NEWS
author wenzelm
Tue Aug 14 11:43:08 2012 +0200 (2012-08-14)
changeset 48792 4aa5b965f70e
parent 48736 292b97e17fb7
child 48844 6408fb6f7d81
permissions -rw-r--r--
support for 'typ' with explicit sort constraint;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
    10 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
    11 
    12 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" manual, reduced remaining material
    13 in old "ref" manual.
    14 
    15 
    16 *** Pure ***
    17 
    18 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
    19 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
    20 
    21 * Command "export_code": relative file names are interpreted
    22 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than
    23 the rather arbitrary current working directory.
    24 INCOMPATIBILITY.
    25 
    26 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
    27 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
    28 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
    29 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
    30 with some care where this is really required.
    31 
    32 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
    33 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
    34 given given sort.  Example (in HOL):
    35 
    36   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
    37 
    38 
    39 *** HOL ***
    40 
    41 * Library/Debug.thy and Library/Parallel.thy: debugging and parallel
    42 execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
    43 
    44 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
    45 expressions.
    46 
    47 * Quickcheck:
    48 
    49   - added an optimisation for equality premises.
    50     It is switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting
    51     the configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.    
    52 
    53 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
    54 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
    55 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
    56 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".
    57 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    58 
    59 * Sledgehammer:
    60 
    61   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
    62     Sledgehammer manual for details.
    63   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
    64   - Renamed options:
    65       max_relevant ~> max_facts
    66       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
    67 
    68 
    69 *** Document preparation ***
    70 
    71 * Default for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package, instead of
    72 slightly exotic babel/greek.
    73 
    74 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
    75 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
    76 document/root.tex.
    77 
    78 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
    79 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    80 
    81 
    82 *** System ***
    83 
    84 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
    85 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
    86 build" tool and its examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
    87 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
    88 
    89 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
    90 
    91 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
    92 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
    93 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
    94 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
    95 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
    96 
    97 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
    98 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
    99 
   100   isabelle build -s -b HOLCF
   101 
   102 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
   103 required for "isabelle build", for example.
   104 
   105 * The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares session root directories for use
   106 with "isabelle build", similar to former "isabelle mkdir" for
   107 "isabelle usedir".
   108 
   109 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
   110 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
   111 configuration.
   112 
   113 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
   114 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
   115 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
   116 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
   117 bundled as Isabelle component.
   118 
   119 
   120 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
   121 ------------------------------
   122 
   123 *** General ***
   124 
   125 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
   126 
   127   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
   128     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
   129   - markup for bound variables
   130   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
   131   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
   132   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
   133     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
   134 
   135 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
   136 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
   137 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
   138 
   139 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
   140 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
   141 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
   142 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
   143 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
   144 
   145   context
   146     fixes x y z :: 'a
   147     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
   148   begin
   149 
   150   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
   151 
   152   end
   153 
   154   thm my_trans
   155 
   156 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
   157 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
   158 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
   159 
   160 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
   161 ... begin ... end" block as well.
   162 
   163 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
   164 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
   165 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
   166 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
   167 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
   168 
   169 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
   170 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
   171 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
   172 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
   173 indices of schematic variables.
   174 
   175 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
   176 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
   177 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   178 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
   179 etc. was exploited.
   180 
   181 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
   182 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
   183 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
   184 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
   185 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
   186 of the material of that old tutorial.
   187 
   188 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
   189 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
   190 manual.
   191 
   192 
   193 *** Pure ***
   194 
   195 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
   196 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
   197 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
   198 
   199 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
   200 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
   201 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
   202 undocumented feature.)
   203 
   204 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
   205 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
   206 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
   207 
   208   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
   209 
   210   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
   211     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
   212 
   213 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
   214 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
   215 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
   216 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
   217 
   218 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
   219 
   220     num ~> num_token
   221     xnum ~> xnum_token
   222     xstr ~> str_token
   223 
   224 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
   225 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
   226 position information via constraints).
   227 
   228 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
   229 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
   230 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   231 
   232 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
   233 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
   234 
   235 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
   236 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
   237 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   238 
   239 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
   240 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   241 
   242 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
   243 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
   244 
   245   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
   246 
   247 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   248 
   249 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
   250 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   251 
   252 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
   253 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
   254 legacy since Isabelle2011).
   255 
   256 
   257 *** HOL ***
   258 
   259 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
   260 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
   261 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
   262 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
   263 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
   264 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
   265 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
   266 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
   267 possible.
   268 
   269 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
   270 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
   271 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
   272 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
   273 
   274 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
   275 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   276 
   277 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
   278 
   279 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
   280 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
   281 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
   282 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
   283 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
   284 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
   285 
   286   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
   287     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
   288 
   289   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
   290     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
   291     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
   292 
   293   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
   294     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
   295 
   296   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
   297     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
   298     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
   299 
   300   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
   301     Redefine using other integer operations.
   302 
   303 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
   304 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
   305 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
   306 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
   307 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
   308 
   309   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
   310     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
   311     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
   312     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
   313     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
   314 
   315     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
   316     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
   317 
   318   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
   319     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
   320     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
   321     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
   322     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
   323     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
   324     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
   325     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
   326 
   327   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
   328     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
   329     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
   330     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
   331 
   332   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
   333     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
   334     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
   335     after unfolding the constant definitions.
   336 
   337   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
   338     from type nat to type int.
   339 
   340 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
   341 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
   342 
   343   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
   344     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
   345     type.  Example syntax:
   346 
   347     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
   348       is List.insert
   349 
   350     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
   351     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
   352     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
   353     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
   354     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
   355     by the package.
   356 
   357   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
   358     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
   359     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
   360     code generation for each constant.
   361 
   362   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
   363     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
   364     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
   365     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
   366     lift_definition command to work with the type.
   367 
   368   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
   369     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
   370     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
   371 
   372 * Quotient package:
   373 
   374   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
   375     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
   376 
   377   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
   378     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
   379 
   380   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
   381     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
   382     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
   383 
   384   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
   385     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
   386 
   387 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
   388 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
   389 
   390 * Quickcheck:
   391 
   392   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
   393     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
   394     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
   395     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
   396     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
   397 
   398     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
   399     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
   400     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
   401 
   402     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
   403     continues searching for genuine ones.
   404 
   405     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
   406     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
   407     show genuine counterexamples.
   408 
   409   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
   410     value generators for a given type and operations.
   411 
   412     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
   413     constructors of that type.
   414 
   415   - Support for multisets.
   416 
   417   - Added "use_subtype" options.
   418 
   419   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
   420     conjectures in a locale context.
   421 
   422 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
   423 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
   424 
   425 * Sledgehammer:
   426   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
   427     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
   428   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
   429   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
   430     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
   431   - Sped up the minimizer.
   432   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
   433   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
   434   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
   435 
   436 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
   437 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
   438 
   439 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
   440 
   441 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   442 
   443 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
   444 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
   445 
   446   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
   447 
   448 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
   449 a list and a nat.
   450 
   451 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
   452 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
   453 
   454 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
   455 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
   456 default.
   457 
   458 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
   459 
   460   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
   461 
   462 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
   463 
   464 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
   465 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
   466 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
   467 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
   468 one_case.
   469 
   470 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
   471 the result of the fact expression.
   472 
   473 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
   474 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
   475 of some relation theorems:
   476 
   477   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
   478   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   479   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
   480   transp_def ~> transp_trans
   481   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
   482   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
   483 
   484 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
   485 
   486 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
   487 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
   488 
   489 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   490 
   491 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
   492 to match the constant's name:
   493 
   494   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
   495   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
   496   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
   497   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
   498   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
   499   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
   500   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
   501   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
   502   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
   503   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
   504   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
   505   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
   506   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
   507   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
   508   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
   509   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
   510   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
   511   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
   512   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
   513   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
   514   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
   515   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
   516   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
   517   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
   518 
   519 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   520 
   521 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
   522 and corresponding theorem names:
   523 
   524   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
   525 
   526   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
   527 
   528   - Renamed theorems:
   529 
   530     rel_compI ~> relcompI
   531     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
   532     rel_compE ~> relcompE
   533     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
   534     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
   535     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
   536     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
   537     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
   538     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
   539     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
   540     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
   541     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
   542     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
   543     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
   544     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
   545     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
   546     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
   547     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
   548     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
   549     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
   550     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
   551     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
   552     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
   553 
   554     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
   555 
   556     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
   557 
   558 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   559 
   560 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
   561 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   562 
   563   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
   564   zdiv_self ~> div_self
   565   zmod_self ~> mod_self
   566   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
   567   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
   568   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
   569   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
   570   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
   571   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
   572   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
   573   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
   574   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
   575   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
   576   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
   577   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
   578   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
   579   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
   580   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
   581   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
   582   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
   583   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
   584 
   585 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
   586 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
   587 
   588 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   589 
   590 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
   591 
   592   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
   593   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
   594   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
   595   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
   596   union_set ~> union_set_fold
   597   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
   598   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
   599   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
   600   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
   601   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
   602   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
   603   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
   604   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
   605   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
   606   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
   607   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
   608   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
   609   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
   610 
   611 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   612 
   613 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
   614 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
   615 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
   616 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
   617 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
   618 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
   619 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
   620 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
   621 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
   622 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
   623 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
   624 
   625 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
   626 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
   627 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
   628 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
   629 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
   630 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
   631 
   632 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
   633 through option types.
   634 
   635 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
   636 relations.
   637 
   638 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   639 
   640 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
   641 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
   642 
   643   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
   644   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
   645   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
   646   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
   647   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
   648   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   649   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
   650   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
   651   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
   652   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
   653   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
   654   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
   655   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
   656   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   657   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
   658   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
   659   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
   660   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
   661   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   662   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   663   zle_refl ~> order_refl
   664   zle_trans ~> order_trans
   665   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
   666   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
   667   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
   668   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
   669   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
   670   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
   671   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
   672   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
   673   zless_le ~> less_le
   674   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
   675   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
   676   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
   677 
   678 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
   679 
   680   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
   681 
   682 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
   683 
   684 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
   685 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
   686 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
   687 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
   688 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   689 
   690 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
   691 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
   692 
   693 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
   694 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
   695 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
   696 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
   697 follows:
   698 
   699   Operations:
   700   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
   701   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
   702   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
   703   del -> rbt_del
   704   delete -> rbt_delete
   705   ins -> rbt_ins
   706   insert -> rbt_insert
   707   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
   708   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
   709   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
   710   lookup -> rbt_lookup
   711   sorted -> rbt_sorted
   712   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
   713   tree_less -> rbt_less
   714   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
   715   union -> rbt_union
   716   union_with -> rbt_union_with
   717   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
   718 
   719   Lemmas:
   720   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
   721   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
   722   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
   723   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
   724   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
   725   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
   726   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
   727   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
   728   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
   729   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
   730   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
   731   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
   732   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
   733   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
   734   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
   735   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
   736   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
   737   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
   738   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
   739   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
   740   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
   741   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
   742   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
   743   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
   744   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
   745   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
   746   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
   747   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
   748   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
   749   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
   750   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
   751   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
   752   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
   753   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
   754   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
   755   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
   756   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
   757   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
   758   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
   759   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
   760   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
   761   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
   762   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
   763   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
   764   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
   765   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
   766   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
   767   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
   768   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
   769   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
   770   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
   771   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
   772   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
   773   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
   774   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
   775   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
   776   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
   777   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
   778   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
   779   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
   780   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
   781   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
   782   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
   783   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
   784   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
   785   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
   786   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
   787   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
   788   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
   789   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
   790   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
   791   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
   792   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
   793   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
   794   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
   795   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
   796   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
   797   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
   798   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
   799   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
   800   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
   801   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
   802   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
   803 
   804 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
   805 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
   806 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   807 
   808   Changed Operations:
   809   float_abs -> abs
   810   float_nprt -> nprt
   811   float_pprt -> pprt
   812   pow2 -> use powr
   813   round_down -> float_round_down
   814   round_up -> float_round_up
   815   scale -> exponent
   816 
   817   Removed Operations:
   818   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
   819 
   820   Renamed Lemmas:
   821   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
   822   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
   823   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
   824   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
   825   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
   826   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
   827   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
   828   float_power -> real_of_float_power
   829   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
   830   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
   831   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
   832   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
   833   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
   834   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
   835   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
   836   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
   837   normfloat -> normfloat_def
   838   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
   839   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
   840   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
   841   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
   842   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
   843   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
   844   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
   845   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
   846   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
   847   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
   848   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
   849   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
   850   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
   851   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
   852   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
   853   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
   854   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
   855   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
   856   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
   857 
   858   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
   859   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
   860   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
   861   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
   862   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
   863   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
   864   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
   865   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
   866   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
   867   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
   868 
   869 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
   870 association lists with distinct keys.
