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NEWS

author | paulson |

Wed Nov 28 16:26:03 2007 +0100 (2007-11-28) | |

changeset 25492 | 4cc7976948ac |

parent 25464 | 0ca80ce89001 |

child 25502 | 9200b36280c0 |

permissions | -rw-r--r-- |

Chained theorems are no longer mentioned in metis calls and (if used) they prevent the

output of a structured proof.

output of a structured proof.

1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes

2 ==============================================

4 New in this Isabelle version

5 ----------------------------

7 *** HOL ***

9 * Constant "card" now with authentic syntax.

13 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)

14 -----------------------------------

16 *** General ***

18 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a

19 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the

20 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:

21 legacy features will disappear eventually.

23 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been

24 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''. Use isatool

25 fixheaders to convert existing theory files. INCOMPATIBILITY.

27 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been

28 discontinued altogether. Note that ML proof scripts may still be used

29 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML

30 function use_legacy_bindings. INCOMPATIBILITY.

32 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',

33 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords. INCOMPATIBILITY, use double

34 quotes.

36 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory

37 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the

38 accidental file locations of previously successful loads. The strict

39 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by

40 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several

41 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header

42 specification, but without merging the results. Potential

43 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands

44 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.

46 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file

47 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical

48 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting

49 (cf. the system manual). The new scheme allows to work with

50 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source

51 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.

53 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy

54 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy

55 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader

56 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.

58 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is

59 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous

60 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the

61 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and

62 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit

63 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.

65 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',

66 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in

67 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations

68 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space

69 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse

70 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax

71 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and

72 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.

74 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required

75 to keep existing proof scripts running. Most other user-level

76 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open

77 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).

78 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because

79 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being

80 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().

82 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"

83 criterion; "with_dups" option. Certain ProofGeneral versions might

84 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).

86 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1

87 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are

88 suppressed from proof state output. Note that the ProofGeneral

89 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but

90 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems

91 limit is imposed.

93 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of

94 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''. The body may

95 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism

96 that has been implemented on top of these primitives. This concept

97 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility

98 and scalability.

100 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;

101 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).

104 *** Document preparation ***

106 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,

107 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the

108 current context.

110 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which

111 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.

113 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation

114 "c args == rhs" given in the current context. (Any number of

115 arguments may be given on the LHS.)

118 *** Pure ***

120 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to

121 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle. Definitions and

122 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with

123 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic

124 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class

125 context). Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate

126 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting

127 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.

128 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).

129 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.

131 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable

132 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes). A short usage

133 sketch:

135 internal compilation:

136 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML

137 writing SML code to a file:

138 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>

139 writing OCaml code to a file:

140 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>

141 writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:

142 export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>

144 evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:

145 method ``eval''

147 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.

149 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:

151 [code fun]: select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

152 [code fun del]: deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant

153 [code inline]: select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

154 [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place

156 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):

158 code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>

159 {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+

161 code_type <and-list of type constructors>

162 {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+

164 code_instance <and-list of instances>

165 {(target)}+

166 where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>

168 code_class <and_list of classes>

169 {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+

170 where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?

172 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.

174 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and

175 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy. A separate tutorial on code

176 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc

177 codegen".

179 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now

180 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type

181 annotations).

183 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory

184 syntax.

186 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic

187 dependencies. The overloading scheme is slightly more general than

188 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact

189 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.

190 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more

191 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!

193 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the

194 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general

195 declaration given in the signature. For example, with the declaration

196 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented

197 as c(nat). Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural

198 recursion over such type arguments. Incomplete specification patterns

199 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the

200 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.

201 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive

202 equations, see section "definitions".

204 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof

205 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple

206 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data. Tools may

207 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to

208 these values using Config.get etc. Users may change options via an

209 associated attribute of the same name. This form of context

210 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or

211 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''. Thus it has become

212 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar

213 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.

215 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into

216 configuration options:

218 Unify.search_bound unify_search_bound

219 Unify.trace_bound unify_trace_bound

220 Unify.trace_simp unify_trace_simp

221 Unify.trace_types unify_trace_types

222 Simplifier.simp_depth_limit simp_depth_limit

223 Blast.depth_limit blast_depth_limit

224 DatatypeProp.dtK datatype_distinctness_limit

225 fast_arith_neq_limit fast_arith_neq_limit

226 fast_arith_split_limit fast_arith_split_limit

228 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context

229 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also

230 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML). The user may add or delete facts via

231 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command. This facility is

232 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way

233 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical

234 order.

236 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic

237 declaration functions written in ML. This enables arbitrary content

238 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the

239 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application

240 context encountered later on.

242 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures. Command

243 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body

244 text in ML). Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current

245 context. ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.

247 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations

248 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,

249 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on

250 the background context will persist. This form of in-place

251 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and

252 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.

254 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now

255 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying

256 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic

257 assumption steps. This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'

258 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",

259 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the

260 Isar proof context. POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is

261 more permissive.

263 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is

264 considered a legacy feature. Common applications like ``have A .''

265 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''. In general,

266 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and

267 maintainability of proof texts.

269 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives

270 the obtained context from the course of reasoning! For example:

272 assume "EX x y. A x & B y" -- "any previous fact"

273 then guess x and y by clarify

275 This technique is potentially adventurous, depending on the facts and

276 proof tools being involved here.

278 * Isar: known facts from the proof context may be specified as literal

279 propositions, using ASCII back-quote syntax. This works wherever

280 named facts used to be allowed so far, in proof commands, proof

281 methods, attributes etc. Literal facts are retrieved from the context

282 according to unification of type and term parameters. For example,

283 provided that "A" and "A ==> B" and "!!x. P x ==> Q x" are known

284 theorems in the current context, then these are valid literal facts:

285 `A` and `A ==> B` and `!!x. P x ==> Q x" as well as `P a ==> Q a` etc.

287 There is also a proof method "fact" which does the same composition

288 for explicit goal states, e.g. the following proof texts coincide with

289 certain special cases of literal facts:

291 have "A" by fact == note `A`

292 have "A ==> B" by fact == note `A ==> B`

293 have "!!x. P x ==> Q x" by fact == note `!!x. P x ==> Q x`

294 have "P a ==> Q a" by fact == note `P a ==> Q a`

296 * Isar: ":" (colon) is no longer a symbolic identifier character in

297 outer syntax. Thus symbolic identifiers may be used without

298 additional white space in declarations like this: ``assume *: A''.

300 * Isar: 'print_facts' prints all local facts of the current context,

301 both named and unnamed ones.

303 * Isar: 'def' now admits simultaneous definitions, e.g.:

305 def x == "t" and y == "u"

307 * Isar: added command 'unfolding', which is structurally similar to

308 'using', but affects both the goal state and facts by unfolding given

309 rewrite rules. Thus many occurrences of the 'unfold' method or

310 'unfolded' attribute may be replaced by first-class proof text.

312 * Isar: methods 'unfold' / 'fold', attributes 'unfolded' / 'folded',

313 and command 'unfolding' now all support object-level equalities

314 (potentially conditional). The underlying notion of rewrite rule is

315 analogous to the 'rule_format' attribute, but *not* that of the

316 Simplifier (which is usually more generous).

318 * Isar: the new attribute [rotated n] (default n = 1) rotates the

319 premises of a theorem by n. Useful in conjunction with drule.

321 * Isar: the goal restriction operator [N] (default N = 1) evaluates a

322 method expression within a sandbox consisting of the first N

323 sub-goals, which need to exist. For example, ``simp_all [3]''

324 simplifies the first three sub-goals, while (rule foo, simp_all)[]

325 simplifies all new goals that emerge from applying rule foo to the

326 originally first one.

328 * Isar: schematic goals are no longer restricted to higher-order

329 patterns; e.g. ``lemma "?P(?x)" by (rule TrueI)'' now works as

330 expected.

332 * Isar: the conclusion of a long theorem statement is now either

333 'shows' (a simultaneous conjunction, as before), or 'obtains'

334 (essentially a disjunction of cases with local parameters and

335 assumptions). The latter allows to express general elimination rules

336 adequately; in this notation common elimination rules look like this:

338 lemma exE: -- "EX x. P x ==> (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

339 assumes "EX x. P x"

340 obtains x where "P x"

342 lemma conjE: -- "A & B ==> (A ==> B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

343 assumes "A & B"

344 obtains A and B

346 lemma disjE: -- "A | B ==> (A ==> thesis) ==> (B ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

347 assumes "A | B"

348 obtains

349 A

350 | B

352 The subsequent classical rules even refer to the formal "thesis"

353 explicitly:

355 lemma classical: -- "(~ thesis ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

356 obtains "~ thesis"

358 lemma Peirce's_Law: -- "((thesis ==> something) ==> thesis) ==> thesis"

359 obtains "thesis ==> something"

361 The actual proof of an 'obtains' statement is analogous to that of the

362 Isar proof element 'obtain', only that there may be several cases.

363 Optional case names may be specified in parentheses; these will be

364 available both in the present proof and as annotations in the

365 resulting rule, for later use with the 'cases' method (cf. attribute

366 case_names).

368 * Isar: the assumptions of a long theorem statement are available as

369 "assms" fact in the proof context. This is more appropriate than the

370 (historical) "prems", which refers to all assumptions of the current

371 context, including those from the target locale, proof body etc.

373 * Isar: 'print_statement' prints theorems from the current theory or

374 proof context in long statement form, according to the syntax of a

375 top-level lemma.

377 * Isar: 'obtain' takes an optional case name for the local context

378 introduction rule (default "that").

380 * Isar: removed obsolete 'concl is' patterns. INCOMPATIBILITY, use

381 explicit (is "_ ==> ?foo") in the rare cases where this still happens

382 to occur.

384 * Pure: syntax "CONST name" produces a fully internalized constant

385 according to the current context. This is particularly useful for

386 syntax translations that should refer to internal constant

387 representations independently of name spaces.

389 * Pure: syntax constant for foo (binder "FOO ") is called "foo_binder"

390 instead of "FOO ". This allows multiple binder declarations to coexist

391 in the same context. INCOMPATIBILITY.

393 * Isar/locales: 'notation' provides a robust interface to the 'syntax'

394 primitive that also works in a locale context (both for constants and

395 fixed variables). Type declaration and internal syntactic representation

396 of given constants retrieved from the context. Likewise, the

397 'no_notation' command allows to remove given syntax annotations from the

398 current context.

400 * Isar/locales: new derived specification elements 'axiomatization',

401 'definition', 'abbreviation', which support type-inference, admit

402 object-level specifications (equality, equivalence). See also the

403 isar-ref manual. Examples:

405 axiomatization

406 eq (infix "===" 50) where

407 eq_refl: "x === x" and eq_subst: "x === y ==> P x ==> P y"

409 definition "f x y = x + y + 1"

410 definition g where "g x = f x x"

412 abbreviation

413 neq (infix "=!=" 50) where

414 "x =!= y == ~ (x === y)"

416 These specifications may be also used in a locale context. Then the

417 constants being introduced depend on certain fixed parameters, and the

418 constant name is qualified by the locale base name. An internal

419 abbreviation takes care for convenient input and output, making the

420 parameters implicit and using the original short name. See also

421 src/HOL/ex/Abstract_NAT.thy for an example of deriving polymorphic

422 entities from a monomorphic theory.

424 Presently, abbreviations are only available 'in' a target locale, but

425 not inherited by general import expressions. Also note that

426 'abbreviation' may be used as a type-safe replacement for 'syntax' +

427 'translations' in common applications. The "no_abbrevs" print mode

428 prevents folding of abbreviations in term output.

430 Concrete syntax is attached to specified constants in internal form,

431 independently of name spaces. The parse tree representation is

432 slightly different -- use 'notation' instead of raw 'syntax', and

433 'translations' with explicit "CONST" markup to accommodate this.

435 * Pure/Isar: unified syntax for new-style specification mechanisms

436 (e.g. 'definition', 'abbreviation', or 'inductive' in HOL) admits

437 full type inference and dummy patterns ("_"). For example:

439 definition "K x _ = x"

441 inductive conj for A B

442 where "A ==> B ==> conj A B"

444 * Pure: command 'print_abbrevs' prints all constant abbreviations of

445 the current context. Print mode "no_abbrevs" prevents inversion of

446 abbreviations on output.

448 * Isar/locales: improved parameter handling: use of locales "var" and

449 "struct" no longer necessary; - parameter renamings are no longer

450 required to be injective. For example, this allows to define

451 endomorphisms as locale endom = homom mult mult h.

453 * Isar/locales: changed the way locales with predicates are defined.

454 Instead of accumulating the specification, the imported expression is

455 now an interpretation. INCOMPATIBILITY: different normal form of

456 locale expressions. In particular, in interpretations of locales with

457 predicates, goals repesenting already interpreted fragments are not

458 removed automatically. Use methods `intro_locales' and

459 `unfold_locales'; see below.

461 * Isar/locales: new methods `intro_locales' and `unfold_locales'

462 provide backward reasoning on locales predicates. The methods are

463 aware of interpretations and discharge corresponding goals.

464 `intro_locales' is less aggressive then `unfold_locales' and does not

465 unfold predicates to assumptions.

467 * Isar/locales: the order in which locale fragments are accumulated

468 has changed. This enables to override declarations from fragments due

469 to interpretations -- for example, unwanted simp rules.

471 * Isar/locales: interpretation in theories and proof contexts has been

472 extended. One may now specify (and prove) equations, which are

473 unfolded in interpreted theorems. This is useful for replacing

474 defined concepts (constants depending on locale parameters) by

475 concepts already existing in the target context. Example:

477 interpretation partial_order ["op <= :: [int, int] => bool"]

478 where "partial_order.less (op <=) (x::int) y = (x < y)"

480 Typically, the constant `partial_order.less' is created by a

481 definition specification element in the context of locale

482 partial_order.

484 * Method "induct": improved internal context management to support

485 local fixes and defines on-the-fly. Thus explicit meta-level

486 connectives !! and ==> are rarely required anymore in inductive goals

487 (using object-logic connectives for this purpose has been long

488 obsolete anyway). Common proof patterns are explained in

489 src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, see also

490 src/HOL/Isar_examples/Puzzle.thy and src/HOL/Lambda for realistic

491 examples.

493 * Method "induct": improved handling of simultaneous goals. Instead of

494 introducing object-level conjunction, the statement is now split into

495 several conclusions, while the corresponding symbolic cases are nested

496 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, proofs need to be structured explicitly,

497 see src/HOL/Induct/Common_Patterns.thy, for example.

499 * Method "induct": mutual induction rules are now specified as a list

500 of rule sharing the same induction cases. HOL packages usually provide

501 foo_bar.inducts for mutually defined items foo and bar (e.g. inductive

502 predicates/sets or datatypes). INCOMPATIBILITY, users need to specify

503 mutual induction rules differently, i.e. like this:

505 (induct rule: foo_bar.inducts)

506 (induct set: foo bar)

507 (induct pred: foo bar)

508 (induct type: foo bar)

510 The ML function ProjectRule.projections turns old-style rules into the

511 new format.

513 * Method "coinduct": dual of induction, see

514 src/HOL/Library/Coinductive_List.thy for various examples.

516 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": the ``(open)'' option is

517 considered a legacy feature.

519 * Attribute "symmetric" produces result with standardized schematic

520 variables (index 0). Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

522 * Simplifier: by default the simplifier trace only shows top level

523 rewrites now. That is, trace_simp_depth_limit is set to 1 by

524 default. Thus there is less danger of being flooded by the trace. The

525 trace indicates where parts have been suppressed.

527 * Provers/classical: removed obsolete classical version of elim_format

528 attribute; classical elim/dest rules are now treated uniformly when

529 manipulating the claset.

531 * Provers/classical: stricter checks to ensure that supplied intro,

532 dest and elim rules are well-formed; dest and elim rules must have at

533 least one premise.

535 * Provers/classical: attributes dest/elim/intro take an optional

536 weight argument for the rule (just as the Pure versions). Weights are

537 ignored by automated tools, but determine the search order of single

538 rule steps.

540 * Syntax: input syntax now supports dummy variable binding "%_. b",

541 where the body does not mention the bound variable. Note that dummy

542 patterns implicitly depend on their context of bounds, which makes

543 "{_. _}" match any set comprehension as expected. Potential

544 INCOMPATIBILITY -- parse translations need to cope with syntactic

545 constant "_idtdummy" in the binding position.

547 * Syntax: removed obsolete syntactic constant "_K" and its associated

548 parse translation. INCOMPATIBILITY -- use dummy abstraction instead,

549 for example "A -> B" => "Pi A (%_. B)".

551 * Pure: 'class_deps' command visualizes the subclass relation, using

552 the graph browser tool.

554 * Pure: 'print_theory' now suppresses certain internal declarations by

555 default; use '!' option for full details.

558 *** HOL ***

560 * Method "metis" proves goals by applying the Metis general-purpose

561 resolution prover (see also http://gilith.com/software/metis/).

562 Examples are in the directory MetisExamples. WARNING: the

563 Isabelle/HOL-Metis integration does not yet work properly with

564 multi-threading.

566 * Command 'sledgehammer' invokes external automatic theorem provers as

567 background processes. It generates calls to the "metis" method if

568 successful. These can be pasted into the proof. Users do not have to

569 wait for the automatic provers to return. WARNING: does not really

570 work with multi-threading.

572 * New "auto_quickcheck" feature tests outermost goal statements for

573 potential counter-examples. Controlled by ML references

574 auto_quickcheck (default true) and auto_quickcheck_time_limit (default

575 5000 milliseconds). Fails silently if statements is outside of

576 executable fragment, or any other codgenerator problem occurs.

578 * New constant "undefined" with axiom "undefined x = undefined".

580 * Added class "HOL.eq", allowing for code generation with polymorphic

581 equality.

583 * Some renaming of class constants due to canonical name prefixing in

584 the new 'class' package:

586 HOL.abs ~> HOL.abs_class.abs

587 HOL.divide ~> HOL.divide_class.divide

588 0 ~> HOL.zero_class.zero

589 1 ~> HOL.one_class.one

590 op + ~> HOL.plus_class.plus

591 op - ~> HOL.minus_class.minus

592 uminus ~> HOL.minus_class.uminus

593 op * ~> HOL.times_class.times

594 op < ~> HOL.ord_class.less

595 op <= > HOL.ord_class.less_eq

596 Nat.power ~> Power.power_class.power

597 Nat.size ~> Nat.size_class.size

598 Numeral.number_of ~> Numeral.number_class.number_of

599 FixedPoint.Inf ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Inf

600 FixedPoint.Sup ~> Lattices.complete_lattice_class.Sup

601 Orderings.min ~> Orderings.ord_class.min

602 Orderings.max ~> Orderings.ord_class.max

603 Divides.op div ~> Divides.div_class.div

604 Divides.op mod ~> Divides.div_class.mod

605 Divides.op dvd ~> Divides.div_class.dvd

607 INCOMPATIBILITY. Adaptions may be required in the following cases:

609 a) User-defined constants using any of the names "plus", "minus",

610 "times", "less" or "less_eq". The standard syntax translations for

611 "+", "-" and "*" may go wrong. INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific

612 names.

614 b) Variables named "plus", "minus", "times", "less", "less_eq"

615 INCOMPATIBILITY: use more specific names.

617 c) Permutative equations (e.g. "a + b = b + a")

618 Since the change of names also changes the order of terms, permutative

619 rewrite rules may get applied in a different order. Experience shows

620 that this is rarely the case (only two adaptions in the whole Isabelle

621 distribution). INCOMPATIBILITY: rewrite proofs

623 d) ML code directly refering to constant names

624 This in general only affects hand-written proof tactics, simprocs and

625 so on. INCOMPATIBILITY: grep your sourcecode and replace names.

626 Consider using @{const_name} antiquotation.

628 * New class "default" with associated constant "default".

630 * Function "sgn" is now overloaded and available on int, real, complex

631 (and other numeric types), using class "sgn". Two possible defs of

632 sgn are given as equational assumptions in the classes sgn_if and

633 sgn_div_norm; ordered_idom now also inherits from sgn_if.

634 INCOMPATIBILITY.

636 * Locale "partial_order" now unified with class "order" (cf. theory

637 Orderings), added parameter "less". INCOMPATIBILITY.

639 * Renamings in classes "order" and "linorder": facts "refl", "trans" and

640 "cases" to "order_refl", "order_trans" and "linorder_cases", to avoid

641 clashes with HOL "refl" and "trans". INCOMPATIBILITY.

643 * Classes "order" and "linorder": potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to

644 changed order of proof goals in instance proofs.

646 * The transitivity reasoner for partial and linear orders is set up

647 for classes "order" and "linorder". Instances of the reasoner are available

648 in all contexts importing or interpreting the corresponding locales.

649 Method "order" invokes the reasoner separately; the reasoner

650 is also integrated with the Simplifier as a solver. Diagnostic

651 command 'print_orders' shows the available instances of the reasoner

652 in the current context.

654 * Localized monotonicity predicate in theory "Orderings"; integrated

655 lemmas max_of_mono and min_of_mono with this predicate.

656 INCOMPATIBILITY.

658 * Formulation of theorem "dense" changed slightly due to integration

659 with new class dense_linear_order.

661 * Uniform lattice theory development in HOL.

663 constants "meet" and "join" now named "inf" and "sup"

664 constant "Meet" now named "Inf"

666 classes "meet_semilorder" and "join_semilorder" now named

667 "lower_semilattice" and "upper_semilattice"

668 class "lorder" now named "lattice"

669 class "comp_lat" now named "complete_lattice"

671 Instantiation of lattice classes allows explicit definitions

672 for "inf" and "sup" operations (or "Inf" and "Sup" for complete lattices).

674 INCOMPATIBILITY. Theorem renames:

676 meet_left_le ~> inf_le1

677 meet_right_le ~> inf_le2

678 join_left_le ~> sup_ge1

679 join_right_le ~> sup_ge2

680 meet_join_le ~> inf_sup_ord

681 le_meetI ~> le_infI

682 join_leI ~> le_supI

683 le_meet ~> le_inf_iff

684 le_join ~> ge_sup_conv

685 meet_idempotent ~> inf_idem

686 join_idempotent ~> sup_idem

687 meet_comm ~> inf_commute

688 join_comm ~> sup_commute

689 meet_leI1 ~> le_infI1

690 meet_leI2 ~> le_infI2

691 le_joinI1 ~> le_supI1

692 le_joinI2 ~> le_supI2

693 meet_assoc ~> inf_assoc

694 join_assoc ~> sup_assoc

695 meet_left_comm ~> inf_left_commute

696 meet_left_idempotent ~> inf_left_idem

697 join_left_comm ~> sup_left_commute

698 join_left_idempotent ~> sup_left_idem

699 meet_aci ~> inf_aci

700 join_aci ~> sup_aci

701 le_def_meet ~> le_iff_inf

702 le_def_join ~> le_iff_sup

703 join_absorp2 ~> sup_absorb2

704 join_absorp1 ~> sup_absorb1

705 meet_absorp1 ~> inf_absorb1

706 meet_absorp2 ~> inf_absorb2

707 meet_join_absorp ~> inf_sup_absorb

708 join_meet_absorp ~> sup_inf_absorb

709 distrib_join_le ~> distrib_sup_le

710 distrib_meet_le ~> distrib_inf_le

712 add_meet_distrib_left ~> add_inf_distrib_left

713 add_join_distrib_left ~> add_sup_distrib_left

714 is_join_neg_meet ~> is_join_neg_inf

715 is_meet_neg_join ~> is_meet_neg_sup

716 add_meet_distrib_right ~> add_inf_distrib_right

717 add_join_distrib_right ~> add_sup_distrib_right

718 add_meet_join_distribs ~> add_sup_inf_distribs

719 join_eq_neg_meet ~> sup_eq_neg_inf

720 meet_eq_neg_join ~> inf_eq_neg_sup

721 add_eq_meet_join ~> add_eq_inf_sup

722 meet_0_imp_0 ~> inf_0_imp_0

723 join_0_imp_0 ~> sup_0_imp_0

724 meet_0_eq_0 ~> inf_0_eq_0

725 join_0_eq_0 ~> sup_0_eq_0

726 neg_meet_eq_join ~> neg_inf_eq_sup

727 neg_join_eq_meet ~> neg_sup_eq_inf

728 join_eq_if ~> sup_eq_if

730 mono_meet ~> mono_inf

731 mono_join ~> mono_sup

732 meet_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_eq

733 join_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_eq

734 meet_fun_eq ~> inf_fun_eq

735 join_fun_eq ~> sup_fun_eq

736 meet_set_eq ~> inf_set_eq

737 join_set_eq ~> sup_set_eq

738 meet1_iff ~> inf1_iff

739 meet2_iff ~> inf2_iff

740 meet1I ~> inf1I

741 meet2I ~> inf2I

742 meet1D1 ~> inf1D1

743 meet2D1 ~> inf2D1

744 meet1D2 ~> inf1D2

745 meet2D2 ~> inf2D2

746 meet1E ~> inf1E

747 meet2E ~> inf2E

748 join1_iff ~> sup1_iff

749 join2_iff ~> sup2_iff

750 join1I1 ~> sup1I1

751 join2I1 ~> sup2I1

752 join1I1 ~> sup1I1

753 join2I2 ~> sup1I2

754 join1CI ~> sup1CI

755 join2CI ~> sup2CI

756 join1E ~> sup1E

757 join2E ~> sup2E

759 is_meet_Meet ~> is_meet_Inf

760 Meet_bool_def ~> Inf_bool_def

761 Meet_fun_def ~> Inf_fun_def

762 Meet_greatest ~> Inf_greatest

763 Meet_lower ~> Inf_lower

764 Meet_set_def ~> Inf_set_def

766 Sup_def ~> Sup_Inf

767 Sup_bool_eq ~> Sup_bool_def

768 Sup_fun_eq ~> Sup_fun_def

769 Sup_set_eq ~> Sup_set_def

771 listsp_meetI ~> listsp_infI

772 listsp_meet_eq ~> listsp_inf_eq

774 meet_min ~> inf_min

775 join_max ~> sup_max

777 * Added syntactic class "size"; overloaded constant "size" now has

778 type "'a::size ==> bool"

780 * Internal reorganisation of `size' of datatypes: size theorems

781 "foo.size" are no longer subsumed by "foo.simps" (but are still

782 simplification rules by default!); theorems "prod.size" now named

783 "*.size".

