NEWS
author wenzelm
Mon Dec 09 12:22:23 2013 +0100 (2013-12-09)
changeset 54703 499f92dc6e45
parent 54702 3daeba5130f0
child 54705 0dff3326d12a
permissions -rw-r--r--
more antiquotations;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 
    13 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    14 
    15 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    16 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    17 
    18 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
    19 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
    20 
    21 
    22 *** HOL ***
    23 
    24 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
    25 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    26 
    27 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
    28     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
    29 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    30 
    31 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
    32     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
    33     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
    34 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    35 
    36 * Abolished neg_numeral.
    37   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
    38   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
    39   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
    40     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
    41   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
    42     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- … - _".
    43   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
    44 INCOMPATBILITY.
    45 
    46 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
    47     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
    48     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
    49     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
    50     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
    51 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    52 
    53 * Fact name consolidation:
    54     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
    55     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
    56     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
    57     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
    58     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
    59 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    60 
    61 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
    62 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
    63 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
    64 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
    65 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
    66 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
    67 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
    68 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
    69 
    70 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
    71 
    72 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
    73 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
    74 
    75 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
    76 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [… "- _" …]" by simp".
    77 
    78 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
    79 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
    80 or the brute way with
    81 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
    82 
    83 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
    84 
    85 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
    86 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
    87 
    88 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
    89 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
    90 
    91 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
    92 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
    93 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
    94 INCOMPATIBILITY
    95 
    96 * Nitpick:
    97   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
    98     infinite values.
    99 
   100 
   101 *** ML ***
   102 
   103 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   104 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   105 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   106 formal context.
   107 
   108 
   109 *** System ***
   110 
   111 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   112 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   113 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   114 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   115 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   116 
   117 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   118 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   119 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   120 
   121 
   122 
   123 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   124 -------------------------------------
   125 
   126 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   127 
   128 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   129 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   130 
   131 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   132 after edits surrounding the command location.
   133 
   134 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   135 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   136 e.g. out-of-memory).
   137 
   138 
   139 *** System ***
   140 
   141 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   142 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   143 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   144 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   145 
   146 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   147 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   148 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   149 
   150 
   151 
   152 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   153 -------------------------------------
   154 
   155 *** General ***
   156 
   157 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   158 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   159 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   160 
   161 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   162 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   163 
   164 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   165 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   166 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   167 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   168 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   169 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   170 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   171 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   172 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   173 syntax.
   174 
   175 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   176 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   177 
   178 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   179 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   180 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   181 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   182 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   183 
   184 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   185 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   186 
   187 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   188 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   189 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   190 
   191 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   192 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   193 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   194 
   195 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   196 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   197 
   198 
   199 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   200 
   201 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   202 Documentation panel.
   203 
   204 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   205 documentation.
   206 
   207 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   208 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   209 
   210 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   211 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   212 normal editing and checking process.
   213 
   214 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   215 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   216 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   217 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   218 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   219 
   220 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   221 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   222 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   223 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   224 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   225 
   226 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   227 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   228 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   229 
   230 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   231 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   232 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   233 to resolve conflict.
   234 
   235 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   236 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   237 
   238 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   239 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   240 such command executions while editing.
   241 
   242 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   243 document content.
   244 
   245 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   246 toplevel theorem statements.
   247 
   248 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   249 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   250 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   251 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   252 
   253 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   254 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   255 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   256 
   257 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   258 / Global Options / Appearance".
   259 
   260 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   261 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   262 
   263 
   264 *** Pure ***
   265 
   266 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   267 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   268 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   269 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   270 details.
   271 
   272 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   273 
   274 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   275 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   276 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   277 
   278 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   279 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   280 
   281 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   282 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   283 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   284 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   285 
   286 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   287 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   288 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   289 
   290 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   291 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   292 
   293 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   294 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   295 situations.
   296 
   297 
   298 *** HOL ***
   299 
   300 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   301 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   302 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   303 
   304 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   305 
   306 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   307 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   308 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   309 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   310 
   311   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   312 
   313 * Code generator:
   314   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   315     'code_instance'.
   316   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   317     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   318 
   319 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   320 examples.
   321 
   322 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   323 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   324 to distinguish both when desired.
   325 
   326 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   327 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   328 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   329 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   330 
   331 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   332 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   333 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   334 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   335 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   336 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   337 
   338 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   339 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   340 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   341 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   342 
   343 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   344 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   345 
   346 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   347 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   348 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   349 
   350 * Lifting:
   351   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   352     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   353       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   354       transfer rules
   355     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   356       correspondence relation can be generated
   357     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   358       parametricity
   359     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   360   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   361   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   362     copies
   363   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   364     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   365     anonymous context)
   366   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   367     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   368   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   369     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   370   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   371     INCOMPATIBILITY
   372 
   373 * Transfer:
   374   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   375     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   376   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   377   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   378     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   379   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   380 
   381 * Reification and reflection:
   382   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   383     "Reification".
   384   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   385   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   386 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   387 
   388 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   389   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   390     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   391     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   392   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   393     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   394   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   395     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   396     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   397     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   398     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   399     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   400     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   401     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   402   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   403     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   404   - Fact renames:
   405       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   406       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   407 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   408 
   409 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   410 
   411 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   412 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   413 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   414 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   415 
   416 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   417 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   418 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   419 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   420 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   421 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   422 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   423 lemmas.
   424 
   425 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   426 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   427 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   428 
   429 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   430 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   431 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   432 
   433 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   434 top and bottom elements.
   435 
   436 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   437 
   438 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   439 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   440 
   441  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   442    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   443    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   444 
   445  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   446    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   447    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   448 
   449    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   450    arbitrary filter.
   451 
   452  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   453    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   454    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   455    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   456    on a compact set.
   457 
   458  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   459    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   460    linear_continuum_topology).
   461 
   462  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   463    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   464    on all sequences converging to x.
   465 
   466  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   467    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   468    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   469    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   470    left or right.
   471 
   472  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   473 
   474      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   475 
   476  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   477    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   478 
   479  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   480    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   481    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   482    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   483    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   484    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   485 
   486  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   487 
   488    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   489 
   490    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   491      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   492 
   493    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   494 
   495    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   496      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   497 
   498    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   499 
   500    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   501 
   502  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   503 
   504 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   505 
   506 * Nitpick:
   507   - Added option "spy"
   508   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   509 
   510 * Sledgehammer:
   511   - Renamed option:
   512       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   513     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   514   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   515   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   516   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   517 
   518 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   519 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   520 
   521 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   522   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   523   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   524     generated code.
   525   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   526   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   527   - Fact renames:
   528     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   529     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   530     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   531 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   532 
   533 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   534 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   535 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   536 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   537 
   538 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   539 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   540 
   541 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   542 
   543 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   544 
   545     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   546     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   547 
   548 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   549 
   550 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   551 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   552 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   553 
   554 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   555 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   556 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   557 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   558 
   559 * HOL-BNF:
   560   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   561     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   562     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   563     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   564   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   565     coinduct).
   566   - Renamed keywords:
   567     data ~> datatype_new
   568     codata ~> codatatype
   569     bnf_def ~> bnf
   570   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   571     discs ~> disc
   572     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   573     map_id' ~> map_id
   574     sels ~> sel
   575     set_map' ~> set_map
   576     sets ~> set
   577 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   578 
   579 
   580 *** ML ***
   581 
   582 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   583 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   584 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   585 Examples.thy in particular.
   586 
   587 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   588 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   589 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   590 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   591 
   592 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   593 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   594 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   595 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   596 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   597 
   598 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   599 
   600     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   601     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   602 
   603 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   604 
   605 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   606 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   607 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   608 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   609 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   610 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   611 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   612 
   613 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   614 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   615 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   616 clasets separately from the context.
   617 
   618 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   619 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   620 
   621 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   622 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   623 
   624 
   625 *** System ***
   626 
   627 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   628 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   629 
   630 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   631 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   632 
   633 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   634 settings variable.
   635 
   636 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   637 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   638 always pdf.
   639 
   640 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   641 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   642 
   643 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   644 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   645 
   646 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   647 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   648 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   649 
   650 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   651 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   652 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   653 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   654 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   655 for HTML presentation of theories.
   656 
   657 
   658 
   659 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   660 -----------------------------------
   661 
   662 *** General ***
   663 
   664 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   665 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   666 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   667 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   668 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   669 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   670 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   671 
   672 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   673 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   674 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   675 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   676 
   677 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   678 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   679 
   680 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   681 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   682 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   683 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   684 dependencies properly.
   685 
   686 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   687 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   688 
   689 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   690 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   691 
   692 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   693 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   694 and "class ... context ...".
   695 
   696 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   697 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   698 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   699 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   700 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   701 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   702 
   703 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   704 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   705 
   706 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   707 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   708 
   709 
   710 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   711 
   712 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   713 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   714 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   715 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   716 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   717 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   718 
   719 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   720 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   721 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   722 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   723 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   724 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   725 
   726 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   727 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   728 browser on demand.
   729 
   730 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   731 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   732 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   733 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   734 
   735 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   736 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   737 
   738 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   739 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   740 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   741 potentially infinite message streams.
   742 
   743 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   744 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   745 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   746 schemes.
   747 
   748 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   749 symbols.
   750 
   751 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   752 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   753 
   754 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   755 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   756 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   757 
   758 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   759 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   760 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   761 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   762 
   763 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   764 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   765 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   766 
   767 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   768 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   769 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   770 Isabelle distribution.
   771 
   772 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   773 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   774 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   775 
   776 
   777 *** Pure ***
   778 
   779 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   780 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   781 
   782 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   783 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   784 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   785 
   786 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   787 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   788 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   789 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   790 with some care where this is really required.