   871 
   872 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
   873 annotated commands.
   874 
   875 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
   876 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
   877 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
   878 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   879 
   880 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
   881 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
   882 instead.
   883 
   884   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
   885   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
   886   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
   887   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
   888   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
   889   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
   890   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
   891   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
   892   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
   893   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
   894   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
   895   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
   896   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
   897   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
   898   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
   899   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
   900   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
   901   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
   902   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
   903   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
   904   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
   905   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
   906   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
   907   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
   908   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
   909   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
   910   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
   911   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
   912   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
   913   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
   914   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
   915   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
   916   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
   917   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
   918   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
   919   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
   920   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
   921   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
   922   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
   923   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
   924   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
   925 
   926 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
   927 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
   928 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
   929 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
   930 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
   931 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
   932 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
   933 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
   934 
   935 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
   936 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
   937 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
   938 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
   939 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
   940 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
   941 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
   942 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
   943 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
   944 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
   945 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
   946 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   947 
   948   Renamed constants:
   949   measure -> emeasure
   950   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
   951   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
   952   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
   953   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
   954 
   955   Removed locales:
   956   completeable_measure_space
   957   finite_measure_space
   958   finite_prob_space
   959   finite_product_finite_prob_space
   960   finite_product_sigma_algebra
   961   finite_sigma_algebra
   962   measure_space
   963   pair_finite_prob_space
   964   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
   965   pair_finite_space
   966   pair_sigma_algebra
   967   product_sigma_algebra
   968 
   969   Removed constants:
   970   conditional_space
   971   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
   972   image_space
   973   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
   974   pair_measure_generator
   975   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
   976   subvimage
   977 
   978   Replacement theorems:
   979   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
   980   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
   981   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
   982   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
   983   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
   984   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
   985   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
   986   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
   987   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
   988   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
   989   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
   990   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
   991   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
   992   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
   993   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
   994   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
   995   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
   996   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
   997   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
   998   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
   999   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  1000   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  1001   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  1002   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  1003   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  1004   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  1005   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  1006   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  1007   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  1008   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  1009   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  1010   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  1011   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  1012   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  1013   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  1014   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  1015   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  1016   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  1017   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  1018   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  1019   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  1020   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  1021   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  1022   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  1023   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  1024   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  1025   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  1026   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  1027   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  1028   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  1029   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  1030   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  1031   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1032   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1033   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  1034   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  1035   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  1036   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  1037   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1038   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  1039   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  1040   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  1041   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  1042   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  1043   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  1044   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  1045   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  1046   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  1047   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  1048   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  1049   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  1050   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  1051   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  1052   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  1053   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  1054   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  1055   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  1056   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  1057   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  1058   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1059   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  1060   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1061   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  1062   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  1063   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  1064   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  1065   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  1066   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  1067   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  1068   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  1069   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  1070   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  1071   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  1072   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  1073   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  1074   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  1075   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  1076   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  1077   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  1078   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  1079   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  1080   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  1081   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  1082   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  1083   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  1084   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  1085   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  1086   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  1087   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  1088   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  1089   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  1090   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  1091   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  1092   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  1093   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  1094   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  1095   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  1096   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  1097   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1098   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  1099   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  1100   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  1101   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  1102   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  1103   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  1104   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  1105   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  1106   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  1107 
  1108 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  1109 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  1110 
  1111 
  1112 *** FOL ***
  1113 
  1114 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  1115 
  1116 
  1117 *** ZF ***
  1118 
  1119 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  1120 analysis.
  1121 
  1122 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  1123 
  1124 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1125 
  1126 
  1127 *** ML ***
  1128 
  1129 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  1130 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  1131 
  1132 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  1133 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  1134 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  1135 
  1136 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  1137 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  1138 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  1139 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  1140 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  1141 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  1142 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  1143 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  1144 
  1145 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  1146 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  1147 
  1148 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  1149 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  1150 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  1151 
  1152 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1153 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1154 
  1155 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  1156 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  1157 context as well.
  1158 
  1159 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  1160 
  1161   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  1162   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  1163   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  1164   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  1165   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  1166   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  1167   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  1168   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  1169   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  1170   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  1171   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  1172   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  1173 
  1174 
  1175 *** System ***
  1176 
  1177 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  1178 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  1179 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  1180 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  1181 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  1182 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  1183 the generic user home was intended.
  1184 
  1185 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  1186 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  1187 
  1188 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  1189 (not just JRE).
  1190 
  1191 
  1192 
  1193 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  1194 ------------------------------------
  1195 
  1196 *** General ***
  1197 
  1198 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  1199 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  1200 
  1201   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  1202     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  1203     files for checking).
  1204 
  1205   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  1206     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  1207     positions.
  1208 
  1209   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  1210     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  1211     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  1212 
  1213   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  1214     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  1215     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  1216 
  1217   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  1218     cores.
  1219 
  1220   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  1221     versions (garbage collection).
  1222 
  1223 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  1224 including some remaining limitations.
  1225 
  1226 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  1227 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1228 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  1229 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  1230 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  1231 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1232 
  1233 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  1234 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  1235 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  1236 
  1237 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  1238 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  1239 usedir option -Q.
  1240 
  1241 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  1242 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  1243 
  1244   long_names   ~> names_long
  1245   short_names  ~> names_short
  1246   unique_names ~> names_unique
  1247 
  1248 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  1249 
  1250   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  1251 
  1252 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  1253 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  1254 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  1255 
  1256 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  1257 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  1258 
  1259 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  1260   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  1261   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  1262   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  1263     "Classical Reasoner".
  1264 
  1265 
  1266 *** HOL ***
  1267 
  1268 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  1269 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1270 
  1271 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  1272 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  1273 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  1274 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  1275 class complete_linorder.
  1276 
  1277 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  1278 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  1279 
  1280 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  1281 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  1282 
  1283   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  1284   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  1285   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1286   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1287   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  1288   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  1289   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  1290   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  1291   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  1292   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  1293   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  1294 
  1295 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  1296 
  1297   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  1298   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  1299   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  1300   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  1301   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  1302   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  1303   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  1304   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  1305   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  1306   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  1307   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  1308   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  1309   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  1310   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  1311   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  1312   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  1313 
  1314 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1315 
  1316 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  1317 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1318 
  1319 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  1320 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  1321 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  1322 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1323 
  1324 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  1325 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  1326 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  1327 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1328 
  1329 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  1330 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  1331 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  1332 
  1333 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  1334 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  1335 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1336 
  1337 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  1338 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  1339 
  1340 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  1341 
  1342     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  1343     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  1344 
  1345 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  1346 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1347 
  1348 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  1349 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1350 
  1351 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  1352 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  1353 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  1354 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1355 
  1356   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  1357   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  1358   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  1359   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  1360   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  1361   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  1362   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  1363 
  1364 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  1365 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1366 
  1367   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  1368   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  1369   real_less_def ~> less_le
  1370   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  1371   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  1372   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1373   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1374   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1375   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1376   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  1377   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  1378   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  1379   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  1380   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1381   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  1382   real_le_linear ~> linear
  1383   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  1384   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1385   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  1386   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  1387   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  1388   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  1389   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  1390   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  1391   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  1392   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  1393   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  1394   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  1395   expi_add ~> exp_add
  1396   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  1397   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  1398   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  1399   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  1400   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1401   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  1402   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1403   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  1404   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1405   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1406   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1407   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1408   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1409   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  1410   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  1411   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  1412   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  1413   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1414   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1415   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1416   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  1417   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1418   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1419   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  1420   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  1421   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  1422   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  1423   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  1424   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  1425   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  1426   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  1427   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  1428   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  1429   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  1430   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  1431   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  1432   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  1433   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  1434   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  1435   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  1436   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1437   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  1438   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  1439   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  1440   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  1441   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  1442   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1443   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  1444   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  1445   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  1446   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  1447   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  1448   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  1449 
  1450 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  1451 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  1452 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  1453 
  1454 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  1455 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  1456 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  1457 
  1458 * Code generation:
  1459 
  1460   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  1461     characters in the target language.
  1462 
  1463   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  1464     instead.
  1465 
  1466   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  1467 
  1468   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  1469     reactivated by the following theory command:
  1470 
  1471       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  1472 
  1473 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1474 
  1475 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  1476 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  1477 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  1478 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  1479 syntax.
  1480 
  1481 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  1482 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  1483 
  1484 * Nitpick:
  1485   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  1486   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  1487   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  1488     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1489 
  1490 * Sledgehammer:
  1491   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  1492   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  1493     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  1494   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  1495     this can be done within reasonable time.
  1496   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  1497     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1498   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  1499     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  1500   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  1501     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1502 
  1503 * Metis:
  1504   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1505   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  1506     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1507 
  1508 * Command 'try':
  1509   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  1510     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1511   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  1512     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  1513 
  1514 * Quickcheck:
  1515   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  1516     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1517   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  1518     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  1519   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  1520     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  1521     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  1522     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  1523   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  1524     (formly in HOL/Library).
  1525 
  1526 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1527 use 'partial_function' instead.
  1528 
  1529 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  1530 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  1531 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  1532 
  1533 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  1534 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  1535 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1536 
  1537 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  1538 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1539 
  1540 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  1541 arithmetic.
  1542 
  1543 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  1544 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  1545 and lattice type classes.
  1546 
  1547 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  1548 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  1549 
  1550 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  1551 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  1552 
  1553 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  1554 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  1555 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1556 
  1557   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  1558   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  1559   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  1560   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  1561 
  1562 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  1563 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  1564 constants:
  1565 
  1566   type inat   ~> type enat
  1567   Fin         ~> enat
  1568   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  1569   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  1570   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  1571 
  1572 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  1573 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1574 
  1575 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  1576 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  1577 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  1578 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  1579 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  1580 
  1581 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  1582 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  1583 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  1584 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  1585 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  1586 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  1587 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  1588 
  1589   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  1590   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  1591   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  1592   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  1593 
  1594 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  1595 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  1596 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1597 
  1598   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  1599   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  1600   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  1601   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  1602   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  1603   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  1604   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  1605   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  1606   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  1607   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  1608   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  1609   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  1610   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  1611   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  1612   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  1613   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  1614   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  1615   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  1616   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  1617   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  1618   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  1619   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  1620   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  1621   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  1622   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  1623   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  1624   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  1625   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  1626   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  1627   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1628   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  1629   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  1630   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  1631   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  1632   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  1633   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  1634   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  1635   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  1636   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  1637   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  1638   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  1639   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  1640   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  1641   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  1642   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  1643   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  1644   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  1645   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  1646   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  1647   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  1648   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  1649 
  1650 * Session HOL-Probability:
  1651   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  1652   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  1653   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  1654   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  1655     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1656 
  1657 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1658 
  1659   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  1660   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  1661   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  1662   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  1663   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  1664   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  1665   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  1666   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  1667   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  1668   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  1669   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  1670   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  1671   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  1672   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  1673   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  1674   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  1675   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  1676   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  1677   UU_I ~> bottomI
  1678   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  1679   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1680   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  1681   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  1682   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  1683   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  1684 
  1685 
  1686 *** Document preparation ***
  1687 
  1688 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  1689 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  1690 same.
  1691 
  1692 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  1693 result.
  1694 
  1695 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  1696 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  1697 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  1698 
  1699 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  1700 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  1701 
  1702 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  1703 like this:
  1704 
  1705   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  1706   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  1707 
  1708 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  1709 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  1710 layouts.
  1711 
  1712 
  1713 *** ML ***
  1714 
  1715 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  1716 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  1717 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  1718 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  1719 under external program control.
  1720 
  1721 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  1722 data, which requires explicit setup.
  1723 
  1724 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  1725 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  1726 (better known as Proof General).
  1727 
  1728 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  1729 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  1730 
  1731 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  1732 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  1733 
  1734 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  1735 (including quotes etc.).
  1736 
  1737 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  1738 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  1739 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  1740 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  1741 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  1742 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  1743 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  1744 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  1745 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  1746 
  1747 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  1748 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  1749 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1750 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  1751 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  1752 
  1753 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  1754 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  1755 
  1756 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  1757 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  1758 
  1759 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  1760 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  1761 
  1762 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  1763 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  1764 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  1765 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  1766 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  1767 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  1768 proper Proof.context.