785 * Class "div" now inherits from class "times" rather than "type".

786 INCOMPATIBILITY.

788 * HOL/Finite_Set: "name-space" locales Lattice, Distrib_lattice,

789 Linorder etc. have disappeared; operations defined in terms of

790 fold_set now are named Inf_fin, Sup_fin. INCOMPATIBILITY.

792 * HOL/Nat: neq0_conv no longer declared as iff. INCOMPATIBILITY.

794 * HOL-Word: New extensive library and type for generic, fixed size

795 machine words, with arithemtic, bit-wise, shifting and rotating

796 operations, reflection into int, nat, and bool lists, automation for

797 linear arithmetic (by automatic reflection into nat or int), including

798 lemmas on overflow and monotonicity. Instantiated to all appropriate

799 arithmetic type classes, supporting automatic simplification of

800 numerals on all operations.

802 * Library/Boolean_Algebra: locales for abstract boolean algebras.

804 * Library/Numeral_Type: numbers as types, e.g. TYPE(32).

806 * Code generator library theories:

807 - Code_Integer represents HOL integers by big integer literals in target

808 languages.

809 - Code_Char represents HOL characters by character literals in target

810 languages.

811 - Code_Char_chr like Code_Char, but also offers treatment of character

812 codes; includes Code_Integer.

813 - Executable_Set allows to generate code for finite sets using lists.

814 - Executable_Rat implements rational numbers as triples (sign, enumerator,

815 denominator).

816 - Executable_Real implements a subset of real numbers, namly those

817 representable by rational numbers.

818 - Efficient_Nat implements natural numbers by integers, which in general will

819 result in higher efficency; pattern matching with 0/Suc is eliminated;

820 includes Code_Integer.

821 - Code_Index provides an additional datatype index which is mapped to

822 target-language built-in integers.

823 - Code_Message provides an additional datatype message_string} which is isomorphic to

824 strings; messages are mapped to target-language strings.

826 * New package for inductive predicates

828 An n-ary predicate p with m parameters z_1, ..., z_m can now be defined via

830 inductive

831 p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

832 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

833 where

834 rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"

835 | ...

837 with full support for type-inference, rather than

839 consts s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

841 abbreviation p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

842 where "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

844 inductive "s z_1 ... z_m"

845 intros

846 rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

847 ...

849 For backward compatibility, there is a wrapper allowing inductive

850 sets to be defined with the new package via

852 inductive_set

853 s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

854 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

855 where

856 rule_1: "... ==> (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

857 | ...

859 or

861 inductive_set

862 s :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => (T_1 * ... * T_n) set"

863 and p :: "U_1 => ... => U_m => T_1 => ... => T_n => bool"

864 for z_1 :: U_1 and ... and z_n :: U_m

865 where

866 "p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n == (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m"

867 | rule_1: "... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_1_1 ... t_1_n"

868 | ...

870 if the additional syntax "p ..." is required.

872 Numerous examples can be found in the subdirectories src/HOL/Auth,

873 src/HOL/Bali, src/HOL/Induct, and src/HOL/MicroJava.

875 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

877 - Since declaration and definition of inductive sets or predicates

878 is no longer separated, abbreviations involving the newly

879 introduced sets or predicates must be specified together with the

880 introduction rules after the 'where' keyword (see above), rather

881 than before the actual inductive definition.

883 - The variables in induction and elimination rules are now

884 quantified in the order of their occurrence in the introduction

885 rules, rather than in alphabetical order. Since this may break

886 some proofs, these proofs either have to be repaired, e.g. by

887 reordering the variables a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i} in Isar 'case'

888 statements of the form

890 case (rule_i a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i})

892 or the old order of quantification has to be restored by explicitly adding

893 meta-level quantifiers in the introduction rules, i.e.

895 | rule_i: "!!a_i_1 ... a_i_{k_i}. ... ==> p z_1 ... z_m t_i_1 ... t_i_n"

897 - The format of the elimination rules is now

899 p z_1 ... z_m x_1 ... x_n ==>

900 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)

901 ==> ... ==> P

903 for predicates and

905 (x_1, ..., x_n) : s z_1 ... z_m ==>

906 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x_1 = t_1_1 ==> ... ==> x_n = t_1_n ==> ... ==> P)

907 ==> ... ==> P

909 for sets rather than

911 x : s z_1 ... z_m ==>

912 (!!a_1_1 ... a_1_{k_1}. x = (t_1_1, ..., t_1_n) ==> ... ==> P)

913 ==> ... ==> P

915 This may require terms in goals to be expanded to n-tuples

916 (e.g. using case_tac or simplification with the split_paired_all

917 rule) before the above elimination rule is applicable.

919 - The elimination or case analysis rules for (mutually) inductive

920 sets or predicates are now called "p_1.cases" ... "p_k.cases". The

921 list of rules "p_1_..._p_k.elims" is no longer available.

923 * New package "function"/"fun" for general recursive functions,

924 supporting mutual and nested recursion, definitions in local contexts,

925 more general pattern matching and partiality. See HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy

926 for small examples, and the separate tutorial on the function

927 package. The old recdef "package" is still available as before, but

928 users are encouraged to use the new package.

930 * Method "lexicographic_order" automatically synthesizes termination

931 relations as lexicographic combinations of size measures.

933 * Case-expressions allow arbitrary constructor-patterns (including

934 "_") and take their order into account, like in functional

935 programming. Internally, this is translated into nested

936 case-expressions; missing cases are added and mapped to the predefined

937 constant "undefined". In complicated cases printing may no longer show

938 the original input but the internal form. Lambda-abstractions allow

939 the same form of pattern matching: "% pat1 => e1 | ..." is an

940 abbreviation for "%x. case x of pat1 => e1 | ..." where x is a new

941 variable.

943 * IntDef: The constant "int :: nat => int" has been removed; now "int"

944 is an abbreviation for "of_nat :: nat => int". The simplification

945 rules for "of_nat" have been changed to work like "int" did

946 previously. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:

947 - "of_nat (Suc m)" simplifies to "1 + of_nat m" instead of "of_nat m + 1"

948 - of_nat_diff and of_nat_mult are no longer default simp rules

950 * Method "algebra" solves polynomial equations over (semi)rings using

951 Groebner bases. The (semi)ring structure is defined by locales and the

952 tool setup depends on that generic context. Installing the method for

953 a specific type involves instantiating the locale and possibly adding

954 declarations for computation on the coefficients. The method is

955 already instantiated for natural numbers and for the axiomatic class

956 of idoms with numerals. See also the paper by Chaieb and Wenzel at

957 CALCULEMUS 2007 for the general principles underlying this

958 architecture of context-aware proof-tools.

960 * Method "ferrack" implements quantifier elimination over

961 special-purpose dense linear orders using locales (analogous to

962 "algebra"). The method is already installed for class

963 {ordered_field,recpower,number_ring} which subsumes real, hyperreal,

964 rat, etc.

966 * Former constant "List.op @" now named "List.append". Use ML

967 antiquotations @{const_name List.append} or @{term " ... @ ... "} to

968 circumvent possible incompatibilities when working on ML level.

970 * primrec: missing cases mapped to "undefined" instead of "arbitrary".

972 * New function listsum :: 'a list => 'a for arbitrary monoids.

973 Special syntax: "SUM x <- xs. f x" (and latex variants)

975 * New syntax for Haskell-like list comprehension (input only), eg.

976 [(x,y). x <- xs, y <- ys, x ~= y], see also src/HOL/List.thy.

978 * The special syntax for function "filter" has changed from [x :

979 xs. P] to [x <- xs. P] to avoid an ambiguity caused by list

980 comprehension syntax, and for uniformity. INCOMPATIBILITY.

982 * [a..b] is now defined for arbitrary linear orders. It used to be

983 defined on nat only, as an abbreviation for [a..<Suc b]

984 INCOMPATIBILITY.

986 * Renamed lemma "set_take_whileD" to "set_takeWhileD".

988 * New functions "sorted" and "sort" in src/HOL/List.thy.

990 * New lemma collection field_simps (an extension of ring_simps) for

991 manipulating (in)equations involving division. Multiplies with all

992 denominators that can be proved to be non-zero (in equations) or

993 positive/negative (in inequations).

995 * Lemma collections ring_eq_simps, group_eq_simps and ring_distrib

996 have been improved and renamed to ring_simps, group_simps and

997 ring_distribs. Removed lemmas field_xyz in theory Ring_and_Field

998 because they were subsumed by lemmas xyz. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1000 * Theory Library/Commutative_Ring: switched from recdef to function

1001 package; constants add, mul, pow now curried. Infix syntax for

1002 algebraic operations.

1004 * Dropped redundant lemma def_imp_eq in favor of meta_eq_to_obj_eq.

1005 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1007 * Dropped redundant lemma if_def2 in favor of if_bool_eq_conj.

1008 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1010 * HOL/records: generalised field-update to take a function on the

1011 field rather than the new value: r(|A := x|) is translated to A_update

1012 (K x) r The K-combinator that is internally used is called K_record.

1013 INCOMPATIBILITY: Usage of the plain update functions has to be

1014 adapted.

1016 * Class "semiring_0" now contains annihilation axioms x * 0 = 0 and 0

1017 * x = 0, which are required for a semiring. Richer structures do not

1018 inherit from semiring_0 anymore, because this property is a theorem

1019 there, not an axiom. INCOMPATIBILITY: In instances of semiring_0,

1020 there is more to prove, but this is mostly trivial.

1022 * Class "recpower" is generalized to arbitrary monoids, not just

1023 commutative semirings. INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to incorporate

1024 commutativity or semiring properties additionally.

1026 * Constant "List.list_all2" in List.thy now uses authentic syntax.

1027 INCOMPATIBILITY: translations containing list_all2 may go wrong,

1028 better use 'abbreviation'.

1030 * Renamed constant "List.op mem" to "List.member". INCOMPATIBILITY.

1032 * Numeral syntax: type 'bin' which was a mere type copy of 'int' has

1033 been abandoned in favour of plain 'int'. INCOMPATIBILITY --

1034 significant changes for setting up numeral syntax for types:

1035 - New constants Numeral.pred and Numeral.succ instead

1036 of former Numeral.bin_pred and Numeral.bin_succ.

1037 - Use integer operations instead of bin_add, bin_mult and so on.

1038 - Numeral simplification theorems named Numeral.numeral_simps instead of Bin_simps.

1039 - ML structure Bin_Simprocs now named Int_Numeral_Base_Simprocs.

1041 See src/HOL/Integ/IntArith.thy for an example setup.

1043 * Command 'normal_form' computes the normal form of a term that may

1044 contain free variables. For example ``normal_form "rev [a, b, c]"''

1045 produces ``[b, c, a]'' (without proof). This command is suitable for

1046 heavy-duty computations because the functions are compiled to ML

1047 first. Correspondingly, a method "normalization" is provided. See

1048 further src/HOL/ex/NormalForm.thy and src/Tools/nbe.ML.

1050 * Alternative iff syntax "A <-> B" for equality on bool (with priority

1051 25 like -->); output depends on the "iff" print_mode, the default is

1052 "A = B" (with priority 50).

1054 * Relations less (<) and less_eq (<=) are also available on type bool.

1055 Modified syntax to disallow nesting without explicit parentheses,

1056 e.g. "(x < y) < z" or "x < (y < z)", but NOT "x < y < z". Potential

1057 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1059 * "LEAST x:A. P" expands to "LEAST x. x:A & P" (input only).

1061 * Relation composition operator "op O" now has precedence 75 and binds

1062 stronger than union and intersection. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1064 * The old set interval syntax "{m..n(}" (and relatives) has been

1065 removed. Use "{m..<n}" (and relatives) instead.

1067 * In the context of the assumption "~(s = t)" the Simplifier rewrites

1068 "t = s" to False (by simproc "neq"). INCOMPATIBILITY, consider using

1069 ``declare [[simproc del: neq]]''.

1071 * Simplifier: "m dvd n" where m and n are numbers is evaluated to

1072 True/False.

1074 * Theorem Cons_eq_map_conv no longer declared as "simp".

1076 * Theorem setsum_mult renamed to setsum_right_distrib.

1078 * Prefer ex1I over ex_ex1I in single-step reasoning, e.g. by the

1079 ``rule'' method.

1081 * Reimplemented methods "sat" and "satx", with several improvements:

1082 goals no longer need to be stated as "<prems> ==> False", equivalences

1083 (i.e. "=" on type bool) are handled, variable names of the form

1084 "lit_<n>" are no longer reserved, significant speedup.

1086 * Methods "sat" and "satx" can now replay MiniSat proof traces.

1087 zChaff is still supported as well.

1089 * 'inductive' and 'datatype': provide projections of mutual rules,

1090 bundled as foo_bar.inducts;

1092 * Library: moved theories Parity, GCD, Binomial, Infinite_Set to

1093 Library.

1095 * Library: moved theory Accessible_Part to main HOL.

1097 * Library: added theory Coinductive_List of potentially infinite lists

1098 as greatest fixed-point.

1100 * Library: added theory AssocList which implements (finite) maps as

1101 association lists.

1103 * Method "evaluation" solves goals (i.e. a boolean expression)

1104 efficiently by compiling it to ML. The goal is "proved" (via an

1105 oracle) if it evaluates to True.

1107 * Linear arithmetic now splits certain operators (e.g. min, max, abs)

1108 also when invoked by the simplifier. This results in the Simplifier

1109 being more powerful on arithmetic goals. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1110 Configuration option fast_arith_split_limit=0 recovers the old

1111 behavior.

1113 * Support for hex (0x20) and binary (0b1001) numerals.

1115 * New method: reify eqs (t), where eqs are equations for an

1116 interpretation I :: 'a list => 'b => 'c and t::'c is an optional

1117 parameter, computes a term s::'b and a list xs::'a list and proves the

1118 theorem I xs s = t. This is also known as reification or quoting. The

1119 resulting theorem is applied to the subgoal to substitute t with I xs

1120 s. If t is omitted, the subgoal itself is reified.

1122 * New method: reflection corr_thm eqs (t). The parameters eqs and (t)

1123 are as explained above. corr_thm is a theorem for I vs (f t) = I vs t,

1124 where f is supposed to be a computable function (in the sense of code

1125 generattion). The method uses reify to compute s and xs as above then

1126 applies corr_thm and uses normalization by evaluation to "prove" f s =

1127 r and finally gets the theorem t = r, which is again applied to the

1128 subgoal. An Example is available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy.

1130 * Reflection: Automatic reification now handels binding, an example is

1131 available in src/HOL/ex/ReflectionEx.thy

1133 * HOL-Statespace: ``State Spaces: The Locale Way'' introduces a

1134 command 'statespace' that is similar to 'record', but introduces an

1135 abstract specification based on the locale infrastructure instead of

1136 HOL types. This leads to extra flexibility in composing state spaces,

1137 in particular multiple inheritance and renaming of components.

1140 *** HOL-Complex ***

1142 * Hyperreal: Functions root and sqrt are now defined on negative real

1143 inputs so that root n (- x) = - root n x and sqrt (- x) = - sqrt x.

1144 Nonnegativity side conditions have been removed from many lemmas, so

1145 that more subgoals may now be solved by simplification; potential

1146 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1148 * Real: new type classes formalize real normed vector spaces and

1149 algebras, using new overloaded constants scaleR :: real => 'a => 'a

1150 and norm :: 'a => real.

1152 * Real: constant of_real :: real => 'a::real_algebra_1 injects from

1153 reals into other types. The overloaded constant Reals :: 'a set is now

1154 defined as range of_real; potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

1156 * Real: proper support for ML code generation, including 'quickcheck'.

1157 Reals are implemented as arbitrary precision rationals.

1159 * Hyperreal: Several constants that previously worked only for the

1160 reals have been generalized, so they now work over arbitrary vector

1161 spaces. Type annotations may need to be added in some cases; potential

1162 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1164 Infinitesimal :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

1165 HFinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

1166 HInfinite :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star set

1167 approx :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star => bool

1168 monad :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

1169 galaxy :: ('a::real_normed_vector) star => 'a star set

1170 (NS)LIMSEQ :: [nat => 'a::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

1171 (NS)convergent :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

1172 (NS)Bseq :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

1173 (NS)Cauchy :: (nat => 'a::real_normed_vector) => bool

1174 (NS)LIM :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a, 'b] => bool

1175 is(NS)Cont :: ['a::real_normed_vector => 'b::real_normed_vector, 'a] => bool

1176 deriv :: ['a::real_normed_field => 'a, 'a, 'a] => bool

1177 sgn :: 'a::real_normed_vector => 'a

1178 exp :: 'a::{recpower,real_normed_field,banach} => 'a

1180 * Complex: Some complex-specific constants are now abbreviations for

1181 overloaded ones: complex_of_real = of_real, cmod = norm, hcmod =

1182 hnorm. Other constants have been entirely removed in favor of the

1183 polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

1185 approx <-- capprox

1186 HFinite <-- CFinite

1187 HInfinite <-- CInfinite

1188 Infinitesimal <-- CInfinitesimal

1189 monad <-- cmonad

1190 galaxy <-- cgalaxy

1191 (NS)LIM <-- (NS)CLIM, (NS)CRLIM

1192 is(NS)Cont <-- is(NS)Contc, is(NS)contCR

1193 (ns)deriv <-- (ns)cderiv

1196 *** HOL-Algebra ***

1198 * Formalisation of ideals and the quotient construction over rings.

1200 * Order and lattice theory no longer based on records.

1201 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1203 * Renamed lemmas least_carrier -> least_closed and greatest_carrier ->

1204 greatest_closed. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1206 * Method algebra is now set up via an attribute. For examples see

1207 Ring.thy. INCOMPATIBILITY: the method is now weaker on combinations

1208 of algebraic structures.

1210 * Renamed theory CRing to Ring.

1213 *** HOL-Nominal ***

1215 * Substantial, yet incomplete support for nominal datatypes (binding

1216 structures) based on HOL-Nominal logic. See src/HOL/Nominal and

1217 src/HOL/Nominal/Examples. Prospective users should consult

1218 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/nominal/

1221 *** ML ***

1223 * ML basics: just one true type int, which coincides with IntInf.int

1224 (even on SML/NJ).

1226 * ML within Isar: antiquotations allow to embed statically-checked

1227 formal entities in the source, referring to the context available at

1228 compile-time. For example:

1230 ML {* @{sort "{zero,one}"} *}

1231 ML {* @{typ "'a => 'b"} *}

1232 ML {* @{term "%x. x"} *}

1233 ML {* @{prop "x == y"} *}

1234 ML {* @{ctyp "'a => 'b"} *}

1235 ML {* @{cterm "%x. x"} *}

1236 ML {* @{cprop "x == y"} *}

1237 ML {* @{thm asm_rl} *}

1238 ML {* @{thms asm_rl} *}

1239 ML {* @{type_name c} *}

1240 ML {* @{type_syntax c} *}

1241 ML {* @{const_name c} *}

1242 ML {* @{const_syntax c} *}

1243 ML {* @{context} *}

1244 ML {* @{theory} *}

1245 ML {* @{theory Pure} *}

1246 ML {* @{theory_ref} *}

1247 ML {* @{theory_ref Pure} *}

1248 ML {* @{simpset} *}

1249 ML {* @{claset} *}

1250 ML {* @{clasimpset} *}

1252 The same works for sources being ``used'' within an Isar context.

1254 * ML in Isar: improved error reporting; extra verbosity with

1255 ML_Context.trace enabled.

1257 * Pure/General/table.ML: the join operations now works via exceptions

1258 DUP/SAME instead of type option. This is simpler in simple cases, and

1259 admits slightly more efficient complex applications.

1261 * Pure: 'advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) now

1262 use Context.generic instead of just theory.

1264 * Pure: datatype Context.generic joins theory/Proof.context and

1265 provides some facilities for code that works in either kind of

1266 context, notably GenericDataFun for uniform theory and proof data.

1268 * Pure: simplified internal attribute type, which is now always

1269 Context.generic * thm -> Context.generic * thm. Global (theory) vs.

1270 local (Proof.context) attributes have been discontinued, while

1271 minimizing code duplication. Thm.rule_attribute and

1272 Thm.declaration_attribute build canonical attributes; see also structure

1273 Context for further operations on Context.generic, notably

1274 GenericDataFun. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt attribute type

1275 declarations and definitions.

1277 * Context data interfaces (Theory/Proof/GenericDataFun): removed

1278 name/print, uninitialized data defaults to ad-hoc copy of empty value,

1279 init only required for impure data. INCOMPATIBILITY: empty really need

1280 to be empty (no dependencies on theory content!)

1282 * Pure/kernel: consts certification ignores sort constraints given in

1283 signature declarations. (This information is not relevant to the

1284 logic, but only for type inference.) SIGNIFICANT INTERNAL CHANGE,

1285 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.

1287 * Pure: axiomatic type classes are now purely definitional, with

1288 explicit proofs of class axioms and super class relations performed

1289 internally. See Pure/axclass.ML for the main internal interfaces --

1290 notably AxClass.define_class supercedes AxClass.add_axclass, and

1291 AxClass.axiomatize_class/classrel/arity supersede

1292 Sign.add_classes/classrel/arities.

1294 * Pure/Isar: Args/Attrib parsers operate on Context.generic --

1295 global/local versions on theory vs. Proof.context have been

1296 discontinued; Attrib.syntax and Method.syntax have been adapted

1297 accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt parser expressions for

1298 attributes, methods, etc.

1300 * Pure: several functions of signature "... -> theory -> theory * ..."

1301 have been reoriented to "... -> theory -> ... * theory" in order to

1302 allow natural usage in combination with the ||>, ||>>, |-> and

1303 fold_map combinators.

1305 * Pure: official theorem names (closed derivations) and additional

1306 comments (tags) are now strictly separate. Name hints -- which are

1307 maintained as tags -- may be attached any time without affecting the

1308 derivation.

1310 * Pure: primitive rule lift_rule now takes goal cterm instead of an

1311 actual goal state (thm). Use Thm.lift_rule (Thm.cprem_of st i) to

1312 achieve the old behaviour.

1314 * Pure: the "Goal" constant is now called "prop", supporting a

1315 slightly more general idea of ``protecting'' meta-level rule

1316 statements.

1318 * Pure: Logic.(un)varify only works in a global context, which is now

1319 enforced instead of silently assumed. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use

1320 Logic.legacy_(un)varify as temporary workaround.

1322 * Pure: structure Name provides scalable operations for generating

1323 internal variable names, notably Name.variants etc. This replaces

1324 some popular functions from term.ML:

1326 Term.variant -> Name.variant

1327 Term.variantlist -> Name.variant_list

1328 Term.invent_names -> Name.invent_list

1330 Note that low-level renaming rarely occurs in new code -- operations

1331 from structure Variable are used instead (see below).

1333 * Pure: structure Variable provides fundamental operations for proper

1334 treatment of fixed/schematic variables in a context. For example,

1335 Variable.import introduces fixes for schematics of given facts and

1336 Variable.export reverses the effect (up to renaming) -- this replaces

1337 various freeze_thaw operations.

1339 * Pure: structure Goal provides simple interfaces for

1340 init/conclude/finish and tactical prove operations (replacing former

1341 Tactic.prove). Goal.prove is the canonical way to prove results

1342 within a given context; Goal.prove_global is a degraded version for

1343 theory level goals, including a global Drule.standard. Note that

1344 OldGoals.prove_goalw_cterm has long been obsolete, since it is

1345 ill-behaved in a local proof context (e.g. with local fixes/assumes or

1346 in a locale context).

1348 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for parsing (Syntax.parse_term etc.)