   791 
   792 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   793 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   794 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   795 
   796   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   797 
   798 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   799 a Hasse diagram.
   800 
   801 
   802 *** HOL ***
   803 
   804 * Sledgehammer:
   805 
   806   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   807     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   808   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   809   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   810   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   811   - Renamed options:
   812       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   813       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   814       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   815       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   816 
   817 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   818 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   819 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   820 
   821 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   822 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   823 
   824 * Lifting:
   825   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
   826   - quot_del attribute
   827   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
   828 
   829 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
   830 expressions.
   831 
   832 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
   833 pointfree expressions.
   834 
   835 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
   836 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
   837 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
   838 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
   839 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   840 
   841 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
   842 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
   843 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
   844 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
   845 accordingly.
   846 
   847 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
   848 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   849 
   850 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
   851 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   852 
   853 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   854 
   855 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
   856 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
   857 
   858 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
   859 
   860 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
   861 
   862   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
   863   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
   864 
   865 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   866 
   867 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
   868 
   869   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
   870   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
   871 
   872 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   873 
   874 * Generalized the definition of limits:
   875 
   876   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
   877     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
   878     output f x converges to G.
   879 
   880   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
   881     infinity (at_bot).
   882 
   883   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
   884     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
   885 
   886   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
   887     at_top".
   888 
   889 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   890 
   891 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
   892 lattice type classes.
   893 
   894 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
   895 
   896     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
   897     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
   898 
   899 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   900 
   901 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
   902 changes as follows.
   903 
   904   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
   905 
   906       prefix ~> prefixeq
   907       strict_prefix ~> prefix
   908 
   909   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
   910     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
   911     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
   912     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
   913 
   914   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
   915     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
   916     "list_hembeq (op =)".
   917 
   918   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
   919     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
   920     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
   921     Library/Prefix_Order.
   922 
   923   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
   924     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
   925 
   926       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
   927       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
   928       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
   929       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
   930       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
   931       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
   932       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
   933       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
   934       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
   935       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
   936       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
   937       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
   938       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
   939       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
   940       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
   941       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
   942 
   943 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   944 
   945 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
   946 
   947 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
   948 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
   949 
   950 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
   951 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
   952 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
   953 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
   954 
   955   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
   956   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
   957   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
   958   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
   959   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
   960   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
   961   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
   962   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
   963   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
   964   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
   965 
   966 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   967 
   968 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
   969 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
   970 Data").
   971 
   972 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
   973 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
   974 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
   975 code.
   976 
   977 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
   978 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
   979 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
   980 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   981 
   982 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
   983 
   984 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
   985 
   986 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
   987 
   988   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
   989   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
   990 
   991 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
   992 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
   993 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
   994 
   995   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
   996 
   997     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
   998     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
   999     cart_base i  removed
  1000     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1001 
  1002   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1003 
  1004   Renamed lemmas:
  1005 
  1006     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1007     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1008     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1009     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1010     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1011     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1012     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1013     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1014     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1015     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1016 
  1017 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1018 
  1019 * HOL/Probability:
  1020 
  1021   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1022 
  1023   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1024     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1025     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1026 
  1027   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1028     projective family).
  1029 
  1030 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1031 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1032 
  1033 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1034 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1035 datatypes.
  1036 
  1037 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1038 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1039 
  1040 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1041 trees for the code generator.
  1042 
  1043 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1044 Lifting/Transfer.
  1045 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1046 
  1047 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1048 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1049 
  1050 
  1051 *** Document preparation ***
  1052 
  1053 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1054 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1055 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1056 
  1057 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1058 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1059 
  1060 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1061 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1062 document/root.tex.
  1063 
  1064 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1065 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1066 
  1067 
  1068 *** ML ***
  1069 
  1070 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1071 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1072 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1073 
  1074 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1075 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1076 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1077 
  1078 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1079 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1080 necessarily printing visible text.
  1081 
  1082 
  1083 *** System ***
  1084 
  1085 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1086 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1087 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1088 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1089 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1090 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1091 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1092 
  1093 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1094 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1095 
  1096   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1097 
  1098 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1099 
  1100 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1101 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1102 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1103 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1104 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1105 
  1106 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1107 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1108 
  1109 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1110 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1111 
  1112 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1113 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1114 
  1115 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1116 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1117 version of Isabelle.
  1118 
  1119 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1120 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1121 
  1122 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1123 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1124 for home-made settings.
  1125 
  1126 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1127 
  1128 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1129 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1130 configuration.
  1131 
  1132 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1133 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1134 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1135 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1136 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1137 
  1138 
  1139 
  1140 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1141 ------------------------------
  1142 
  1143 *** General ***
  1144 
  1145 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1146 
  1147   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1148     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1149   - markup for bound variables
  1150   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1151   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1152   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1153     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1154 
  1155 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1156 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1157 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1158 
  1159 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1160 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1161 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1162 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1163 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1164 
  1165   context
  1166     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1167     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1168   begin
  1169 
  1170   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1171 
  1172   end
  1173 
  1174   thm my_trans
  1175 
  1176 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1177 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1178 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1179 
  1180 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1181 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1182 
  1183 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1184 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1185 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1186 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1187 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1188 
  1189 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1190 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1191 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1192 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1193 indices of schematic variables.
  1194 
  1195 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1196 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1197 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1198 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1199 etc. was exploited.
  1200 
  1201 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1202 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1203 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1204 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1205 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1206 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1207 
  1208 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1209 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1210 manual.
  1211 
  1212 
  1213 *** Pure ***
  1214 
  1215 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1216 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1217 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1218 
  1219 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1220 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1221 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1222 undocumented feature.)
  1223 
  1224 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1225 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1226 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1227 
  1228   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1229 
  1230   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1231     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1232 
  1233 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1234 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1235 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1236 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1237 
  1238 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1239 
  1240     num ~> num_token
  1241     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1242     xstr ~> str_token
  1243 
  1244 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1245 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1246 position information via constraints).
  1247 
  1248 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1249 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1250 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1251 
  1252 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1253 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1254 
  1255 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1256 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1257 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1258 
  1259 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1260 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1261 
  1262 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1263 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1264 
  1265   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1266 
  1267 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1268 
  1269 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1270 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1271 
  1272 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1273 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1274 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1275 
  1276 
  1277 *** HOL ***
  1278 
  1279 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1280 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1281 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1282 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1283 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1284 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1285 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1286 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1287 possible.
  1288 
  1289 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1290 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1291 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1292 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1293 
  1294 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1295 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1296 
  1297 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1298 
  1299 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1300 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1301 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1302 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1303 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1304 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1305 
  1306   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1307     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1308 
  1309   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1310     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1311     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1312 
  1313   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1314     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1315 
  1316   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1317     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1318     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1319 
  1320   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1321     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1322 
  1323 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1324 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1325 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1326 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1327 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1328 
  1329   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1330     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1331     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1332     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1333     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1334 
  1335     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1336     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1337 
  1338   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1339     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1340     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1341     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1342     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1343     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1344     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1345     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1346 
  1347   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1348     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1349     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1350     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1351 
  1352   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1353     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1354     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1355     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1356 
  1357   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1358     from type nat to type int.
  1359 
  1360 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1361 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1362 
  1363   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1364     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1365     type.  Example syntax:
  1366 
  1367     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1368       is List.insert
  1369 
  1370     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1371     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1372     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1373     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1374     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1375     by the package.
  1376 
  1377   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1378     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1379     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1380     code generation for each constant.
  1381 
  1382   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1383     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1384     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1385     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1386     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1387 
  1388   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1389     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1390     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1391 
  1392 * Quotient package:
  1393 
  1394   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1395     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1396 
  1397   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1398     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1399 
  1400   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1401     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1402     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1403 
  1404   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1405     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1406 
  1407 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1408 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1409 
  1410 * Quickcheck:
  1411 
  1412   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1413     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1414     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1415     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1416     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1417 
  1418     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1419     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1420     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1421 
  1422     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1423     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1424 
  1425     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1426     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1427     show genuine counterexamples.
  1428 
  1429   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1430     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1431 
  1432     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1433     constructors of that type.
  1434 
  1435   - Support for multisets.
  1436 
  1437   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1438 
  1439   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1440     conjectures in a locale context.
  1441 
  1442 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1443 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1444 
  1445 * Sledgehammer:
  1446   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1447     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1448   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1449   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1450     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1451   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1452   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1453   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1454   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1455 
  1456 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1457 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1458 
  1459 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1460 
  1461 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1462 
  1463 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1464 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1465 
  1466   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1467 
  1468 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1469 a list and a nat.
  1470 
  1471 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1472 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1473 
  1474 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1475 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1476 default.
  1477 
  1478 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1479 
  1480   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1481 
  1482 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1483 
  1484 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1485 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1486 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1487 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1488 one_case.
  1489 
  1490 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1491 the result of the fact expression.
  1492 
  1493 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1494 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1495 of some relation theorems:
  1496 
  1497   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1498   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1499   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1500   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1501   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1502   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1503 
  1504 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1505 
  1506 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1507 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1508 
  1509 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1510 
  1511 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1512 to match the constant's name:
  1513 
  1514   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1515   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1516   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1517   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1518   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1519   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1520   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1521   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1522   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1523   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1524   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1525   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1526   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1527   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1528   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1529   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1530   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1531   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1532   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1533   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1534   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1535   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1536   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1537   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1538 
  1539 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1540 
  1541 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1542 and corresponding theorem names:
  1543 
  1544   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1545 
  1546   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1547 
  1548   - Renamed theorems:
  1549 
  1550     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1551     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1552     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1553     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1554     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1555     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1556     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1557     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1558     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1559     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1560     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1561     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1562     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1563     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1564     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1565     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1566     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1567     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1568     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1569     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1570     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1571     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1572     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1573 
  1574     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1575 
  1576     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1577 
  1578 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1579 
  1580 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1581 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1582 
  1583   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1584   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1585   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1586   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1587   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1588   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1589   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1590   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1591   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1592   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1593   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1594   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1595   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1596   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1597   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1598   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1599   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1600   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1601   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1602   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1603   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1604 
  1605 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1606 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1607 
  1608 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1609 
  1610 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1611 
  1612   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1613   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1614   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1615   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1616   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1617   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1618   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1619   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1620   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1621   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1622   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1623   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1624   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1625   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1626   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1627   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1628   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1629   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1630 
  1631 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1632 
  1633 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1634 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1635 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1636 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1637 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1638 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1639 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1640 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1641 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1642 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1643 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1644 
  1645 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1646 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1647 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1648 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1649 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1650 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1651 
  1652 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1653 through option types.