  1769 
  1770 
  1771 *** System ***
  1772 
  1773 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  1774 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  1775 
  1776 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  1777 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  1778 
  1779 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  1780 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  1781 
  1782   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  1783   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  1784   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  1785   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  1786   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  1787 
  1788 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  1789 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1790 
  1791 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  1792 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  1793 example:
  1794 
  1795   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  1796 
  1797 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  1798 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  1799 
  1800 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  1801 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  1802 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  1803 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  1804 
  1805 
  1806 
  1807 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  1808 ----------------------------------
  1809 
  1810 *** General ***
  1811 
  1812 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  1813 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  1814 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  1815 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  1816 like this:
  1817 
  1818   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  1819 
  1820 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  1821 
  1822 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  1823 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  1824 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  1825 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  1826 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  1827 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  1828 
  1829 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  1830 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  1831 the following package declarations:
  1832 
  1833   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  1834   \usepackage{textcomp}
  1835 
  1836 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  1837 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  1838 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  1839 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  1840 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  1841 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  1842 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  1843 
  1844 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  1845 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  1846 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  1847 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  1848 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  1849 
  1850 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  1851 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  1852 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  1853 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  1854 
  1855 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  1856 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  1857 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  1858 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  1859 
  1860   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  1861 
  1862   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  1863   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  1864   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  1865   show_types                    show_types
  1866   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  1867   show_consts                   show_consts
  1868   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  1869 
  1870   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  1871   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  1872   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  1873 
  1874   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  1875   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  1876 
  1877   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  1878 
  1879   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  1880   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  1881   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  1882   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  1883   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  1884 
  1885 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  1886 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  1887 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  1888 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  1889 
  1890 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  1891 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1892 
  1893   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  1894   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  1895 
  1896 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  1897 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  1898 float_token.
  1899 
  1900 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  1901 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  1902 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1903 
  1904 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  1905 DejaVu Sans.
  1906 
  1907 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  1908 
  1909 
  1910 *** Pure ***
  1911 
  1912 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  1913 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  1914 time.
  1915 
  1916 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  1917 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1918 
  1919 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  1920 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1921 
  1922 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  1923 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  1924 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  1925 command already provided this functionality.
  1926 
  1927 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  1928 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  1929 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  1930 without interpretations.
  1931 
  1932 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  1933 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  1934 
  1935 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  1936 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  1937 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  1938 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  1939 
  1940 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  1941 'definition' instead.
  1942 
  1943 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  1944 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  1945 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  1946 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  1947 
  1948 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  1949 constructors.
  1950 
  1951 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  1952 the local file system.
  1953 
  1954 
  1955 *** HOL ***
  1956 
  1957 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  1958 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  1959 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  1960 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  1961 
  1962   declare [[coercion f]]
  1963 
  1964 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  1965 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  1966 
  1967   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  1968 
  1969 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  1970 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  1971 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  1972 other theories like this:
  1973 
  1974   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  1975 
  1976 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  1977 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  1978 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  1979 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  1980 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  1981 for examples.
  1982 
  1983 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  1984 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1985 
  1986 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  1987 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  1988 
  1989 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  1990 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  1991 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  1992 
  1993 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  1994 functorial structure of types.
  1995 
  1996 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  1997 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  1998 
  1999 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  2000 languages.
  2001 
  2002 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  2003 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  2004 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2005 
  2006 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  2007 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2008 
  2009 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  2010 combinators any longer.
  2011 
  2012 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  2013 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  2014 
  2015 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  2016 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  2017 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  2018 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  2019 
  2020   record 'a foo = ...
  2021   ...
  2022   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  2023 
  2024 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  2025 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  2026 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2027 
  2028 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  2029 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  2030 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  2031 
  2032 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  2033 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  2034 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  2035 
  2036 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  2037 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2038 
  2039 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  2040 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  2041 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  2042 independently.
  2043 
  2044 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  2045 counter example search.
  2046 
  2047 * Sledgehammer:
  2048   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  2049     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  2050     sledgehammer").
  2051   - Renamed commands:
  2052     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  2053     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  2054     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  2055     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2056   - Renamed options:
  2057     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  2058     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  2059     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  2060     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  2061     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2062 
  2063 * Nitpick:
  2064   - Renamed options:
  2065     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  2066     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  2067     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2068   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  2069   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  2070   - Added "whack" option.
  2071   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  2072   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  2073   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  2074   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  2075     higher cardinalities.
  2076   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  2077 
  2078 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  2079 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  2080 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  2081 
  2082     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  2083 
  2084 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  2085 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  2086 
  2087 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  2088 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  2089 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  2090 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  2091 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  2092 "smt_solver".
  2093 
  2094 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  2095 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  2096 
  2097 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  2098 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  2099 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  2100 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2101 
  2102 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  2103   - Renamed:
  2104     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  2105     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  2106     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2107   - Added:
  2108     smt_verbose
  2109     smt_random_seed
  2110     smt_datatypes
  2111     smt_infer_triggers
  2112     smt_monomorph_limit
  2113     cvc3_options
  2114     remote_cvc3_options
  2115     remote_z3_options
  2116     yices_options
  2117 
  2118 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  2119 header.
  2120 
  2121 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  2122 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  2123 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  2124 
  2125   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  2126 
  2127 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2128 
  2129 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  2130 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2131 
  2132 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2133 
  2134 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  2135 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2136 
  2137 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  2138 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  2139 
  2140 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  2141 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2142 
  2143 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  2144 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  2145 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2146 
  2147 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2148 
  2149 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  2150 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2151 
  2152 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  2153 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2154 
  2155 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  2156 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  2157 for congruent(2)).
  2158 
  2159 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  2160 
  2161   types
  2162     bool ~> HOL.bool
  2163     nat ~> Nat.nat
  2164 
  2165   constants
  2166     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  2167     True ~> HOL.True
  2168     False ~> HOL.False
  2169     op & ~> HOL.conj
  2170     op | ~> HOL.disj
  2171     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  2172     op = ~> HOL.eq
  2173     Not ~> HOL.Not
  2174     The ~> HOL.The
  2175     All ~> HOL.All
  2176     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  2177     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  2178     Let ~> HOL.Let
  2179     If ~> HOL.If
  2180     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  2181     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  2182     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  2183     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  2184     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  2185     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  2186     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  2187     op : ~> Set.member
  2188     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  2189 
  2190 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2191 
  2192 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  2193 
  2194     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  2195     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  2196     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  2197     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  2198     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  2199     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  2200     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  2201     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  2202 
  2203 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2204 
  2205 * More stylized fact names:
  2206 
  2207   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  2208   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  2209   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  2210   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  2211 
  2212 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2213 
  2214 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  2215 
  2216   constants
  2217     null ~> List.null
  2218 
  2219   facts
  2220     mem_iff ~> member_def
  2221     null_empty ~> null_def
  2222 
  2223 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  2224 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  2225 generation.
  2226 
  2227 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  2228 Haskell code.
  2229 
  2230 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  2231 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  2232 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2233 
  2234 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  2235 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2236 
  2237 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  2238 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  2239 
  2240 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  2241 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  2242 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2243 
  2244 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  2245 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2246 
  2247 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  2248 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2249 
  2250 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  2251 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  2252 referred to by its qualified name.
  2253 
  2254   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  2255   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  2256   product ~>  Enum.product
  2257 
  2258 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  2259 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  2260 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2261 
  2262 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  2263 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  2264 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  2265 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2266 
  2267 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  2268 sort_key.
  2269 
  2270 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  2271 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2272 
  2273 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  2274 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  2275 instead of finite cartesian products.
  2276 
  2277   types
  2278     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  2279               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  2280               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  2281         (depends on your needs)
  2282 
  2283   constants
  2284      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  2285      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  2286      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  2287 
  2288 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  2289 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  2290 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  2291 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2292 
  2293 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  2294 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  2295 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  2296 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  2297 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2298 
  2299 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  2300 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2301 
  2302 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  2303 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  2304 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  2305 
  2306 
  2307 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  2308 
  2309 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  2310 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  2311 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  2312 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  2313 compatibility.
  2314 
  2315 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  2316 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  2317 
  2318 
  2319 *** HOLCF ***
  2320 
  2321 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  2322 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  2323 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  2324 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2325 
  2326 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  2327 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  2328 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2329 
  2330   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  2331   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  2332   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  2333 
  2334 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  2335 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  2336 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2337 
  2338 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  2339 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  2340 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  2341 domain definition now works:
  2342 
  2343   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  2344 
  2345 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  2346 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  2347 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  2348 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  2349 
  2350   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  2351     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  2352 
  2353   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  2354 
  2355 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  2356 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  2357 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2358 
  2359 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  2360 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2361 
  2362 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  2363 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  2364 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  2365 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  2366 
  2367 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  2368 
  2369 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2370 
  2371 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2372 
  2373 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  2374 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2375 
  2376 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  2377 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  2378 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  2379 
  2380 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  2381 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  2382 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2383 
  2384 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  2385 still supported as an input translation.
  2386 
  2387 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  2388 
  2389   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  2390   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  2391   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2392   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  2393   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  2394   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  2395   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2396 
  2397 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  2398 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2399 
  2400   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  2401   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  2402   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  2403   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  2404   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  2405   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  2406 
  2407 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  2408 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2409 
  2410 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  2411 
  2412   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  2413   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  2414   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  2415   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  2416 
  2417 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2418 
  2419 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  2420 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2421 
  2422 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  2423 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2424 
  2425   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  2426   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  2427   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  2428   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  2429   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  2430   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  2431   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  2432   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  2433   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  2434   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  2435   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  2436   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  2437   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  2438   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  2439   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  2440   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  2441   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  2442   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  2443   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  2444   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  2445 
  2446 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2447 
  2448   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  2449   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  2450   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  2451   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  2452   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  2453   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  2454   box_less             ~> box_below
  2455   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  2456   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  2457   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  2458   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  2459   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  2460   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  2461   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  2462   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  2463   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  2464   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  2465   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  2466   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  2467   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  2468   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  2469   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  2470   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  2471   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  2472   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  2473   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  2474   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  2475   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  2476   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  2477   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  2478   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  2479   up_less              ~> up_below
  2480   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  2481   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  2482   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  2483   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  2484   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  2485   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  2486   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  2487   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  2488   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  2489   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  2490   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  2491   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  2492   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  2493 
  2494 
  2495 *** FOL and ZF ***
  2496 
  2497 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  2498 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2499 
  2500 
  2501 *** ML ***
  2502 
  2503 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  2504 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  2505 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  2506 
  2507 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  2508 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  2509 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  2510 
  2511 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  2512 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  2513 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  2514 
  2515 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  2516 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  2517 
  2518 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  2519 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  2520 
  2521 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  2522 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  2523 
  2524 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  2525 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  2526 
  2527 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  2528 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  2529 almost all situations.
  2530 
  2531 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  2532 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  2533 Isabelle/ML.
  2534 
  2535 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  2536 meaning.
  2537 
  2538 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  2539 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  2540 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  2541 
  2542 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  2543 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  2544 
  2545 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  2546 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  2547 
  2548 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  2549 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  2550 @{thms} for most purposes.
  2551 
  2552 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  2553 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  2554 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  2555 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  2556 configuration options.
  2557 
  2558 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  2559 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  2560 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  2561 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  2562 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  2563 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  2564 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  2565 
  2566 
  2567 
  2568 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  2569 ---------------------------------
  2570 
  2571 *** General ***
  2572 
  2573 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  2574 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  2575 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  2576 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  2577 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  2578 their full internal name.
  2579 
  2580 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  2581 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  2582 Some hints on upgrading:
  2583 
  2584   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  2585     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  2586     which are independent of this issue.
  2587 
  2588   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  2589     provides the following special forms:
  2590 
  2591       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  2592       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  2593       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  2594 
  2595     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  2596     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  2597     extra variables".
  2598 
  2599     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  2600     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  2601     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  2602     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  2603     "logic".
  2604 
  2605   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  2606     antiquotations:
  2607 
  2608       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  2609       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  2610       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  2611       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  2612 
  2613   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  2614     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  2615     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  2616     antiquotations.
  2617 
  2618 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  2619 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  2620 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  2621 diagnose syntax problems.