1349 and type checking (Syntax.check_term etc.), with common combinations

1350 (Syntax.read_term etc.). These supersede former Sign.read_term etc.

1351 which are considered legacy and await removal.

1353 * Pure/Syntax: generic interfaces for type unchecking

1354 (Syntax.uncheck_terms etc.) and unparsing (Syntax.unparse_term etc.),

1355 with common combinations (Syntax.pretty_term, Syntax.string_of_term

1356 etc.). Former Sign.pretty_term, Sign.string_of_term etc. are still

1357 available for convenience, but refer to the very same operations using

1358 a mere theory instead of a full context.

1360 * Isar: simplified treatment of user-level errors, using exception

1361 ERROR of string uniformly. Function error now merely raises ERROR,

1362 without any side effect on output channels. The Isar toplevel takes

1363 care of proper display of ERROR exceptions. ML code may use plain

1364 handle/can/try; cat_error may be used to concatenate errors like this:

1366 ... handle ERROR msg => cat_error msg "..."

1368 Toplevel ML code (run directly or through the Isar toplevel) may be

1369 embedded into the Isar toplevel with exception display/debug like

1370 this:

1372 Isar.toplevel (fn () => ...)

1374 INCOMPATIBILITY, removed special transform_error facilities, removed

1375 obsolete variants of user-level exceptions (ERROR_MESSAGE,

1376 Context.PROOF, ProofContext.CONTEXT, Proof.STATE, ProofHistory.FAIL)

1377 -- use plain ERROR instead.

1379 * Isar: theory setup now has type (theory -> theory), instead of a

1380 list. INCOMPATIBILITY, may use #> to compose setup functions.

1382 * Isar: ML toplevel pretty printer for type Proof.context, subject to

1383 ProofContext.debug/verbose flags.

1385 * Isar: Toplevel.theory_to_proof admits transactions that modify the

1386 theory before entering a proof state. Transactions now always see a

1387 quasi-functional intermediate checkpoint, both in interactive and

1388 batch mode.

1390 * Isar: simplified interfaces for outer syntax. Renamed

1391 OuterSyntax.add_keywords to OuterSyntax.keywords. Removed

1392 OuterSyntax.add_parsers -- this functionality is now included in

1393 OuterSyntax.command etc. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1395 * Simplifier: the simpset of a running simplification process now

1396 contains a proof context (cf. Simplifier.the_context), which is the

1397 very context that the initial simpset has been retrieved from (by

1398 simpset_of/local_simpset_of). Consequently, all plug-in components

1399 (solver, looper etc.) may depend on arbitrary proof data.

1401 * Simplifier.inherit_context inherits the proof context (plus the

1402 local bounds) of the current simplification process; any simproc

1403 etc. that calls the Simplifier recursively should do this! Removed

1404 former Simplifier.inherit_bounds, which is already included here --

1405 INCOMPATIBILITY. Tools based on low-level rewriting may even have to

1406 specify an explicit context using Simplifier.context/theory_context.

1408 * Simplifier/Classical Reasoner: more abstract interfaces

1409 change_simpset/claset for modifying the simpset/claset reference of a

1410 theory; raw versions simpset/claset_ref etc. have been discontinued --

1411 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1413 * Provers: more generic wrt. syntax of object-logics, avoid hardwired

1414 "Trueprop" etc.

1417 *** System ***

1419 * settings: the default heap location within ISABELLE_HOME_USER now

1420 includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER. This simplifies use of multiple

1421 Isabelle installations.

1423 * isabelle-process: option -S (secure mode) disables some critical

1424 operations, notably runtime compilation and evaluation of ML source

1425 code.

1427 * Basic Isabelle mode for jEdit, see Isabelle/lib/jedit/.

1429 * Support for parallel execution, using native multicore support of

1430 Poly/ML 5.1. The theory loader exploits parallelism when processing

1431 independent theories, according to the given theory header

1432 specifications. The maximum number of worker threads is specified via

1433 usedir option -M or the "max-threads" setting in Proof General. A

1434 speedup factor of 1.5--3.5 can be expected on a 4-core machine, and up

1435 to 6 on a 8-core machine. User-code needs to observe certain

1436 guidelines for thread-safe programming, see appendix A in the Isar

1437 Implementation manual.

1441 New in Isabelle2005 (October 2005)

1442 ----------------------------------

1444 *** General ***

1446 * Theory headers: the new header syntax for Isar theories is

1448 theory <name>

1449 imports <theory1> ... <theoryN>

1450 uses <file1> ... <fileM>

1451 begin

1453 where the 'uses' part is optional. The previous syntax

1455 theory <name> = <theory1> + ... + <theoryN>:

1457 will disappear in the next release. Use isatool fixheaders to convert

1458 existing theory files. Note that there is no change in ancient

1459 non-Isar theories now, but these will disappear soon.

1461 * Theory loader: parent theories can now also be referred to via

1462 relative and absolute paths.

1464 * Command 'find_theorems' searches for a list of criteria instead of a

1465 list of constants. Known criteria are: intro, elim, dest, name:string,

1466 simp:term, and any term. Criteria can be preceded by '-' to select

1467 theorems that do not match. Intro, elim, dest select theorems that

1468 match the current goal, name:s selects theorems whose fully qualified

1469 name contain s, and simp:term selects all simplification rules whose

1470 lhs match term. Any other term is interpreted as pattern and selects

1471 all theorems matching the pattern. Available in ProofGeneral under

1472 'ProofGeneral -> Find Theorems' or C-c C-f. Example:

1474 C-c C-f (100) "(_::nat) + _ + _" intro -name: "HOL."

1476 prints the last 100 theorems matching the pattern "(_::nat) + _ + _",

1477 matching the current goal as introduction rule and not having "HOL."

1478 in their name (i.e. not being defined in theory HOL).

1480 * Command 'thms_containing' has been discontinued in favour of

1481 'find_theorems'; INCOMPATIBILITY.

1483 * Communication with Proof General is now 8bit clean, which means that

1484 Unicode text in UTF-8 encoding may be used within theory texts (both

1485 formal and informal parts). Cf. option -U of the Isabelle Proof

1486 General interface. Here are some simple examples (cf. src/HOL/ex):

1488 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Hebrew.html

1489 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/library/HOL/ex/Chinese.html

1491 * Improved efficiency of the Simplifier and, to a lesser degree, the

1492 Classical Reasoner. Typical big applications run around 2 times

1493 faster.

1496 *** Document preparation ***

1498 * Commands 'display_drafts' and 'print_drafts' perform simple output

1499 of raw sources. Only those symbols that do not require additional

1500 LaTeX packages (depending on comments in isabellesym.sty) are

1501 displayed properly, everything else is left verbatim. isatool display

1502 and isatool print are used as front ends (these are subject to the

1503 DVI/PDF_VIEWER and PRINT_COMMAND settings, respectively).

1505 * Command tags control specific markup of certain regions of text,

1506 notably folding and hiding. Predefined tags include "theory" (for

1507 theory begin and end), "proof" for proof commands, and "ML" for

1508 commands involving ML code; the additional tags "visible" and

1509 "invisible" are unused by default. Users may give explicit tag

1510 specifications in the text, e.g. ''by %invisible (auto)''. The

1511 interpretation of tags is determined by the LaTeX job during document

1512 preparation: see option -V of isatool usedir, or options -n and -t of

1513 isatool document, or even the LaTeX macros \isakeeptag, \isafoldtag,

1514 \isadroptag.

1516 Several document versions may be produced at the same time via isatool

1517 usedir (the generated index.html will link all of them). Typical

1518 specifications include ''-V document=theory,proof,ML'' to present

1519 theory/proof/ML parts faithfully, ''-V outline=/proof,/ML'' to fold

1520 proof and ML commands, and ''-V mutilated=-theory,-proof,-ML'' to omit

1521 these parts without any formal replacement text. The Isabelle site

1522 default settings produce ''document'' and ''outline'' versions as

1523 specified above.

1525 * Several new antiquotations:

1527 @{term_type term} prints a term with its type annotated;

1529 @{typeof term} prints the type of a term;

1531 @{const const} is the same as @{term const}, but checks that the

1532 argument is a known logical constant;

1534 @{term_style style term} and @{thm_style style thm} print a term or

1535 theorem applying a "style" to it

1537 @{ML text}

1539 Predefined styles are 'lhs' and 'rhs' printing the lhs/rhs of

1540 definitions, equations, inequations etc., 'concl' printing only the

1541 conclusion of a meta-logical statement theorem, and 'prem1' .. 'prem19'

1542 to print the specified premise. TermStyle.add_style provides an ML

1543 interface for introducing further styles. See also the "LaTeX Sugar"

1544 document practical applications. The ML antiquotation prints

1545 type-checked ML expressions verbatim.

1547 * Markup commands 'chapter', 'section', 'subsection', 'subsubsection',

1548 and 'text' support optional locale specification '(in loc)', which

1549 specifies the default context for interpreting antiquotations. For

1550 example: 'text (in lattice) {* @{thm inf_assoc}*}'.

1552 * Option 'locale=NAME' of antiquotations specifies an alternative

1553 context interpreting the subsequent argument. For example: @{thm

1554 [locale=lattice] inf_assoc}.

1556 * Proper output of proof terms (@{prf ...} and @{full_prf ...}) within

1557 a proof context.

1559 * Proper output of antiquotations for theory commands involving a

1560 proof context (such as 'locale' or 'theorem (in loc) ...').

1562 * Delimiters of outer tokens (string etc.) now produce separate LaTeX

1563 macros (\isachardoublequoteopen, isachardoublequoteclose etc.).

1565 * isatool usedir: new option -C (default true) controls whether option

1566 -D should include a copy of the original document directory; -C false

1567 prevents unwanted effects such as copying of administrative CVS data.

1570 *** Pure ***

1572 * Considerably improved version of 'constdefs' command. Now performs

1573 automatic type-inference of declared constants; additional support for

1574 local structure declarations (cf. locales and HOL records), see also

1575 isar-ref manual. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to observe strictly

1576 sequential dependencies of definitions within a single 'constdefs'

1577 section; moreover, the declared name needs to be an identifier. If

1578 all fails, consider to fall back on 'consts' and 'defs' separately.

1580 * Improved indexed syntax and implicit structures. First of all,

1581 indexed syntax provides a notational device for subscripted

1582 application, using the new syntax \<^bsub>term\<^esub> for arbitrary

1583 expressions. Secondly, in a local context with structure

1584 declarations, number indexes \<^sub>n or the empty index (default

1585 number 1) refer to a certain fixed variable implicitly; option

1586 show_structs controls printing of implicit structures. Typical

1587 applications of these concepts involve record types and locales.

1589 * New command 'no_syntax' removes grammar declarations (and

1590 translations) resulting from the given syntax specification, which is

1591 interpreted in the same manner as for the 'syntax' command.

1593 * 'Advanced' translation functions (parse_translation etc.) may depend

1594 on the signature of the theory context being presently used for

1595 parsing/printing, see also isar-ref manual.

1597 * Improved 'oracle' command provides a type-safe interface to turn an

1598 ML expression of type theory -> T -> term into a primitive rule of

1599 type theory -> T -> thm (i.e. the functionality of Thm.invoke_oracle

1600 is already included here); see also FOL/ex/IffExample.thy;

1601 INCOMPATIBILITY.

1603 * axclass: name space prefix for class "c" is now "c_class" (was "c"

1604 before); "cI" is no longer bound, use "c.intro" instead.

1605 INCOMPATIBILITY. This change avoids clashes of fact bindings for

1606 axclasses vs. locales.

1608 * Improved internal renaming of symbolic identifiers -- attach primes

1609 instead of base 26 numbers.

1611 * New flag show_question_marks controls printing of leading question

1612 marks in schematic variable names.

1614 * In schematic variable names, *any* symbol following \<^isub> or

1615 \<^isup> is now treated as part of the base name. For example, the

1616 following works without printing of awkward ".0" indexes:

1618 lemma "x\<^isub>1 = x\<^isub>2 ==> x\<^isub>2 = x\<^isub>1"

1619 by simp

1621 * Inner syntax includes (*(*nested*) comments*).

1623 * Pretty printer now supports unbreakable blocks, specified in mixfix

1624 annotations as "(00...)".

1626 * Clear separation of logical types and nonterminals, where the latter

1627 may only occur in 'syntax' specifications or type abbreviations.

1628 Before that distinction was only partially implemented via type class

1629 "logic" vs. "{}". Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare cases of improper

1630 use of 'types'/'consts' instead of 'nonterminals'/'syntax'. Some very

1631 exotic syntax specifications may require further adaption

1632 (e.g. Cube/Cube.thy).

1634 * Removed obsolete type class "logic", use the top sort {} instead.

1635 Note that non-logical types should be declared as 'nonterminals'

1636 rather than 'types'. INCOMPATIBILITY for new object-logic

1637 specifications.

1639 * Attributes 'induct' and 'cases': type or set names may now be

1640 locally fixed variables as well.

1642 * Simplifier: can now control the depth to which conditional rewriting

1643 is traced via the PG menu Isabelle -> Settings -> Trace Simp Depth

1644 Limit.

1646 * Simplifier: simplification procedures may now take the current

1647 simpset into account (cf. Simplifier.simproc(_i) / mk_simproc

1648 interface), which is very useful for calling the Simplifier

1649 recursively. Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: the 'prems' argument of simprocs

1650 is gone -- use prems_of_ss on the simpset instead. Moreover, the

1651 low-level mk_simproc no longer applies Logic.varify internally, to

1652 allow for use in a context of fixed variables.

1654 * thin_tac now works even if the assumption being deleted contains !!

1655 or ==>. More generally, erule now works even if the major premise of

1656 the elimination rule contains !! or ==>.

1658 * Method 'rules' has been renamed to 'iprover'. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1660 * Reorganized bootstrapping of the Pure theories; CPure is now derived

1661 from Pure, which contains all common declarations already. Both

1662 theories are defined via plain Isabelle/Isar .thy files.

1663 INCOMPATIBILITY: elements of CPure (such as the CPure.intro /

1664 CPure.elim / CPure.dest attributes) now appear in the Pure name space;

1665 use isatool fixcpure to adapt your theory and ML sources.

1667 * New syntax 'name(i-j, i-, i, ...)' for referring to specific

1668 selections of theorems in named facts via index ranges.

1670 * 'print_theorems': in theory mode, really print the difference

1671 wrt. the last state (works for interactive theory development only),

1672 in proof mode print all local facts (cf. 'print_facts');

1674 * 'hide': option '(open)' hides only base names.

1676 * More efficient treatment of intermediate checkpoints in interactive

1677 theory development.

1679 * Code generator is now invoked via code_module (incremental code

1680 generation) and code_library (modular code generation, ML structures

1681 for each theory). INCOMPATIBILITY: new keywords 'file' and 'contains'

1682 must be quoted when used as identifiers.

1684 * New 'value' command for reading, evaluating and printing terms using

1685 the code generator. INCOMPATIBILITY: command keyword 'value' must be

1686 quoted when used as identifier.

1689 *** Locales ***

1691 * New commands for the interpretation of locale expressions in

1692 theories (1), locales (2) and proof contexts (3). These generate

1693 proof obligations from the expression specification. After the

1694 obligations have been discharged, theorems of the expression are added

1695 to the theory, target locale or proof context. The synopsis of the

1696 commands is a follows:

1698 (1) interpretation expr inst

1699 (2) interpretation target < expr

1700 (3) interpret expr inst

1702 Interpretation in theories and proof contexts require a parameter

1703 instantiation of terms from the current context. This is applied to

1704 specifications and theorems of the interpreted expression.

1705 Interpretation in locales only permits parameter renaming through the

1706 locale expression. Interpretation is smart in that interpretations

1707 that are active already do not occur in proof obligations, neither are

1708 instantiated theorems stored in duplicate. Use 'print_interps' to

1709 inspect active interpretations of a particular locale. For details,

1710 see the Isar Reference manual. Examples can be found in

1711 HOL/Finite_Set.thy and HOL/Algebra/UnivPoly.thy.

1713 INCOMPATIBILITY: former 'instantiate' has been withdrawn, use

1714 'interpret' instead.

1716 * New context element 'constrains' for adding type constraints to

1717 parameters.

1719 * Context expressions: renaming of parameters with syntax

1720 redeclaration.

1722 * Locale declaration: 'includes' disallowed.

1724 * Proper static binding of attribute syntax -- i.e. types / terms /

1725 facts mentioned as arguments are always those of the locale definition

1726 context, independently of the context of later invocations. Moreover,

1727 locale operations (renaming and type / term instantiation) are applied

1728 to attribute arguments as expected.

1730 INCOMPATIBILITY of the ML interface: always pass Attrib.src instead of

1731 actual attributes; rare situations may require Attrib.attribute to

1732 embed those attributes into Attrib.src that lack concrete syntax.

1733 Attribute implementations need to cooperate properly with the static

1734 binding mechanism. Basic parsers Args.XXX_typ/term/prop and

1735 Attrib.XXX_thm etc. already do the right thing without further

1736 intervention. Only unusual applications -- such as "where" or "of"

1737 (cf. src/Pure/Isar/attrib.ML), which process arguments depending both

1738 on the context and the facts involved -- may have to assign parsed

1739 values to argument tokens explicitly.

1741 * Changed parameter management in theorem generation for long goal

1742 statements with 'includes'. INCOMPATIBILITY: produces a different

1743 theorem statement in rare situations.

1745 * Locale inspection command 'print_locale' omits notes elements. Use

1746 'print_locale!' to have them included in the output.

1749 *** Provers ***

1751 * Provers/hypsubst.ML: improved version of the subst method, for

1752 single-step rewriting: it now works in bound variable contexts. New is

1753 'subst (asm)', for rewriting an assumption. INCOMPATIBILITY: may

1754 rewrite a different subterm than the original subst method, which is

1755 still available as 'simplesubst'.

1757 * Provers/quasi.ML: new transitivity reasoners for transitivity only

1758 and quasi orders.

1760 * Provers/trancl.ML: new transitivity reasoner for transitive and

1761 reflexive-transitive closure of relations.

1763 * Provers/blast.ML: new reference depth_limit to make blast's depth

1764 limit (previously hard-coded with a value of 20) user-definable.

1766 * Provers/simplifier.ML has been moved to Pure, where Simplifier.setup

1767 is peformed already. Object-logics merely need to finish their

1768 initial simpset configuration as before. INCOMPATIBILITY.

1771 *** HOL ***

1773 * Symbolic syntax of Hilbert Choice Operator is now as follows:

1775 syntax (epsilon)

1776 "_Eps" :: "[pttrn, bool] => 'a" ("(3\<some>_./ _)" [0, 10] 10)

1778 The symbol \<some> is displayed as the alternative epsilon of LaTeX

1779 and x-symbol; use option '-m epsilon' to get it actually printed.

1780 Moreover, the mathematically important symbolic identifier \<epsilon>

1781 becomes available as variable, constant etc. INCOMPATIBILITY,

1783 * "x > y" abbreviates "y < x" and "x >= y" abbreviates "y <= x".

1784 Similarly for all quantifiers: "ALL x > y" etc. The x-symbol for >=

1785 is \<ge>. New transitivity rules have been added to HOL/Orderings.thy to

1786 support corresponding Isar calculations.

1788 * "{x:A. P}" abbreviates "{x. x:A & P}", and similarly for "\<in>"

1789 instead of ":".

1791 * theory SetInterval: changed the syntax for open intervals:

1793 Old New

1794 {..n(} {..<n}

1795 {)n..} {n<..}

1796 {m..n(} {m..<n}

1797 {)m..n} {m<..n}

1798 {)m..n(} {m<..<n}

1800 The old syntax is still supported but will disappear in the next

1801 release. For conversion use the following Emacs search and replace

1802 patterns (these are not perfect but work quite well):

1804 {)\([^\.]*\)\.\. -> {\1<\.\.}

1805 \.\.\([^(}]*\)(} -> \.\.<\1}

1807 * Theory Commutative_Ring (in Library): method comm_ring for proving

1808 equalities in commutative rings; method 'algebra' provides a generic

1809 interface.

1811 * Theory Finite_Set: changed the syntax for 'setsum', summation over

1812 finite sets: "setsum (%x. e) A", which used to be "\<Sum>x:A. e", is

1813 now either "SUM x:A. e" or "\<Sum>x \<in> A. e". The bound variable can

1814 be a tuple pattern.

1816 Some new syntax forms are available:

1818 "\<Sum>x | P. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {x. P}"

1819 "\<Sum>x = a..b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..b}"

1820 "\<Sum>x = a..<b. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {a..<b}"

1821 "\<Sum>x < k. e" for "setsum (%x. e) {..<k}"

1823 The latter form "\<Sum>x < k. e" used to be based on a separate

1824 function "Summation", which has been discontinued.

1826 * theory Finite_Set: in structured induction proofs, the insert case

1827 is now 'case (insert x F)' instead of the old counterintuitive 'case

1828 (insert F x)'.

1830 * The 'refute' command has been extended to support a much larger

1831 fragment of HOL, including axiomatic type classes, constdefs and

1832 typedefs, inductive datatypes and recursion.

1834 * New tactics 'sat' and 'satx' to prove propositional tautologies.

1835 Requires zChaff with proof generation to be installed. See

1836 HOL/ex/SAT_Examples.thy for examples.

1838 * Datatype induction via method 'induct' now preserves the name of the

1839 induction variable. For example, when proving P(xs::'a list) by

1840 induction on xs, the induction step is now P(xs) ==> P(a#xs) rather

1841 than P(list) ==> P(a#list) as previously. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY

1842 in unstructured proof scripts.

1844 * Reworked implementation of records. Improved scalability for

1845 records with many fields, avoiding performance problems for type

1846 inference. Records are no longer composed of nested field types, but

1847 of nested extension types. Therefore the record type only grows linear

1848 in the number of extensions and not in the number of fields. The

1849 top-level (users) view on records is preserved. Potential

1850 INCOMPATIBILITY only in strange cases, where the theory depends on the

1851 old record representation. The type generated for a record is called

1852 <record_name>_ext_type.

1854 Flag record_quick_and_dirty_sensitive can be enabled to skip the

1855 proofs triggered by a record definition or a simproc (if

1856 quick_and_dirty is enabled). Definitions of large records can take

1857 quite long.

1859 New simproc record_upd_simproc for simplification of multiple record

1860 updates enabled by default. Moreover, trivial updates are also

1861 removed: r(|x := x r|) = r. INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break

1862 occasionally, since simplification is more powerful by default.

1864 * typedef: proper support for polymorphic sets, which contain extra

1865 type-variables in the term.

1867 * Simplifier: automatically reasons about transitivity chains

1868 involving "trancl" (r^+) and "rtrancl" (r^*) by setting up tactics

1869 provided by Provers/trancl.ML as additional solvers. INCOMPATIBILITY:

1870 old proofs break occasionally as simplification may now solve more

1871 goals than previously.

1873 * Simplifier: converts x <= y into x = y if assumption y <= x is

1874 present. Works for all partial orders (class "order"), in particular

1875 numbers and sets. For linear orders (e.g. numbers) it treats ~ x < y

1876 just like y <= x.

1878 * Simplifier: new simproc for "let x = a in f x". If a is a free or

1879 bound variable or a constant then the let is unfolded. Otherwise

1880 first a is simplified to b, and then f b is simplified to g. If

1881 possible we abstract b from g arriving at "let x = b in h x",

1882 otherwise we unfold the let and arrive at g. The simproc can be

1883 enabled/disabled by the reference use_let_simproc. Potential

1884 INCOMPATIBILITY since simplification is more powerful by default.

1886 * Classical reasoning: the meson method now accepts theorems as arguments.

1888 * Prover support: pre-release of the Isabelle-ATP linkup, which runs background

1889 jobs to provide advice on the provability of subgoals.

1891 * Theory OrderedGroup and Ring_and_Field: various additions and

1892 improvements to faciliate calculations involving equalities and

1893 inequalities.

1895 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

1896 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

1898 abs_eq now named abs_of_nonneg

1899 abs_of_ge_0 now named abs_of_nonneg

1900 abs_minus_eq now named abs_of_nonpos

1901 imp_abs_id now named abs_of_nonneg

1902 imp_abs_neg_id now named abs_of_nonpos

1903 mult_pos now named mult_pos_pos

1904 mult_pos_le now named mult_nonneg_nonneg

1905 mult_pos_neg_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos

1906 mult_pos_neg2_le now named mult_nonneg_nonpos2

1907 mult_neg now named mult_neg_neg

1908 mult_neg_le now named mult_nonpos_nonpos

1910 * The following lemmas in Ring_and_Field have been added to the simplifier:

1912 zero_le_square

1913 not_square_less_zero

1915 The following lemmas have been deleted from Real/RealPow:

1917 realpow_zero_zero

1918 realpow_two

1919 realpow_less

1920 zero_le_power

1921 realpow_two_le

1922 abs_realpow_two

1923 realpow_two_abs

1925 * Theory Parity: added rules for simplifying exponents.