  1654 
  1655 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1656 relations.
  1657 
  1658 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1659 
  1660 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1661 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1662 
  1663   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1664   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1665   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1666   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1667   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1668   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1669   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1670   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1671   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1672   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1673   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1674   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1675   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1676   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1677   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1678   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1679   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1680   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1681   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1682   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1683   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1684   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1685   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1686   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1687   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1688   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1689   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1690   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1691   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1692   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1693   zless_le ~> less_le
  1694   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1695   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1696   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1697 
  1698 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1699 
  1700   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1701 
  1702 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1703 
  1704 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1705 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1706 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1707 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1708 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1709 
  1710 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1711 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1712 
  1713 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1714 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1715 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1716 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1717 follows:
  1718 
  1719   Operations:
  1720   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1721   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1722   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1723   del -> rbt_del
  1724   delete -> rbt_delete
  1725   ins -> rbt_ins
  1726   insert -> rbt_insert
  1727   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1728   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1729   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1730   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1731   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1732   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1733   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1734   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1735   union -> rbt_union
  1736   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1737   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1738 
  1739   Lemmas:
  1740   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1741   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1742   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1743   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1744   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1745   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1746   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1747   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1748   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1749   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1750   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1751   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1752   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1753   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1754   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1755   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1756   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1757   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1758   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1759   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1760   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1761   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1762   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1763   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1764   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1765   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1766   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1767   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1768   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1769   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1770   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1771   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1772   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1773   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1774   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1775   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1776   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1777   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1778   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1779   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1780   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1781   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1782   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1783   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1784   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1785   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1786   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1787   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1788   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1789   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1790   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1791   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1792   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1793   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1794   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1795   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1796   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1797   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1798   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1799   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1800   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1801   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1802   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1803   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1804   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1805   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1806   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1807   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1808   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1809   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1810   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1811   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1812   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1813   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1814   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1815   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1816   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1817   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1818   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1819   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1820   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1821   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1822   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1823 
  1824 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1825 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  1826 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1827 
  1828   Changed Operations:
  1829   float_abs -> abs
  1830   float_nprt -> nprt
  1831   float_pprt -> pprt
  1832   pow2 -> use powr
  1833   round_down -> float_round_down
  1834   round_up -> float_round_up
  1835   scale -> exponent
  1836 
  1837   Removed Operations:
  1838   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  1839 
  1840   Renamed Lemmas:
  1841   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  1842   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  1843   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  1844   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  1845   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  1846   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  1847   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  1848   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  1849   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  1850   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  1851   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  1852   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  1853   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  1854   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  1855   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  1856   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  1857   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  1858   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  1859   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  1860   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  1861   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  1862   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  1863   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  1864   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  1865   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  1866   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  1867   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  1868   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  1869   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  1870   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  1871   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  1872   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  1873   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  1874   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  1875   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  1876   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  1877 
  1878   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  1879   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  1880   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  1881   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  1882   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  1883   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  1884   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  1885   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  1886   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  1887   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  1888 
  1889 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  1890 association lists with distinct keys.
  1891 
  1892 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  1893 annotated commands.
  1894 
  1895 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  1896 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  1897 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  1898 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1899 
  1900 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  1901 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  1902 instead.
  1903 
  1904   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  1905   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  1906   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  1907   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  1908   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  1909   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  1910   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  1911   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1912   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1913   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1914   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  1915   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1916   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1917   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1918   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1919   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  1920   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1921   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  1922   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  1923   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  1924   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  1925   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  1926   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  1927   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  1928   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1929   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  1930   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  1931   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  1932   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  1933   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1934   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1935   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1936   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  1937   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  1938   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  1939   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  1940   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  1941   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  1942   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  1943   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  1944   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  1945 
  1946 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  1947 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  1948 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  1949 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  1950 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  1951 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  1952 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  1953 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  1954 
  1955 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  1956 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  1957 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  1958 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  1959 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  1960 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  1961 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  1962 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  1963 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  1964 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  1965 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  1966 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1967 
  1968   Renamed constants:
  1969   measure -> emeasure
  1970   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  1971   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  1972   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  1973   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  1974 
  1975   Removed locales:
  1976   completeable_measure_space
  1977   finite_measure_space
  1978   finite_prob_space
  1979   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  1980   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  1981   finite_sigma_algebra
  1982   measure_space
  1983   pair_finite_prob_space
  1984   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  1985   pair_finite_space
  1986   pair_sigma_algebra
  1987   product_sigma_algebra
  1988 
  1989   Removed constants:
  1990   conditional_space
  1991   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1992   image_space
  1993   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  1994   pair_measure_generator
  1995   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  1996   subvimage
  1997 
  1998   Replacement theorems:
  1999   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2000   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2001   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2002   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2003   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2004   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2005   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2006   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2007   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2008   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2009   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2010   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2011   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2012   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2013   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2014   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2015   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2016   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2017   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2018   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2019   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2020   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2021   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2022   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2023   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2024   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2025   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2026   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2027   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2028   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2029   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2030   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2031   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2032   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2033   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2034   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2035   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2036   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2037   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2038   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2039   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2040   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2041   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2042   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2043   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2044   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2045   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2046   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2047   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2048   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2049   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2050   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2051   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2052   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2053   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2054   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2055   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2056   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2057   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2058   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2059   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2060   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2061   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2062   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2063   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2064   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2065   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2066   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2067   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2068   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2069   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2070   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2071   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2072   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2073   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2074   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2075   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2076   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2077   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2078   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2079   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2080   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2081   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2082   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2083   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2084   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2085   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2086   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2087   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2088   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2089   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2090   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2091   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2092   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2093   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2094   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2095   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2096   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2097   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2098   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2099   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2100   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2101   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2102   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2103   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2104   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2105   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2106   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2107   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2108   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2109   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2110   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2111   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2112   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2113   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2114   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2115   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2116   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2117   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2118   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2119   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2120   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2121   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2122   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2123   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2124   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2125   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2126   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2127 
  2128 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2129 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2130 
  2131 
  2132 *** FOL ***
  2133 
  2134 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2135 
  2136 
  2137 *** ZF ***
  2138 
  2139 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2140 analysis.
  2141 
  2142 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2143 
  2144 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2145 
  2146 
  2147 *** ML ***
  2148 
  2149 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2150 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2151 
  2152 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2153 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2154 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2155 
  2156 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2157 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2158 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2159 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2160 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2161 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2162 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2163 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2164 
  2165 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2166 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2167 
  2168 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2169 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2170 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2171 
  2172 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2173 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2174 
  2175 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2176 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2177 context as well.
  2178 
  2179 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2180 
  2181   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2182   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2183   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2184   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2185   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2186   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2187   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2188   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2189   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2190   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2191   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2192   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2193 
  2194 
  2195 *** System ***
  2196 
  2197 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2198 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2199 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2200 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2201 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2202 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2203 the generic user home was intended.
  2204 
  2205 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2206 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2207 
  2208 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2209 (not just JRE).
  2210 
  2211 
  2212 
  2213 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2214 ------------------------------------
  2215 
  2216 *** General ***
  2217 
  2218 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2219 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2220 
  2221   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2222     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2223     files for checking).
  2224 
  2225   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2226     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2227     positions.
  2228 
  2229   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2230     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2231     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2232 
  2233   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2234     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2235     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2236 
  2237   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2238     cores.
  2239 
  2240   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2241     versions (garbage collection).
  2242 
  2243 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2244 including some remaining limitations.
  2245 
  2246 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2247 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2248 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2249 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2250 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2251 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2252 
  2253 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2254 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2255 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2256 
  2257 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2258 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2259 usedir option -Q.
  2260 
  2261 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2262 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2263 
  2264   long_names   ~> names_long
  2265   short_names  ~> names_short
  2266   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2267 
  2268 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2269 
  2270   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2271 
  2272 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2273 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2274 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2275 
  2276 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2277 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2278 
  2279 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2280   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2281   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2282   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2283     "Classical Reasoner".
  2284 
  2285 
  2286 *** HOL ***
  2287 
  2288 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2289 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2290 
  2291 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2292 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2293 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2294 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2295 class complete_linorder.