  2622 
  2623 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  2624 
  2625 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  2626 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  2627 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  2628 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  2629 
  2630 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  2631 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  2632 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  2633 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2634 
  2635 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  2636 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  2637 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  2638 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  2639 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2640 
  2641 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  2642 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  2643 
  2644 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  2645 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  2646 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  2647 
  2648   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  2649 
  2650 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  2651 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  2652 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  2653 
  2654 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  2655 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  2656 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2657 
  2658 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  2659 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  2660 
  2661 
  2662 *** Pure ***
  2663 
  2664 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  2665 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  2666 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  2667 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  2668 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  2669 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  2670 inspect proof terms.
  2671 
  2672 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  2673 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  2674 are added internally.  For example:
  2675 
  2676   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  2677 
  2678 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  2679 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2680 
  2681 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2682 
  2683 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  2684 'class' instead.
  2685 
  2686 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  2687 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  2688 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2689 
  2690 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  2691 invariants.
  2692 
  2693 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  2694 user space functionality any longer.
  2695 
  2696 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  2697 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  2698 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2699 
  2700 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  2701 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  2702 
  2703 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  2704 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  2705 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  2706 
  2707 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  2708 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  2709 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  2710 
  2711 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  2712 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2713 
  2714 
  2715 *** HOL ***
  2716 
  2717 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  2718 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  2719 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  2720 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  2721 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  2722 
  2723 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  2724 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  2725 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  2726 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  2727 
  2728   fun
  2729     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  2730   where
  2731     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  2732 
  2733   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  2734     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  2735 
  2736   quotient_definition
  2737     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  2738 
  2739 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  2740 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  2741 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  2742 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  2743 
  2744 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  2745 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  2746 
  2747 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  2748 separate HOL-SMT session.
  2749 
  2750 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  2751 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2752 
  2753 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  2754 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  2755 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  2756 
  2757 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  2758 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2759 
  2760 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  2761 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2762 
  2763 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  2764 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2765 
  2766 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  2767 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2768 
  2769 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  2770 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  2771 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2772 
  2773   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  2774   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  2775   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  2776   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  2777   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  2778   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  2779   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  2780   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  2781   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  2782   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  2783   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  2784   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  2785   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  2786   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  2787   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  2788   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  2789   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  2790   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  2791   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  2792   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  2793   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  2794   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  2795   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  2796   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  2797   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  2798   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  2799   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  2800   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  2801   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  2802   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  2803 
  2804 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  2805 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  2806 
  2807 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  2808 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  2809 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  2810 
  2811 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  2812 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  2813 
  2814 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  2815 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2816 
  2817 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  2818 
  2819 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  2820 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2821 
  2822 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  2823 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2824 
  2825 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2826 
  2827 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  2828 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  2829 
  2830 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  2831 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  2832 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  2833 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2834 
  2835 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  2836   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  2837   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  2838   - inverse, divide: Rings
  2839 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2840 
  2841 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  2842 lattices):
  2843 
  2844     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  2845     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  2846 
  2847     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  2848 
  2849     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  2850     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  2851     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2852     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  2853     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2854     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  2855     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  2856     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  2857     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  2858     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  2859     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  2860     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  2861     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  2862 
  2863     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  2864     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  2865     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  2866     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  2867     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  2868     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  2869     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  2870     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  2871     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  2872     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  2873     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  2874     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  2875     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  2876     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  2877     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  2878     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  2879     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  2880     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  2881 
  2882   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  2883   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  2884 
  2885     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  2886     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  2887     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  2888     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  2889     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  2890 
  2891 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2892 
  2893 * Refined field classes:
  2894   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  2895     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  2896     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  2897   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  2898 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2899 
  2900 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  2901   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  2902   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  2903   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  2904     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  2905   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  2906     equal_neg_zero.
  2907 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2908 
  2909 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  2910 sets to lattices:
  2911 
  2912   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  2913   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  2914   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  2915   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  2916   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  2917   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  2918   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  2919   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  2920   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  2921   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  2922 
  2923 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  2924 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  2925 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  2926 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  2927 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  2928 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2929 
  2930 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  2931 multiset order:
  2932 
  2933   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  2934     <= and <;
  2935   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  2936     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  2937     multiset_order;
  2938   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  2939     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  2940     generation;
  2941   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  2942     if needed.
  2943 
  2944 Renamed:
  2945 
  2946   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  2947   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  2948   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  2949 
  2950 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2951 
  2952 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  2953 
  2954 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  2955 
  2956 * Theory List: added transpose.
  2957 
  2958 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  2959 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  2960 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2961 
  2962   Constants:
  2963   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  2964   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  2965   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  2966   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  2967   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  2968   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  2969   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  2970   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  2971   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  2972   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  2973   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  2974   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  2975   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  2976 
  2977   Lemmas:
  2978   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2979   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  2980   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  2981   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  2982   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  2983   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  2984   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  2985   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  2986   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  2987   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  2988   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  2989   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  2990   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  2991 
  2992 * Sledgehammer:
  2993   - Renamed ATP commands:
  2994     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  2995     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  2996     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  2997     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  2998     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  2999     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3000   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  3001   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  3002     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  3003   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  3004     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  3005     is still experimental.)
  3006   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  3007     full-typed mode.
  3008   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  3009 
  3010 * Nitpick:
  3011   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  3012   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  3013   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  3014     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  3015   - Added support for quotient types.
  3016   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  3017     constructs.
  3018   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  3019     "termination" proofs).
  3020   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  3021   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  3022   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  3023   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  3024     record getters.
  3025   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  3026   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  3027   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  3028   - Added "atoms" option.
  3029   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  3030     problems.
  3031   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  3032     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  3033     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3034   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  3035     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3036   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3037 
  3038 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  3039   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  3040   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  3041   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  3042   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  3043   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  3044   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  3045   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  3046   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  3047   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3048 
  3049 
  3050 *** HOLCF ***
  3051 
  3052 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  3053 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  3054 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3055 
  3056 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  3057 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  3058 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  3059 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3060 
  3061 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  3062 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  3063 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  3064 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  3065 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3066 
  3067 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  3068 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  3069 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3070 
  3071 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  3072 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3073 
  3074   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  3075   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  3076 
  3077 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  3078 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3079 
  3080   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  3081   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  3082   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  3083   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  3084   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  3085 
  3086 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  3087 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3088 
  3089   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  3090   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  3091   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  3092 
  3093 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  3094 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  3095 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3096 
  3097 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  3098 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3099 
  3100 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3101 
  3102 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  3103 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3104 
  3105 
  3106 *** ML ***
  3107 
  3108 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  3109 
  3110     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  3111     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  3112 
  3113     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  3114     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  3115     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  3116     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3117 
  3118     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  3119     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  3120     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  3121 
  3122 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  3123 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  3124 
  3125 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  3126 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  3127 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  3128 
  3129 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  3130 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  3131 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  3132 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  3133 
  3134 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  3135 the context or even global references.
  3136 
  3137 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  3138 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  3139 
  3140 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  3141 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  3142 
  3143   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  3144   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  3145   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  3146   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  3147   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  3148   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  3149   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  3150   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  3151   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  3152   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  3153 
  3154 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  3155 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  3156 
  3157 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  3158 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  3159 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  3160 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  3161 pass the proper local context through the code!
  3162 
  3163 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  3164 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  3165 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  3166 Theory_Data version.
  3167 
  3168 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  3169 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  3170 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  3171 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  3172 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  3173 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  3174 explicitly in rare situations.
  3175 
  3176 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  3177 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  3178 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3179 
  3180 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  3181 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3182 
  3183 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  3184 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  3185 quite rare).
  3186 
  3187 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  3188 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3189 
  3190 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  3191 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  3192 terms.
  3193 
  3194 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  3195 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  3196 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  3197 
  3198 
  3199 *** System ***
  3200 
  3201 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  3202 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  3203 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  3204 
  3205 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  3206 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  3207 respectively.
  3208 
  3209 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  3210 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  3211 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  3212 prefers 64 bit if available:
  3213 
  3214   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  3215 
  3216 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  3217 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  3218 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  3219 component.
  3220 
  3221 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  3222 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  3223 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  3224 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  3225 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  3226 the user for manual installation.
  3227 
  3228 
  3229 
  3230 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  3231 -------------------------------------
  3232 
  3233 *** General ***
  3234 
  3235 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  3236 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  3237 
  3238 
  3239 *** Pure ***
  3240 
  3241 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  3242 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  3243 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  3244 
  3245 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  3246 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  3247 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  3248 
  3249 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  3250 interpretation.
  3251 
  3252 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  3253 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3254 
  3255 
  3256 *** Document preparation ***
  3257 
  3258 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  3259 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  3260 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  3261 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  3262 
  3263 
  3264 *** HOL ***
  3265 
  3266 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  3267 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  3268 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  3269 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  3270 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  3271 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  3272 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  3273 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  3274 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  3275 
  3276 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  3277 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  3278 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  3279 
  3280 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  3281 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  3282 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  3283 
  3284 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  3285 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  3286 
  3287 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  3288 
  3289 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  3290 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  3291 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  3292 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  3293 
  3294 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  3295 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  3296 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  3297 "mirabelle" utility.
  3298 
  3299 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  3300 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  3301 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  3302 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  3303 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  3304 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  3305 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  3306 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  3307 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  3308 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  3309 
  3310 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  3311 procedure only.
  3312 
  3313 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  3314 
  3315 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  3316 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  3317 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  3318 that fail later.
  3319 
  3320 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  3321 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  3322 
  3323 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  3324 the same method as the approximation method.
  3325 
  3326 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  3327 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  3328 series expansion.
  3329 
  3330 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  3331 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  3332 
  3333 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  3334 reals.
  3335 
  3336 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  3337 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  3338 
  3339 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  3340 fixpoint theorem.
  3341 
  3342 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3343   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  3344     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  3345   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  3346     accordingly
  3347   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  3348     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  3349   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  3350     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  3351 
  3352 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  3353 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  3354 lattice.
  3355 
  3356 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  3357 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  3358 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  3359 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  3360 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  3361 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  3362 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3363 
  3364 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  3365   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  3366     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  3367   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  3368     le_inf_iff
  3369   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  3370     sup_aci)
  3371   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  3372   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  3373   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  3374     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  3375     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  3376     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  3377     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  3378     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  3379     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  3380     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  3381     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  3382     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  3383     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  3384   - authentic syntax for
  3385     Set.Pow
  3386     Set.image
  3387   - mere abbreviations:
  3388     Set.empty               (for bot)
  3389     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  3390     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  3391     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  3392     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  3393     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  3394     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  3395     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  3396   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  3397 
  3398 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  3399 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  3400 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  3401 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  3402 
  3403 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  3404 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  3405 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3406 
  3407 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  3408 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3409 
  3410 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  3411 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  3412 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  3413 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3414 
  3415 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  3416 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  3417 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  3418 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  3419 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  3420 
  3421 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  3422 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  3423 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3424 
  3425 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  3426 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3427 
  3428 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  3429 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  3430 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  3431 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  3432 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  3433 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  3434 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  3435 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3436 
  3437 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  3438     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  3439     code_post       replaces    code post
  3440     etc.
  3441   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3442 
  3443 * Renamed methods:
  3444     sizechange -> size_change
  3445     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  3446   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3447 
  3448 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  3449 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  3450 
  3451 * Renamed theorems:
  3452     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3453     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  3454     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  3455     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  3456     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  3457   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3458 
  3459 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  3460 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3461 
  3462 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  3463 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3464 
  3465 
  3466 *** HOLCF ***
  3467 
  3468 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  3469 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  3470 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  3471 
  3472 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  3473 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  3474 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  3475 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  3476 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  3477 
  3478 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  3479 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  3480 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  3481 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  3482 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  3483 
  3484 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  3485 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  3486 constructor are pre-configured.
  3487 
  3488 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  3489 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  3490 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  3491 
  3492 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  3493 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  3494 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  3495 as well.)
  3496 
  3497 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  3498 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  3499 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  3500 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  3501 examples.
  3502 
  3503 
  3504 *** ML ***
  3505 
  3506 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  3507 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  3508 
  3509 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  3510 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  3511 position, logical grouping etc.
  3512 
  3513 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  3514 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  3515 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  3516 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  3517 
  3518 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  3519 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  3520 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  3521 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  3522 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  3523 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  3524 
  3525 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  3526 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  3527 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  3528 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  3529 experiments with references.
  3530 
  3531 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  3532 parallel tactical reasoning.