1927 * Theory List:

1929 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

1930 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

1932 list_all_Nil now named list_all.simps(1)

1933 list_all_Cons now named list_all.simps(2)

1934 list_all_conv now named list_all_iff

1935 set_mem_eq now named mem_iff

1937 * Theories SetsAndFunctions and BigO (see HOL/Library) support

1938 asymptotic "big O" calculations. See the notes in BigO.thy.

1941 *** HOL-Complex ***

1943 * Theory RealDef: better support for embedding natural numbers and

1944 integers in the reals.

1946 The following theorems have been eliminated or modified

1947 (INCOMPATIBILITY):

1949 exp_ge_add_one_self now requires no hypotheses

1950 real_of_int_add reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

1951 real_of_int_minus reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

1952 real_of_int_diff reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

1953 real_of_int_mult reversed direction of equality (use [symmetric])

1955 * Theory RComplete: expanded support for floor and ceiling functions.

1957 * Theory Ln is new, with properties of the natural logarithm

1959 * Hyperreal: There is a new type constructor "star" for making

1960 nonstandard types. The old type names are now type synonyms:

1962 hypreal = real star

1963 hypnat = nat star

1964 hcomplex = complex star

1966 * Hyperreal: Many groups of similarly-defined constants have been

1967 replaced by polymorphic versions (INCOMPATIBILITY):

1969 star_of <-- hypreal_of_real, hypnat_of_nat, hcomplex_of_complex

1971 starset <-- starsetNat, starsetC

1972 *s* <-- *sNat*, *sc*

1973 starset_n <-- starsetNat_n, starsetC_n

1974 *sn* <-- *sNatn*, *scn*

1975 InternalSets <-- InternalNatSets, InternalCSets

1977 starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

1978 *f* <-- *fNat*, *fNat2*, *fc*, *fRc*, *fcR*

1979 starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n

1980 *fn* <-- *fNatn*, *fNat2n*, *fcn*, *fRcn*, *fcRn*

1981 InternalFuns <-- InternalNatFuns, InternalNatFuns2, Internal{C,RC,CR}Funs

1983 * Hyperreal: Many type-specific theorems have been removed in favor of

1984 theorems specific to various axiomatic type classes (INCOMPATIBILITY):

1986 add_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_commute

1987 add_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_assocs

1988 OrderedGroup.add_0 <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_zero_left

1989 OrderedGroup.add_0_right <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_zero_right

1990 right_minus <-- hypreal_add_minus

1991 left_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_add_minus_left

1992 mult_commute <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_commute

1993 mult_assoc <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_mult_assoc

1994 mult_1_left <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_1, hcomplex_mult_one_left

1995 mult_1_right <-- hcomplex_mult_one_right

1996 mult_zero_left <-- hcomplex_mult_zero_left

1997 left_distrib <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add_mult_distrib

1998 right_distrib <-- hypnat_add_mult_distrib2

1999 zero_neq_one <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_not_eq_one

2000 right_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse

2001 left_inverse <-- hypreal_mult_inverse_left, hcomplex_mult_inv_left

2002 order_refl <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_refl

2003 order_trans <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_trans

2004 order_antisym <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_anti_sym

2005 order_less_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less_le

2006 linorder_linear <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le_linear

2007 add_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_add_left_mono

2008 mult_strict_left_mono <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_mult_less_mono2

2009 add_nonneg_nonneg <-- hypreal_le_add_order

2011 * Hyperreal: Separate theorems having to do with type-specific

2012 versions of constants have been merged into theorems that apply to the

2013 new polymorphic constants (INCOMPATIBILITY):

2015 STAR_UNIV_set <-- {STAR_real,NatStar_real,STARC_complex}_set

2016 STAR_empty_set <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_empty_set

2017 STAR_Un <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Un

2018 STAR_Int <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Int

2019 STAR_Compl <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_Compl

2020 STAR_subset <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_subset

2021 STAR_mem <-- {STAR,NatStar,STARC}_mem

2022 STAR_mem_Compl <-- {STAR,STARC}_mem_Compl

2023 STAR_diff <-- {STAR,STARC}_diff

2024 STAR_star_of_image_subset <-- {STAR_hypreal_of_real, NatStar_hypreal_of_real,

2025 STARC_hcomplex_of_complex}_image_subset

2026 starset_n_Un <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Un

2027 starset_n_Int <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Int

2028 starset_n_Compl <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_Compl

2029 starset_n_diff <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_diff

2030 InternalSets_Un <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Un

2031 InternalSets_Int <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Int

2032 InternalSets_Compl <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_Compl

2033 InternalSets_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_diff

2034 InternalSets_UNIV_diff <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_UNIV_diff

2035 InternalSets_starset_n <-- Internal{Nat,C}Sets_starset{Nat,C}_n

2036 starset_starset_n_eq <-- starset{Nat,C}_starset{Nat,C}_n_eq

2037 starset_n_starset <-- starset{Nat,C}_n_starset{Nat,C}

2038 starfun_n_starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_n_starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

2039 starfun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}

2040 starfun_mult <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_mult

2041 starfun_add <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_add

2042 starfun_minus <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_minus

2043 starfun_diff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_diff

2044 starfun_o <-- starfun{NatNat2,Nat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o

2045 starfun_o2 <-- starfun{NatNat2,_stafunNat,C,C_starfunRC,_starfunCR}_o2

2046 starfun_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_const_fun

2047 starfun_inverse <-- starfun{Nat,C,RC,CR}_inverse

2048 starfun_eq <-- starfun{Nat,Nat2,C,RC,CR}_eq

2049 starfun_eq_iff <-- starfun{C,RC,CR}_eq_iff

2050 starfun_Id <-- starfunC_Id

2051 starfun_approx <-- starfun{Nat,CR}_approx

2052 starfun_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_capprox

2053 starfun_abs <-- starfunNat_rabs

2054 starfun_lambda_cancel <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel

2055 starfun_lambda_cancel2 <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_lambda_cancel2

2056 starfun_mult_HFinite_approx <-- starfunCR_mult_HFinite_capprox

2057 starfun_mult_CFinite_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_mult_CFinite_capprox

2058 starfun_add_capprox <-- starfun{C,RC}_add_capprox

2059 starfun_add_approx <-- starfunCR_add_approx

2060 starfun_inverse_inverse <-- starfunC_inverse_inverse

2061 starfun_divide <-- starfun{C,CR,RC}_divide

2062 starfun_n <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n

2063 starfun_n_mult <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_mult

2064 starfun_n_add <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_add

2065 starfun_n_add_minus <-- starfunNat_n_add_minus

2066 starfun_n_const_fun <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_const_fun

2067 starfun_n_minus <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_minus

2068 starfun_n_eq <-- starfun{Nat,C}_n_eq

2070 star_n_add <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_add

2071 star_n_minus <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_minus

2072 star_n_diff <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_diff

2073 star_n_mult <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_mult

2074 star_n_inverse <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_inverse

2075 star_n_le <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_le

2076 star_n_less <-- {hypreal,hypnat}_less

2077 star_n_zero_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_zero_num

2078 star_n_one_num <-- {hypreal,hypnat,hcomplex}_one_num

2079 star_n_abs <-- hypreal_hrabs

2080 star_n_divide <-- hcomplex_divide

2082 star_of_add <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_add

2083 star_of_minus <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_minus

2084 star_of_diff <-- hypreal_of_real_diff

2085 star_of_mult <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_mult

2086 star_of_one <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_one

2087 star_of_zero <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_zero

2088 star_of_le <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_le_iff

2089 star_of_less <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat}_less_iff

2090 star_of_eq <-- {hypreal_of_real,hypnat_of_nat,hcomplex_of_complex}_eq_iff

2091 star_of_inverse <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_inverse

2092 star_of_divide <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_divide

2093 star_of_of_nat <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_nat

2094 star_of_of_int <-- {hypreal_of_real,hcomplex_of_complex}_of_int

2095 star_of_number_of <-- {hypreal,hcomplex}_number_of

2096 star_of_number_less <-- number_of_less_hypreal_of_real_iff

2097 star_of_number_le <-- number_of_le_hypreal_of_real_iff

2098 star_of_eq_number <-- hypreal_of_real_eq_number_of_iff

2099 star_of_less_number <-- hypreal_of_real_less_number_of_iff

2100 star_of_le_number <-- hypreal_of_real_le_number_of_iff

2101 star_of_power <-- hypreal_of_real_power

2102 star_of_eq_0 <-- hcomplex_of_complex_zero_iff

2104 * Hyperreal: new method "transfer" that implements the transfer

2105 principle of nonstandard analysis. With a subgoal that mentions

2106 nonstandard types like "'a star", the command "apply transfer"

2107 replaces it with an equivalent one that mentions only standard types.

2108 To be successful, all free variables must have standard types; non-

2109 standard variables must have explicit universal quantifiers.

2111 * Hyperreal: A theory of Taylor series.

2114 *** HOLCF ***

2116 * Discontinued special version of 'constdefs' (which used to support

2117 continuous functions) in favor of the general Pure one with full

2118 type-inference.

2120 * New simplification procedure for solving continuity conditions; it

2121 is much faster on terms with many nested lambda abstractions (cubic

2122 instead of exponential time).

2124 * New syntax for domain package: selector names are now optional.

2125 Parentheses should be omitted unless argument is lazy, for example:

2127 domain 'a stream = cons "'a" (lazy "'a stream")

2129 * New command 'fixrec' for defining recursive functions with pattern

2130 matching; defining multiple functions with mutual recursion is also

2131 supported. Patterns may include the constants cpair, spair, up, sinl,

2132 sinr, or any data constructor defined by the domain package. The given

2133 equations are proven as rewrite rules. See HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for

2134 syntax and examples.

2136 * New commands 'cpodef' and 'pcpodef' for defining predicate subtypes

2137 of cpo and pcpo types. Syntax is exactly like the 'typedef' command,

2138 but the proof obligation additionally includes an admissibility

2139 requirement. The packages generate instances of class cpo or pcpo,

2140 with continuity and strictness theorems for Rep and Abs.

2142 * HOLCF: Many theorems have been renamed according to a more standard naming

2143 scheme (INCOMPATIBILITY):

2145 foo_inject: "foo$x = foo$y ==> x = y"

2146 foo_eq: "(foo$x = foo$y) = (x = y)"

2147 foo_less: "(foo$x << foo$y) = (x << y)"

2148 foo_strict: "foo$UU = UU"

2149 foo_defined: "... ==> foo$x ~= UU"

2150 foo_defined_iff: "(foo$x = UU) = (x = UU)"

2153 *** ZF ***

2155 * ZF/ex: theories Group and Ring provide examples in abstract algebra,

2156 including the First Isomorphism Theorem (on quotienting by the kernel

2157 of a homomorphism).

2159 * ZF/Simplifier: install second copy of type solver that actually

2160 makes use of TC rules declared to Isar proof contexts (or locales);

2161 the old version is still required for ML proof scripts.

2164 *** Cube ***

2166 * Converted to Isar theory format; use locales instead of axiomatic

2167 theories.

2170 *** ML ***

2172 * Pure/library.ML: added ##>, ##>>, #>> -- higher-order counterparts

2173 for ||>, ||>>, |>>,

2175 * Pure/library.ML no longer defines its own option datatype, but uses

2176 that of the SML basis, which has constructors NONE and SOME instead of

2177 None and Some, as well as exception Option.Option instead of OPTION.

2178 The functions the, if_none, is_some, is_none have been adapted

2179 accordingly, while Option.map replaces apsome.

2181 * Pure/library.ML: the exception LIST has been given up in favour of

2182 the standard exceptions Empty and Subscript, as well as

2183 Library.UnequalLengths. Function like Library.hd and Library.tl are

2184 superceded by the standard hd and tl functions etc.

2186 A number of basic list functions are no longer exported to the ML

2187 toplevel, as they are variants of predefined functions. The following

2188 suggests how one can translate existing code:

2190 rev_append xs ys = List.revAppend (xs, ys)

2191 nth_elem (i, xs) = List.nth (xs, i)

2192 last_elem xs = List.last xs

2193 flat xss = List.concat xss

2194 seq fs = List.app fs

2195 partition P xs = List.partition P xs

2196 mapfilter f xs = List.mapPartial f xs

2198 * Pure/library.ML: several combinators for linear functional

2199 transformations, notably reverse application and composition:

2201 x |> f f #> g

2202 (x, y) |-> f f #-> g

2204 * Pure/library.ML: introduced/changed precedence of infix operators:

2206 infix 1 |> |-> ||> ||>> |>> |>>> #> #->;

2207 infix 2 ?;

2208 infix 3 o oo ooo oooo;

2209 infix 4 ~~ upto downto;

2211 Maybe INCOMPATIBILITY when any of those is used in conjunction with other

2212 infix operators.

2214 * Pure/library.ML: natural list combinators fold, fold_rev, and

2215 fold_map support linear functional transformations and nesting. For

2216 example:

2218 fold f [x1, ..., xN] y =

2219 y |> f x1 |> ... |> f xN

2221 (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] y =

2222 y |> fold f xs1 |> ... |> fold f xsN

2224 fold f [x1, ..., xN] =

2225 f x1 #> ... #> f xN

2227 (fold o fold) f [xs1, ..., xsN] =

2228 fold f xs1 #> ... #> fold f xsN

2230 * Pure/library.ML: the following selectors on type 'a option are

2231 available:

2233 the: 'a option -> 'a (*partial*)

2234 these: 'a option -> 'a where 'a = 'b list

2235 the_default: 'a -> 'a option -> 'a

2236 the_list: 'a option -> 'a list

2238 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides

2239 basic operations for association lists, following natural argument

2240 order; moreover the explicit equality predicate passed here avoids

2241 potentially expensive polymorphic runtime equality checks.

2242 The old functions may be expressed as follows:

2244 assoc = uncurry (AList.lookup (op =))

2245 assocs = these oo AList.lookup (op =)

2246 overwrite = uncurry (AList.update (op =)) o swap

2248 * Pure/General: structure AList (cf. Pure/General/alist.ML) provides

2250 val make: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> ('a * 'b) list

2251 val find: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> ('c * 'b) list -> 'a -> 'c list

2253 replacing make_keylist and keyfilter (occassionally used)

2254 Naive rewrites:

2256 make_keylist = AList.make

2257 keyfilter = AList.find (op =)

2259 * eq_fst and eq_snd now take explicit equality parameter, thus

2260 avoiding eqtypes. Naive rewrites:

2262 eq_fst = eq_fst (op =)

2263 eq_snd = eq_snd (op =)

2265 * Removed deprecated apl and apr (rarely used).

2266 Naive rewrites:

2268 apl (n, op) =>>= curry op n

2269 apr (op, m) =>>= fn n => op (n, m)

2271 * Pure/General: structure OrdList (cf. Pure/General/ord_list.ML)

2272 provides a reasonably efficient light-weight implementation of sets as

2273 lists.

2275 * Pure/General: generic tables (cf. Pure/General/table.ML) provide a

2276 few new operations; existing lookup and update are now curried to

2277 follow natural argument order (for use with fold etc.);

2278 INCOMPATIBILITY, use (uncurry Symtab.lookup) etc. as last resort.

2280 * Pure/General: output via the Isabelle channels of

2281 writeln/warning/error etc. is now passed through Output.output, with a

2282 hook for arbitrary transformations depending on the print_mode

2283 (cf. Output.add_mode -- the first active mode that provides a output

2284 function wins). Already formatted output may be embedded into further

2285 text via Output.raw; the result of Pretty.string_of/str_of and derived

2286 functions (string_of_term/cterm/thm etc.) is already marked raw to

2287 accommodate easy composition of diagnostic messages etc. Programmers

2288 rarely need to care about Output.output or Output.raw at all, with

2289 some notable exceptions: Output.output is required when bypassing the

2290 standard channels (writeln etc.), or in token translations to produce

2291 properly formatted results; Output.raw is required when capturing

2292 already output material that will eventually be presented to the user

2293 a second time. For the default print mode, both Output.output and

2294 Output.raw have no effect.

2296 * Pure/General: Output.time_accumulator NAME creates an operator ('a

2297 -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b to measure runtime and count invocations; the

2298 cumulative results are displayed at the end of a batch session.

2300 * Pure/General: File.sysify_path and File.quote_sysify path have been

2301 replaced by File.platform_path and File.shell_path (with appropriate

2302 hooks). This provides a clean interface for unusual systems where the

2303 internal and external process view of file names are different.

2305 * Pure: more efficient orders for basic syntactic entities: added

2306 fast_string_ord, fast_indexname_ord, fast_term_ord; changed sort_ord

2307 and typ_ord to use fast_string_ord and fast_indexname_ord (term_ord is

2308 NOT affected); structures Symtab, Vartab, Typtab, Termtab use the fast

2309 orders now -- potential INCOMPATIBILITY for code that depends on a

2310 particular order for Symtab.keys, Symtab.dest, etc. (consider using

2311 Library.sort_strings on result).

2313 * Pure/term.ML: combinators fold_atyps, fold_aterms, fold_term_types,

2314 fold_types traverse types/terms from left to right, observing natural

2315 argument order. Supercedes previous foldl_XXX versions, add_frees,

2316 add_vars etc. have been adapted as well: INCOMPATIBILITY.

2318 * Pure: name spaces have been refined, with significant changes of the

2319 internal interfaces -- INCOMPATIBILITY. Renamed cond_extern(_table)

2320 to extern(_table). The plain name entry path is superceded by a

2321 general 'naming' context, which also includes the 'policy' to produce

2322 a fully qualified name and external accesses of a fully qualified

2323 name; NameSpace.extend is superceded by context dependent

2324 Sign.declare_name. Several theory and proof context operations modify

2325 the naming context. Especially note Theory.restore_naming and

2326 ProofContext.restore_naming to get back to a sane state; note that

2327 Theory.add_path is no longer sufficient to recover from

2328 Theory.absolute_path in particular.

2330 * Pure: new flags short_names (default false) and unique_names

2331 (default true) for controlling output of qualified names. If

2332 short_names is set, names are printed unqualified. If unique_names is

2333 reset, the name prefix is reduced to the minimum required to achieve

2334 the original result when interning again, even if there is an overlap

2335 with earlier declarations.

2337 * Pure/TheoryDataFun: change of the argument structure; 'prep_ext' is

2338 now 'extend', and 'merge' gets an additional Pretty.pp argument

2339 (useful for printing error messages). INCOMPATIBILITY.

2341 * Pure: major reorganization of the theory context. Type Sign.sg and

2342 Theory.theory are now identified, referring to the universal

2343 Context.theory (see Pure/context.ML). Actual signature and theory

2344 content is managed as theory data. The old code and interfaces were

2345 spread over many files and structures; the new arrangement introduces

2346 considerable INCOMPATIBILITY to gain more clarity:

2348 Context -- theory management operations (name, identity, inclusion,

2349 parents, ancestors, merge, etc.), plus generic theory data;

2351 Sign -- logical signature and syntax operations (declaring consts,

2352 types, etc.), plus certify/read for common entities;

2354 Theory -- logical theory operations (stating axioms, definitions,

2355 oracles), plus a copy of logical signature operations (consts,

2356 types, etc.); also a few basic management operations (Theory.copy,

2357 Theory.merge, etc.)

2359 The most basic sign_of operations (Theory.sign_of, Thm.sign_of_thm

2360 etc.) as well as the sign field in Thm.rep_thm etc. have been retained

2361 for convenience -- they merely return the theory.

2363 * Pure: type Type.tsig is superceded by theory in most interfaces.

2365 * Pure: the Isar proof context type is already defined early in Pure

2366 as Context.proof (note that ProofContext.context and Proof.context are

2367 aliases, where the latter is the preferred name). This enables other

2368 Isabelle components to refer to that type even before Isar is present.

2370 * Pure/sign/theory: discontinued named name spaces (i.e. classK,

2371 typeK, constK, axiomK, oracleK), but provide explicit operations for

2372 any of these kinds. For example, Sign.intern typeK is now

2373 Sign.intern_type, Theory.hide_space Sign.typeK is now

2374 Theory.hide_types. Also note that former

2375 Theory.hide_classes/types/consts are now

2376 Theory.hide_classes_i/types_i/consts_i, while the non '_i' versions

2377 internalize their arguments! INCOMPATIBILITY.

2379 * Pure: get_thm interface (of PureThy and ProofContext) expects

2380 datatype thmref (with constructors Name and NameSelection) instead of

2381 plain string -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

2383 * Pure: cases produced by proof methods specify options, where NONE

2384 means to remove case bindings -- INCOMPATIBILITY in

2385 (RAW_)METHOD_CASES.

2387 * Pure: the following operations retrieve axioms or theorems from a

2388 theory node or theory hierarchy, respectively:

2390 Theory.axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list

2391 Theory.all_axioms_of: theory -> (string * term) list

2392 PureThy.thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list

2393 PureThy.all_thms_of: theory -> (string * thm) list

2395 * Pure: print_tac now outputs the goal through the trace channel.

2397 * Isar toplevel: improved diagnostics, mostly for Poly/ML only.

2398 Reference Toplevel.debug (default false) controls detailed printing

2399 and tracing of low-level exceptions; Toplevel.profiling (default 0)

2400 controls execution profiling -- set to 1 for time and 2 for space

2401 (both increase the runtime).

2403 * Isar session: The initial use of ROOT.ML is now always timed,

2404 i.e. the log will show the actual process times, in contrast to the

2405 elapsed wall-clock time that the outer shell wrapper produces.

2407 * Simplifier: improved handling of bound variables (nameless

2408 representation, avoid allocating new strings). Simprocs that invoke

2409 the Simplifier recursively should use Simplifier.inherit_bounds to

2410 avoid local name clashes. Failure to do so produces warnings

2411 "Simplifier: renamed bound variable ..."; set Simplifier.debug_bounds

2412 for further details.

2414 * ML functions legacy_bindings and use_legacy_bindings produce ML fact

2415 bindings for all theorems stored within a given theory; this may help

2416 in porting non-Isar theories to Isar ones, while keeping ML proof

2417 scripts for the time being.

2419 * ML operator HTML.with_charset specifies the charset begin used for

2420 generated HTML files. For example:

2422 HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Hebrew";

2423 HTML.with_charset "utf-8" use_thy "Chinese";

2426 *** System ***

2428 * Allow symlinks to all proper Isabelle executables (Isabelle,

2429 isabelle, isatool etc.).

2431 * ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT setting specifies preferred document format (for

2432 isatool doc, isatool mkdir, display_drafts etc.).

2434 * isatool usedir: option -f allows specification of the ML file to be

2435 used by Isabelle; default is ROOT.ML.

2437 * New isatool version outputs the version identifier of the Isabelle

2438 distribution being used.

2440 * HOL: new isatool dimacs2hol converts files in DIMACS CNF format

2441 (containing Boolean satisfiability problems) into Isabelle/HOL

2442 theories.

2446 New in Isabelle2004 (April 2004)

2447 --------------------------------

2449 *** General ***

2451 * Provers/order.ML: new efficient reasoner for partial and linear orders.

2452 Replaces linorder.ML.

2454 * Pure: Greek letters (except small lambda, \<lambda>), as well as Gothic

2455 (\<aa>...\<zz>\<AA>...\<ZZ>), calligraphic (\<A>...\<Z>), and Euler

2456 (\<a>...\<z>), are now considered normal letters, and can therefore

2457 be used anywhere where an ASCII letter (a...zA...Z) has until

2458 now. COMPATIBILITY: This obviously changes the parsing of some

2459 terms, especially where a symbol has been used as a binder, say

2460 '\<Pi>x. ...', which is now a type error since \<Pi>x will be parsed

2461 as an identifier. Fix it by inserting a space around former

2462 symbols. Call 'isatool fixgreek' to try to fix parsing errors in

2463 existing theory and ML files.

2465 * Pure: Macintosh and Windows line-breaks are now allowed in theory files.

2467 * Pure: single letter sub/superscripts (\<^isub> and \<^isup>) are now

2468 allowed in identifiers. Similar to Greek letters \<^isub> is now considered

2469 a normal (but invisible) letter. For multiple letter subscripts repeat

2470 \<^isub> like this: x\<^isub>1\<^isub>2.

2472 * Pure: There are now sub-/superscripts that can span more than one

2473 character. Text between \<^bsub> and \<^esub> is set in subscript in

2474 ProofGeneral and LaTeX, text between \<^bsup> and \<^esup> in

2475 superscript. The new control characters are not identifier parts.

2477 * Pure: Control-symbols of the form \<^raw:...> will literally print the

2478 content of "..." to the latex file instead of \isacntrl... . The "..."

2479 may consist of any printable characters excluding the end bracket >.

2481 * Pure: Using new Isar command "finalconsts" (or the ML functions

2482 Theory.add_finals or Theory.add_finals_i) it is now possible to

2483 declare constants "final", which prevents their being given a definition

2484 later. It is useful for constants whose behaviour is fixed axiomatically

2485 rather than definitionally, such as the meta-logic connectives.