  2296 
  2297 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2298 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2299 
  2300 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2301 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2302 
  2303   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2304   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2305   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2306   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2307   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2308   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2309   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2310   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2311   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2312   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2313   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2314 
  2315 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2316 
  2317   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2318   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2319   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2320   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2321   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2322   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2323   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2324   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2325   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2326   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2327   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2328   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2329   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2330   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2331   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2332   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2333 
  2334 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2335 
  2336 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2337 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2338 
  2339 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2340 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2341 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2342 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2343 
  2344 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2345 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2346 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2347 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2348 
  2349 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2350 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2351 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2352 
  2353 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2354 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2355 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2356 
  2357 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2358 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2359 
  2360 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2361 
  2362     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2363     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2364 
  2365 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2366 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2367 
  2368 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2369 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2370 
  2371 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2372 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2373 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2374 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2375 
  2376   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2377   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2378   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2379   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2380   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2381   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2382   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2383 
  2384 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2385 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2386 
  2387   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2388   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2389   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2390   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2391   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2392   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2393   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2394   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2395   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2396   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2397   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2398   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2399   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2400   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2401   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2402   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2403   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2404   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2405   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2406   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2407   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2408   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2409   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2410   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2411   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2412   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2413   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2414   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2415   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2416   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2417   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2418   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2419   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2420   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2421   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2422   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2423   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2424   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2425   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2426   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2427   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2428   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2429   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2430   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2431   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2432   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2433   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2434   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2435   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2436   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2437   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2438   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2439   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2440   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2441   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2442   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2443   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2444   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2445   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2446   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2447   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2448   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2449   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2450   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2451   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2452   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2453   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2454   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2455   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2456   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2457   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2458   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2459   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2460   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2461   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2462   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2463   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2464   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2465   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2466   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2467   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2468   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2469 
  2470 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2471 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2472 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2473 
  2474 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2475 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2476 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2477 
  2478 * Code generation:
  2479 
  2480   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2481     characters in the target language.
  2482 
  2483   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2484     instead.
  2485 
  2486   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2487 
  2488   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2489     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2490 
  2491       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2492 
  2493 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2494 
  2495 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2496 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2497 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2498 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2499 syntax.
  2500 
  2501 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2502 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2503 
  2504 * Nitpick:
  2505   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2506   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2507   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2508     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2509 
  2510 * Sledgehammer:
  2511   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2512   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2513     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2514   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2515     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2516   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2517     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2518   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2519     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2520   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2521     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2522 
  2523 * Metis:
  2524   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2525   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2526     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2527 
  2528 * Command 'try':
  2529   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2530     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2531   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2532     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2533 
  2534 * Quickcheck:
  2535   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2536     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2537   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2538     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2539   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2540     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2541     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2542     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2543   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2544     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2545 
  2546 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2547 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2548 
  2549 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2550 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2551 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2552 
  2553 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2554 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2555 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2556 
  2557 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2558 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2559 
  2560 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2561 arithmetic.
  2562 
  2563 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2564 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2565 and lattice type classes.
  2566 
  2567 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2568 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2569 
  2570 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2571 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2572 
  2573 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2574 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2575 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2576 
  2577   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2578   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2579   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2580   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2581 
  2582 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2583 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2584 constants:
  2585 
  2586   type inat   ~> type enat
  2587   Fin         ~> enat
  2588   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2589   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2590   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2591 
  2592 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2593 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2594 
  2595 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2596 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2597 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2598 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2599 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2600 
  2601 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2602 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2603 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2604 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2605 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2606 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2607 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2608 
  2609   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2610   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2611   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2612   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2613 
  2614 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2615 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2616 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2617 
  2618   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2619   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2620   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2621   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2622   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2623   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2624   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2625   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2626   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2627   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2628   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2629   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2630   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2631   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2632   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2633   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2634   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2635   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2636   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2637   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2638   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2639   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2640   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2641   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2642   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2643   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2644   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2645   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2646   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2647   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2648   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2649   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2650   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2651   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2652   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2653   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2654   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2655   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2656   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2657   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2658   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2659   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2660   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2661   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2662   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2663   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2664   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2665   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2666   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2667   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2668   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2669 
  2670 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2671   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2672   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2673   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2674   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2675     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2676 
  2677 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2678 
  2679   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2680   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2681   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2682   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2683   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2684   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2685   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2686   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2687   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2688   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2689   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2690   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2691   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2692   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2693   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2694   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2695   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2696   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2697   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2698   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2699   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2700   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2701   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2702   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2703   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2704 
  2705 
  2706 *** Document preparation ***
  2707 
  2708 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2709 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2710 same.
  2711 
  2712 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2713 result.
  2714 
  2715 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2716 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2717 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2718 
  2719 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2720 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2721 
  2722 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2723 like this:
  2724 
  2725   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2726   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2727 
  2728 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2729 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2730 layouts.
  2731 
  2732 
  2733 *** ML ***
  2734 
  2735 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2736 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2737 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2738 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2739 under external program control.
  2740 
  2741 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2742 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2743 
  2744 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2745 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2746 (better known as Proof General).
  2747 
  2748 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2749 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2750 
  2751 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2752 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2753 
  2754 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2755 (including quotes etc.).
  2756 
  2757 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2758 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2759 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2760 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2761 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2762 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2763 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2764 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2765 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2766 
  2767 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2768 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2769 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2770 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2771 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2772 
  2773 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2774 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2775 
  2776 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2777 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2778 
  2779 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2780 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2781 
  2782 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2783 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2784 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2785 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2786 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2787 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2788 proper Proof.context.
  2789 
  2790 
  2791 *** System ***
  2792 
  2793 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2794 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2795 
  2796 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2797 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2798 
  2799 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2800 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2801 
  2802   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2803   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2804   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2805   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2806   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2807 
  2808 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2809 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2810 
  2811 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2812 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2813 example:
  2814 
  2815   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2816 
  2817 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2818 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2819 
  2820 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2821 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2822 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2823 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2824 
  2825 
  2826 
  2827 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  2828 ----------------------------------
  2829 
  2830 *** General ***
  2831 
  2832 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  2833 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  2834 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  2835 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  2836 like this:
  2837 
  2838   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  2839 
  2840 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  2841 
  2842 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  2843 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  2844 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  2845 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  2846 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  2847 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  2848 
  2849 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  2850 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  2851 the following package declarations:
  2852 
  2853   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  2854   \usepackage{textcomp}
  2855 
  2856 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  2857 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  2858 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  2859 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  2860 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  2861 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  2862 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  2863 
  2864 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  2865 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2866 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  2867 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  2868 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  2869 
  2870 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  2871 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  2872 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  2873 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2874 
  2875 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  2876 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  2877 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  2878 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  2879 
  2880   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  2881 
  2882   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  2883   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  2884   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  2885   show_types                    show_types
  2886   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  2887   show_consts                   show_consts
  2888   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  2889 
  2890   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  2891   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  2892   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  2893 
  2894   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  2895   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  2896 
  2897   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  2898 
  2899   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  2900   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  2901   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  2902   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  2903   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  2904 
  2905 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  2906 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  2907 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  2908 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  2909 
  2910 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  2911 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2912 
  2913   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  2914   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  2915 
  2916 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  2917 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  2918 float_token.
  2919 
  2920 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  2921 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  2922 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2923 
  2924 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  2925 DejaVu Sans.
  2926 
  2927 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  2928 
  2929 
  2930 *** Pure ***
  2931 
  2932 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  2933 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  2934 time.
  2935 
  2936 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  2937 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2938 
  2939 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  2940 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2941 
  2942 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  2943 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  2944 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  2945 command already provided this functionality.
  2946 
  2947 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  2948 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  2949 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  2950 without interpretations.
  2951 
  2952 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  2953 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  2954 
  2955 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  2956 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  2957 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  2958 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  2959 
  2960 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2961 'definition' instead.
  2962 
  2963 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  2964 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  2965 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  2966 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  2967 
  2968 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  2969 constructors.
  2970 
  2971 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  2972 the local file system.
  2973 
  2974 
  2975 *** HOL ***
  2976 
  2977 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  2978 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  2979 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  2980 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  2981 
  2982   declare [[coercion f]]
  2983 
  2984 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  2985 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  2986 
  2987   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  2988 
  2989 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  2990 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  2991 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  2992 other theories like this:
  2993 
  2994   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  2995 
  2996 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  2997 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  2998 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  2999 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3000 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3001 for examples.
  3002 
  3003 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3004 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3005 
  3006 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3007 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3008 
  3009 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3010 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3011 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3012 
  3013 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3014 functorial structure of types.
  3015 
  3016 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3017 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3018 
  3019 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3020 languages.
  3021 
  3022 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3023 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3024 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3025 
  3026 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3027 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3028 
  3029 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3030 combinators any longer.
  3031 
  3032 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3033 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3034 
  3035 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3036 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3037 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3038 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3039 
  3040   record 'a foo = ...
  3041   ...
  3042   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3043 
  3044 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3045 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3046 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3047 
  3048 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3049 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3050 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3051 
  3052 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3053 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3054 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3055 
  3056 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3057 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3058 
  3059 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3060 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3061 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3062 independently.
  3063 
  3064 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3065 counter example search.
  3066 
  3067 * Sledgehammer:
  3068   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3069     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3070     sledgehammer").
  3071   - Renamed commands:
  3072     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3073     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3074     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3075     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3076   - Renamed options:
  3077     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3078     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3079     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3080     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3081     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3082 
  3083 * Nitpick:
  3084   - Renamed options:
  3085     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3086     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3087     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3088   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3089   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3090   - Added "whack" option.
  3091   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3092   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3093   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3094   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3095     higher cardinalities.
  3096   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3097 
  3098 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3099 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3100 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3101 
  3102     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3103 
  3104 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3105 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3106 
  3107 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3108 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3109 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3110 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3111 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3112 "smt_solver".
  3113 
  3114 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3115 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3116 
  3117 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3118 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3119 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3120 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3121 
  3122 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3123   - Renamed:
  3124     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3125     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3126     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3127   - Added:
  3128     smt_verbose
  3129     smt_random_seed
  3130     smt_datatypes
  3131     smt_infer_triggers
  3132     smt_monomorph_limit
  3133     cvc3_options
  3134     remote_cvc3_options
  3135     remote_z3_options
  3136     yices_options
  3137 
  3138 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3139 header.