  3533 
  3534 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  3535 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  3536 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  3537 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  3538 
  3539 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  3540 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  3541 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  3542 
  3543 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  3544 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  3545 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3546 
  3547 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3548 
  3549 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  3550 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3551 
  3552 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  3553 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  3554 
  3555 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  3556 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  3557 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  3558 
  3559 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  3560 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  3561 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3562 
  3563 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  3564 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  3565 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  3566 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3567 
  3568 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3569 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  3570 instead of global theory.
  3571 
  3572 
  3573 *** System ***
  3574 
  3575 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  3576 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  3577 usedir option -q.
  3578 
  3579 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  3580 also the system manual.
  3581 
  3582 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  3583 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  3584 
  3585 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  3586 this is always enabled.
  3587 
  3588 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  3589 
  3590 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  3591 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  3592 currently supported on Linux only.
  3593 
  3594 
  3595 
  3596 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  3597 --------------------------------
  3598 
  3599 *** General ***
  3600 
  3601 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  3602 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3603 
  3604   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  3605     "isatool."
  3606 
  3607   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  3608     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  3609 
  3610   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  3611     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  3612 
  3613 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  3614 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  3615 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  3616 
  3617 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  3618 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  3619 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  3620 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  3621 via "isabelle emacs".
  3622 
  3623 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  3624 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  3625 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  3626 
  3627 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  3628 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  3629 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  3630 
  3631 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  3632 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  3633 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  3634 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  3635 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  3636 
  3637 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  3638 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  3639 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  3640 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  3641 
  3642 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  3643 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  3644 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  3645 
  3646 
  3647 *** Pure ***
  3648 
  3649 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  3650 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  3651 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  3652 
  3653 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  3654 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  3655 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  3656 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  3657 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  3658 
  3659 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  3660 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  3661 useful in locale declarations.
  3662 
  3663 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  3664 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  3665 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  3666 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  3667 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  3668 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  3669 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  3670 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  3671 no longer generated.
  3672 
  3673 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  3674 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  3675 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  3676 
  3677 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  3678 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  3679 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  3680 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  3681 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  3682 
  3683 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3684 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  3685 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  3686 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  3687 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  3688 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  3689 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  3690 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  3691 
  3692 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  3693 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  3694 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  3695 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  3696 
  3697 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3698 
  3699 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  3700 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  3701 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  3702 
  3703 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  3704 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3705 
  3706 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  3707 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  3708 in HOL, write
  3709 
  3710     class foo = ...
  3711 
  3712 instead of
  3713 
  3714     class foo = type + ...
  3715 
  3716 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  3717 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3718 
  3719 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  3720 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  3721 
  3722 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  3723 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  3724 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  3725 
  3726 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  3727 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  3728 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  3729 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  3730 directly in regular applications.
  3731 
  3732 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  3733 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  3734 
  3735 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  3736 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  3737 
  3738 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  3739 theory context.
  3740 
  3741 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  3742 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3743 
  3744 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  3745 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  3746 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  3747 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  3748 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  3749 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  3750 
  3751   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  3752 
  3753 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  3754 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  3755 normalization.
  3756 
  3757 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  3758 addressing etc.
  3759 
  3760 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  3761 
  3762   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  3763   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  3764 
  3765 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  3766 
  3767   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  3768      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  3769      parts of the code generator framework).
  3770 
  3771   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  3772      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  3773      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  3774 
  3775 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3776 
  3777 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  3778 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3779 
  3780 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  3781 patterns, e.g.
  3782 
  3783     find_consts "_ => bool"
  3784 
  3785 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  3786 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  3787 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  3788 hyphen:
  3789 
  3790     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  3791 
  3792 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  3793 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  3794 
  3795 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  3796 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  3797 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  3798 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  3799 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  3800 higher-order unification.
  3801 
  3802 
  3803 *** Document preparation ***
  3804 
  3805 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  3806 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  3807 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  3808 
  3809 
  3810 *** HOL ***
  3811 
  3812 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  3813 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  3814 
  3815 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  3816 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  3817 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  3818 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  3819 Main, as before.
  3820 
  3821 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  3822 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  3823 
  3824 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  3825 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  3826 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  3827 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  3828 
  3829 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  3830 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  3831 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  3832 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  3833 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  3834 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  3835 
  3836 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  3837 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  3838 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  3839 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  3840 
  3841 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  3842 menu.
  3843 
  3844 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  3845 (contains the empty clause).
  3846 
  3847 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  3848 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  3849 
  3850 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  3851 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  3852 
  3853 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  3854 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  3855 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3856 
  3857 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  3858 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  3859 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  3860 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  3861 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  3862 
  3863 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  3864 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  3865 
  3866 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  3867 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  3868 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  3869 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  3870 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  3871 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  3872 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  3873 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  3874 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  3875 
  3876 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  3877 
  3878 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  3879 
  3880 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  3881 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3882 
  3883 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  3884 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  3885 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  3886 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  3887 
  3888 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  3889 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  3890 
  3891     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  3892     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  3893     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  3894     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  3895     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  3896     Union ~>    Set.Union
  3897     {} ~>       Set.empty
  3898     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  3899 
  3900 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  3901 theory Set.
  3902 
  3903 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  3904 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  3905 
  3906 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  3907 
  3908 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  3909 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  3910 
  3911 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  3912 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  3913 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  3914 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  3915 allowed. For examples see
  3916 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  3917 
  3918 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  3919 
  3920 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  3921 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3922 
  3923 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  3924 structure:
  3925 
  3926     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  3927     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3928     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3929     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3930     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3931     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3932     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3933     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3934     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3935     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3936     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3937     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3938     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3939     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3940     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3941     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3942     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3943     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3944     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3945     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3946     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3947     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3948     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3949     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3950     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3951     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3952     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3953     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3954     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3955     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3956     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  3957     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  3958     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  3959 
  3960     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3961     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3962     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3963     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  3964     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3965     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3966     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3967     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3968     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3969     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  3970 
  3971     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3972     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3973     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3974     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3975     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3976     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  3977 
  3978 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  3979 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  3980 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  3981 
  3982 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  3983 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  3984 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  3985 
  3986 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  3987 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3988 
  3989 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  3990 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  3991 
  3992 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  3993 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  3994 proofs, e.g.
  3995 
  3996   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  3997 
  3998 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  3999 
  4000 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  4001 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  4002 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4003 
  4004 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  4005 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  4006 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4007 
  4008 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  4009 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  4010 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  4011 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4012 
  4013 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  4014 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  4015 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  4016 preorder_class.*.
  4017 
  4018 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  4019 "diag" to "Id_on".
  4020 
  4021 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  4022 
  4023   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  4024 
  4025 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  4026 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  4027 fold_image.
  4028 
  4029 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  4030 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  4031 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  4032 the former will disappear at some point.
  4033 
  4034 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  4035 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  4036 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  4037 
  4038 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  4039 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  4040 realpow_0      -> power_0
  4041 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  4042 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  4043 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  4044 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  4045 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  4046 
  4047 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  4048 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  4049 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  4050 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  4051 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  4052 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  4053 
  4054     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  4055     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  4056     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  4057     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  4058     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  4059     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  4060     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4061 
  4062 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  4063 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4064 rename old lemmas as follows:
  4065 
  4066 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  4067 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  4068 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  4069 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  4070 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  4071 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  4072 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  4073 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  4074 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  4075 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  4076 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  4077 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  4078 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  4079 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  4080 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  4081 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  4082 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  4083 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  4084 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  4085 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  4086 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  4087 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  4088 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  4089 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  4090 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  4091 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  4092 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  4093 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  4094 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  4095 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  4096 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  4097 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  4098 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  4099 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  4100 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  4101 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  4102 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  4103 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  4104 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  4105 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  4106 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  4107 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  4108 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  4109 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  4110 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  4111 
  4112 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4113 
  4114 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  4115 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  4116 
  4117 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  4118 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  4119 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  4120 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  4121 
  4122 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  4123 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  4124 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  4125 theory RealVector.
  4126 
  4127 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  4128 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  4129 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  4130 and inner products are included.
  4131 
  4132 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  4133 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  4134 supported.
  4135 
  4136 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  4137 first diagonalization argument.
  4138 
  4139 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  4140 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  4141 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  4142 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4143 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  4144 
  4145     hide (open) const gcd
  4146     abbreviation gcd where
  4147       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  4148     notation (output)
  4149       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  4150 
  4151 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  4152 
  4153 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  4154 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  4155 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4156 
  4157 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  4158 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  4159 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  4160 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  4161 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  4162 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  4163 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  4164 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  4165 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  4166 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  4167 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  4168 cases.
  4169 
  4170 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  4171 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  4172 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  4173 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  4174 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  4175 
  4176     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  4177     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  4178     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  4179     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  4180     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  4181 
  4182 
  4183 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  4184 
  4185 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  4186 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  4187 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  4188 
  4189 * New theory of factorial domains.
  4190 
  4191 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  4192 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  4193 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  4194 
  4195 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4196 
  4197 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  4198 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  4199 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  4200 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  4201 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  4202 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  4203 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  4204 
  4205 
  4206 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  4207 
  4208 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  4209 
  4210 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  4211 theory targets.
  4212 
  4213 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  4214 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  4215 'inductive' etc.
  4216 
  4217 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  4218 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  4219 
  4220 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  4221 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  4222 
  4223 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  4224 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  4225 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  4226 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  4227 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  4228 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  4229 the algorithm W:
  4230 
  4231  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  4232  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  4233          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  4234 
  4235 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  4236 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  4237 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  4238 
  4239 
  4240 *** HOLCF ***
  4241 
  4242 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  4243 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  4244 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  4245 
  4246 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  4247 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  4248 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  4249 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  4250 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4251 
  4252 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  4253 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4254 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4255 
  4256 
  4257 *** ZF ***
  4258 
  4259 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  4260 
  4261 
  4262 *** ML ***
  4263 
  4264 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  4265 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  4266 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  4267 5.2.1!
  4268 
  4269 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  4270 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  4271 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  4272 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  4273 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  4274 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  4275 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4276 
  4277 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  4278 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  4279 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  4280 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  4281 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  4282 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  4283 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4284 
  4285 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  4286 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  4287 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  4288 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  4289 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  4290 
  4291 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  4292 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  4293 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  4294 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  4295 Method.add_method.
  4296 
  4297 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  4298 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  4299 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  4300 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  4301 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  4302 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  4303 
  4304 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  4305 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  4306 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  4307 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  4308 examples.
  4309 
  4310 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  4311 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  4312 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  4313 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  4314 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  4315 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  4316 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  4317 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  4318 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  4319 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  4320 
  4321 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  4322 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  4323 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  4324 
  4325 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  4326 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  4327 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  4328 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  4329 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  4330 resort for legacy applications.
  4331 
  4332 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  4333 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  4334 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  4335 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  4336 explicit runtime argument.
  4337 
  4338 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  4339 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  4340 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  4341 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  4342 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4343 
  4344 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  4345 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  4346 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  4347 theory state.
  4348 
  4349 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  4350 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  4351 
  4352   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  4353   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  4354   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  4355   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  4356   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  4357   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  4358   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  4359   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  4360   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  4361   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  4362 
  4363 
  4364 *** System ***
  4365 
  4366 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  4367 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  4368 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  4369 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  4370 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  4371 
  4372 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  4373 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  4374 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  4375 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  4376 
  4377 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  4378 
  4379 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  4380 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  4381 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  4382 prover operations.
  4383 
  4384 
  4385 
  4386 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  4387 -------------------------------
  4388 
  4389 *** General ***
  4390 
  4391 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  4392 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  4393 
  4394 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  4395 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  4396 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  4397 provides a proper context already.
  4398 
  4399 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4400 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  4401 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  4402 
  4403 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  4404 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  4405 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  4406 swap theory imports.
  4407 
  4408 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  4409 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  4410 
  4411 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  4412 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4413 white space without escapes.
  4414 
  4415 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  4416 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  4417 "foo_bar".
  4418 
  4419 
  4420 *** Pure ***
  4421 
  4422 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  4423 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  4424 
  4425 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  4426 There are three ways of invoking it:
  4427 
  4428 (1) unused_thms
  4429      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  4430 
  4431 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  4432      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  4433      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  4434 
  4435 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  4436      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  4437      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  4438      their ancestors.