2487 * Pure: 'instance' now handles general arities with general sorts

2488 (i.e. intersections of classes),

2490 * Presentation: generated HTML now uses a CSS style sheet to make layout

2491 (somewhat) independent of content. It is copied from lib/html/isabelle.css.

2492 It can be changed to alter the colors/layout of generated pages.

2495 *** Isar ***

2497 * Tactic emulation methods rule_tac, erule_tac, drule_tac, frule_tac,

2498 cut_tac, subgoal_tac and thin_tac:

2499 - Now understand static (Isar) contexts. As a consequence, users of Isar

2500 locales are no longer forced to write Isar proof scripts.

2501 For details see Isar Reference Manual, paragraph 4.3.2: Further tactic

2502 emulations.

2503 - INCOMPATIBILITY: names of variables to be instantiated may no

2504 longer be enclosed in quotes. Instead, precede variable name with `?'.

2505 This is consistent with the instantiation attribute "where".

2507 * Attributes "where" and "of":

2508 - Now take type variables of instantiated theorem into account when reading

2509 the instantiation string. This fixes a bug that caused instantiated

2510 theorems to have too special types in some circumstances.

2511 - "where" permits explicit instantiations of type variables.

2513 * Calculation commands "moreover" and "also" no longer interfere with

2514 current facts ("this"), admitting arbitrary combinations with "then"

2515 and derived forms.

2517 * Locales:

2518 - Goal statements involving the context element "includes" no longer

2519 generate theorems with internal delta predicates (those ending on

2520 "_axioms") in the premise.

2521 Resolve particular premise with <locale>.intro to obtain old form.

2522 - Fixed bug in type inference ("unify_frozen") that prevented mix of target

2523 specification and "includes" elements in goal statement.

2524 - Rule sets <locale>.intro and <locale>.axioms no longer declared as

2525 [intro?] and [elim?] (respectively) by default.

2526 - Experimental command for instantiation of locales in proof contexts:

2527 instantiate <label>[<attrs>]: <loc>

2528 Instantiates locale <loc> and adds all its theorems to the current context

2529 taking into account their attributes. Label and attrs are optional

2530 modifiers, like in theorem declarations. If present, names of

2531 instantiated theorems are qualified with <label>, and the attributes

2532 <attrs> are applied after any attributes these theorems might have already.

2533 If the locale has assumptions, a chained fact of the form

2534 "<loc> t1 ... tn" is expected from which instantiations of the parameters

2535 are derived. The command does not support old-style locales declared

2536 with "locale (open)".

2537 A few (very simple) examples can be found in FOL/ex/LocaleInst.thy.

2539 * HOL: Tactic emulation methods induct_tac and case_tac understand static

2540 (Isar) contexts.

2543 *** HOL ***

2545 * Proof import: new image HOL4 contains the imported library from

2546 the HOL4 system with about 2500 theorems. It is imported by

2547 replaying proof terms produced by HOL4 in Isabelle. The HOL4 image

2548 can be used like any other Isabelle image. See

2549 HOL/Import/HOL/README for more information.

2551 * Simplifier:

2552 - Much improved handling of linear and partial orders.

2553 Reasoners for linear and partial orders are set up for type classes

2554 "linorder" and "order" respectively, and are added to the default simpset

2555 as solvers. This means that the simplifier can build transitivity chains

2556 to solve goals from the assumptions.

2557 - INCOMPATIBILITY: old proofs break occasionally. Typically, applications

2558 of blast or auto after simplification become unnecessary because the goal

2559 is solved by simplification already.

2561 * Numerics: new theory Ring_and_Field contains over 250 basic numerical laws,

2562 all proved in axiomatic type classes for semirings, rings and fields.

2564 * Numerics:

2565 - Numeric types (nat, int, and in HOL-Complex rat, real, complex, etc.) are

2566 now formalized using the Ring_and_Field theory mentioned above.

2567 - INCOMPATIBILITY: simplification and arithmetic behaves somewhat differently

2568 than before, because now they are set up once in a generic manner.

2569 - INCOMPATIBILITY: many type-specific arithmetic laws have gone.

2570 Look for the general versions in Ring_and_Field (and Power if they concern

2571 exponentiation).

2573 * Type "rat" of the rational numbers is now available in HOL-Complex.

2575 * Records:

2576 - Record types are now by default printed with their type abbreviation

2577 instead of the list of all field types. This can be configured via

2578 the reference "print_record_type_abbr".

2579 - Simproc "record_upd_simproc" for simplification of multiple updates added

2580 (not enabled by default).

2581 - Simproc "record_ex_sel_eq_simproc" to simplify EX x. sel r = x resp.

2582 EX x. x = sel r to True (not enabled by default).

2583 - Tactic "record_split_simp_tac" to split and simplify records added.

2585 * 'specification' command added, allowing for definition by

2586 specification. There is also an 'ax_specification' command that

2587 introduces the new constants axiomatically.

2589 * arith(_tac) is now able to generate counterexamples for reals as well.

2591 * HOL-Algebra: new locale "ring" for non-commutative rings.

2593 * HOL-ex: InductiveInvariant_examples illustrates advanced recursive function

2594 definitions, thanks to Sava Krsti\'{c} and John Matthews.

2596 * HOL-Matrix: a first theory for matrices in HOL with an application of

2597 matrix theory to linear programming.

2599 * Unions and Intersections:

2600 The latex output syntax of UN and INT has been changed

2601 from "\Union x \in A. B" to "\Union_{x \in A} B"

2602 i.e. the index formulae has become a subscript.

2603 Similarly for "\Union x. B", and for \Inter instead of \Union.

2605 * Unions and Intersections over Intervals:

2606 There is new short syntax "UN i<=n. A" for "UN i:{0..n}. A". There is

2607 also an x-symbol version with subscripts "\<Union>\<^bsub>i <= n\<^esub>. A"

2608 like in normal math, and corresponding versions for < and for intersection.

2610 * HOL/List: Ordering "lexico" is renamed "lenlex" and the standard

2611 lexicographic dictonary ordering has been added as "lexord".

2613 * ML: the legacy theory structures Int and List have been removed. They had

2614 conflicted with ML Basis Library structures having the same names.

2616 * 'refute' command added to search for (finite) countermodels. Only works

2617 for a fragment of HOL. The installation of an external SAT solver is

2618 highly recommended. See "HOL/Refute.thy" for details.

2620 * 'quickcheck' command: Allows to find counterexamples by evaluating

2621 formulae under an assignment of free variables to random values.

2622 In contrast to 'refute', it can deal with inductive datatypes,

2623 but cannot handle quantifiers. See "HOL/ex/Quickcheck_Examples.thy"

2624 for examples.

2627 *** HOLCF ***

2629 * Streams now come with concatenation and are part of the HOLCF image

2633 New in Isabelle2003 (May 2003)

2634 ------------------------------

2636 *** General ***

2638 * Provers/simplifier:

2640 - Completely reimplemented method simp (ML: Asm_full_simp_tac):

2641 Assumptions are now subject to complete mutual simplification,

2642 not just from left to right. The simplifier now preserves

2643 the order of assumptions.

2645 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY:

2647 -- simp sometimes diverges where the old version did

2648 not, e.g. invoking simp on the goal

2650 [| P (f x); y = x; f x = f y |] ==> Q

2652 now gives rise to the infinite reduction sequence

2654 P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> P(f y) --(y = x)--> P(f x) --(f x = f y)--> ...

2656 Using "simp (asm_lr)" (ML: Asm_lr_simp_tac) instead often solves this

2657 kind of problem.

2659 -- Tactics combining classical reasoner and simplification (such as auto)

2660 are also affected by this change, because many of them rely on

2661 simp. They may sometimes diverge as well or yield a different numbers

2662 of subgoals. Try to use e.g. force, fastsimp, or safe instead of auto

2663 in case of problems. Sometimes subsequent calls to the classical

2664 reasoner will fail because a preceeding call to the simplifier too

2665 eagerly simplified the goal, e.g. deleted redundant premises.

2667 - The simplifier trace now shows the names of the applied rewrite rules

2669 - You can limit the number of recursive invocations of the simplifier

2670 during conditional rewriting (where the simplifie tries to solve the

2671 conditions before applying the rewrite rule):

2672 ML "simp_depth_limit := n"

2673 where n is an integer. Thus you can force termination where previously

2674 the simplifier would diverge.

2676 - Accepts free variables as head terms in congruence rules. Useful in Isar.

2678 - No longer aborts on failed congruence proof. Instead, the

2679 congruence is ignored.

2681 * Pure: New generic framework for extracting programs from constructive

2682 proofs. See HOL/Extraction.thy for an example instantiation, as well

2683 as HOL/Extraction for some case studies.

2685 * Pure: The main goal of the proof state is no longer shown by default, only

2686 the subgoals. This behaviour is controlled by a new flag.

2687 PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Settings -> Show Main Goal

2688 (ML: Proof.show_main_goal).

2690 * Pure: You can find all matching introduction rules for subgoal 1, i.e. all

2691 rules whose conclusion matches subgoal 1:

2692 PG menu: Isabelle/Isar -> Show me -> matching rules

2693 The rules are ordered by how closely they match the subgoal.

2694 In particular, rules that solve a subgoal outright are displayed first

2695 (or rather last, the way they are printed).

2696 (ML: ProofGeneral.print_intros())

2698 * Pure: New flag trace_unify_fail causes unification to print

2699 diagnostic information (PG: in trace buffer) when it fails. This is

2700 useful for figuring out why single step proofs like rule, erule or

2701 assumption failed.

2703 * Pure: Locale specifications now produce predicate definitions

2704 according to the body of text (covering assumptions modulo local

2705 definitions); predicate "loc_axioms" covers newly introduced text,

2706 while "loc" is cumulative wrt. all included locale expressions; the

2707 latter view is presented only on export into the global theory

2708 context; potential INCOMPATIBILITY, use "(open)" option to fall back

2709 on the old view without predicates;

2711 * Pure: predefined locales "var" and "struct" are useful for sharing

2712 parameters (as in CASL, for example); just specify something like

2713 ``var x + var y + struct M'' as import;

2715 * Pure: improved thms_containing: proper indexing of facts instead of

2716 raw theorems; check validity of results wrt. current name space;

2717 include local facts of proof configuration (also covers active

2718 locales), cover fixed variables in index; may use "_" in term

2719 specification; an optional limit for the number of printed facts may

2720 be given (the default is 40);

2722 * Pure: disallow duplicate fact bindings within new-style theory files

2723 (batch-mode only);

2725 * Provers: improved induct method: assumptions introduced by case

2726 "foo" are split into "foo.hyps" (from the rule) and "foo.prems" (from

2727 the goal statement); "foo" still refers to all facts collectively;

2729 * Provers: the function blast.overloaded has been removed: all constants

2730 are regarded as potentially overloaded, which improves robustness in exchange

2731 for slight decrease in efficiency;

2733 * Provers/linorder: New generic prover for transitivity reasoning over

2734 linear orders. Note: this prover is not efficient!

2736 * Isar: preview of problems to finish 'show' now produce an error

2737 rather than just a warning (in interactive mode);

2740 *** HOL ***

2742 * arith(_tac)

2744 - Produces a counter example if it cannot prove a goal.

2745 Note that the counter example may be spurious if the goal is not a formula

2746 of quantifier-free linear arithmetic.

2747 In ProofGeneral the counter example appears in the trace buffer.

2749 - Knows about div k and mod k where k is a numeral of type nat or int.

2751 - Calls full Presburger arithmetic (by Amine Chaieb) if quantifier-free

2752 linear arithmetic fails. This takes account of quantifiers and divisibility.

2753 Presburger arithmetic can also be called explicitly via presburger(_tac).

2755 * simp's arithmetic capabilities have been enhanced a bit: it now

2756 takes ~= in premises into account (by performing a case split);

2758 * simp reduces "m*(n div m) + n mod m" to n, even if the two summands

2759 are distributed over a sum of terms;

2761 * New tactic "trans_tac" and method "trans" instantiate

2762 Provers/linorder.ML for axclasses "order" and "linorder" (predicates

2763 "<=", "<" and "=").

2765 * function INCOMPATIBILITIES: Pi-sets have been redefined and moved from main

2766 HOL to Library/FuncSet; constant "Fun.op o" is now called "Fun.comp";

2768 * 'typedef' command has new option "open" to suppress the set

2769 definition;

2771 * functions Min and Max on finite sets have been introduced (theory

2772 Finite_Set);

2774 * attribute [symmetric] now works for relations as well; it turns

2775 (x,y) : R^-1 into (y,x) : R, and vice versa;

2777 * induct over a !!-quantified statement (say !!x1..xn):

2778 each "case" automatically performs "fix x1 .. xn" with exactly those names.

2780 * Map: `empty' is no longer a constant but a syntactic abbreviation for

2781 %x. None. Warning: empty_def now refers to the previously hidden definition

2782 of the empty set.

2784 * Algebra: formalization of classical algebra. Intended as base for

2785 any algebraic development in Isabelle. Currently covers group theory

2786 (up to Sylow's theorem) and ring theory (Universal Property of

2787 Univariate Polynomials). Contributions welcome;

2789 * GroupTheory: deleted, since its material has been moved to Algebra;

2791 * Complex: new directory of the complex numbers with numeric constants,

2792 nonstandard complex numbers, and some complex analysis, standard and

2793 nonstandard (Jacques Fleuriot);

2795 * HOL-Complex: new image for analysis, replacing HOL-Real and HOL-Hyperreal;

2797 * Hyperreal: introduced Gauge integration and hyperreal logarithms (Jacques

2798 Fleuriot);

2800 * Real/HahnBanach: updated and adapted to locales;

2802 * NumberTheory: added Gauss's law of quadratic reciprocity (by Avigad,

2803 Gray and Kramer);

2805 * UNITY: added the Meier-Sanders theory of progress sets;

2807 * MicroJava: bytecode verifier and lightweight bytecode verifier

2808 as abstract algorithms, instantiated to the JVM;

2810 * Bali: Java source language formalization. Type system, operational

2811 semantics, axiomatic semantics. Supported language features:

2812 classes, interfaces, objects,virtual methods, static methods,

2813 static/instance fields, arrays, access modifiers, definite

2814 assignment, exceptions.

2817 *** ZF ***

2819 * ZF/Constructible: consistency proof for AC (Gdel's constructible

2820 universe, etc.);

2822 * Main ZF: virtually all theories converted to new-style format;

2825 *** ML ***

2827 * Pure: Tactic.prove provides sane interface for internal proofs;

2828 omits the infamous "standard" operation, so this is more appropriate

2829 than prove_goalw_cterm in many situations (e.g. in simprocs);

2831 * Pure: improved error reporting of simprocs;

2833 * Provers: Simplifier.simproc(_i) provides sane interface for setting

2834 up simprocs;

2837 *** Document preparation ***

2839 * uses \par instead of \\ for line breaks in theory text. This may

2840 shift some page breaks in large documents. To get the old behaviour

2841 use \renewcommand{\isanewline}{\mbox{}\\\mbox{}} in root.tex.

2843 * minimized dependencies of isabelle.sty and isabellesym.sty on

2844 other packages

2846 * \<euro> now needs package babel/greek instead of marvosym (which

2847 broke \Rightarrow)

2849 * normal size for \<zero>...\<nine> (uses \mathbf instead of

2850 textcomp package)

2854 New in Isabelle2002 (March 2002)

2855 --------------------------------

2857 *** Document preparation ***

2859 * greatly simplified document preparation setup, including more

2860 graceful interpretation of isatool usedir -i/-d/-D options, and more

2861 instructive isatool mkdir; users should basically be able to get

2862 started with "isatool mkdir HOL Test && isatool make"; alternatively,

2863 users may run a separate document processing stage manually like this:

2864 "isatool usedir -D output HOL Test && isatool document Test/output";

2866 * theory dependency graph may now be incorporated into documents;

2867 isatool usedir -g true will produce session_graph.eps/.pdf for use

2868 with \includegraphics of LaTeX;

2870 * proper spacing of consecutive markup elements, especially text

2871 blocks after section headings;

2873 * support bold style (for single symbols only), input syntax is like

2874 this: "\<^bold>\<alpha>" or "\<^bold>A";

2876 * \<bullet> is now output as bold \cdot by default, which looks much

2877 better in printed text;

2879 * added default LaTeX bindings for \<tturnstile> and \<TTurnstile>;

2880 note that these symbols are currently unavailable in Proof General /

2881 X-Symbol; new symbols \<zero>, \<one>, ..., \<nine>, and \<euro>;

2883 * isatool latex no longer depends on changed TEXINPUTS, instead

2884 isatool document copies the Isabelle style files to the target

2885 location;

2888 *** Isar ***

2890 * Pure/Provers: improved proof by cases and induction;

2891 - 'case' command admits impromptu naming of parameters (such as

2892 "case (Suc n)");

2893 - 'induct' method divinates rule instantiation from the inductive

2894 claim; no longer requires excessive ?P bindings for proper

2895 instantiation of cases;

2896 - 'induct' method properly enumerates all possibilities of set/type

2897 rules; as a consequence facts may be also passed through *type*

2898 rules without further ado;

2899 - 'induct' method now derives symbolic cases from the *rulified*

2900 rule (before it used to rulify cases stemming from the internal

2901 atomized version); this means that the context of a non-atomic

2902 statement becomes is included in the hypothesis, avoiding the

2903 slightly cumbersome show "PROP ?case" form;

2904 - 'induct' may now use elim-style induction rules without chaining

2905 facts, using ``missing'' premises from the goal state; this allows

2906 rules stemming from inductive sets to be applied in unstructured

2907 scripts, while still benefitting from proper handling of non-atomic

2908 statements; NB: major inductive premises need to be put first, all

2909 the rest of the goal is passed through the induction;

2910 - 'induct' proper support for mutual induction involving non-atomic

2911 rule statements (uses the new concept of simultaneous goals, see

2912 below);

2913 - append all possible rule selections, but only use the first

2914 success (no backtracking);

2915 - removed obsolete "(simplified)" and "(stripped)" options of methods;

2916 - undeclared rule case names default to numbers 1, 2, 3, ...;

2917 - added 'print_induct_rules' (covered by help item in recent Proof

2918 General versions);

2919 - moved induct/cases attributes to Pure, methods to Provers;

2920 - generic method setup instantiated for FOL and HOL;

2922 * Pure: support multiple simultaneous goal statements, for example

2923 "have a: A and b: B" (same for 'theorem' etc.); being a pure

2924 meta-level mechanism, this acts as if several individual goals had

2925 been stated separately; in particular common proof methods need to be

2926 repeated in order to cover all claims; note that a single elimination

2927 step is *not* sufficient to establish the two conjunctions, so this

2928 fails:

2930 assume "A & B" then have A and B .. (*".." fails*)

2932 better use "obtain" in situations as above; alternative refer to

2933 multi-step methods like 'auto', 'simp_all', 'blast+' etc.;

2935 * Pure: proper integration with ``locales''; unlike the original

2936 version by Florian Kammller, Isar locales package high-level proof

2937 contexts rather than raw logical ones (e.g. we admit to include

2938 attributes everywhere); operations on locales include merge and

2939 rename; support for implicit arguments (``structures''); simultaneous

2940 type-inference over imports and text; see also HOL/ex/Locales.thy for

2941 some examples;

2943 * Pure: the following commands have been ``localized'', supporting a

2944 target locale specification "(in name)": 'lemma', 'theorem',

2945 'corollary', 'lemmas', 'theorems', 'declare'; the results will be

2946 stored both within the locale and at the theory level (exported and

2947 qualified by the locale name);

2949 * Pure: theory goals may now be specified in ``long'' form, with

2950 ad-hoc contexts consisting of arbitrary locale elements. for example

2951 ``lemma foo: fixes x assumes "A x" shows "B x"'' (local syntax and

2952 definitions may be given, too); the result is a meta-level rule with

2953 the context elements being discharged in the obvious way;

2955 * Pure: new proof command 'using' allows to augment currently used

2956 facts after a goal statement ('using' is syntactically analogous to

2957 'apply', but acts on the goal's facts only); this allows chained facts

2958 to be separated into parts given before and after a claim, as in

2959 ``from a and b have C using d and e <proof>'';

2961 * Pure: renamed "antecedent" case to "rule_context";

2963 * Pure: new 'judgment' command records explicit information about the

2964 object-logic embedding (used by several tools internally); no longer

2965 use hard-wired "Trueprop";

2967 * Pure: added 'corollary' command;

2969 * Pure: fixed 'token_translation' command;

2971 * Pure: removed obsolete 'exported' attribute;

2973 * Pure: dummy pattern "_" in is/let is now automatically lifted over

2974 bound variables: "ALL x. P x --> Q x" (is "ALL x. _ --> ?C x")

2975 supersedes more cumbersome ... (is "ALL x. _ x --> ?C x");

2977 * Pure: method 'atomize' presents local goal premises as object-level

2978 statements (atomic meta-level propositions); setup controlled via

2979 rewrite rules declarations of 'atomize' attribute; example

2980 application: 'induct' method with proper rule statements in improper

2981 proof *scripts*;

2983 * Pure: emulation of instantiation tactics (rule_tac, cut_tac, etc.)

2984 now consider the syntactic context of assumptions, giving a better

2985 chance to get type-inference of the arguments right (this is

2986 especially important for locales);

2988 * Pure: "sorry" no longer requires quick_and_dirty in interactive

2989 mode;

2991 * Pure/obtain: the formal conclusion "thesis", being marked as

2992 ``internal'', may no longer be reference directly in the text;

2993 potential INCOMPATIBILITY, may need to use "?thesis" in rare

2994 situations;

2996 * Pure: generic 'sym' attribute which declares a rule both as pure

2997 'elim?' and for the 'symmetric' operation;

2999 * Pure: marginal comments ``--'' may now occur just anywhere in the

3000 text; the fixed correlation with particular command syntax has been

3001 discontinued;

3003 * Pure: new method 'rules' is particularly well-suited for proof

3004 search in intuitionistic logic; a bit slower than 'blast' or 'fast',

3005 but often produces more compact proof terms with less detours;

3007 * Pure/Provers/classical: simplified integration with pure rule

3008 attributes and methods; the classical "intro?/elim?/dest?"

3009 declarations coincide with the pure ones; the "rule" method no longer

3010 includes classically swapped intros; "intro" and "elim" methods no

3011 longer pick rules from the context; also got rid of ML declarations

3012 AddXIs/AddXEs/AddXDs; all of this has some potential for

3013 INCOMPATIBILITY;

3015 * Provers/classical: attribute 'swapped' produces classical inversions

3016 of introduction rules;

3018 * Provers/simplifier: 'simplified' attribute may refer to explicit

3019 rules instead of full simplifier context; 'iff' attribute handles

3020 conditional rules;

3022 * HOL: 'typedef' now allows alternative names for Rep/Abs morphisms;

3024 * HOL: 'recdef' now fails on unfinished automated proofs, use

3025 "(permissive)" option to recover old behavior;

3027 * HOL: 'inductive' no longer features separate (collective) attributes

3028 for 'intros' (was found too confusing);

3030 * HOL: properly declared induction rules less_induct and

3031 wf_induct_rule;

3034 *** HOL ***

3036 * HOL: moved over to sane numeral syntax; the new policy is as

3037 follows:

3039 - 0 and 1 are polymorphic constants, which are defined on any

3040 numeric type (nat, int, real etc.);

3042 - 2, 3, 4, ... and -1, -2, -3, ... are polymorphic numerals, based

3043 binary representation internally;

3045 - type nat has special constructor Suc, and generally prefers Suc 0

3046 over 1::nat and Suc (Suc 0) over 2::nat;

3048 This change may cause significant problems of INCOMPATIBILITY; here

3049 are some hints on converting existing sources:

3051 - due to the new "num" token, "-0" and "-1" etc. are now atomic

3052 entities, so expressions involving "-" (unary or binary minus) need

3053 to be spaced properly;

3055 - existing occurrences of "1" may need to be constraint "1::nat" or

3056 even replaced by Suc 0; similar for old "2";

3058 - replace "#nnn" by "nnn", and "#-nnn" by "-nnn";

3060 - remove all special provisions on numerals in proofs;

3062 * HOL: simp rules nat_number expand numerals on nat to Suc/0

3063 representation (depends on bin_arith_simps in the default context);

3065 * HOL: symbolic syntax for x^2 (numeral 2);

3067 * HOL: the class of all HOL types is now called "type" rather than

3068 "term"; INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt references to this type class

3069 in axclass/classes, instance/arities, and (usually rare) occurrences

3070 in typings (of consts etc.); internally the class is called

3071 "HOL.type", ML programs should refer to HOLogic.typeS;

3073 * HOL/record package improvements:

3074 - new derived operations "fields" to build a partial record section,

3075 "extend" to promote a fixed record to a record scheme, and

3076 "truncate" for the reverse; cf. theorems "xxx.defs", which are *not*

3077 declared as simp by default;

3078 - shared operations ("more", "fields", etc.) now need to be always

3079 qualified) --- potential INCOMPATIBILITY;

3080 - removed "make_scheme" operations (use "make" with "extend") --

3081 INCOMPATIBILITY;

3082 - removed "more" class (simply use "term") -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

3083 - provides cases/induct rules for use with corresponding Isar

3084 methods (for concrete records, record schemes, concrete more

3085 parts, and schematic more parts -- in that order);

3086 - internal definitions directly based on a light-weight abstract

3087 theory of product types over typedef rather than datatype;

3089 * HOL: generic code generator for generating executable ML code from

3090 specifications; specific support for HOL constructs such as inductive

3091 datatypes and sets, as well as recursive functions; can be invoked

3092 via 'generate_code' theory section;

3094 * HOL: canonical cases/induct rules for n-tuples (n = 3..7);

3096 * HOL: consolidated and renamed several theories. In particular:

3097 Ord.thy has been absorbed into HOL.thy

3098 String.thy has been absorbed into List.thy

3100 * HOL: concrete setsum syntax "\<Sum>i:A. b" == "setsum (%i. b) A"

3101 (beware of argument permutation!);

3103 * HOL: linorder_less_split superseded by linorder_cases;

3105 * HOL/List: "nodups" renamed to "distinct";

3107 * HOL: added "The" definite description operator; move Hilbert's "Eps"

3108 to peripheral theory "Hilbert_Choice"; some INCOMPATIBILITIES:

3109 - Ex_def has changed, now need to use some_eq_ex

3111 * HOL: made split_all_tac safe; EXISTING PROOFS MAY FAIL OR LOOP, so

3112 in this (rare) case use:

3114 delSWrapper "split_all_tac"

3115 addSbefore ("unsafe_split_all_tac", unsafe_split_all_tac)

3117 * HOL: added safe wrapper "split_conv_tac" to claset; EXISTING PROOFS

3118 MAY FAIL;

3120 * HOL: introduced f^n = f o ... o f; warning: due to the limits of

3121 Isabelle's type classes, ^ on functions and relations has too general

3122 a domain, namely ('a * 'b) set and 'a => 'b; this means that it may be

3123 necessary to attach explicit type constraints;

3125 * HOL/Relation: the prefix name of the infix "O" has been changed from

3126 "comp" to "rel_comp"; INCOMPATIBILITY: a few theorems have been

3127 renamed accordingly (eg "compI" -> "rel_compI").