  3140 
  3141 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3142 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3143 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3144 
  3145   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3146 
  3147 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3148 
  3149 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3150 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3151 
  3152 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3153 
  3154 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3155 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3156 
  3157 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3158 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3159 
  3160 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3161 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3162 
  3163 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3164 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3165 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3166 
  3167 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3168 
  3169 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3170 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3171 
  3172 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3173 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3174 
  3175 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3176 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3177 for congruent(2)).
  3178 
  3179 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3180 
  3181   types
  3182     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3183     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3184 
  3185   constants
  3186     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3187     True ~> HOL.True
  3188     False ~> HOL.False
  3189     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3190     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3191     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3192     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3193     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3194     The ~> HOL.The
  3195     All ~> HOL.All
  3196     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3197     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3198     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3199     If ~> HOL.If
  3200     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3201     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3202     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3203     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3204     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3205     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3206     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3207     op : ~> Set.member
  3208     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3209 
  3210 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3211 
  3212 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3213 
  3214     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3215     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3216     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3217     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3218     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3219     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3220     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3221     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3222 
  3223 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3224 
  3225 * More stylized fact names:
  3226 
  3227   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3228   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3229   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3230   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3231 
  3232 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3233 
  3234 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3235 
  3236   constants
  3237     null ~> List.null
  3238 
  3239   facts
  3240     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3241     null_empty ~> null_def
  3242 
  3243 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3244 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3245 generation.
  3246 
  3247 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3248 Haskell code.
  3249 
  3250 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3251 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3252 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3253 
  3254 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3255 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3256 
  3257 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3258 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3259 
  3260 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3261 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3262 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3263 
  3264 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3265 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3266 
  3267 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3268 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3269 
  3270 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3271 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3272 referred to by its qualified name.
  3273 
  3274   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3275   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3276   product ~>  Enum.product
  3277 
  3278 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3279 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3280 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3281 
  3282 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3283 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3284 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3285 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3286 
  3287 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3288 sort_key.
  3289 
  3290 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3291 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3292 
  3293 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3294 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3295 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3296 
  3297   types
  3298     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3299               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3300               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3301         (depends on your needs)
  3302 
  3303   constants
  3304      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3305      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3306      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3307 
  3308 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3309 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3310 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3311 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3312 
  3313 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3314 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3315 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3316 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3317 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3318 
  3319 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3320 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3321 
  3322 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3323 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3324 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3325 
  3326 
  3327 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3328 
  3329 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3330 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3331 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3332 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3333 compatibility.
  3334 
  3335 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3336 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3337 
  3338 
  3339 *** HOLCF ***
  3340 
  3341 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3342 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3343 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3344 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3345 
  3346 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3347 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3348 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3349 
  3350   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3351   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3352   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3353 
  3354 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3355 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3356 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3357 
  3358 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3359 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3360 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3361 domain definition now works:
  3362 
  3363   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3364 
  3365 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3366 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3367 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3368 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3369 
  3370   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3371     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3372 
  3373   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3374 
  3375 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3376 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3377 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3378 
  3379 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3380 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3381 
  3382 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3383 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3384 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3385 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3386 
  3387 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3388 
  3389 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3390 
  3391 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3392 
  3393 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3394 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3395 
  3396 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3397 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3398 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3399 
  3400 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3401 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3402 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3403 
  3404 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3405 still supported as an input translation.
  3406 
  3407 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3408 
  3409   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3410   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3411   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3412   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3413   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3414   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3415   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3416 
  3417 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3418 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3419 
  3420   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3421   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3422   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3423   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3424   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3425   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3426 
  3427 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3428 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3429 
  3430 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3431 
  3432   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3433   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3434   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3435   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3436 
  3437 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3438 
  3439 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3440 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3441 
  3442 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3443 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3444 
  3445   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3446   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3447   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3448   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3449   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3450   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3451   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3452   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3453   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3454   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3455   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3456   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3457   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3458   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3459   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3460   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3461   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3462   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3463   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3464   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3465 
  3466 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3467 
  3468   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3469   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3470   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3471   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3472   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3473   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3474   box_less             ~> box_below
  3475   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3476   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3477   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3478   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3479   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3480   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3481   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3482   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3483   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3484   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3485   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3486   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3487   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3488   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3489   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3490   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3491   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3492   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3493   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3494   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3495   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3496   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3497   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3498   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3499   up_less              ~> up_below
  3500   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3501   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3502   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3503   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3504   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3505   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3506   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3507   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3508   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3509   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3510   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3511   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3512   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3513 
  3514 
  3515 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3516 
  3517 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3518 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3519 
  3520 
  3521 *** ML ***
  3522 
  3523 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3524 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3525 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3526 
  3527 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3528 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3529 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3530 
  3531 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3532 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3533 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3534 
  3535 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3536 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3537 
  3538 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3539 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3540 
  3541 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3542 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3543 
  3544 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3545 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3546 
  3547 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3548 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3549 almost all situations.
  3550 
  3551 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3552 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3553 Isabelle/ML.
  3554 
  3555 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3556 meaning.
  3557 
  3558 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3559 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3560 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3561 
  3562 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3563 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3564 
  3565 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3566 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3567 
  3568 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3569 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3570 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3571 
  3572 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3573 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3574 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3575 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3576 configuration options.
  3577 
  3578 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3579 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3580 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3581 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3582 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3583 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3584 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3585 
  3586 
  3587 
  3588 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3589 ---------------------------------
  3590 
  3591 *** General ***
  3592 
  3593 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3594 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3595 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3596 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3597 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3598 their full internal name.
  3599 
  3600 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3601 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3602 Some hints on upgrading:
  3603 
  3604   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3605     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3606     which are independent of this issue.
  3607 
  3608   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3609     provides the following special forms:
  3610 
  3611       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3612       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3613       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3614 
  3615     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3616     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3617     extra variables".
  3618 
  3619     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3620     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3621     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3622     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3623     "logic".
  3624 
  3625   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3626     antiquotations:
  3627 
  3628       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3629       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3630       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3631       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3632 
  3633   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3634     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3635     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3636     antiquotations.
  3637 
  3638 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3639 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3640 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3641 diagnose syntax problems.
  3642 
  3643 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3644 
  3645 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3646 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3647 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3648 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3649 
  3650 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3651 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3652 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3653 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3654 
  3655 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3656 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3657 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3658 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3659 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3660 
  3661 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3662 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3663 
  3664 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3665 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3666 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3667 
  3668   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3669 
  3670 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3671 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3672 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3673 
  3674 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3675 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3676 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3677 
  3678 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3679 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3680 
  3681 
  3682 *** Pure ***
  3683 
  3684 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3685 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3686 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3687 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3688 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3689 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3690 inspect proof terms.
  3691 
  3692 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3693 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3694 are added internally.  For example:
  3695 
  3696   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3697 
  3698 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3699 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3700 
  3701 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3702 
  3703 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3704 'class' instead.
  3705 
  3706 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3707 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3708 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3709 
  3710 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3711 invariants.
  3712 
  3713 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3714 user space functionality any longer.
  3715 
  3716 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3717 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3718 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3719 
  3720 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3721 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3722 
  3723 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3724 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3725 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3726 
  3727 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3728 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3729 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3730 
  3731 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3732 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3733 
  3734 
  3735 *** HOL ***
  3736 
  3737 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3738 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3739 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3740 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3741 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3742 
  3743 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3744 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3745 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3746 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3747 
  3748   fun
  3749     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3750   where
  3751     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3752 
  3753   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3754     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3755 
  3756   quotient_definition
  3757     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3758 
  3759 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3760 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3761 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3762 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3763 
  3764 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3765 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3766 
  3767 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3768 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3769 
  3770 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3771 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3772 
  3773 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3774 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3775 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3776 
  3777 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3778 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3779 
  3780 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3781 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3782 
  3783 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3784 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3785 
  3786 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3787 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3788 
  3789 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3790 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3791 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3792 
  3793   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3794   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3795   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3796   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3797   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3798   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3799   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3800   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3801   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3802   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3803   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3804   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3805   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3806   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3807   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3808   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3809   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3810   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3811   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3812   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3813   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3814   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3815   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3816   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3817   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3818   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3819   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3820   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3821   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3822   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3823 
  3824 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3825 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  3826 
  3827 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  3828 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  3829 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3830 
  3831 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  3832 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  3833 
  3834 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  3835 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3836 
  3837 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  3838 
  3839 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  3840 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3841 
  3842 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  3843 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3844 
  3845 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3846 
  3847 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  3848 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  3849 
  3850 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  3851 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  3852 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  3853 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3854 
  3855 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  3856   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  3857   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  3858   - inverse, divide: Rings
  3859 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3860 
  3861 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  3862 lattices):
  3863 
  3864     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  3865     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  3866 
  3867     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  3868 
  3869     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  3870     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  3871     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3872     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  3873     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3874     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  3875     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  3876     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  3877     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  3878     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  3879     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  3880     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  3881     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  3882 
  3883     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  3884     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  3885     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  3886     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  3887     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  3888     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  3889     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  3890     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  3891     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  3892     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  3893     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  3894     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  3895     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  3896     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  3897     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  3898     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  3899     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  3900     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  3901 
  3902   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  3903   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  3904 
  3905     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  3906     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  3907     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  3908     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  3909     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  3910 
  3911 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3912 
  3913 * Refined field classes:
  3914   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  3915     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  3916     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  3917   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  3918 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3919 
  3920 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  3921   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  3922   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  3923   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  3924     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  3925   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  3926     equal_neg_zero.
  3927 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3928 
  3929 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  3930 sets to lattices:
  3931 
  3932   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  3933   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  3934   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  3935   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  3936   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  3937   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  3938   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  3939   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  3940   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  3941   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  3942 
  3943 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  3944 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  3945 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  3946 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  3947 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  3948 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3949 
  3950 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  3951 multiset order:
  3952 
  3953   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  3954     <= and <;
  3955   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  3956     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  3957     multiset_order;
  3958   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  3959     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  3960     generation;
  3961   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  3962     if needed.