  4439 
  4440 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  4441 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  4442 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  4443 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  4444 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  4445 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  4446 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  4447 
  4448 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  4449 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  4450 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  4451 
  4452 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  4453 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  4454 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  4455 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  4456 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  4457 
  4458 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  4459 
  4460 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  4461 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  4462 update of theories within ML code.
  4463 
  4464 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  4465 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  4466 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  4467 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  4468 
  4469 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  4470 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  4471 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  4472 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4473 
  4474 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  4475 
  4476 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  4477 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  4478 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  4479 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  4480 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  4481 
  4482 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  4483 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  4484 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  4485 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  4486 situations.
  4487 
  4488 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  4489 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  4490 proof text.
  4491 
  4492 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  4493 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  4494 
  4495 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  4496 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  4497 predicates.
  4498 
  4499 
  4500 *** Document preparation ***
  4501 
  4502 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  4503 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  4504 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  4505 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  4506 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  4507 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  4508 
  4509 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  4510 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  4511 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  4512 
  4513 
  4514 *** HOL ***
  4515 
  4516 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  4517 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  4518 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  4519 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  4520 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  4521 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  4522 
  4523 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  4524 with multithreading.
  4525 
  4526 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  4527 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  4528 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  4529 
  4530 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  4531 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  4532 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  4533 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4534 
  4535 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  4536 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  4537 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  4538 and makes them available separately.  See
  4539 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  4540 
  4541 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  4542 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  4543 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  4544 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  4545 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  4546 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  4547 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  4548 the declared rules.
  4549 
  4550 This setup also deals with rules like 
  4551 
  4552   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  4553 
  4554 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  4555 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  4556 
  4557 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  4558 
  4559   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  4560 
  4561   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  4562     definitions on => and bool.
  4563 
  4564   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  4565     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  4566     the following theorems have been renamed:
  4567 
  4568       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  4569       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  4570       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  4571       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  4572       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  4573       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  4574       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  4575       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  4576 
  4577   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  4578     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  4579     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  4580 
  4581   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  4582     The proof pattern
  4583 
  4584       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4585       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  4586 
  4587     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  4588     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  4589 
  4590       have "EX S. P S"
  4591       proof
  4592         show "P S" <...>
  4593       qed
  4594 
  4595   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  4596     The proof pattern
  4597 
  4598       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4599       also have "S = T" <...>
  4600       finally have "P T" .
  4601 
  4602     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  4603     must be replaced by something like
  4604 
  4605       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  4606       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  4607       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  4608 
  4609   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  4610     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  4611 
  4612       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  4613 
  4614     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  4615     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  4616     type of the form
  4617 
  4618       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  4619 
  4620     rather than
  4621 
  4622       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  4623 
  4624 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  4625 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  4626 
  4627 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4628 
  4629 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  4630 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  4631 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4632 
  4633 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  4634 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4635 
  4636 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  4637 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4638 
  4639 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  4640 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  4641 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4642 
  4643 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  4644 the same name in theory Orderings:
  4645 
  4646   less_trans
  4647   less_linear
  4648   le_imp_less_or_eq
  4649   le_less_trans
  4650   less_le_trans
  4651   less_not_sym
  4652   less_asym
  4653 
  4654 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  4655 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  4656 and different variable names.
  4657 
  4658 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  4659 
  4660 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  4661 finite maps.
  4662 
  4663 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  4664 
  4665 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  4666 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  4667 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  4668 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  4669 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  4670 accordingly.
  4671 
  4672 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  4673 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  4674 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  4675 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  4676 
  4677 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  4678 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  4679 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  4680 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  4681 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  4682 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4683 
  4684 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  4685 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4686 
  4687 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  4688 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  4689 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  4690 
  4691 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  4692 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4693 
  4694 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  4695 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  4696 
  4697 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  4698 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4699 
  4700 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  4701 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4702 
  4703 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  4704 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  4705 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4706 
  4707 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  4708 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4709 
  4710 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  4711 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  4712 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  4713 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  4714 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  4715 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4716 
  4717 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  4718 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  4719 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  4720 
  4721 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  4722 
  4723 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  4724 
  4725 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  4726 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  4727 well-orders on sets and on types.
  4728 
  4729 
  4730 *** ZF ***
  4731 
  4732 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  4733 same session:
  4734 
  4735   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  4736   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  4737   Int       -> Int_ZF
  4738   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  4739   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  4740   List      -> List_ZF
  4741   Main      -> Main_ZF
  4742 
  4743 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  4744 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  4745 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  4746 
  4747 
  4748 *** ML ***
  4749 
  4750 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  4751 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  4752 
  4753 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  4754 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  4755 
  4756 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  4757 
  4758 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  4759 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  4760 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  4761 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  4762 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4763 
  4764 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  4765 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  4766 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  4767 
  4768 
  4769 *** System ***
  4770 
  4771 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  4772 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  4773 
  4774 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  4775 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  4776 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  4777 
  4778 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  4779 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  4780 
  4781 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  4782 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  4783 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  4784 
  4785 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  4786 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  4787 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  4788 
  4789 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  4790 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  4791 
  4792 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  4793 way of changing the user's settings is via
  4794 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  4795 script.
  4796 
  4797 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  4798 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  4799 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  4800 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  4801 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  4802 
  4803 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  4804 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  4805 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  4806 
  4807 
  4808 
  4809 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  4810 -----------------------------------
  4811 
  4812 *** General ***
  4813 
  4814 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  4815 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  4816 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4817 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  4818 
  4819 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  4820 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  4821 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4822 
  4823 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  4824 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  4825 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  4826 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4827 
  4828 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  4829 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  4830 quotes.
  4831 
  4832 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  4833 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  4834 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  4835 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  4836 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  4837 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  4838 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  4839 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  4840 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  4841 
  4842 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  4843 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  4844 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  4845 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  4846 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  4847 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  4848 
  4849 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  4850 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  4851 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  4852 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  4853 
  4854 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  4855 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  4856 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  4857 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  4858 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  4859 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  4860 
  4861 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  4862 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  4863 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  4864 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  4865 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  4866 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  4867 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  4868 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  4869 
  4870 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  4871 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  4872 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  4873 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  4874 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  4875 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  4876 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  4877 
  4878 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  4879 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  4880 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  4881 
  4882 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  4883 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  4884 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  4885 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  4886 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  4887 limit is imposed.
  4888 
  4889 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  4890 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  4891 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  4892 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  4893 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  4894 and scalability.
  4895 
  4896 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  4897 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  4898 
  4899 
  4900 *** Document preparation ***
  4901 
  4902 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  4903 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  4904 current context.
  4905 
  4906 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  4907 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  4908 
  4909 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  4910 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  4911 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  4912 
  4913 
  4914 *** Pure ***
  4915 
  4916 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  4917 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  4918 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  4919 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  4920 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  4921 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  4922 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  4923 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  4924 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  4925 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  4926 
  4927 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  4928 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  4929 sketch:
  4930 
  4931     internal compilation:
  4932         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  4933     writing SML code to a file:
  4934         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  4935     writing OCaml code to a file:
  4936         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  4937     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  4938         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  4939 
  4940     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  4941         method ``eval''
  4942 
  4943 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  4944 
  4945 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  4946 
  4947     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4948     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  4949     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4950     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  4951 
  4952 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  4953 
  4954     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  4955       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  4956 
  4957     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  4958       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  4959 
  4960     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  4961       {(target)}+
  4962         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  4963 
  4964     code_class <and_list of classes>
  4965       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  4966         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  4967 
  4968 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  4969 
  4970 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  4971 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  4972 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  4973 codegen".
  4974 
  4975 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  4976 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  4977 annotations).
  4978 
  4979 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  4980 syntax.
  4981 
  4982 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  4983 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  4984 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  4985 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  4986 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  4987 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  4988 
  4989 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  4990 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  4991 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  4992 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  4993 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  4994 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  4995 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  4996 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  4997 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  4998 equations, see section "definitions".
  4999 
  5000 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  5001 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  5002 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  5003 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  5004 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  5005 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  5006 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  5007 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  5008 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  5009 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  5010 
  5011 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  5012 configuration options:
  5013 
  5014   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  5015   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  5016   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  5017   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  5018   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  5019   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  5020   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  5021   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  5022   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  5023 
  5024 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  5025 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  5026 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  5027 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  5028 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  5029 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  5030 order.
  5031 
  5032 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  5033 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  5034 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  5035 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  5036 context encountered later on.
  5037 
  5038 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  5039 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  5040 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  5041 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  5042 
  5043 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  5044 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  5045 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  5046 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  5047 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  5048 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  5049 
  5050 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  5051 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  5052 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  5053 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  5054 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  5055 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  5056 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  5057 more permissive.
  5058 
  5059 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  5060 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  5061 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  5062 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  5063 maintainability of proof texts.
  5064 
  5065 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  5066 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  5067 
  5068   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  5069   then guess x and y by clarify
  5070 
  5071 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and
  5072 proof tools being involved here.
  5073 
  5074 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal
  5075 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax.  This works wherever
  5076 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof
  5077 methods, attributes etc.  Literal facts are retrieved from the context
  5078 according to unification of type and term parameters.  For example,
  5079 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known
  5080 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:
  5081 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.
  5082 
  5083 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition
  5084 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with
  5085 certain special cases of literal facts:
  5086 
  5087   have "A" by fact                 ==  note `A`
  5088   have "A ==> B" by fact           ==  note `A ==> B`
  5089   have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact  ==  note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`
  5090   have "P a ==> Q a" by fact       ==  note `P a ==> Q a`
  5091 
  5092 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in
  5093 outer syntax.  Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without
  5094 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.
  5095 
  5096 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,
  5097 both named and unnamed ones.
  5098 
  5099 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:
  5100 
  5101   def x == "t" and y == "u"
  5102 
  5103 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to
  5104 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given
  5105 rewrite rules.  Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or
  5106 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.
  5107 
  5108 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',
  5109 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities
  5110 (potentially conditional).  The underlying notion of rewrite rule is
  5111 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the
  5112 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).
  5113 
  5114 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the
  5115 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.
  5116 
  5117 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a
  5118 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N
  5119 sub-goals, which need to exist.  For example, ``simp_all [3]''
  5120 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]
  5121 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the
  5122 originally first one.
  5123 
  5124 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order
  5125 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as
  5126 expected.
  5127 
  5128 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either
  5129 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'
  5130 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and
  5131 assumptions).  The latter allows to express general elimination rules
  5132 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:
  5133 
  5134   lemma exE:    -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5135     assumes "EX x. P x"
  5136     obtains x where "P x"
  5137 
  5138   lemma conjE:  -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5139     assumes "A & B"
  5140     obtains A and B
  5141 
  5142   lemma disjE:  -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5143     assumes "A | B"
  5144     obtains
  5145       A
  5146     | B
  5147 
  5148 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"
  5149 explicitly:
  5150 
  5151   lemma classical:     -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5152     obtains "~ thesis"
  5153 
  5154   lemma Peirce's_Law:  -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"
  5155     obtains "thesis ==> something"
  5156 
  5157 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the
  5158 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.
  5159 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be
  5160 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the
  5161 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute
  5162 case_names).
  5163 
  5164 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as
  5165 "assms" fact in the proof context.  This is more appropriate than the
  5166 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current
  5167 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.
  5168 
  5169 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or
  5170 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a
  5171 top-level lemma.
  5172 
  5173 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context
  5174 introduction rule (default "that").
  5175 
  5176 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5177 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens
  5178 to occur.
  5179 
  5180 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant
  5181 according to the current context.  This is particularly useful for
  5182 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant
  5183 representations independently of name spaces.
  5184 
  5185 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"
  5186 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist
  5187 in the same context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5188 
  5189 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'
  5190 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and
  5191 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation
  5192 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the
  5193 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the
  5194 current context.
  5195 
  5196 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',
  5197 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit
  5198 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence).  See also the
  5199 isar-ref manual.  Examples:
  5200 
  5201   axiomatization
  5202     eq  (infix "===" 50) where
  5203     eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"
  5204 
  5205   definition "f x y = x + y + 1"
  5206   definition g where "g x = f x x"
  5207 
  5208   abbreviation
  5209     neq  (infix "=!=" 50) where
  5210     "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"
  5211 
  5212 These specifications may be also used in a locale context.  Then the
  5213 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the
  5214 constant name is qualified by the locale base name.  An internal
  5215 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the
  5216 parameters implicit and using the original short name.  See also
  5217 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic
  5218 entities from a monomorphic theory.