3129 * HOL: syntax translations now work properly with numerals and records

3130 expressions;

3132 * HOL: bounded abstraction now uses syntax "%" / "\<lambda>" instead

3133 of "lam" -- INCOMPATIBILITY;

3135 * HOL: got rid of some global declarations (potential INCOMPATIBILITY

3136 for ML tools): const "()" renamed "Product_Type.Unity", type "unit"

3137 renamed "Product_Type.unit";

3139 * HOL: renamed rtrancl_into_rtrancl2 to converse_rtrancl_into_rtrancl

3141 * HOL: removed obsolete theorem "optionE" (use "option.exhaust", or

3142 the "cases" method);

3144 * HOL/GroupTheory: group theory examples including Sylow's theorem (by

3145 Florian Kammller);

3147 * HOL/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory format; several

3148 parts turned into readable document, with proper Isar proof texts and

3149 some explanations (by Gerwin Klein);

3151 * HOL-Real: added Complex_Numbers (by Gertrud Bauer);

3153 * HOL-Hyperreal is now a logic image;

3156 *** HOLCF ***

3158 * Isar: consts/constdefs supports mixfix syntax for continuous

3159 operations;

3161 * Isar: domain package adapted to new-style theory format, e.g. see

3162 HOLCF/ex/Dnat.thy;

3164 * theory Lift: proper use of rep_datatype lift instead of ML hacks --

3165 potential INCOMPATIBILITY; now use plain induct_tac instead of former

3166 lift.induct_tac, always use UU instead of Undef;

3168 * HOLCF/IMP: updated and converted to new-style theory;

3171 *** ZF ***

3173 * Isar: proper integration of logic-specific tools and packages,

3174 including theory commands '(co)inductive', '(co)datatype',

3175 'rep_datatype', 'inductive_cases', as well as methods 'ind_cases',

3176 'induct_tac', 'case_tac', and 'typecheck' (with attribute 'TC');

3178 * theory Main no longer includes AC; for the Axiom of Choice, base

3179 your theory on Main_ZFC;

3181 * the integer library now covers quotients and remainders, with many

3182 laws relating division to addition, multiplication, etc.;

3184 * ZF/UNITY: Chandy and Misra's UNITY is now available in ZF, giving a

3185 typeless version of the formalism;

3187 * ZF/AC, Coind, IMP, Resid: updated and converted to new-style theory

3188 format;

3190 * ZF/Induct: new directory for examples of inductive definitions,

3191 including theory Multiset for multiset orderings; converted to

3192 new-style theory format;

3194 * ZF: many new theorems about lists, ordinals, etc.;

3197 *** General ***

3199 * Pure/kernel: meta-level proof terms (by Stefan Berghofer); reference

3200 variable proof controls level of detail: 0 = no proofs (only oracle

3201 dependencies), 1 = lemma dependencies, 2 = compact proof terms; see

3202 also ref manual for further ML interfaces;

3204 * Pure/axclass: removed obsolete ML interface

3205 goal_subclass/goal_arity;

3207 * Pure/syntax: new token syntax "num" for plain numerals (without "#"

3208 of "xnum"); potential INCOMPATIBILITY, since -0, -1 etc. are now

3209 separate tokens, so expressions involving minus need to be spaced

3210 properly;

3212 * Pure/syntax: support non-oriented infixes, using keyword "infix"

3213 rather than "infixl" or "infixr";

3215 * Pure/syntax: concrete syntax for dummy type variables admits genuine

3216 sort constraint specifications in type inference; e.g. "x::_::foo"

3217 ensures that the type of "x" is of sort "foo" (but not necessarily a

3218 type variable);

3220 * Pure/syntax: print modes "type_brackets" and "no_type_brackets"

3221 control output of nested => (types); the default behavior is

3222 "type_brackets";

3224 * Pure/syntax: builtin parse translation for "_constify" turns valued

3225 tokens into AST constants;

3227 * Pure/syntax: prefer later declarations of translations and print

3228 translation functions; potential INCOMPATIBILITY: need to reverse

3229 multiple declarations for same syntax element constant;

3231 * Pure/show_hyps reset by default (in accordance to existing Isar

3232 practice);

3234 * Provers/classical: renamed addaltern to addafter, addSaltern to

3235 addSafter;

3237 * Provers/clasimp: ``iff'' declarations now handle conditional rules

3238 as well;

3240 * system: tested support for MacOS X; should be able to get Isabelle +

3241 Proof General to work in a plain Terminal after installing Poly/ML

3242 (e.g. from the Isabelle distribution area) and GNU bash alone

3243 (e.g. from http://www.apple.com); full X11, XEmacs and X-Symbol

3244 support requires further installations, e.g. from

3245 http://fink.sourceforge.net/);

3247 * system: support Poly/ML 4.1.1 (able to manage larger heaps);

3249 * system: reduced base memory usage by Poly/ML (approx. 20 MB instead

3250 of 40 MB), cf. ML_OPTIONS;

3252 * system: Proof General keywords specification is now part of the

3253 Isabelle distribution (see etc/isar-keywords.el);

3255 * system: support for persistent Proof General sessions (refrain from

3256 outdating all loaded theories on startup); user may create writable

3257 logic images like this: ``isabelle -q HOL Test'';

3259 * system: smart selection of Isabelle process versus Isabelle

3260 interface, accommodates case-insensitive file systems (e.g. HFS+); may

3261 run both "isabelle" and "Isabelle" even if file names are badly

3262 damaged (executable inspects the case of the first letter of its own

3263 name); added separate "isabelle-process" and "isabelle-interface";

3265 * system: refrain from any attempt at filtering input streams; no

3266 longer support ``8bit'' encoding of old isabelle font, instead proper

3267 iso-latin characters may now be used; the related isatools

3268 "symbolinput" and "nonascii" have disappeared as well;

3270 * system: removed old "xterm" interface (the print modes "xterm" and

3271 "xterm_color" are still available for direct use in a suitable

3272 terminal);

3276 New in Isabelle99-2 (February 2001)

3277 -----------------------------------

3279 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES ***

3281 * HOL: please note that theories in the Library and elsewhere often use the

3282 new-style (Isar) format; to refer to their theorems in an ML script you must

3283 bind them to ML identifers by e.g. val thm_name = thm "thm_name";

3285 * HOL: inductive package no longer splits induction rule aggressively,

3286 but only as far as specified by the introductions given; the old

3287 format may be recovered via ML function complete_split_rule or attribute

3288 'split_rule (complete)';

3290 * HOL: induct renamed to lfp_induct, lfp_Tarski to lfp_unfold,

3291 gfp_Tarski to gfp_unfold;

3293 * HOL: contrapos, contrapos2 renamed to contrapos_nn, contrapos_pp;

3295 * HOL: infix "dvd" now has priority 50 rather than 70 (because it is a

3296 relation); infix "^^" has been renamed "``"; infix "``" has been

3297 renamed "`"; "univalent" has been renamed "single_valued";

3299 * HOL/Real: "rinv" and "hrinv" replaced by overloaded "inverse"

3300 operation;

3302 * HOLCF: infix "`" has been renamed "$"; the symbol syntax is \<cdot>;

3304 * Isar: 'obtain' no longer declares "that" fact as simp/intro;

3306 * Isar/HOL: method 'induct' now handles non-atomic goals; as a

3307 consequence, it is no longer monotonic wrt. the local goal context

3308 (which is now passed through the inductive cases);

3310 * Document preparation: renamed standard symbols \<ll> to \<lless> and

3311 \<gg> to \<ggreater>;

3314 *** Document preparation ***

3316 * \isabellestyle{NAME} selects version of Isabelle output (currently

3317 available: are "it" for near math-mode best-style output, "sl" for

3318 slanted text style, and "tt" for plain type-writer; if no

3319 \isabellestyle command is given, output is according to slanted

3320 type-writer);

3322 * support sub/super scripts (for single symbols only), input syntax is

3323 like this: "A\<^sup>*" or "A\<^sup>\<star>";

3325 * some more standard symbols; see Appendix A of the system manual for

3326 the complete list of symbols defined in isabellesym.sty;

3328 * improved isabelle style files; more abstract symbol implementation

3329 (should now use \isamath{...} and \isatext{...} in custom symbol

3330 definitions);

3332 * antiquotation @{goals} and @{subgoals} for output of *dynamic* goals

3333 state; Note that presentation of goal states does not conform to

3334 actual human-readable proof documents. Please do not include goal

3335 states into document output unless you really know what you are doing!

3337 * proper indentation of antiquoted output with proportional LaTeX

3338 fonts;

3340 * no_document ML operator temporarily disables LaTeX document

3341 generation;

3343 * isatool unsymbolize tunes sources for plain ASCII communication;

3346 *** Isar ***

3348 * Pure: Isar now suffers initial goal statements to contain unbound

3349 schematic variables (this does not conform to actual readable proof

3350 documents, due to unpredictable outcome and non-compositional proof

3351 checking); users who know what they are doing may use schematic goals

3352 for Prolog-style synthesis of proven results;

3354 * Pure: assumption method (an implicit finishing) now handles actual

3355 rules as well;

3357 * Pure: improved 'obtain' --- moved to Pure, insert "that" into

3358 initial goal, declare "that" only as Pure intro (only for single

3359 steps); the "that" rule assumption may now be involved in implicit

3360 finishing, thus ".." becomes a feasible for trivial obtains;

3362 * Pure: default proof step now includes 'intro_classes'; thus trivial

3363 instance proofs may be performed by "..";

3365 * Pure: ?thesis / ?this / "..." now work for pure meta-level

3366 statements as well;

3368 * Pure: more robust selection of calculational rules;

3370 * Pure: the builtin notion of 'finished' goal now includes the ==-refl

3371 rule (as well as the assumption rule);

3373 * Pure: 'thm_deps' command visualizes dependencies of theorems and

3374 lemmas, using the graph browser tool;

3376 * Pure: predict failure of "show" in interactive mode;

3378 * Pure: 'thms_containing' now takes actual terms as arguments;

3380 * HOL: improved method 'induct' --- now handles non-atomic goals

3381 (potential INCOMPATIBILITY); tuned error handling;

3383 * HOL: cases and induct rules now provide explicit hints about the

3384 number of facts to be consumed (0 for "type" and 1 for "set" rules);

3385 any remaining facts are inserted into the goal verbatim;

3387 * HOL: local contexts (aka cases) may now contain term bindings as

3388 well; the 'cases' and 'induct' methods new provide a ?case binding for

3389 the result to be shown in each case;

3391 * HOL: added 'recdef_tc' command;

3393 * isatool convert assists in eliminating legacy ML scripts;

3396 *** HOL ***

3398 * HOL/Library: a collection of generic theories to be used together

3399 with main HOL; the theory loader path already includes this directory

3400 by default; the following existing theories have been moved here:

3401 HOL/Induct/Multiset, HOL/Induct/Acc (as Accessible_Part), HOL/While

3402 (as While_Combinator), HOL/Lex/Prefix (as List_Prefix);

3404 * HOL/Unix: "Some aspects of Unix file-system security", a typical

3405 modelling and verification task performed in Isabelle/HOL +

3406 Isabelle/Isar + Isabelle document preparation (by Markus Wenzel).

3408 * HOL/Algebra: special summation operator SUM no longer exists, it has

3409 been replaced by setsum; infix 'assoc' now has priority 50 (like

3410 'dvd'); axiom 'one_not_zero' has been moved from axclass 'ring' to

3411 'domain', this makes the theory consistent with mathematical

3412 literature;

3414 * HOL basics: added overloaded operations "inverse" and "divide"

3415 (infix "/"), syntax for generic "abs" operation, generic summation

3416 operator \<Sum>;

3418 * HOL/typedef: simplified package, provide more useful rules (see also

3419 HOL/subset.thy);

3421 * HOL/datatype: induction rule for arbitrarily branching datatypes is

3422 now expressed as a proper nested rule (old-style tactic scripts may

3423 require atomize_strip_tac to cope with non-atomic premises);

3425 * HOL: renamed theory "Prod" to "Product_Type", renamed "split" rule

3426 to "split_conv" (old name still available for compatibility);

3428 * HOL: improved concrete syntax for strings (e.g. allows translation

3429 rules with string literals);

3431 * HOL-Real-Hyperreal: this extends HOL-Real with the hyperreals

3432 and Fleuriot's mechanization of analysis, including the transcendental

3433 functions for the reals;

3435 * HOL/Real, HOL/Hyperreal: improved arithmetic simplification;

3438 *** CTT ***

3440 * CTT: x-symbol support for Pi, Sigma, -->, : (membership); note that

3441 "lam" is displayed as TWO lambda-symbols

3443 * CTT: theory Main now available, containing everything (that is, Bool

3444 and Arith);

3447 *** General ***

3449 * Pure: the Simplifier has been implemented properly as a derived rule

3450 outside of the actual kernel (at last!); the overall performance

3451 penalty in practical applications is about 50%, while reliability of

3452 the Isabelle inference kernel has been greatly improved;

3454 * print modes "brackets" and "no_brackets" control output of nested =>

3455 (types) and ==> (props); the default behaviour is "brackets";

3457 * Provers: fast_tac (and friends) now handle actual object-logic rules

3458 as assumptions as well;

3460 * system: support Poly/ML 4.0;

3462 * system: isatool install handles KDE version 1 or 2;

3466 New in Isabelle99-1 (October 2000)

3467 ----------------------------------

3469 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES ***

3471 * HOL: simplification of natural numbers is much changed; to partly

3472 recover the old behaviour (e.g. to prevent n+n rewriting to #2*n)

3473 issue the following ML commands:

3475 Delsimprocs Nat_Numeral_Simprocs.cancel_numerals;

3476 Delsimprocs [Nat_Numeral_Simprocs.combine_numerals];

3478 * HOL: simplification no longer dives into case-expressions; this is

3479 controlled by "t.weak_case_cong" for each datatype t;

3481 * HOL: nat_less_induct renamed to less_induct;

3483 * HOL: systematic renaming of the SOME (Eps) rules, may use isatool

3484 fixsome to patch .thy and .ML sources automatically;

3486 select_equality -> some_equality

3487 select_eq_Ex -> some_eq_ex

3488 selectI2EX -> someI2_ex

3489 selectI2 -> someI2

3490 selectI -> someI

3491 select1_equality -> some1_equality

3492 Eps_sym_eq -> some_sym_eq_trivial

3493 Eps_eq -> some_eq_trivial

3495 * HOL: exhaust_tac on datatypes superceded by new generic case_tac;

3497 * HOL: removed obsolete theorem binding expand_if (refer to split_if

3498 instead);

3500 * HOL: the recursion equations generated by 'recdef' are now called

3501 f.simps instead of f.rules;

3503 * HOL: qed_spec_mp now also handles bounded ALL as well;

3505 * HOL: 0 is now overloaded, so the type constraint ":: nat" may

3506 sometimes be needed;

3508 * HOL: the constant for "f``x" is now "image" rather than "op ``";

3510 * HOL: the constant for "f-``x" is now "vimage" rather than "op -``";

3512 * HOL: the disjoint sum is now "<+>" instead of "Plus"; the cartesian

3513 product is now "<*>" instead of "Times"; the lexicographic product is

3514 now "<*lex*>" instead of "**";

3516 * HOL: theory Sexp is now in HOL/Induct examples (it used to be part

3517 of main HOL, but was unused); better use HOL's datatype package;

3519 * HOL: removed "symbols" syntax for constant "override" of theory Map;

3520 the old syntax may be recovered as follows:

3522 syntax (symbols)

3523 override :: "('a ~=> 'b) => ('a ~=> 'b) => ('a ~=> 'b)"

3524 (infixl "\\<oplus>" 100)

3526 * HOL/Real: "rabs" replaced by overloaded "abs" function;

3528 * HOL/ML: even fewer consts are declared as global (see theories Ord,

3529 Lfp, Gfp, WF); this only affects ML packages that refer to const names

3530 internally;

3532 * HOL and ZF: syntax for quotienting wrt an equivalence relation

3533 changed from A/r to A//r;

3535 * ZF: new treatment of arithmetic (nat & int) may break some old

3536 proofs;

3538 * Isar: renamed some attributes (RS -> THEN, simplify -> simplified,

3539 rulify -> rule_format, elimify -> elim_format, ...);

3541 * Isar/Provers: intro/elim/dest attributes changed; renamed

3542 intro/intro!/intro!! flags to intro!/intro/intro? (in most cases, one

3543 should have to change intro!! to intro? only); replaced "delrule" by

3544 "rule del";

3546 * Isar/HOL: renamed "intrs" to "intros" in inductive definitions;

3548 * Provers: strengthened force_tac by using new first_best_tac;

3550 * LaTeX document preparation: several changes of isabelle.sty (see

3551 lib/texinputs);

3554 *** Document preparation ***

3556 * formal comments (text blocks etc.) in new-style theories may now

3557 contain antiquotations of thm/prop/term/typ/text to be presented

3558 according to latex print mode; concrete syntax is like this:

3559 @{term[show_types] "f(x) = a + x"};

3561 * isatool mkdir provides easy setup of Isabelle session directories,

3562 including proper document sources;

3564 * generated LaTeX sources are now deleted after successful run

3565 (isatool document -c); may retain a copy somewhere else via -D option

3566 of isatool usedir;

3568 * isatool usedir -D now lets isatool latex -o sty update the Isabelle

3569 style files, achieving self-contained LaTeX sources and simplifying

3570 LaTeX debugging;

3572 * old-style theories now produce (crude) LaTeX output as well;

3574 * browser info session directories are now self-contained (may be put

3575 on WWW server seperately); improved graphs of nested sessions; removed

3576 graph for 'all sessions';

3578 * several improvements in isabelle style files; \isabellestyle{it}

3579 produces fake math mode output; \isamarkupheader is now \section by

3580 default; see lib/texinputs/isabelle.sty etc.;

3583 *** Isar ***

3585 * Isar/Pure: local results and corresponding term bindings are now

3586 subject to Hindley-Milner polymorphism (similar to ML); this

3587 accommodates incremental type-inference very nicely;

3589 * Isar/Pure: new derived language element 'obtain' supports

3590 generalized existence reasoning;

3592 * Isar/Pure: new calculational elements 'moreover' and 'ultimately'

3593 support accumulation of results, without applying any rules yet;

3594 useful to collect intermediate results without explicit name

3595 references, and for use with transitivity rules with more than 2

3596 premises;

3598 * Isar/Pure: scalable support for case-analysis type proofs: new

3599 'case' language element refers to local contexts symbolically, as

3600 produced by certain proof methods; internally, case names are attached

3601 to theorems as "tags";

3603 * Isar/Pure: theory command 'hide' removes declarations from

3604 class/type/const name spaces;

3606 * Isar/Pure: theory command 'defs' supports option "(overloaded)" to

3607 indicate potential overloading;

3609 * Isar/Pure: changed syntax of local blocks from {{ }} to { };

3611 * Isar/Pure: syntax of sorts made 'inner', i.e. have to write

3612 "{a,b,c}" instead of {a,b,c};

3614 * Isar/Pure now provides its own version of intro/elim/dest

3615 attributes; useful for building new logics, but beware of confusion

3616 with the version in Provers/classical;

3618 * Isar/Pure: the local context of (non-atomic) goals is provided via

3619 case name 'antecedent';

3621 * Isar/Pure: removed obsolete 'transfer' attribute (transfer of thms

3622 to the current context is now done automatically);

3624 * Isar/Pure: theory command 'method_setup' provides a simple interface

3625 for definining proof methods in ML;

3627 * Isar/Provers: intro/elim/dest attributes changed; renamed

3628 intro/intro!/intro!! flags to intro!/intro/intro? (INCOMPATIBILITY, in

3629 most cases, one should have to change intro!! to intro? only);

3630 replaced "delrule" by "rule del";

3632 * Isar/Provers: new 'hypsubst' method, plain 'subst' method and

3633 'symmetric' attribute (the latter supercedes [RS sym]);

3635 * Isar/Provers: splitter support (via 'split' attribute and 'simp'

3636 method modifier); 'simp' method: 'only:' modifier removes loopers as

3637 well (including splits);

3639 * Isar/Provers: Simplifier and Classical methods now support all kind

3640 of modifiers used in the past, including 'cong', 'iff', etc.

3642 * Isar/Provers: added 'fastsimp' and 'clarsimp' methods (combination

3643 of Simplifier and Classical reasoner);

3645 * Isar/HOL: new proof method 'cases' and improved version of 'induct'

3646 now support named cases; major packages (inductive, datatype, primrec,

3647 recdef) support case names and properly name parameters;

3649 * Isar/HOL: new transitivity rules for substitution in inequalities --

3650 monotonicity conditions are extracted to be proven at end of

3651 calculations;

3653 * Isar/HOL: removed 'case_split' thm binding, should use 'cases' proof

3654 method anyway;

3656 * Isar/HOL: removed old expand_if = split_if; theorems if_splits =

3657 split_if split_if_asm; datatype package provides theorems foo.splits =

3658 foo.split foo.split_asm for each datatype;

3660 * Isar/HOL: tuned inductive package, rename "intrs" to "intros"

3661 (potential INCOMPATIBILITY), emulation of mk_cases feature for proof

3662 scripts: new 'inductive_cases' command and 'ind_cases' method; (Note:

3663 use "(cases (simplified))" method in proper proof texts);

3665 * Isar/HOL: added global 'arith_split' attribute for 'arith' method;

3667 * Isar: names of theorems etc. may be natural numbers as well;

3669 * Isar: 'pr' command: optional arguments for goals_limit and

3670 ProofContext.prems_limit; no longer prints theory contexts, but only

3671 proof states;

3673 * Isar: diagnostic commands 'pr', 'thm', 'prop', 'term', 'typ' admit

3674 additional print modes to be specified; e.g. "pr(latex)" will print

3675 proof state according to the Isabelle LaTeX style;

3677 * Isar: improved support for emulating tactic scripts, including proof

3678 methods 'rule_tac' etc., 'cut_tac', 'thin_tac', 'subgoal_tac',

3679 'rename_tac', 'rotate_tac', 'tactic', and 'case_tac' / 'induct_tac'

3680 (for HOL datatypes);

3682 * Isar: simplified (more robust) goal selection of proof methods: 1st

3683 goal, all goals, or explicit goal specifier (tactic emulation); thus

3684 'proof method scripts' have to be in depth-first order;

3686 * Isar: tuned 'let' syntax: replaced 'as' keyword by 'and';

3688 * Isar: removed 'help' command, which hasn't been too helpful anyway;

3689 should instead use individual commands for printing items

3690 (print_commands, print_methods etc.);

3692 * Isar: added 'nothing' --- the empty list of theorems;

3695 *** HOL ***

3697 * HOL/MicroJava: formalization of a fragment of Java, together with a

3698 corresponding virtual machine and a specification of its bytecode

3699 verifier and a lightweight bytecode verifier, including proofs of

3700 type-safety; by Gerwin Klein, Tobias Nipkow, David von Oheimb, and

3701 Cornelia Pusch (see also the homepage of project Bali at

3702 http://isabelle.in.tum.de/Bali/);

3704 * HOL/Algebra: new theory of rings and univariate polynomials, by

3705 Clemens Ballarin;

3707 * HOL/NumberTheory: fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, Chinese

3708 Remainder Theorem, Fermat/Euler Theorem, Wilson's Theorem, by Thomas M

3709 Rasmussen;

3711 * HOL/Lattice: fundamental concepts of lattice theory and order

3712 structures, including duals, properties of bounds versus algebraic

3713 laws, lattice operations versus set-theoretic ones, the Knaster-Tarski

3714 Theorem for complete lattices etc.; may also serve as a demonstration

3715 for abstract algebraic reasoning using axiomatic type classes, and

3716 mathematics-style proof in Isabelle/Isar; by Markus Wenzel;

3718 * HOL/Prolog: a (bare-bones) implementation of Lambda-Prolog, by David

3719 von Oheimb;

3721 * HOL/IMPP: extension of IMP with local variables and mutually

3722 recursive procedures, by David von Oheimb;

3724 * HOL/Lambda: converted into new-style theory and document;

3726 * HOL/ex/Multiquote: example of multiple nested quotations and

3727 anti-quotations -- basically a generalized version of de-Bruijn

3728 representation; very useful in avoiding lifting of operations;

3730 * HOL/record: added general record equality rule to simpset; fixed

3731 select-update simplification procedure to handle extended records as

3732 well; admit "r" as field name;

3734 * HOL: 0 is now overloaded over the new sort "zero", allowing its use with

3735 other numeric types and also as the identity of groups, rings, etc.;

3737 * HOL: new axclass plus_ac0 for addition with the AC-laws and 0 as identity.

