959 
  5960 
  5961 *** HOL ***
  5962 
  5963 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  5964 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  5965 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  5966 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  5967 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  5968 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  5969 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  5970 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  5971 possible.
  5972 
  5973 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  5974 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  5975 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  5976 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  5977 
  5978 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  5979 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5980 
  5981 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  5982 
  5983 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  5984 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  5985 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  5986 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  5987 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  5988 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  5989 
  5990   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  5991     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  5992 
  5993   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  5994     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  5995     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  5996 
  5997   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  5998     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  5999 
  6000   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  6001     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  6002     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  6003 
  6004   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  6005     Redefine using other integer operations.
  6006 
  6007 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  6008 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  6009 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  6010 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  6011 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  6012 
  6013   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  6014     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  6015     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  6016     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  6017     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  6018 
  6019     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  6020     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  6021 
  6022   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  6023     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  6024     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  6025     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  6026     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  6027     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  6028     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  6029     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  6030 
  6031   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  6032     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  6033     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  6034     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  6035 
  6036   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  6037     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  6038     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  6039     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  6040 
  6041   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  6042     from type nat to type int.
  6043 
  6044 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  6045 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  6046 
  6047   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  6048     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  6049     type.  Example syntax:
  6050 
  6051     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  6052       is List.insert
  6053 
  6054     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  6055     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  6056     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  6057     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  6058     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  6059     by the package.
  6060 
  6061   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  6062     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  6063     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  6064     code generation for each constant.
  6065 
  6066   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  6067     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  6068     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  6069     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  6070     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  6071 
  6072   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  6073     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  6074     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  6075 
  6076 * Quotient package:
  6077 
  6078   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  6079     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  6080 
  6081   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  6082     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  6083 
  6084   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  6085     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  6086     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6087 
  6088   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  6089     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6090 
  6091 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  6092 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  6093 
  6094 * Quickcheck:
  6095 
  6096   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  6097     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  6098     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  6099     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  6100     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  6101 
  6102     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  6103     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  6104     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  6105 
  6106     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  6107     continues searching for genuine ones.
  6108 
  6109     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  6110     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  6111     show genuine counterexamples.
  6112 
  6113   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  6114     value generators for a given type and operations.
  6115 
  6116     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  6117     constructors of that type.
  6118 
  6119   - Support for multisets.
  6120 
  6121   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  6122 
  6123   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  6124     conjectures in a locale context.
  6125 
  6126 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  6127 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  6128 
  6129 * Sledgehammer:
  6130   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  6131     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  6132   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  6133   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  6134     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  6135   - Sped up the minimizer.
  6136   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  6137   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  6138   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  6139 
  6140 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  6141 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  6142 
  6143 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  6144 
  6145 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6146 
  6147 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  6148 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  6149 
  6150   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  6151 
  6152 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  6153 a list and a nat.
  6154 
  6155 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  6156 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  6157 
  6158 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  6159 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  6160 default.
  6161 
  6162 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  6163 
  6164   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  6165 
  6166 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  6167 
  6168 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  6169 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  6170 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  6171 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  6172 one_case.
  6173 
  6174 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  6175 the result of the fact expression.
  6176 
  6177 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  6178 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  6179 of some relation theorems:
  6180 
  6181   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  6182   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  6183   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  6184   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  6185   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  6186   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  6187 
  6188 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  6189 
  6190 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  6191 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  6192 
  6193 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6194 
  6195 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  6196 to match the constant's name:
  6197 
  6198   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  6199   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  6200   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  6201   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  6202   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  6203   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  6204   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  6205   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  6206   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  6207   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  6208   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  6209   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  6210   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  6211   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  6212   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  6213   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  6214   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  6215   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  6216   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  6217   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  6218   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  6219   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  6220   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  6221   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  6222 
  6223 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6224 
  6225 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  6226 and corresponding theorem names:
  6227 
  6228   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  6229 
  6230   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  6231 
  6232   - Renamed theorems:
  6233 
  6234     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  6235     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  6236     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  6237     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  6238     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  6239     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  6240     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  6241     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  6242     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  6243     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  6244     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  6245     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  6246     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  6247     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  6248     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  6249     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  6250     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  6251     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  6252     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  6253     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  6254     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  6255     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  6256     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  6257 
  6258     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  6259