  5219 
  5220 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but
  5221 not inherited by general import expressions.  Also note that
  5222 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +
  5223 'translations' in common applications.  The "no_abbrevs" print mode
  5224 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.
  5225 
  5226 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,
  5227 independently of name spaces.  The parse tree representation is
  5228 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and
  5229 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.
  5230 
  5231 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms
  5232 (e.g.  'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits
  5233 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_").  For example:
  5234 
  5235   definition "K x _ = x"
  5236 
  5237   inductive conj for A B
  5238   where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"
  5239 
  5240 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of
  5241 the current context.  Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of
  5242 abbreviations on output.
  5243 
  5244 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and
  5245 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer
  5246 required to be injective.  For example, this allows to define
  5247 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.
  5248 
  5249 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.
  5250 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is
  5251 now an interpretation.  INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of
  5252 locale expressions.  In particular, in interpretations of locales with
  5253 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not
  5254 removed automatically.  Use methods `intro_locales' and
  5255 `unfold_locales'; see below.
  5256 
  5257 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'
  5258 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates.  The methods are
  5259 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.
  5260 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not
  5261 unfold predicates to assumptions.
  5262 
  5263 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated
  5264 has changed.  This enables to override declarations from fragments due
  5265 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.
  5266 
  5267 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been
  5268 extended.  One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are
  5269 unfolded in interpreted theorems.  This is useful for replacing
  5270 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by
  5271 concepts already existing in the target context.  Example:
  5272 
  5273   interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]
  5274     where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"
  5275 
  5276 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a
  5277 definition specification element in the context of locale
  5278 partial_order.
  5279 
  5280 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support
  5281 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level
  5282 connectives !!  and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals
  5283 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long
  5284 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in
  5285 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also
  5286 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic
  5287 examples.
  5288 
  5289 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of
  5290 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into
  5291 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested
  5292 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,
  5293 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.
  5294 
  5295 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list
  5296 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide
  5297 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive
  5298 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify
  5299 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:
  5300 
  5301   (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)
  5302   (induct set: foo bar)
  5303   (induct pred: foo bar)
  5304   (induct type: foo bar)
  5305 
  5306 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the
  5307 new format.
  5308 
  5309 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see
  5310 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.
  5311 
  5312 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is
  5313 considered a legacy feature.
  5314 
  5315 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic
  5316 variables (index 0).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5317 
  5318 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level
  5319 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by
  5320 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The
  5321 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.
  5322   
  5323 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format
  5324 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when
  5325 manipulating the claset.
  5326 
  5327 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,
  5328 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at
  5329 least one premise.
  5330 
  5331 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional
  5332 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions).  Weights are
  5333 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single
  5334 rule steps.
  5335 
  5336 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",
  5337 where the body does not mention the bound variable.  Note that dummy
  5338 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes
  5339 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected.  Potential
  5340 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic
  5341 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.
  5342 
  5343 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated
  5344 parse translation.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,
  5345 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".
  5346 
  5347 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using
  5348 the graph browser tool.
  5349 
  5350 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by
  5351 default; use '!' option for full details.
  5352 
  5353 
  5354 *** HOL ***
  5355 
  5356 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose
  5357 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).
  5358 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples.  WARNING: the
  5359 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with
  5360 multi-threading.
  5361   
  5362 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as
  5363 background processes.  It generates calls to the "metis" method if
  5364 successful. These can be pasted into the proof.  Users do not have to
  5365 wait for the automatic provers to return.  WARNING: does not really
  5366 work with multi-threading.
  5367 
  5368 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for
  5369 potential counter-examples.  Controlled by ML references
  5370 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default
  5371 5000 milliseconds).  Fails silently if statements is outside of
  5372 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.
  5373 
  5374 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".
  5375 
  5376 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic
  5377 equality.
  5378 
  5379 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in
  5380 the new 'class' package:
  5381 
  5382     HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs
  5383     HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide
  5384     0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero
  5385     1 ~> HOL.one_class.one
  5386     op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus
  5387     op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus
  5388     uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus
  5389     op * ~> HOL.times_class.times
  5390     op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less
  5391     op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq
  5392     Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power
  5393     Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size
  5394     Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of
  5395     FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf
  5396     FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup
  5397     Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min
  5398     Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max
  5399     Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div
  5400     Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod
  5401     Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd
  5402 
  5403 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Adaptions may be required in the following cases:
  5404 
  5405 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",
  5406 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for
  5407 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific
  5408 names.
  5409 
  5410 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"
  5411 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.
  5412 
  5413 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")
  5414 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative
  5415 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows
  5416 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle
  5417 distribution).  INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs
  5418 
  5419 d) ML code directly refering to constant names
  5420 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and
  5421 so on.  INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.
  5422 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.
  5423 
  5424 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".
  5425 
  5426 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex
  5427 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn".  Two possible defs of
  5428 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and
  5429 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.
  5430 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5431 
  5432 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory
  5433 Orderings), added parameter "less".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5434 
  5435 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and
  5436 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid
  5437 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5438 
  5439 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to
  5440 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.
  5441 
  5442 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up
  5443 for classes "order" and "linorder".  Instances of the reasoner are available
  5444 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.
  5445 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner
  5446 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver.  Diagnostic
  5447 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner
  5448 in the current context.
  5449 
  5450 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated
  5451 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.
  5452 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5453 
  5454 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration
  5455 with new class dense_linear_order.
  5456 
  5457 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.
  5458 
  5459     constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"
  5460     constant "Meet" now named "Inf"
  5461 
  5462     classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named
  5463       "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"
  5464     class "lorder" now named "lattice"
  5465     class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"
  5466 
  5467     Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions
  5468     for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).
  5469 
  5470   INCOMPATIBILITY.  Theorem renames:
  5471 
  5472     meet_left_le            ~> inf_le1
  5473     meet_right_le           ~> inf_le2
  5474     join_left_le            ~> sup_ge1
  5475     join_right_le           ~> sup_ge2
  5476     meet_join_le            ~> inf_sup_ord
  5477     le_meetI                ~> le_infI
  5478     join_leI                ~> le_supI
  5479     le_meet                 ~> le_inf_iff
  5480     le_join                 ~> ge_sup_conv
  5481     meet_idempotent         ~> inf_idem
  5482     join_idempotent         ~> sup_idem
  5483     meet_comm               ~> inf_commute
  5484     join_comm               ~> sup_commute
  5485     meet_leI1               ~> le_infI1
  5486     meet_leI2               ~> le_infI2
  5487     le_joinI1               ~> le_supI1
  5488     le_joinI2               ~> le_supI2
  5489     meet_assoc              ~> inf_assoc
  5490     join_assoc              ~> sup_assoc
  5491     meet_left_comm          ~> inf_left_commute
  5492     meet_left_idempotent    ~> inf_left_idem
  5493     join_left_comm          ~> sup_left_commute
  5494     join_left_idempotent    ~> sup_left_idem
  5495     meet_aci                ~> inf_aci
  5496     join_aci                ~> sup_aci
  5497     le_def_meet             ~> le_iff_inf
  5498     le_def_join             ~> le_iff_sup
  5499     join_absorp2            ~> sup_absorb2
  5500     join_absorp1            ~> sup_absorb1
  5501     meet_absorp1            ~> inf_absorb1
  5502     meet_absorp2            ~> inf_absorb2
  5503     meet_join_absorp        ~> inf_sup_absorb
  5504     join_meet_absorp        ~> sup_inf_absorb
  5505     distrib_join_le         ~> distrib_sup_le
  5506     distrib_meet_le         ~> distrib_inf_le
  5507 
  5508     add_meet_distrib_left   ~> add_inf_distrib_left
  5509     add_join_distrib_left   ~> add_sup_distrib_left
  5510     is_join_neg_meet        ~> is_join_neg_inf
  5511     is_meet_neg_join        ~> is_meet_neg_sup
  5512     add_meet_distrib_right  ~> add_inf_distrib_right
  5513     add_join_distrib_right  ~> add_sup_distrib_right
  5514     add_meet_join_distribs  ~> add_sup_inf_distribs
  5515     join_eq_neg_meet        ~> sup_eq_neg_inf
  5516     meet_eq_neg_join        ~> inf_eq_neg_sup
  5517     add_eq_meet_join        ~> add_eq_inf_sup
  5518     meet_0_imp_0            ~> inf_0_imp_0
  5519     join_0_imp_0            ~> sup_0_imp_0
  5520     meet_0_eq_0             ~> inf_0_eq_0
  5521     join_0_eq_0             ~> sup_0_eq_0
  5522     neg_meet_eq_join        ~> neg_inf_eq_sup
  5523     neg_join_eq_meet        ~> neg_sup_eq_inf
  5524     join_eq_if              ~> sup_eq_if
  5525 
  5526     mono_meet               ~> mono_inf
  5527     mono_join               ~> mono_sup
  5528     meet_bool_eq            ~> inf_bool_eq
  5529     join_bool_eq            ~> sup_bool_eq
  5530     meet_fun_eq             ~> inf_fun_eq
  5531     join_fun_eq             ~> sup_fun_eq
  5532     meet_set_eq             ~> inf_set_eq
  5533     join_set_eq             ~> sup_set_eq
  5534     meet1_iff               ~> inf1_iff
  5535     meet2_iff               ~> inf2_iff
  5536     meet1I                  ~> inf1I
  5537     meet2I                  ~> inf2I
  5538     meet1D1                 ~> inf1D1
  5539     meet2D1                 ~> inf2D1
  5540     meet1D2                 ~> inf1D2
  5541     meet2D2                 ~> inf2D2
  5542     meet1E                  ~> inf1E
  5543     meet2E                  ~> inf2E
  5544     join1_iff               ~> sup1_iff
  5545     join2_iff               ~> sup2_iff
  5546     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5547     join2I1                 ~> sup2I1
  5548     join1I1                 ~> sup1I1
  5549     join2I2                 ~> sup1I2
  5550     join1CI                 ~> sup1CI
  5551     join2CI                 ~> sup2CI
  5552     join1E                  ~> sup1E
  5553     join2E                  ~> sup2E
  5554 
  5555     is_meet_Meet            ~> is_meet_Inf
  5556     Meet_bool_def           ~> Inf_bool_def
  5557     Meet_fun_def            ~> Inf_fun_def
  5558     Meet_greatest           ~> Inf_greatest
  5559     Meet_lower              ~> Inf_lower
  5560     Meet_set_def            ~> Inf_set_def
  5561 
  5562     Sup_def                 ~> Sup_Inf
  5563     Sup_bool_eq             ~> Sup_bool_def
  5564     Sup_fun_eq              ~> Sup_fun_def
  5565     Sup_set_eq              ~> Sup_set_def
  5566 
  5567     listsp_meetI            ~> listsp_infI
  5568     listsp_meet_eq          ~> listsp_inf_eq
  5569 
  5570     meet_min                ~> inf_min
  5571     join_max                ~> sup_max
  5572 
  5573 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has
  5574 type "'a::size ==> bool"
  5575 
  5576 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems
  5577 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still
  5578 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named
  5579 "*.size".
  5580 
  5581 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".
  5582 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5583 
  5584 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,
  5585 Linorder etc.  have disappeared; operations defined in terms of
  5586 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5587 
  5588 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5589 
  5590 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size
  5591 machine words, with arithmetic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating
  5592 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for
  5593 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including
  5594 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity.  Instantiated to all appropriate
  5595 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of
  5596 numerals on all operations.
  5597 
  5598 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.
  5599 
  5600 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).
  5601 
  5602 * Code generator library theories:
  5603   - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target
  5604     languages.
  5605   - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target
  5606     languages.
  5607   - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character
  5608     codes; includes Code_Integer.
  5609   - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.
  5610   - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,
  5611     denominator).
  5612   - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those
  5613     representable by rational numbers.
  5614   - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will
  5615     result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;
  5616     includes Code_Integer.
  5617   - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to
  5618     target-language built-in integers.
  5619   - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string which is isomorphic to
  5620     strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.
  5621 
  5622 * New package for inductive predicates
  5623 
  5624   An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via
  5625 
  5626     inductive
  5627       p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5628       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5629     where
  5630       rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5631     | ...
  5632 
  5633   with full support for type-inference, rather than
  5634 
  5635     consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5636 
  5637     abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5638     where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5639 
  5640     inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"
  5641     intros
  5642       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5643       ...