3738 Types nat and int belong to this axclass;

3740 * HOL: greatly improved simplification involving numerals of type nat, int, real:

3741 (i + #8 + j) = Suc k simplifies to #7 + (i + j) = k

3742 i*j + k + j*#3*i simplifies to #4*(i*j) + k

3743 two terms #m*u and #n*u are replaced by #(m+n)*u

3744 (where #m, #n and u can implicitly be 1; this is simproc combine_numerals)

3745 and the term/formula #m*u+x ~~ #n*u+y simplifies simplifies to #(m-n)+x ~~ y

3746 or x ~~ #(n-m)+y, where ~~ is one of = < <= or - (simproc cancel_numerals);

3748 * HOL: meson_tac is available (previously in ex/meson.ML); it is a

3749 powerful prover for predicate logic but knows nothing of clasets; see

3750 ex/mesontest.ML and ex/mesontest2.ML for example applications;

3752 * HOL: new version of "case_tac" subsumes both boolean case split and

3753 "exhaust_tac" on datatypes; INCOMPATIBILITY: exhaust_tac no longer

3754 exists, may define val exhaust_tac = case_tac for ad-hoc portability;

3756 * HOL: simplification no longer dives into case-expressions: only the

3757 selector expression is simplified, but not the remaining arms; to

3758 enable full simplification of case-expressions for datatype t, you may

3759 remove t.weak_case_cong from the simpset, either globally (Delcongs

3760 [thm"t.weak_case_cong"];) or locally (delcongs [...]).

3762 * HOL/recdef: the recursion equations generated by 'recdef' for

3763 function 'f' are now called f.simps instead of f.rules; if all

3764 termination conditions are proved automatically, these simplification

3765 rules are added to the simpset, as in primrec; rules may be named

3766 individually as well, resulting in a separate list of theorems for

3767 each equation;

3769 * HOL/While is a new theory that provides a while-combinator. It

3770 permits the definition of tail-recursive functions without the

3771 provision of a termination measure. The latter is necessary once the

3772 invariant proof rule for while is applied.

3774 * HOL: new (overloaded) notation for the set of elements below/above

3775 some element: {..u}, {..u(}, {l..}, {)l..}. See theory SetInterval.

3777 * HOL: theorems impI, allI, ballI bound as "strip";

3779 * HOL: new tactic induct_thm_tac: thm -> string -> int -> tactic

3780 induct_tac th "x1 ... xn" expects th to have a conclusion of the form

3781 P v1 ... vn and abbreviates res_inst_tac [("v1","x1"),...,("vn","xn")] th;

3783 * HOL/Real: "rabs" replaced by overloaded "abs" function;

3785 * HOL: theory Sexp now in HOL/Induct examples (it used to be part of

3786 main HOL, but was unused);

3788 * HOL: fewer consts declared as global (e.g. have to refer to

3789 "Lfp.lfp" instead of "lfp" internally; affects ML packages only);

3791 * HOL: tuned AST representation of nested pairs, avoiding bogus output

3792 in case of overlap with user translations (e.g. judgements over

3793 tuples); (note that the underlying logical represenation is still

3794 bogus);

3797 *** ZF ***

3799 * ZF: simplification automatically cancels common terms in arithmetic

3800 expressions over nat and int;

3802 * ZF: new treatment of nat to minimize type-checking: all operators

3803 coerce their operands to a natural number using the function natify,

3804 making the algebraic laws unconditional;

3806 * ZF: as above, for int: operators coerce their operands to an integer

3807 using the function intify;

3809 * ZF: the integer library now contains many of the usual laws for the

3810 orderings, including $<=, and monotonicity laws for $+ and $*;

3812 * ZF: new example ZF/ex/NatSum to demonstrate integer arithmetic

3813 simplification;

3815 * FOL and ZF: AddIffs now available, giving theorems of the form P<->Q

3816 to the simplifier and classical reasoner simultaneously;

3819 *** General ***

3821 * Provers: blast_tac now handles actual object-logic rules as

3822 assumptions; note that auto_tac uses blast_tac internally as well;

3824 * Provers: new functions rulify/rulify_no_asm: thm -> thm for turning

3825 outer -->/All/Ball into ==>/!!; qed_spec_mp now uses rulify_no_asm;

3827 * Provers: delrules now handles destruct rules as well (no longer need

3828 explicit make_elim);

3830 * Provers: Blast_tac now warns of and ignores "weak elimination rules" e.g.

3831 [| inj ?f; ?f ?x = ?f ?y; ?x = ?y ==> ?W |] ==> ?W

3832 use instead the strong form,

3833 [| inj ?f; ~ ?W ==> ?f ?x = ?f ?y; ?x = ?y ==> ?W |] ==> ?W

3834 in HOL, FOL and ZF the function cla_make_elim will create such rules

3835 from destruct-rules;

3837 * Provers: Simplifier.easy_setup provides a fast path to basic

3838 Simplifier setup for new object-logics;

3840 * Pure: AST translation rules no longer require constant head on LHS;

3842 * Pure: improved name spaces: ambiguous output is qualified; support

3843 for hiding of names;

3845 * system: smart setup of canonical ML_HOME, ISABELLE_INTERFACE, and

3846 XSYMBOL_HOME; no longer need to do manual configuration in most

3847 situations;

3849 * system: compression of ML heaps images may now be controlled via -c

3850 option of isabelle and isatool usedir (currently only observed by

3851 Poly/ML);

3853 * system: isatool installfonts may handle X-Symbol fonts as well (very

3854 useful for remote X11);

3856 * system: provide TAGS file for Isabelle sources;

3858 * ML: infix 'OF' is a version of 'MRS' with more appropriate argument

3859 order;

3861 * ML: renamed flags Syntax.trace_norm_ast to Syntax.trace_ast; global

3862 timing flag supersedes proof_timing and Toplevel.trace;

3864 * ML: new combinators |>> and |>>> for incremental transformations

3865 with secondary results (e.g. certain theory extensions):

3867 * ML: PureThy.add_defs gets additional argument to indicate potential

3868 overloading (usually false);

3870 * ML: PureThy.add_thms/add_axioms/add_defs now return theorems as

3871 results;

3875 New in Isabelle99 (October 1999)

3876 --------------------------------

3878 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES (see below for more details) ***

3880 * HOL: The THEN and ELSE parts of conditional expressions (if P then x else y)

3881 are no longer simplified. (This allows the simplifier to unfold recursive

3882 functional programs.) To restore the old behaviour, declare

3884 Delcongs [if_weak_cong];

3886 * HOL: Removed the obsolete syntax "Compl A"; use -A for set

3887 complement;

3889 * HOL: the predicate "inj" is now defined by translation to "inj_on";

3891 * HOL/datatype: mutual_induct_tac no longer exists --

3892 use induct_tac "x_1 ... x_n" instead of mutual_induct_tac ["x_1", ..., "x_n"]

3894 * HOL/typedef: fixed type inference for representing set; type

3895 arguments now have to occur explicitly on the rhs as type constraints;

3897 * ZF: The con_defs part of an inductive definition may no longer refer

3898 to constants declared in the same theory;

3900 * HOL, ZF: the function mk_cases, generated by the inductive

3901 definition package, has lost an argument. To simplify its result, it

3902 uses the default simpset instead of a supplied list of theorems.

3904 * HOL/List: the constructors of type list are now Nil and Cons;

3906 * Simplifier: the type of the infix ML functions

3907 setSSolver addSSolver setSolver addSolver

3908 is now simpset * solver -> simpset where `solver' is a new abstract type

3909 for packaging solvers. A solver is created via

3910 mk_solver: string -> (thm list -> int -> tactic) -> solver

3911 where the string argument is only a comment.

3914 *** Proof tools ***

3916 * Provers/Arith/fast_lin_arith.ML contains a functor for creating a

3917 decision procedure for linear arithmetic. Currently it is used for

3918 types `nat', `int', and `real' in HOL (see below); it can, should and

3919 will be instantiated for other types and logics as well.

3921 * The simplifier now accepts rewrite rules with flexible heads, eg

3922 hom ?f ==> ?f(?x+?y) = ?f ?x + ?f ?y

3923 They are applied like any rule with a non-pattern lhs, i.e. by first-order

3924 matching.

3927 *** General ***

3929 * New Isabelle/Isar subsystem provides an alternative to traditional

3930 tactical theorem proving; together with the ProofGeneral/isar user

3931 interface it offers an interactive environment for developing human

3932 readable proof documents (Isar == Intelligible semi-automated

3933 reasoning); for further information see isatool doc isar-ref,

3934 src/HOL/Isar_examples and http://isabelle.in.tum.de/Isar/

3936 * improved and simplified presentation of theories: better HTML markup

3937 (including colors), graph views in several sizes; isatool usedir now

3938 provides a proper interface for user theories (via -P option); actual

3939 document preparation based on (PDF)LaTeX is available as well (for

3940 new-style theories only); see isatool doc system for more information;

3942 * native support for Proof General, both for classic Isabelle and

3943 Isabelle/Isar;

3945 * ML function thm_deps visualizes dependencies of theorems and lemmas,

3946 using the graph browser tool;

3948 * Isabelle manuals now also available as PDF;

3950 * theory loader rewritten from scratch (may not be fully

3951 bug-compatible); old loadpath variable has been replaced by show_path,

3952 add_path, del_path, reset_path functions; new operations such as

3953 update_thy, touch_thy, remove_thy, use/update_thy_only (see also

3954 isatool doc ref);

3956 * improved isatool install: option -k creates KDE application icon,

3957 option -p DIR installs standalone binaries;

3959 * added ML_PLATFORM setting (useful for cross-platform installations);

3960 more robust handling of platform specific ML images for SML/NJ;

3962 * the settings environment is now statically scoped, i.e. it is never

3963 created again in sub-processes invoked from isabelle, isatool, or

3964 Isabelle;

3966 * path element specification '~~' refers to '$ISABELLE_HOME';

3968 * in locales, the "assumes" and "defines" parts may be omitted if

3969 empty;

3971 * new print_mode "xsymbols" for extended symbol support (e.g. genuine

3972 long arrows);

3974 * new print_mode "HTML";

3976 * new flag show_tags controls display of tags of theorems (which are

3977 basically just comments that may be attached by some tools);

3979 * Isamode 2.6 requires patch to accomodate change of Isabelle font

3980 mode and goal output format:

3982 diff -r Isamode-2.6/elisp/isa-load.el Isamode/elisp/isa-load.el

3983 244c244

3984 < (list (isa-getenv "ISABELLE") "-msymbols" logic-name)

3985 ---

3986 > (list (isa-getenv "ISABELLE") "-misabelle_font" "-msymbols" logic-name)

3987 diff -r Isabelle-2.6/elisp/isa-proofstate.el Isamode/elisp/isa-proofstate.el

3988 181c181

3989 < (defconst proofstate-proofstart-regexp "^Level [0-9]+$"

3990 ---

3991 > (defconst proofstate-proofstart-regexp "^Level [0-9]+"

3993 * function bind_thms stores lists of theorems (cf. bind_thm);

3995 * new shorthand tactics ftac, eatac, datac, fatac;

3997 * qed (and friends) now accept "" as result name; in that case the

3998 theorem is not stored, but proper checks and presentation of the

3999 result still apply;

4001 * theorem database now also indexes constants "Trueprop", "all",

4002 "==>", "=="; thus thms_containing, findI etc. may retrieve more rules;

4005 *** HOL ***

4007 ** HOL arithmetic **

4009 * There are now decision procedures for linear arithmetic over nat and

4010 int:

4012 1. arith_tac copes with arbitrary formulae involving `=', `<', `<=',

4013 `+', `-', `Suc', `min', `max' and numerical constants; other subterms

4014 are treated as atomic; subformulae not involving type `nat' or `int'

4015 are ignored; quantified subformulae are ignored unless they are

4016 positive universal or negative existential. The tactic has to be

4017 invoked by hand and can be a little bit slow. In particular, the

4018 running time is exponential in the number of occurrences of `min' and

4019 `max', and `-' on `nat'.

4021 2. fast_arith_tac is a cut-down version of arith_tac: it only takes

4022 (negated) (in)equalities among the premises and the conclusion into

4023 account (i.e. no compound formulae) and does not know about `min' and

4024 `max', and `-' on `nat'. It is fast and is used automatically by the

4025 simplifier.

4027 NB: At the moment, these decision procedures do not cope with mixed

4028 nat/int formulae where the two parts interact, such as `m < n ==>

4029 int(m) < int(n)'.

4031 * HOL/Numeral provides a generic theory of numerals (encoded

4032 efficiently as bit strings); setup for types nat/int/real is in place;

4033 INCOMPATIBILITY: since numeral syntax is now polymorphic, rather than

4034 int, existing theories and proof scripts may require a few additional

4035 type constraints;

4037 * integer division and remainder can now be performed on constant

4038 arguments;

4040 * many properties of integer multiplication, division and remainder

4041 are now available;

4043 * An interface to the Stanford Validity Checker (SVC) is available through the

4044 tactic svc_tac. Propositional tautologies and theorems of linear arithmetic

4045 are proved automatically. SVC must be installed separately, and its results

4046 must be TAKEN ON TRUST (Isabelle does not check the proofs, but tags any

4047 invocation of the underlying oracle). For SVC see

4048 http://verify.stanford.edu/SVC

4050 * IsaMakefile: the HOL-Real target now builds an actual image;

4053 ** HOL misc **

4055 * HOL/Real/HahnBanach: the Hahn-Banach theorem for real vector spaces

4056 (in Isabelle/Isar) -- by Gertrud Bauer;

4058 * HOL/BCV: generic model of bytecode verification, i.e. data-flow

4059 analysis for assembly languages with subtypes;

4061 * HOL/TLA (Lamport's Temporal Logic of Actions): major reorganization

4062 -- avoids syntactic ambiguities and treats state, transition, and

4063 temporal levels more uniformly; introduces INCOMPATIBILITIES due to

4064 changed syntax and (many) tactics;

4066 * HOL/inductive: Now also handles more general introduction rules such

4067 as "ALL y. (y, x) : r --> y : acc r ==> x : acc r"; monotonicity

4068 theorems are now maintained within the theory (maintained via the

4069 "mono" attribute);

4071 * HOL/datatype: Now also handles arbitrarily branching datatypes

4072 (using function types) such as

4074 datatype 'a tree = Atom 'a | Branch "nat => 'a tree"

4076 * HOL/record: record_simproc (part of the default simpset) takes care

4077 of selectors applied to updated records; record_split_tac is no longer

4078 part of the default claset; update_defs may now be removed from the

4079 simpset in many cases; COMPATIBILITY: old behavior achieved by

4081 claset_ref () := claset() addSWrapper record_split_wrapper;

4082 Delsimprocs [record_simproc]

4084 * HOL/typedef: fixed type inference for representing set; type

4085 arguments now have to occur explicitly on the rhs as type constraints;

4087 * HOL/recdef (TFL): 'congs' syntax now expects comma separated list of theorem

4088 names rather than an ML expression;

4090 * HOL/defer_recdef (TFL): like recdef but the well-founded relation can be

4091 supplied later. Program schemes can be defined, such as

4092 "While B C s = (if B s then While B C (C s) else s)"

4093 where the well-founded relation can be chosen after B and C have been given.

4095 * HOL/List: the constructors of type list are now Nil and Cons;

4096 INCOMPATIBILITY: while [] and infix # syntax is still there, of

4097 course, ML tools referring to List.list.op # etc. have to be adapted;

4099 * HOL_quantifiers flag superseded by "HOL" print mode, which is

4100 disabled by default; run isabelle with option -m HOL to get back to

4101 the original Gordon/HOL-style output;

4103 * HOL/Ord.thy: new bounded quantifier syntax (input only): ALL x<y. P,

4104 ALL x<=y. P, EX x<y. P, EX x<=y. P;

4106 * HOL basic syntax simplified (more orthogonal): all variants of

4107 All/Ex now support plain / symbolic / HOL notation; plain syntax for

4108 Eps operator is provided as well: "SOME x. P[x]";

4110 * HOL/Sum.thy: sum_case has been moved to HOL/Datatype;

4112 * HOL/Univ.thy: infix syntax <*>, <+>, <**>, <+> eliminated and made

4113 thus available for user theories;

4115 * HOLCF/IOA/Sequents: renamed 'Cons' to 'Consq' to avoid clash with

4116 HOL/List; hardly an INCOMPATIBILITY since '>>' syntax is used all the

4117 time;

4119 * HOL: new tactic smp_tac: int -> int -> tactic, which applies spec

4120 several times and then mp;

4123 *** LK ***

4125 * the notation <<...>> is now available as a notation for sequences of

4126 formulas;

4128 * the simplifier is now installed

4130 * the axiom system has been generalized (thanks to Soren Heilmann)

4132 * the classical reasoner now has a default rule database

4135 *** ZF ***

4137 * new primrec section allows primitive recursive functions to be given

4138 directly (as in HOL) over datatypes and the natural numbers;

4140 * new tactics induct_tac and exhaust_tac for induction (or case

4141 analysis) over datatypes and the natural numbers;

4143 * the datatype declaration of type T now defines the recursor T_rec;

4145 * simplification automatically does freeness reasoning for datatype

4146 constructors;

4148 * automatic type-inference, with AddTCs command to insert new

4149 type-checking rules;

4151 * datatype introduction rules are now added as Safe Introduction rules

4152 to the claset;

4154 * the syntax "if P then x else y" is now available in addition to

4155 if(P,x,y);

4158 *** Internal programming interfaces ***

4160 * tuned simplifier trace output; new flag debug_simp;

4162 * structures Vartab / Termtab (instances of TableFun) offer efficient

4163 tables indexed by indexname_ord / term_ord (compatible with aconv);

4165 * AxClass.axclass_tac lost the theory argument;

4167 * tuned current_goals_markers semantics: begin / end goal avoids

4168 printing empty lines;

4170 * removed prs and prs_fn hook, which was broken because it did not

4171 include \n in its semantics, forcing writeln to add one

4172 uncoditionally; replaced prs_fn by writeln_fn; consider std_output:

4173 string -> unit if you really want to output text without newline;

4175 * Symbol.output subject to print mode; INCOMPATIBILITY: defaults to

4176 plain output, interface builders may have to enable 'isabelle_font'

4177 mode to get Isabelle font glyphs as before;

4179 * refined token_translation interface; INCOMPATIBILITY: output length

4180 now of type real instead of int;

4182 * theory loader actions may be traced via new ThyInfo.add_hook

4183 interface (see src/Pure/Thy/thy_info.ML); example application: keep

4184 your own database of information attached to *whole* theories -- as

4185 opposed to intra-theory data slots offered via TheoryDataFun;

4187 * proper handling of dangling sort hypotheses (at last!);

4188 Thm.strip_shyps and Drule.strip_shyps_warning take care of removing

4189 extra sort hypotheses that can be witnessed from the type signature;

4190 the force_strip_shyps flag is gone, any remaining shyps are simply

4191 left in the theorem (with a warning issued by strip_shyps_warning);

4195 New in Isabelle98-1 (October 1998)

4196 ----------------------------------

4198 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES (see below for more details) ***

4200 * several changes of automated proof tools;

4202 * HOL: major changes to the inductive and datatype packages, including

4203 some minor incompatibilities of theory syntax;

4205 * HOL: renamed r^-1 to 'converse' from 'inverse'; 'inj_onto' is now

4206 called `inj_on';

4208 * HOL: removed duplicate thms in Arith:

4209 less_imp_add_less should be replaced by trans_less_add1

4210 le_imp_add_le should be replaced by trans_le_add1

4212 * HOL: unary minus is now overloaded (new type constraints may be

4213 required);

4215 * HOL and ZF: unary minus for integers is now #- instead of #~. In

4216 ZF, expressions such as n#-1 must be changed to n#- 1, since #-1 is

4217 now taken as an integer constant.

4219 * Pure: ML function 'theory_of' renamed to 'theory';

4222 *** Proof tools ***

4224 * Simplifier:

4225 1. Asm_full_simp_tac is now more aggressive.

4226 1. It will sometimes reorient premises if that increases their power to

4227 simplify.

4228 2. It does no longer proceed strictly from left to right but may also

4229 rotate premises to achieve further simplification.

4230 For compatibility reasons there is now Asm_lr_simp_tac which is like the

4231 old Asm_full_simp_tac in that it does not rotate premises.

4232 2. The simplifier now knows a little bit about nat-arithmetic.

4234 * Classical reasoner: wrapper mechanism for the classical reasoner now

4235 allows for selected deletion of wrappers, by introduction of names for

4236 wrapper functionals. This implies that addbefore, addSbefore,

4237 addaltern, and addSaltern now take a pair (name, tactic) as argument,

4238 and that adding two tactics with the same name overwrites the first

4239 one (emitting a warning).

4240 type wrapper = (int -> tactic) -> (int -> tactic)

4241 setWrapper, setSWrapper, compWrapper and compSWrapper are replaced by

4242 addWrapper, addSWrapper: claset * (string * wrapper) -> claset

4243 delWrapper, delSWrapper: claset * string -> claset

4244 getWrapper is renamed to appWrappers, getSWrapper to appSWrappers;

4246 * Classical reasoner: addbefore/addSbefore now have APPEND/ORELSE

4247 semantics; addbefore now affects only the unsafe part of step_tac

4248 etc.; this affects addss/auto_tac/force_tac, so EXISTING PROOFS MAY

4249 FAIL, but proofs should be fixable easily, e.g. by replacing Auto_tac

4250 by Force_tac;

4252 * Classical reasoner: setwrapper to setWrapper and compwrapper to

4253 compWrapper; added safe wrapper (and access functions for it);

4255 * HOL/split_all_tac is now much faster and fails if there is nothing

4256 to split. Some EXISTING PROOFS MAY REQUIRE ADAPTION because the order

4257 and the names of the automatically generated variables have changed.

4258 split_all_tac has moved within claset() from unsafe wrappers to safe

4259 wrappers, which means that !!-bound variables are split much more

4260 aggressively, and safe_tac and clarify_tac now split such variables.

4261 If this splitting is not appropriate, use delSWrapper "split_all_tac".

4262 Note: the same holds for record_split_tac, which does the job of

4263 split_all_tac for record fields.

4265 * HOL/Simplifier: Rewrite rules for case distinctions can now be added

4266 permanently to the default simpset using Addsplits just like

4267 Addsimps. They can be removed via Delsplits just like

4268 Delsimps. Lower-case versions are also available.

4270 * HOL/Simplifier: The rule split_if is now part of the default

4271 simpset. This means that the simplifier will eliminate all occurrences

4272 of if-then-else in the conclusion of a goal. To prevent this, you can

4273 either remove split_if completely from the default simpset by

4274 `Delsplits [split_if]' or remove it in a specific call of the

4275 simplifier using `... delsplits [split_if]'. You can also add/delete

4276 other case splitting rules to/from the default simpset: every datatype

4277 generates suitable rules `split_t_case' and `split_t_case_asm' (where

4278 t is the name of the datatype).

4280 * Classical reasoner / Simplifier combination: new force_tac (and

4281 derivatives Force_tac, force) combines rewriting and classical

4282 reasoning (and whatever other tools) similarly to auto_tac, but is

4283 aimed to solve the given subgoal completely.