  3963 
  3964 Renamed:
  3965 
  3966   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  3967   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  3968   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  3969 
  3970 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3971 
  3972 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  3973 
  3974 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  3975 
  3976 * Theory List: added transpose.
  3977 
  3978 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  3979 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  3980 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3981 
  3982   Constants:
  3983   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  3984   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  3985   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  3986   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  3987   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  3988   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  3989   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  3990   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  3991   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  3992   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  3993   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  3994   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  3995   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  3996 
  3997   Lemmas:
  3998   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  3999   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4000   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4001   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4002   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4003   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4004   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4005   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4006   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4007   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4008   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4009   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4010   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4011 
  4012 * Sledgehammer:
  4013   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4014     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4015     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4016     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4017     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4018     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4019     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4020   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4021   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4022     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4023   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4024     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4025     is still experimental.)
  4026   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4027     full-typed mode.
  4028   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4029 
  4030 * Nitpick:
  4031   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4032   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4033   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4034     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4035   - Added support for quotient types.
  4036   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4037     constructs.
  4038   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4039     "termination" proofs).
  4040   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4041   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4042   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4043   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4044     record getters.
  4045   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4046   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4047   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4048   - Added "atoms" option.
  4049   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4050     problems.
  4051   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4052     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4053     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4054   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4055     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4056   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4057 
  4058 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4059   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4060   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4061   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4062   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4063   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4064   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4065   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4066   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4067   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4068 
  4069 
  4070 *** HOLCF ***
  4071 
  4072 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4073 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4074 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4075 
  4076 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4077 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4078 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4079 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4080 
  4081 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4082 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4083 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4084 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4085 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4086 
  4087 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4088 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4089 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4090 
  4091 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4092 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4093 
  4094   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4095   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4096 
  4097 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4098 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4099 
  4100   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4101   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4102   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4103   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4104   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4105 
  4106 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4107 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4108 
  4109   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4110   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4111   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4112 
  4113 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4114 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4115 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4116 
  4117 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4118 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4119 
  4120 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4121 
  4122 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4123 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4124 
  4125 
  4126 *** ML ***
  4127 
  4128 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4129 
  4130     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4131     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4132 
  4133     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4134     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4135     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4136     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4137 
  4138     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4139     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4140     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4141 
  4142 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4143 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4144 
  4145 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4146 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4147 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4148 
  4149 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4150 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4151 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4152 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4153 
  4154 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4155 the context or even global references.
  4156 
  4157 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4158 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4159 
  4160 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4161 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4162 
  4163   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4164   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4165   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4166   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4167   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4168   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4169   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4170   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4171   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4172   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4173 
  4174 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4175 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4176 
  4177 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4178 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4179 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4180 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4181 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4182 
  4183 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4184 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4185 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4186 Theory_Data version.
  4187 
  4188 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4189 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4190 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4191 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4192 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4193 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4194 explicitly in rare situations.
  4195 
  4196 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4197 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4198 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4199 
  4200 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4201 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4202 
  4203 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4204 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4205 quite rare).
  4206 
  4207 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4208 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4209 
  4210 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4211 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4212 terms.
  4213 
  4214 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4215 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4216 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4217 
  4218 
  4219 *** System ***
  4220 
  4221 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4222 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4223 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4224 
  4225 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4226 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4227 respectively.
  4228 
  4229 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4230 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4231 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4232 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4233 
  4234   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4235 
  4236 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4237 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4238 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4239 component.
  4240 
  4241 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4242 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4243 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4244 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4245 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4246 the user for manual installation.
  4247 
  4248 
  4249 
  4250 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4251 -------------------------------------
  4252 
  4253 *** General ***
  4254 
  4255 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4256 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4257 
  4258 
  4259 *** Pure ***
  4260 
  4261 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4262 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4263 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4264 
  4265 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4266 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4267 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4268 
  4269 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4270 interpretation.
  4271 
  4272 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4273 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4274 
  4275 
  4276 *** Document preparation ***
  4277 
  4278 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4279 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4280 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4281 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4282 
  4283 
  4284 *** HOL ***
  4285 
  4286 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4287 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4288 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4289 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4290 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4291 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4292 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4293 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4294 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4295 
  4296 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4297 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4298 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4299 
  4300 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4301 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4302 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4303 
  4304 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4305 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4306 
  4307 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4308 
  4309 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4310 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4311 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4312 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4313 
  4314 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4315 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4316 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4317 "mirabelle" utility.
  4318 
  4319 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4320 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4321 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4322 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4323 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4324 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4325 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4326 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4327 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4328 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4329 
  4330 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4331 procedure only.
  4332 
  4333 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4334 
  4335 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4336 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4337 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4338 that fail later.
  4339 
  4340 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4341 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4342 
  4343 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4344 the same method as the approximation method.
  4345 
  4346 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4347 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4348 series expansion.
  4349 
  4350 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4351 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4352 
  4353 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4354 reals.
  4355 
  4356 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4357 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4358 
  4359 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4360 fixpoint theorem.
  4361 
  4362 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4363   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4364     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4365   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4366     accordingly
  4367   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4368     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4369   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4370     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4371 
  4372 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4373 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4374 lattice.
  4375 
  4376 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4377 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4378 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4379 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4380 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4381 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4382 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4383 
  4384 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4385   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4386     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4387   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4388     le_inf_iff
  4389   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4390     sup_aci)
  4391   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4392   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4393   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4394     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4395     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4396     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4397     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4398     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4399     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4400     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4401     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4402     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4403     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4404   - authentic syntax for
  4405     Set.Pow
  4406     Set.image
  4407   - mere abbreviations:
  4408     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4409     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4410     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4411     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4412     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4413     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4414     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4415     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4416   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4417 
  4418 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4419 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4420 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4421 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4422 
  4423 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4424 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4425 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4426 
  4427 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4428 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4429 
  4430 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4431 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4432 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4433 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4434 
  4435 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4436 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4437 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4438 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4439 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4440 
  4441 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4442 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4443 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4444 
  4445 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4446 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4447 
  4448 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4449 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4450 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4451 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4452 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4453 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4454 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4455 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4456 
  4457 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4458     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4459     code_post       replaces    code post
  4460     etc.
  4461   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4462 
  4463 * Renamed methods:
  4464     sizechange -> size_change
  4465     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4466   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4467 
  4468 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4469 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4470 
  4471 * Renamed theorems:
  4472     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4473     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4474     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4475     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4476     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4477   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4478 
  4479 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4480 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4481 
  4482 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4483 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4484 
  4485 
  4486 *** HOLCF ***
  4487 
  4488 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4489 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4490 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4491 
  4492 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4493 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4494 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4495 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4496 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4497 
  4498 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4499 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4500 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4501 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4502 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4503 
  4504 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4505 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4506 constructor are pre-configured.
  4507 
  4508 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4509 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4510 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4511 
  4512 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4513 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4514 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4515 as well.)
  4516 
  4517 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4518 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4519 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4520 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4521 examples.
  4522 
  4523 
  4524 *** ML ***
  4525 
  4526 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4527 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4528 
  4529 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4530 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4531 position, logical grouping etc.
  4532 
  4533 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4534 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4535 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4536 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4537 
  4538 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4539 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4540 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4541 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4542 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4543 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4544 
  4545 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4546 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4547 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4548 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4549 experiments with references.
  4550 
  4551 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4552 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4553 
  4554 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4555 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4556 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4557 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4558 
  4559 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4560 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4561 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4562 
  4563 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4564 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4565 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4566 
  4567 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4568 
  4569 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4570 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4571 
  4572 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4573 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4574 
  4575 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4576 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4577 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4578 
  4579 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4580 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4581 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4582 
  4583 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4584 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4585 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4586 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4587 
  4588 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4589 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4590 instead of global theory.
  4591 
  4592 
  4593 *** System ***
  4594 
  4595 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4596 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4597 usedir option -q.
  4598 
  4599 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4600 also the system manual.
  4601 
  4602 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4603 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4604 
  4605 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4606 this is always enabled.
  4607 
  4608 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4609 
  4610 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4611 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4612 currently supported on Linux only.
  4613 
  4614 
  4615 
  4616 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4617 --------------------------------
  4618 
  4619 *** General ***
  4620 
  4621 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4622 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4623 
  4624   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4625     "isatool."
  4626 
  4627   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4628     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4629 
  4630   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4631     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4632 
  4633 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4634 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4635 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4636 
  4637 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4638 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4639 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4640 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4641 via "isabelle emacs".
  4642 
  4643 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4644 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4645 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4646 
  4647 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4648 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4649 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4650 
  4651 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4652 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4653 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4654 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4655 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4656 
  4657 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4658 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4659 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4660 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4661 
  4662 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4663 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4664 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4665 
  4666 
  4667 *** Pure ***
  4668 
  4669 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4670 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4671 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4672 
  4673 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4674 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4675 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4676 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4677 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4678 
  4679 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4680 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4681 useful in locale declarations.
  4682 
  4683 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4684 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4685 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4686 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4687 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4688 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4689 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4690 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4691 no longer generated.
  4692 
  4693 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4694 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4695 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4696 
  4697 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4698 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4699 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4700 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4701 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4702 
  4703 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4704 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4705 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4706 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4707 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4708 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4709 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4710 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4711 
  4712 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4713 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4714 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4715 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4716 
  4717 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4718 
  4719 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4720 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4721 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4722 
  4723 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4724 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4725 
  4726 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4727 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4728 in HOL, write
  4729 
  4730     class foo = ...
  4731 
  4732 instead of
  4733 
  4734     class foo = type + ...