  5644 
  5645   For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive
  5646   sets to be defined with the new package via
  5647 
  5648     inductive_set
  5649       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5650       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5651     where
  5652       rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5653     | ...
  5654 
  5655   or
  5656 
  5657     inductive_set
  5658       s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"
  5659       and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"
  5660       for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m
  5661     where
  5662       "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"
  5663     | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"
  5664     | ...
  5665 
  5666   if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.
  5667 
  5668   Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,
  5669   src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.
  5670 
  5671   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5672 
  5673   - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates
  5674     is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly
  5675     introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the
  5676     introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather
  5677     than before the actual inductive definition.
  5678 
  5679   - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now
  5680     quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction
  5681     rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break
  5682     some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by
  5683     reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'
  5684     statements of the form
  5685 
  5686       case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})
  5687 
  5688     or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding
  5689     meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.
  5690 
  5691       | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"
  5692 
  5693   - The format of the elimination rules is now
  5694 
  5695       p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>
  5696         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5697         ==> ... ==> P
  5698 
  5699     for predicates and
  5700 
  5701       (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5702         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)
  5703         ==> ... ==> P
  5704 
  5705     for sets rather than
  5706 
  5707       x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>
  5708         (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)
  5709         ==> ... ==> P
  5710 
  5711     This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples
  5712     (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all
  5713     rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.
  5714 
  5715   - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive
  5716     sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The
  5717     list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.
  5718 
  5719 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,
  5720 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,
  5721 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy
  5722 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function
  5723 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but
  5724 users are encouraged to use the new package.
  5725 
  5726 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination
  5727 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures. 
  5728 
  5729 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including
  5730 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional
  5731 programming.  Internally, this is translated into nested
  5732 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined
  5733 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show
  5734 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow
  5735 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an
  5736 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new
  5737 variable.
  5738 
  5739 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"
  5740 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification
  5741 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did
  5742 previously.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5743   - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"
  5744   - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules
  5745 
  5746 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using
  5747 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the
  5748 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for
  5749 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding
  5750 declarations for computation on the coefficients.  The method is
  5751 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class
  5752 of idoms with numerals.  See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at
  5753 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this
  5754 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.
  5755 
  5756 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over
  5757 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to
  5758 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class
  5759 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,
  5760 rat, etc.
  5761 
  5762 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append".  Use ML
  5763 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to
  5764 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.
  5765 
  5766 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".
  5767 
  5768 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.
  5769 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)
  5770 
  5771 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.
  5772 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.
  5773 
  5774 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :
  5775 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list
  5776 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5777 
  5778 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders.  It used to be
  5779 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]
  5780 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5781 
  5782 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD"  to "set_takeWhileD".
  5783 
  5784 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.
  5785 
  5786 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for
  5787 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all
  5788 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or
  5789 positive/negative (in inequations).
  5790 
  5791 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib
  5792 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and
  5793 ring_distribs.  Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field
  5794 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5795 
  5796 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function
  5797 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried.  Infix syntax for
  5798 algebraic operations.
  5799 
  5800 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.
  5801 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5802 
  5803 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.
  5804 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5805 
  5806 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the
  5807 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update
  5808 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.
  5809 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be
  5810 adapted.
  5811  
  5812 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0
  5813 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring.  Richer structures do not
  5814 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem
  5815 there, not an axiom.  INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,
  5816 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.
  5817 
  5818 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just
  5819 commutative semirings.  INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate
  5820 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.
  5821 
  5822 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.
  5823 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,
  5824 better use 'abbreviation'.
  5825 
  5826 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5827 
  5828 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has
  5829 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'.  INCOMPATIBILITY --
  5830 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:
  5831   - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead
  5832       of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.
  5833   - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.
  5834   - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.
  5835   - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.
  5836 
  5837 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.
  5838 
  5839 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may
  5840 contain free variables.  For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''
  5841 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof).  This command is suitable for
  5842 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML
  5843 first.  Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided.  See
  5844 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.
  5845 
  5846 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority
  5847 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is
  5848 "A = B" (with priority 50).
  5849 
  5850 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.
  5851 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,
  5852 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z".  Potential
  5853 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5854 
  5855 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).
  5856 
  5857 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds
  5858 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5859 
  5860 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been
  5861 removed.  Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.
  5862 
  5863 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites
  5864 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq").  INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using
  5865 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.
  5866 
  5867 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to
  5868 True/False.
  5869 
  5870 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".
  5871 
  5872 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.
  5873 
  5874 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the
  5875 ``rule'' method.
  5876 
  5877 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:
  5878 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences
  5879 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form
  5880 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.
  5881 
  5882 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.
  5883 zChaff is still supported as well.
  5884 
  5885 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,
  5886 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;
  5887 
  5888 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to
  5889 Library.
  5890 
  5891 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.
  5892 
  5893 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists
  5894 as greatest fixed-point.
  5895 
  5896 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as
  5897 association lists.
  5898 
  5899 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)
  5900 efficiently by compiling it to ML.  The goal is "proved" (via an
  5901 oracle) if it evaluates to True.
  5902 
  5903 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)
  5904 also when invoked by the simplifier.  This results in the Simplifier
  5905 being more powerful on arithmetic goals.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5906 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old
  5907 behavior.
  5908 
  5909 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.
  5910 
  5911 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an
  5912 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional
  5913 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the
  5914 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The
  5915 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs
  5916 s.  If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.
  5917 
  5918 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)
  5919 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,
  5920 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code
  5921 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then
  5922 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =
  5923 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the
  5924 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.
  5925 
  5926 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is
  5927 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy
  5928 
  5929 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a
  5930 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an
  5931 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of
  5932 HOL types.  This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,
  5933 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.
  5934 
  5935 
  5936 *** HOL-Complex ***
  5937 
  5938 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real
  5939 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.
  5940 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so
  5941 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential
  5942 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5943 
  5944 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and
  5945 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a
  5946 and norm :: 'a => real.
  5947 
  5948 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from
  5949 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now
  5950 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5951 
  5952 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.
  5953 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.
  5954 
  5955 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the
  5956 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector
  5957 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential
  5958 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5959 
  5960   Infinitesimal  :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5961   HFinite        :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5962   HInfinite      :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set
  5963   approx         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool
  5964   monad          :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5965   galaxy         :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set
  5966   (NS)LIMSEQ     :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5967   (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5968   (NS)Bseq       :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5969   (NS)Cauchy     :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool
  5970   (NS)LIM        :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool
  5971   is(NS)Cont     :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool
  5972   deriv          :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool
  5973   sgn            :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a
  5974   exp            :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a
  5975 
  5976 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for
  5977 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =
  5978 hnorm.  Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the
  5979 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  5980 
  5981   approx        <-- capprox
  5982   HFinite       <-- CFinite
  5983   HInfinite     <-- CInfinite
  5984   Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal
  5985   monad         <-- cmonad
  5986   galaxy        <-- cgalaxy
  5987   (NS)LIM       <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM
  5988   is(NS)Cont    <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR
  5989   (ns)deriv     <-- (ns)cderiv
  5990 
  5991 
  5992 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5993 
  5994 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.
  5995 
  5996 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.
  5997 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5998 
  5999 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->
  6000 greatest_closed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6001 
  6002 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute.  For examples see
  6003 Ring.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations
  6004 of algebraic structures.
  6005 
  6006 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.
  6007 
  6008 
  6009 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  6010 
  6011 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding
  6012 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic.  See src/HOL/Nominal and
  6013 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples.  Prospective users should consult
  6014 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/
  6015 
  6016 
  6017 *** ML ***
  6018 
  6019 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int
  6020 (even on SML/NJ).
  6021 
  6022 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked
  6023 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at
  6024 compile-time.  For example:
  6025 
  6026 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}
  6027 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}
  6028 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}
  6029 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}
  6030 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}
  6031 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}
  6032 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}
  6033 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}
  6034 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}
  6035 ML {* @{type_name c} *}
  6036 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}
  6037 ML {* @{const_name c} *}
  6038 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}
  6039 ML {* @{context} *}
  6040 ML {* @{theory} *}
  6041 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}
  6042 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}
  6043 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}
  6044 ML {* @{simpset} *}
  6045 ML {* @{claset} *}
  6046 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}
  6047 
  6048 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.
  6049 
  6050 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with
  6051 ML_Context.trace enabled.
  6052 
  6053 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions
  6054 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and
  6055 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.
  6056 
  6057 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now
  6058 use Context.generic instead of just theory.
  6059 
  6060 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and
  6061 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of
  6062 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.
  6063 
  6064 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always
  6065 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.
  6066 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while
  6067 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and
  6068 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure
  6069 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably
  6070 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type
  6071 declarations and definitions.
  6072 
  6073 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed
  6074 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,
  6075 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need
  6076 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)
  6077 
  6078 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in
  6079 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the
  6080 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,
  6081 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6082 
  6083 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with
  6084 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed
  6085 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --
  6086 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and
  6087 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede
  6088 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.
  6089 
  6090 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --
  6091 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been
  6092 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted
  6093 accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for
  6094 attributes, methods, etc.
  6095 
  6096 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."
  6097 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to
  6098 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and
  6099 fold_map combinators.
  6100 
  6101 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional
  6102 comments (tags) are now strictly separate.  Name hints -- which are
  6103 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the
  6104 derivation.
  6105 
  6106 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an
  6107 actual goal state (thm).  Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to
  6108 achieve the old behaviour.
  6109 
  6110 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a
  6111 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule
  6112 statements.
  6113 
  6114 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now
  6115 enforced instead of silently assumed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use
  6116 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.
  6117 
  6118 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating
  6119 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc.  This replaces
  6120 some popular functions from term.ML:
  6121 
  6122   Term.variant		->  Name.variant
  6123   Term.variantlist	->  Name.variant_list
  6124   Term.invent_names	->  Name.invent_list
  6125 
  6126 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations
  6127 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).
  6128 
  6129 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper
  6130 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context.  For example,
  6131 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and
  6132 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces
  6133 various freeze_thaw operations.
  6134 
  6135 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for
  6136 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former
  6137 Tactic.prove).  Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results
  6138 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for
  6139 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard.  Note that
  6140 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is
  6141 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or
  6142 in a locale context).
  6143 
  6144 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)
  6145 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations
  6146 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.
  6147 which are considered legacy and await removal.
  6148 
  6149 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking
  6150 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),
  6151 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term
  6152 etc.).  Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still
  6153 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using
  6154 a mere theory instead of a full context.
  6155 
  6156 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception
  6157 ERROR of string uniformly.  Function error now merely raises ERROR,
  6158 without any side effect on output channels.  The Isar toplevel takes
  6159 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions.  ML code may use plain
  6160 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:
  6161 
  6162   ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."
  6163 
  6164 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be
  6165 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like
  6166 this:
  6167 
  6168   Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)
  6169 
  6170 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed
  6171 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,
  6172 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)
  6173 -- use plain ERROR instead.
  6174 
  6175 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a
  6176 list.  INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.
  6177 
  6178 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to
  6179 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.
  6180 
  6181 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the
  6182 theory before entering a proof state.  Transactions now always see a
  6183 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and
  6184 batch mode.
  6185 
  6186 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax.  Renamed
  6187 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords.  Removed
  6188 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in
  6189 OuterSyntax.command etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6190 
  6191 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now
  6192 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the
  6193 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by
  6194 simpset_of/local_simpset_of).  Consequently, all plug-in components
  6195 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.
  6196 
  6197 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the
  6198 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc
  6199 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this!  Removed
  6200 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --
  6201 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to
  6202 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.
  6203 
  6204 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces
  6205 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a
  6206 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --
  6207 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6208 
  6209 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired
  6210 "Trueprop" etc.
  6211 
  6212 
  6213 *** System ***
  6214 
  6215 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now
  6216 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER.  This simplifies use of multiple
  6217 Isabelle installations.
  6218 
  6219 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical
  6220 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source
  6221 code.
  6222 
  6223 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.
  6224 
  6225 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of
  6226 Poly/ML 5.1.  The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing
  6227 independent theories, according to the given theory header
  6228 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via
  6229 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A
  6230 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up
  6231 to 6 on a 8-core machine.  User-code needs to observe certain
  6232 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar
  6233 Implementation manual.
  6234 
  6235 
  6236 
  6237 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)
  6238 ----------------------------------
  6239