  4735 
  4736 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4737 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4738 
  4739 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4740 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4741 
  4742 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4743 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4744 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4745 
  4746 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4747 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4748 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4749 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4750 directly in regular applications.
  4751 
  4752 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4753 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4754 
  4755 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4756 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4757 
  4758 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4759 theory context.
  4760 
  4761 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4762 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4763 
  4764 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4765 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4766 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4767 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4768 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4769 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4770 
  4771   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4772 
  4773 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4774 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4775 normalization.
  4776 
  4777 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4778 addressing etc.
  4779 
  4780 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4781 
  4782   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4783   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4784 
  4785 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4786 
  4787   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4788      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4789      parts of the code generator framework).
  4790 
  4791   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4792      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4793      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4794 
  4795 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4796 
  4797 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4798 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4799 
  4800 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4801 patterns, e.g.
  4802 
  4803     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4804 
  4805 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4806 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4807 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4808 hyphen:
  4809 
  4810     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4811 
  4812 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4813 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4814 
  4815 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4816 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4817 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4818 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4819 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4820 higher-order unification.
  4821 
  4822 
  4823 *** Document preparation ***
  4824 
  4825 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  4826 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  4827 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  4828 
  4829 
  4830 *** HOL ***
  4831 
  4832 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  4833 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  4834 
  4835 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  4836 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  4837 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  4838 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  4839 Main, as before.
  4840 
  4841 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  4842 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  4843 
  4844 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  4845 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  4846 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  4847 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  4848 
  4849 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  4850 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  4851 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  4852 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  4853 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  4854 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  4855 
  4856 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  4857 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  4858 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  4859 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  4860 
  4861 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  4862 menu.
  4863 
  4864 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  4865 (contains the empty clause).
  4866 
  4867 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  4868 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  4869 
  4870 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  4871 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  4872 
  4873 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  4874 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  4875 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4876 
  4877 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  4878 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  4879 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  4880 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  4881 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  4882 
  4883 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  4884 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  4885 
  4886 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  4887 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  4888 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  4889 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  4890 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  4891 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  4892 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  4893 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  4894 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  4895 
  4896 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  4897 
  4898 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  4899 
  4900 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  4901 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4902 
  4903 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  4904 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  4905 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  4906 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  4907 
  4908 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  4909 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4910 
  4911     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  4912     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  4913     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  4914     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  4915     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  4916     Union ~>    Set.Union
  4917     {} ~>       Set.empty
  4918     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  4919 
  4920 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  4921 theory Set.
  4922 
  4923 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  4924 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  4925 
  4926 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  4927 
  4928 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  4929 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  4930 
  4931 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  4932 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  4933 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  4934 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  4935 allowed. For examples see
  4936 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  4937 
  4938 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  4939 
  4940 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  4941 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4942 
  4943 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  4944 structure:
  4945 
  4946     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  4947     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4948     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4949     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4950     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4951     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4952     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4953     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4954     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4955     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4956     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4957     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4958     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4959     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4960     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4961     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4962     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4963     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4964     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4965     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4966     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4967     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4968     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4969     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4970     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4971     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4972     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4973     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4974     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4975     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4976     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  4977     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  4978     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  4979 
  4980     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4981     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4982     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4983     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  4984     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4985     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4986     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4987     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4988     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4989     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  4990 
  4991     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4992     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4993     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4994     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4995     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4996     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  4997 
  4998 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  4999 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5000 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5001 
  5002 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5003 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5004 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5005 
  5006 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5007 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5008 
  5009 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5010 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5011 
  5012 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5013 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5014 proofs, e.g.
  5015 
  5016   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5017 
  5018 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5019 
  5020 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5021 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5022 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5023 
  5024 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5025 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5026 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5027 
  5028 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5029 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5030 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5031 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5032 
  5033 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5034 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5035 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5036 preorder_class.*.
  5037 
  5038 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5039 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5040 
  5041 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5042 
  5043   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5044 
  5045 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5046 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5047 fold_image.
  5048 
  5049 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5050 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5051 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5052 the former will disappear at some point.
  5053 
  5054 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5055 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5056 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5057 
  5058 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5059 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5060 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5061 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5062 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5063 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5064 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5065 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5066 
  5067 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5068 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5069 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5070 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5071 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5072 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5073 
  5074     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5075     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5076     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5077     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5078     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5079     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5080     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5081 
  5082 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5083 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5084 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5085 
  5086 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5087 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5088 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5089 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5090 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5091 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5092 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5093 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5094 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5095 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5096 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5097 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5098 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5099 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5100 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5101 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5102 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5103 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5104 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5105 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5106 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5107 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5108 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5109 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5110 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5111 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5112 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5113 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5114 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5115 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5116 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5117 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5118 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5119 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5120 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5121 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5122 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5123 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5124 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5125 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5126 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5127 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5128 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5129 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5130 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5131 
  5132 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5133 
  5134 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5135 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5136 
  5137 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5138 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5139 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5140 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5141 
  5142 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5143 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5144 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5145 theory RealVector.
  5146 
  5147 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5148 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5149 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5150 and inner products are included.
  5151 
  5152 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5153 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5154 supported.
  5155 
  5156 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5157 first diagonalization argument.
  5158 
  5159 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5160 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5161 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5162 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5163 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5164 
  5165     hide (open) const gcd
  5166     abbreviation gcd where
  5167       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5168     notation (output)
  5169       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5170 
  5171 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5172 
  5173 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5174 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5175 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5176 
  5177 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5178 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5179 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5180 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5181 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5182 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5183 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5184 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5185 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5186 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5187 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5188 cases.
  5189 
  5190 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5191 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5192 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5193 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5194 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5195 
  5196     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5197     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5198     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5199     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5200     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5201 
  5202 
  5203 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5204 
  5205 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5206 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5207 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5208 
  5209 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5210 
  5211 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5212 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5213 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5214 
  5215 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5216 
  5217 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5218 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5219 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5220 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5221 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5222 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5223 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5224 
  5225 
  5226 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5227 
  5228 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5229 
  5230 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5231 theory targets.
  5232 
  5233 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5234 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5235 'inductive' etc.
  5236 
  5237 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5238 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5239 
  5240 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5241 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5242 
  5243 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5244 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5245 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5246 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5247 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5248 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5249 the algorithm W:
  5250 
  5251  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5252  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5253          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5254 
  5255 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5256 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5257 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5258 
  5259 
  5260 *** HOLCF ***
  5261 
  5262 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5263 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5264 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5265 
  5266 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5267 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5268 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5269 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5270 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5271 
  5272 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5273 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5274 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5275 
  5276 
  5277 *** ZF ***
  5278 
  5279 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5280 
  5281 
  5282 *** ML ***
  5283 
  5284 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5285 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5286 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5287 5.2.1!
  5288 
  5289 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5290 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5291 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5292 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5293 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5294 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5295 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5296 
  5297 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5298 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5299 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5300 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5301 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5302 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5303 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5304 
  5305 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5306 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5307 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5308 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5309 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5310 
  5311 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5312 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5313 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5314 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5315 Method.add_method.
  5316 
  5317 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5318 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5319 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5320 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5321 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5322 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5323 
  5324 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5325 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5326 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5327 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5328 examples.
  5329 
  5330 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5331 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5332 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5333 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5334 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5335 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5336 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5337 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5338 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5339 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5340 
  5341 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5342 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5343 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5344 
  5345 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5346 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5347 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5348 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5349 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5350 resort for legacy applications.
  5351 
  5352 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5353 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5354 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5355 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5356 explicit runtime argument.
  5357 
  5358 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5359 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5360 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5361 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5362 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5363 
  5364 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5365 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5366 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5367 theory state.
  5368 
  5369 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5370 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5371 
  5372   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5373   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5374   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5375   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5376   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5377   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5378   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5379   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5380   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5381   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5382 
  5383 
  5384 *** System ***
  5385 
  5386 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5387 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5388 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5389 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5390 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5391 
  5392 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5393 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5394 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5395 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5396 
  5397 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5398 
  5399 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5400 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5401 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5402 prover operations.
  5403 
  5404 
  5405 
  5406 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5407 -------------------------------
  5408 
  5409 *** General ***
  5410 
  5411 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5412 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5413 
  5414 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5415 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5416 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5417 provides a proper context already.
  5418 
  5419 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5420 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5421 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5422 
  5423 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5424 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5425 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5426 swap theory imports.
  5427 
  5428 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5429 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5430 
  5431 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5432 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5433 white space without escapes.
  5434 
  5435 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5436 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5437 "foo_bar".
  5438 
  5439 
  5440 *** Pure ***
  5441 
  5442 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5443 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5444 
  5445 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5446 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5447 
  5448 (1) unused_thms
  5449      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5450 
  5451 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5452      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5453      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5454 
  5455 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5456      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5457      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5458      their ancestors.
  5459 
  5460 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5461 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5462 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5463 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5464 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5465 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5466 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5467 
  5468 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5469 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5470 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5471 
  5472 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5473 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5474 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5475 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5476 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5477 
  5478 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5479 
  5480 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5481 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5482 update of theories within ML code.
  5483 
  5484 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5485 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5486 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5487 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5488 
  5489 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5490 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5491 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5492 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5493 
  5494 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5495 
  5496 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5497 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5498 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5499 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5500 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5501 
  5502 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5503 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5504 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5505 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5506 situations.
  5507 
  5508 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5509 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5510 proof text.
  5511 
  5512 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5513 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5514 
  5515 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5516 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5517 predicates.
  5518 
  5519 
  5520 *** Document preparation ***
  5521 
  5522 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5523 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5524 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5525 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5526 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5527 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5528 
  5529 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5530 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5531 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5532 
  5533 
  5534 *** HOL ***
  5535 
  5536 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5537 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5538 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5539 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5540 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5541 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5542 
  5543 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5544 with multithreading.
  5545 
  5546 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5547 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5548 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5549 
  5550 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5551 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5552 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5553 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5554 
  5555 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5556 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5557 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5558 and makes them available separately.  See
  5559 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5560 
  5561 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5562 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5563 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5564 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5565 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5566 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5567 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5568 the declared rules.
  5569 
  5570 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5571 
  5572   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5573 
  5574 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5575 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5576 
  5577 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5578 
  5579   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5580 
  5581   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5582     definitions on => and bool.
  5583 
  5584   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5585     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5586     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5587 
  5588       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5589       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5590       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5591       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5592       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5593       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5594       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5595       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5596 
  5597   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5598     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5599     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5600 
  5601   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5602     The proof pattern
  5603 
  5604       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5605       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5606 
  5607     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5608     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5609 
  5610       have "EX S. P S"
  5611       proof
  5612         show "P S" <...>
  5613       qed
  5614 
  5615   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5616     The proof pattern
  5617 
  5618       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5619       also have "S = T" <...>
  5620       finally have "P T" .
  5621 
  5622     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5623     must be replaced by something like
  5624 
  5625       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5626       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5627       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5628 
  5629   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5630     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5631 
  5632       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5633 
  5634     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5635     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5636     type of the form
  5637 
  5638       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5639 
  5640     rather than
  5641 
  5642       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5643 
  5644 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5645 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5646 
  5647 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5648 
  5649 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5650 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5651 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5652 
  5653 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5654 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5655 
  5656 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5657 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5658 
  5659 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5660 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5661 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5662 
  5663 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5664 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5665 
  5666   less_trans
  5667   less_linear
  5668   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5669   le_less_trans
  5670   less_le_trans
  5671   less_not_sym
  5672   less_asym
  5673 
  5674 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5675 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5676 and different variable names.
  5677 
  5678 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5679 
  5680 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5681 finite maps.
  5682 
  5683 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5684 
  5685 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5686 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5687 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5688 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5689 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5690 accordingly.
  5691 
  5692 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5693 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5694 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5695 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5696 
  5697 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5698 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5699 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5700 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5701 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5702 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5703 
  5704 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5705 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5706 
  5707 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5708 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5709 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5710 
  5711 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5712 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5713 
  5714 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5715 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5716 
  5717 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5718 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5719 
  5720 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5721 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5722 
  5723 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5724 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5725 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5726 
  5727 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5728 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5729 
  5730 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5731 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5732 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5733 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5734 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5735 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5736 
  5737 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5738 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5739 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5740 
  5741 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5742 
  5743 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5744 
  5745 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5746 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5747 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5748 
  5749 
  5750 *** ZF ***
  5751 
  5752 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5753 same session:
  5754 
  5755   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5756   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5757   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5758   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5759   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5760   List      -> List_ZF
  5761   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5762 
  5763 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5764 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5765 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5766 
  5767 
  5768 *** ML ***
  5769 
  5770 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5771 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5772 
  5773 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5774 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5775 
  5776 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5777 
  5778 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5779 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5780 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5781 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5782 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5783 
  5784 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5785 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5786 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5787 
  5788 
  5789 *** System ***
  5790 
  5791 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5792 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5793 
  5794 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5795 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5796 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5797 
  5798 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5799 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5800 
  5801 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5802 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5803 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5804 
  5805 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5806 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5807 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5808 
  5809 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5810 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5811 
  5812 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5813 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5814 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5815 script.
  5816 
  5817 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5818 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5819 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5820 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5821 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5822 
  5823 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5824 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5825 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  5826 
  5827 
  5828 
  5829 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  5830 -----------------------------------
  5831 
  5832 *** General ***
  5833 
  5834 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  5835 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  5836 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5837 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  5838 
  5839 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  5840 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  5841 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5842 
  5843 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  5844 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  5845 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  5846 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5847 
  5848 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  5849 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  5850 quotes.
  5851 
  5852 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  5853 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  5854 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  5855 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  5856 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  5857 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  5858 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  5859 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  5860 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  5861 
  5862 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  5863 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  5864 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  5865 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  5866 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  5867 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  5868 
  5869 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5870 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  5871 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  5872 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  5873 
  5874 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  5875 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  5876 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  5877 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  5878 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  5879 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  5880 
  5881 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  5882 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  5883 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  5884 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  5885 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  5886 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  5887 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  5888 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  5889 
  5890 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  5891 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  5892 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  5893 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  5894 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  5895 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  5896 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  5897 
  5898 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  5899 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  5900 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  5901 
  5902 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  5903 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  5904 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  5905 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  5906 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  5907 limit is imposed.
  5908 
  5909 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  5910 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  5911 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  5912 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  5913 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  5914 and scalability.
  5915 
  5916 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  5917 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  5918 
  5919 
  5920 *** Document preparation ***
  5921 
  5922 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  5923 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  5924 current context.
  5925 
  5926 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  5927 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  5928 
  5929 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  5930 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  5931 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  5932 
  5933 
  5934 *** Pure ***
  5935 
  5936 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  5937 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  5938 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  5939 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  5940 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  5941 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  5942 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  5943 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  5944 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  5945 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  5946 
  5947 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  5948 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  5949 sketch:
  5950 
  5951     internal compilation:
  5952         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  5953     writing SML code to a file:
  5954         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  5955     writing OCaml code to a file:
  5956         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  5957     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  5958         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  5959 
  5960     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  5961         method ``eval''
  5962 
  5963 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  5964 
  5965 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  5966 
  5967     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5968     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  5969     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5970     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  5971 
  5972 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  5973 
  5974     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  5975       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  5976 
  5977     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  5978       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  5979 
  5980     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  5981       {(target)}+
  5982         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  5983 
  5984     code_class <and_list of classes>
  5985       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  5986         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  5987 
  5988 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  5989 
  5990 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  5991 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  5992 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  5993 codegen".
  5994 
  5995 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  5996 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  5997 annotations).
  5998 
  5999 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  6000 syntax.
  6001 
  6002 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  6003 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  6004 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  6005 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  6006 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  6007 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  6008 
  6009 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  6010 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  6011 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  6012 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  6013 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  6014 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  6015 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  6016 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  6017 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  6018 equations, see section "definitions".
  6019 
  6020 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  6021 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  6022 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  6023 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  6024 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  6025 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  6026 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  6027 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  6028 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  6029 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  6030 
  6031 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  6032 configuration options:
  6033 
  6034   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  6035   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  6036   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  6037   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  6038   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  6039   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  6040   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  6041   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  6042   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  6043 
  6044 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  6045 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  6046 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  6047 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  6048 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  6049 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  6050 order.
  6051 
  6052 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  6053 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  6054 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  6055 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  6056 context encountered later on.
  6057 
  6058 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  6059 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  6060 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  6061 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  6062 
  6063 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  6064 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  6065 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  6066 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  6067 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  6068 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  6069 
  6070 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  6071 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  6072 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  6073 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  6074 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  6075 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  6076 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  6077 more permissive.
  6078 
  6079 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  6080 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  6081 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  6082 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  6083 maintainability of proof texts.
  6084 
  6085 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  6086 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  6087 
  6088   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  6089   then guess x and y by clarify
  6090 
  6091 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  6092 proof tools being involved here.
  6093 
  6094 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  6095 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  6096 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  6097 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  6098 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  6099 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  6100 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  6101 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  6102 
  6103 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  6104 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  6105 certain special cases of literal facts:
  6106 
  6107   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  6108   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  6109   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  6110   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  6111 
  6112 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  6113 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  6114 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  6115 
  6116 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  6117 both named and unnamed ones.
  6118 
  6119 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  6120 
  6121   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  6122 
  6123 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  6124 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  6125 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  6126 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  6127 
  6128 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  6129 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  6130 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  6131 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  6132 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  6133 
  6134 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  6135 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  6136 
  6137 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  6138 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  6139 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  6140 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  6141 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  6142 originally first one.
  6143 
  6144 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  6145 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  6146 expected.
  6147 
  6148 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  6149 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  6150 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  6151 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  6152 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  6153 
  6154   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6155     assumes "EX x. P x"
  6156     obtains x where "P x"
  6157 
  6158   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6159     assumes "A & B"
  6160     obtains A and B
  6161 
  6162   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6163     assumes "A | B"
  6164     obtains
  6165       A
  6166     | B
  6167 
  6168 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  6169 explicitly:
  6170 
  6171   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6172     obtains "~ thesis"
  6173 
  6174   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  6175     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  6176 
  6177 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  6178 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  6179 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  6180 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  6181 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  6182 case_names).
  6183 
  6184 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  6185 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  6186 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  6187 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  6188 
  6189 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  6190 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  6191 top-level lemma.
  6192 
  6193 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  6194 introduction rule (default "that").
  6195 
  6196 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  6197 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  6198 to occur.
  6199 
  6200 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  6201 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  6202 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  6203 representations independently of name spaces.
  6204 
  6205 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  6206 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  6207 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6208 
  6209 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  6210 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  6211 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  6212 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  6213 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  6214 current context.
  6215 
  6216 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  6217 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  6218 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  6219 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  6220 
  6221   axiomatization
  6222     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  6223     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  6224 
  6225   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  6226   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  6227 
  6228   abbreviation
  6229     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  6230     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  6231 
  6232 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  6233 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  6234 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  6235 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  6236 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  6237 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  6238 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  6239 
  6240 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  6241 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  6242 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  6243 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  6244 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  6245 
  6246 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  6247 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  6248 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  6249 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  6250 
  6251 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  6252 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  6253 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  6254 
  6255   definition "K x _ = x"
  6256 
  6257   inductive conj for A B
  6258   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  6259 
  6260 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  6261 the current context.  Print mode &qu