4286 *** General ***

4288 * new top-level commands `Goal' and `Goalw' that improve upon `goal'

4289 and `goalw': the theory is no longer needed as an explicit argument -

4290 the current theory context is used; assumptions are no longer returned

4291 at the ML-level unless one of them starts with ==> or !!; it is

4292 recommended to convert to these new commands using isatool fixgoal

4293 (backup your sources first!);

4295 * new top-level commands 'thm' and 'thms' for retrieving theorems from

4296 the current theory context, and 'theory' to lookup stored theories;

4298 * new theory section 'locale' for declaring constants, assumptions and

4299 definitions that have local scope;

4301 * new theory section 'nonterminals' for purely syntactic types;

4303 * new theory section 'setup' for generic ML setup functions

4304 (e.g. package initialization);

4306 * the distribution now includes Isabelle icons: see

4307 lib/logo/isabelle-{small,tiny}.xpm;

4309 * isatool install - install binaries with absolute references to

4310 ISABELLE_HOME/bin;

4312 * isatool logo -- create instances of the Isabelle logo (as EPS);

4314 * print mode 'emacs' reserved for Isamode;

4316 * support multiple print (ast) translations per constant name;

4318 * theorems involving oracles are now printed with a suffixed [!];

4321 *** HOL ***

4323 * there is now a tutorial on Isabelle/HOL (do 'isatool doc tutorial');

4325 * HOL/inductive package reorganized and improved: now supports mutual

4326 definitions such as

4328 inductive EVEN ODD

4329 intrs

4330 null "0 : EVEN"

4331 oddI "n : EVEN ==> Suc n : ODD"

4332 evenI "n : ODD ==> Suc n : EVEN"

4334 new theorem list "elims" contains an elimination rule for each of the

4335 recursive sets; inductive definitions now handle disjunctive premises

4336 correctly (also ZF);

4338 INCOMPATIBILITIES: requires Inductive as an ancestor; component

4339 "mutual_induct" no longer exists - the induction rule is always

4340 contained in "induct";

4343 * HOL/datatype package re-implemented and greatly improved: now

4344 supports mutually recursive datatypes such as

4346 datatype

4347 'a aexp = IF_THEN_ELSE ('a bexp) ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

4348 | SUM ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

4349 | DIFF ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

4350 | NUM 'a

4351 and

4352 'a bexp = LESS ('a aexp) ('a aexp)

4353 | AND ('a bexp) ('a bexp)

4354 | OR ('a bexp) ('a bexp)

4356 as well as indirectly recursive datatypes such as

4358 datatype

4359 ('a, 'b) term = Var 'a

4360 | App 'b ((('a, 'b) term) list)

4362 The new tactic mutual_induct_tac [<var_1>, ..., <var_n>] i performs

4363 induction on mutually / indirectly recursive datatypes.

4365 Primrec equations are now stored in theory and can be accessed via

4366 <function_name>.simps.

4368 INCOMPATIBILITIES:

4370 - Theories using datatypes must now have theory Datatype as an

4371 ancestor.

4372 - The specific <typename>.induct_tac no longer exists - use the

4373 generic induct_tac instead.

4374 - natE has been renamed to nat.exhaust - use exhaust_tac

4375 instead of res_inst_tac ... natE. Note that the variable

4376 names in nat.exhaust differ from the names in natE, this

4377 may cause some "fragile" proofs to fail.

4378 - The theorems split_<typename>_case and split_<typename>_case_asm

4379 have been renamed to <typename>.split and <typename>.split_asm.

4380 - Since default sorts of type variables are now handled correctly,

4381 some datatype definitions may have to be annotated with explicit

4382 sort constraints.

4383 - Primrec definitions no longer require function name and type

4384 of recursive argument.

4386 Consider using isatool fixdatatype to adapt your theories and proof

4387 scripts to the new package (backup your sources first!).

4390 * HOL/record package: considerably improved implementation; now

4391 includes concrete syntax for record types, terms, updates; theorems

4392 for surjective pairing and splitting !!-bound record variables; proof

4393 support is as follows:

4395 1) standard conversions (selectors or updates applied to record

4396 constructor terms) are part of the standard simpset;

4398 2) inject equations of the form ((x, y) = (x', y')) == x=x' & y=y' are

4399 made part of standard simpset and claset via addIffs;

4401 3) a tactic for record field splitting (record_split_tac) is part of

4402 the standard claset (addSWrapper);

4404 To get a better idea about these rules you may retrieve them via

4405 something like 'thms "foo.simps"' or 'thms "foo.iffs"', where "foo" is

4406 the name of your record type.

4408 The split tactic 3) conceptually simplifies by the following rule:

4410 "(!!x. PROP ?P x) == (!!a b. PROP ?P (a, b))"

4412 Thus any record variable that is bound by meta-all will automatically

4413 blow up into some record constructor term, consequently the

4414 simplifications of 1), 2) apply. Thus force_tac, auto_tac etc. shall

4415 solve record problems automatically.

4418 * reorganized the main HOL image: HOL/Integ and String loaded by

4419 default; theory Main includes everything;

4421 * automatic simplification of integer sums and comparisons, using cancellation;

4423 * added option_map_eq_Some and not_Some_eq to the default simpset and claset;

4425 * added disj_not1 = "(~P | Q) = (P --> Q)" to the default simpset;

4427 * many new identities for unions, intersections, set difference, etc.;

4429 * expand_if, expand_split, expand_sum_case and expand_nat_case are now

4430 called split_if, split_split, split_sum_case and split_nat_case (to go

4431 with add/delsplits);

4433 * HOL/Prod introduces simplification procedure unit_eq_proc rewriting

4434 (?x::unit) = (); this is made part of the default simpset, which COULD

4435 MAKE EXISTING PROOFS FAIL under rare circumstances (consider

4436 'Delsimprocs [unit_eq_proc];' as last resort); also note that

4437 unit_abs_eta_conv is added in order to counter the effect of

4438 unit_eq_proc on (%u::unit. f u), replacing it by f rather than by

4439 %u.f();

4441 * HOL/Fun INCOMPATIBILITY: `inj_onto' is now called `inj_on' (which

4442 makes more sense);

4444 * HOL/Set INCOMPATIBILITY: rule `equals0D' is now a well-formed destruct rule;

4445 It and 'sym RS equals0D' are now in the default claset, giving automatic

4446 disjointness reasoning but breaking a few old proofs.

4448 * HOL/Relation INCOMPATIBILITY: renamed the relational operator r^-1

4449 to 'converse' from 'inverse' (for compatibility with ZF and some

4450 literature);

4452 * HOL/recdef can now declare non-recursive functions, with {} supplied as

4453 the well-founded relation;

4455 * HOL/Set INCOMPATIBILITY: the complement of set A is now written -A instead of

4456 Compl A. The "Compl" syntax remains available as input syntax for this

4457 release ONLY.

4459 * HOL/Update: new theory of function updates:

4460 f(a:=b) == %x. if x=a then b else f x

4461 may also be iterated as in f(a:=b,c:=d,...);

4463 * HOL/Vimage: new theory for inverse image of a function, syntax f-``B;

4465 * HOL/List:

4466 - new function list_update written xs[i:=v] that updates the i-th

4467 list position. May also be iterated as in xs[i:=a,j:=b,...].

4468 - new function `upt' written [i..j(] which generates the list

4469 [i,i+1,...,j-1], i.e. the upper bound is excluded. To include the upper

4470 bound write [i..j], which is a shorthand for [i..j+1(].

4471 - new lexicographic orderings and corresponding wellfoundedness theorems.

4473 * HOL/Arith:

4474 - removed 'pred' (predecessor) function;

4475 - generalized some theorems about n-1;

4476 - many new laws about "div" and "mod";

4477 - new laws about greatest common divisors (see theory ex/Primes);

4479 * HOL/Relation: renamed the relational operator r^-1 "converse"

4480 instead of "inverse";

4482 * HOL/Induct/Multiset: a theory of multisets, including the wellfoundedness

4483 of the multiset ordering;

4485 * directory HOL/Real: a construction of the reals using Dedekind cuts

4486 (not included by default);

4488 * directory HOL/UNITY: Chandy and Misra's UNITY formalism;

4490 * directory HOL/Hoare: a new version of Hoare logic which permits many-sorted

4491 programs, i.e. different program variables may have different types.

4493 * calling (stac rew i) now fails if "rew" has no effect on the goal

4494 [previously, this check worked only if the rewrite rule was unconditional]

4495 Now rew can involve either definitions or equalities (either == or =).

4498 *** ZF ***

4500 * theory Main includes everything; INCOMPATIBILITY: theory ZF.thy contains

4501 only the theorems proved on ZF.ML;

4503 * ZF INCOMPATIBILITY: rule `equals0D' is now a well-formed destruct rule;

4504 It and 'sym RS equals0D' are now in the default claset, giving automatic

4505 disjointness reasoning but breaking a few old proofs.

4507 * ZF/Update: new theory of function updates

4508 with default rewrite rule f(x:=y) ` z = if(z=x, y, f`z)

4509 may also be iterated as in f(a:=b,c:=d,...);

4511 * in let x=t in u(x), neither t nor u(x) has to be an FOL term.

4513 * calling (stac rew i) now fails if "rew" has no effect on the goal

4514 [previously, this check worked only if the rewrite rule was unconditional]

4515 Now rew can involve either definitions or equalities (either == or =).

4517 * case_tac provided for compatibility with HOL

4518 (like the old excluded_middle_tac, but with subgoals swapped)

4521 *** Internal programming interfaces ***

4523 * Pure: several new basic modules made available for general use, see

4524 also src/Pure/README;

4526 * improved the theory data mechanism to support encapsulation (data

4527 kind name replaced by private Object.kind, acting as authorization

4528 key); new type-safe user interface via functor TheoryDataFun; generic

4529 print_data function becomes basically useless;

4531 * removed global_names compatibility flag -- all theory declarations

4532 are qualified by default;

4534 * module Pure/Syntax now offers quote / antiquote translation

4535 functions (useful for Hoare logic etc. with implicit dependencies);

4536 see HOL/ex/Antiquote for an example use;

4538 * Simplifier now offers conversions (asm_)(full_)rewrite: simpset ->

4539 cterm -> thm;

4541 * new tactical CHANGED_GOAL for checking that a tactic modifies a

4542 subgoal;

4544 * Display.print_goals function moved to Locale.print_goals;

4546 * standard print function for goals supports current_goals_markers

4547 variable for marking begin of proof, end of proof, start of goal; the

4548 default is ("", "", ""); setting current_goals_markers := ("<proof>",

4549 "</proof>", "<goal>") causes SGML like tagged proof state printing,

4550 for example;

4554 New in Isabelle98 (January 1998)

4555 --------------------------------

4557 *** Overview of INCOMPATIBILITIES (see below for more details) ***

4559 * changed lexical syntax of terms / types: dots made part of long

4560 identifiers, e.g. "%x.x" no longer possible, should be "%x. x";

4562 * simpset (and claset) reference variable replaced by functions

4563 simpset / simpset_ref;

4565 * no longer supports theory aliases (via merge) and non-trivial

4566 implicit merge of thms' signatures;

4568 * most internal names of constants changed due to qualified names;

4570 * changed Pure/Sequence interface (see Pure/seq.ML);

4573 *** General Changes ***

4575 * hierachically structured name spaces (for consts, types, axms, thms

4576 etc.); new lexical class 'longid' (e.g. Foo.bar.x) may render much of

4577 old input syntactically incorrect (e.g. "%x.x"); COMPATIBILITY:

4578 isatool fixdots ensures space after dots (e.g. "%x. x"); set

4579 long_names for fully qualified output names; NOTE: ML programs

4580 (special tactics, packages etc.) referring to internal names may have

4581 to be adapted to cope with fully qualified names; in case of severe

4582 backward campatibility problems try setting 'global_names' at compile

4583 time to have enrything declared within a flat name space; one may also

4584 fine tune name declarations in theories via the 'global' and 'local'

4585 section;

4587 * reimplemented the implicit simpset and claset using the new anytype

4588 data filed in signatures; references simpset:simpset ref etc. are

4589 replaced by functions simpset:unit->simpset and

4590 simpset_ref:unit->simpset ref; COMPATIBILITY: use isatool fixclasimp

4591 to patch your ML files accordingly;

4593 * HTML output now includes theory graph data for display with Java

4594 applet or isatool browser; data generated automatically via isatool

4595 usedir (see -i option, ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS);

4597 * defs may now be conditional; improved rewrite_goals_tac to handle

4598 conditional equations;

4600 * defs now admits additional type arguments, using TYPE('a) syntax;

4602 * theory aliases via merge (e.g. M=A+B+C) no longer supported, always

4603 creates a new theory node; implicit merge of thms' signatures is

4604 restricted to 'trivial' ones; COMPATIBILITY: one may have to use

4605 transfer:theory->thm->thm in (rare) cases;

4607 * improved handling of draft signatures / theories; draft thms (and

4608 ctyps, cterms) are automatically promoted to real ones;

4610 * slightly changed interfaces for oracles: admit many per theory, named

4611 (e.g. oracle foo = mlfun), additional name argument for invoke_oracle;

4613 * print_goals: optional output of const types (set show_consts and

4614 show_types);

4616 * improved output of warnings (###) and errors (***);

4618 * subgoal_tac displays a warning if the new subgoal has type variables;

4620 * removed old README and Makefiles;

4622 * replaced print_goals_ref hook by print_current_goals_fn and result_error_fn;

4624 * removed obsolete init_pps and init_database;

4626 * deleted the obsolete tactical STATE, which was declared by

4627 fun STATE tacfun st = tacfun st st;

4629 * cd and use now support path variables, e.g. $ISABELLE_HOME, or ~

4630 (which abbreviates $HOME);

4632 * changed Pure/Sequence interface (see Pure/seq.ML); COMPATIBILITY:

4633 use isatool fixseq to adapt your ML programs (this works for fully

4634 qualified references to the Sequence structure only!);

4636 * use_thy no longer requires writable current directory; it always

4637 reloads .ML *and* .thy file, if either one is out of date;

4640 *** Classical Reasoner ***

4642 * Clarify_tac, clarify_tac, clarify_step_tac, Clarify_step_tac: new

4643 tactics that use classical reasoning to simplify a subgoal without

4644 splitting it into several subgoals;

4646 * Safe_tac: like safe_tac but uses the default claset;

4649 *** Simplifier ***

4651 * added simplification meta rules:

4652 (asm_)(full_)simplify: simpset -> thm -> thm;

4654 * simplifier.ML no longer part of Pure -- has to be loaded by object

4655 logics (again);

4657 * added prems argument to simplification procedures;

4659 * HOL, FOL, ZF: added infix function `addsplits':

4660 instead of `<simpset> setloop (split_tac <thms>)'

4661 you can simply write `<simpset> addsplits <thms>'

4664 *** Syntax ***

4666 * TYPE('a) syntax for type reflection terms;

4668 * no longer handles consts with name "" -- declare as 'syntax' instead;

4670 * pretty printer: changed order of mixfix annotation preference (again!);

4672 * Pure: fixed idt/idts vs. pttrn/pttrns syntactic categories;

4675 *** HOL ***

4677 * HOL: there is a new splitter `split_asm_tac' that can be used e.g.

4678 with `addloop' of the simplifier to faciliate case splitting in premises.

4680 * HOL/TLA: Stephan Merz's formalization of Lamport's Temporal Logic of Actions;

4682 * HOL/Auth: new protocol proofs including some for the Internet

4683 protocol TLS;

4685 * HOL/Map: new theory of `maps' a la VDM;

4687 * HOL/simplifier: simplification procedures nat_cancel_sums for

4688 cancelling out common nat summands from =, <, <= (in)equalities, or

4689 differences; simplification procedures nat_cancel_factor for

4690 cancelling common factor from =, <, <= (in)equalities over natural

4691 sums; nat_cancel contains both kinds of procedures, it is installed by

4692 default in Arith.thy -- this COULD MAKE EXISTING PROOFS FAIL;

4694 * HOL/simplifier: terms of the form

4695 `? x. P1(x) & ... & Pn(x) & x=t & Q1(x) & ... Qn(x)' (or t=x)

4696 are rewritten to

4697 `P1(t) & ... & Pn(t) & Q1(t) & ... Qn(t)',

4698 and those of the form

4699 `! x. P1(x) & ... & Pn(x) & x=t & Q1(x) & ... Qn(x) --> R(x)' (or t=x)

4700 are rewritten to

4701 `P1(t) & ... & Pn(t) & Q1(t) & ... Qn(t) --> R(t)',

4703 * HOL/datatype

4704 Each datatype `t' now comes with a theorem `split_t_case' of the form

4706 P(t_case f1 ... fn x) =

4707 ( (!y1 ... ym1. x = C1 y1 ... ym1 --> P(f1 y1 ... ym1)) &

4708 ...

4709 (!y1 ... ymn. x = Cn y1 ... ymn --> P(f1 y1 ... ymn))

4710 )

4712 and a theorem `split_t_case_asm' of the form

4714 P(t_case f1 ... fn x) =

4715 ~( (? y1 ... ym1. x = C1 y1 ... ym1 & ~P(f1 y1 ... ym1)) |

4716 ...

4717 (? y1 ... ymn. x = Cn y1 ... ymn & ~P(f1 y1 ... ymn))

4718 )

4719 which can be added to a simpset via `addsplits'. The existing theorems

4720 expand_list_case and expand_option_case have been renamed to

4721 split_list_case and split_option_case.

4723 * HOL/Arithmetic:

4724 - `pred n' is automatically converted to `n-1'.

4725 Users are strongly encouraged not to use `pred' any longer,

4726 because it will disappear altogether at some point.

4727 - Users are strongly encouraged to write "0 < n" rather than

4728 "n ~= 0". Theorems and proof tools have been modified towards this

4729 `standard'.

4731 * HOL/Lists:

4732 the function "set_of_list" has been renamed "set" (and its theorems too);

4733 the function "nth" now takes its arguments in the reverse order and

4734 has acquired the infix notation "!" as in "xs!n".

4736 * HOL/Set: UNIV is now a constant and is no longer translated to Compl{};

4738 * HOL/Set: The operator (UN x.B x) now abbreviates (UN x:UNIV. B x) and its

4739 specialist theorems (like UN1_I) are gone. Similarly for (INT x.B x);

4741 * HOL/record: extensible records with schematic structural subtyping

4742 (single inheritance); EXPERIMENTAL version demonstrating the encoding,

4743 still lacks various theorems and concrete record syntax;

4746 *** HOLCF ***

4748 * removed "axioms" and "generated by" sections;

4750 * replaced "ops" section by extended "consts" section, which is capable of

4751 handling the continuous function space "->" directly;

4753 * domain package:

4754 . proves theorems immediately and stores them in the theory,

4755 . creates hierachical name space,

4756 . now uses normal mixfix annotations (instead of cinfix...),

4757 . minor changes to some names and values (for consistency),

4758 . e.g. cases -> casedist, dists_eq -> dist_eqs, [take_lemma] -> take_lemmas,

4759 . separator between mutual domain defs: changed "," to "and",

4760 . improved handling of sort constraints; now they have to

4761 appear on the left-hand side of the equations only;

4763 * fixed LAM <x,y,zs>.b syntax;

4765 * added extended adm_tac to simplifier in HOLCF -- can now discharge

4766 adm (%x. P (t x)), where P is chainfinite and t continuous;

4769 *** FOL and ZF ***

4771 * FOL: there is a new splitter `split_asm_tac' that can be used e.g.

4772 with `addloop' of the simplifier to faciliate case splitting in premises.

4774 * qed_spec_mp, qed_goal_spec_mp, qed_goalw_spec_mp are available, as

4775 in HOL, they strip ALL and --> from proved theorems;

4779 New in Isabelle94-8 (May 1997)

4780 ------------------------------

4782 *** General Changes ***

4784 * new utilities to build / run / maintain Isabelle etc. (in parts

4785 still somewhat experimental); old Makefiles etc. still functional;

4787 * new 'Isabelle System Manual';

4789 * INSTALL text, together with ./configure and ./build scripts;

4791 * reimplemented type inference for greater efficiency, better error

4792 messages and clean internal interface;

4794 * prlim command for dealing with lots of subgoals (an easier way of

4795 setting goals_limit);

4798 *** Syntax ***

4800 * supports alternative (named) syntax tables (parser and pretty

4801 printer); internal interface is provided by add_modesyntax(_i);

4803 * Pure, FOL, ZF, HOL, HOLCF now support symbolic input and output; to

4804 be used in conjunction with the Isabelle symbol font; uses the

4805 "symbols" syntax table;

4807 * added token_translation interface (may translate name tokens in

4808 arbitrary ways, dependent on their type (free, bound, tfree, ...) and

4809 the current print_mode); IMPORTANT: user print translation functions

4810 are responsible for marking newly introduced bounds

4811 (Syntax.mark_boundT);

4813 * token translations for modes "xterm" and "xterm_color" that display

4814 names in bold, underline etc. or colors (which requires a color

4815 version of xterm);

4817 * infixes may now be declared with names independent of their syntax;

4819 * added typed_print_translation (like print_translation, but may

4820 access type of constant);

4823 *** Classical Reasoner ***

4825 Blast_tac: a new tactic! It is often more powerful than fast_tac, but has

4826 some limitations. Blast_tac...

4827 + ignores addss, addbefore, addafter; this restriction is intrinsic

4828 + ignores elimination rules that don't have the correct format

4829 (the conclusion MUST be a formula variable)

4830 + ignores types, which can make HOL proofs fail

4831 + rules must not require higher-order unification, e.g. apply_type in ZF

4832 [message "Function Var's argument not a bound variable" relates to this]

4833 + its proof strategy is more general but can actually be slower

4835 * substitution with equality assumptions no longer permutes other

4836 assumptions;

4838 * minor changes in semantics of addafter (now called addaltern); renamed

4839 setwrapper to setWrapper and compwrapper to compWrapper; added safe wrapper

4840 (and access functions for it);

4842 * improved combination of classical reasoner and simplifier:

4843 + functions for handling clasimpsets

4844 + improvement of addss: now the simplifier is called _after_ the

4845 safe steps.

4846 + safe variant of addss called addSss: uses safe simplifications

4847 _during_ the safe steps. It is more complete as it allows multiple

4848 instantiations of unknowns (e.g. with slow_tac).

4850 *** Simplifier ***

4852 * added interface for simplification procedures (functions that

4853 produce *proven* rewrite rules on the fly, depending on current

4854 redex);

4856 * ordering on terms as parameter (used for ordered rewriting);

4858 * new functions delcongs, deleqcongs, and Delcongs. richer rep_ss;

4860 * the solver is now split into a safe and an unsafe part.

4861 This should be invisible for the normal user, except that the

4862 functions setsolver and addsolver have been renamed to setSolver and

4863 addSolver; added safe_asm_full_simp_tac;

4866 *** HOL ***

4868 * a generic induction tactic `induct_tac' which works for all datatypes and

4869 also for type `nat';

4871 * a generic case distinction tactic `exhaust_tac' which works for all

4872 datatypes and also for type `nat';

4874 * each datatype comes with a function `size';

4876 * patterns in case expressions allow tuple patterns as arguments to

4877 constructors, for example `case x of [] => ... | (x,y,z)#ps => ...';

4879 * primrec now also works with type nat;

4881 * recdef: a new declaration form, allows general recursive functions to be

4882 defined in theory files. See HOL/ex/Fib, HOL/ex/Primes, HOL/Subst/Unify.

4884 * the constant for negation has been renamed from "not" to "Not" to

4885 harmonize with FOL, ZF, LK, etc.;

4887 * HOL/ex/LFilter theory of a corecursive "filter" functional for

4888 infinite lists;

4890 * HOL/Modelcheck demonstrates invocation of model checker oracle;

4892 * HOL/ex/Ring.thy declares cring_simp, which solves equational

4893 problems in commutative rings, using axiomatic type classes for + and *;

4895 * more examples in HOL/MiniML and HOL/Auth;

4897 * more default rewrite rules for quantifiers, union/intersection;

4899 * a new constant `arbitrary == @x.False';

4901 * HOLCF/IOA replaces old HOL/IOA;

4903 * HOLCF changes: derived all rules and arities

4904 + axiomatic type classes instead of classes

4905 + typedef instead of faking type definitions

4906 + eliminated the internal constants less_fun, less_cfun, UU_fun, UU_cfun etc.

4907 + new axclasses cpo, chfin, flat with flat < chfin < pcpo < cpo < po

4908 + eliminated the types void, one, tr

4909 + use unit lift and bool lift (with translations) instead of one and tr

4910 + eliminated blift from Lift3.thy (use Def instead of blift)

4911 all eliminated rules are derived as theorems --> no visible changes ;

4914 *** ZF ***

4916 * ZF now has Fast_tac, Simp_tac and Auto_tac. Union_iff is a now a default

4917 rewrite rule; this may affect some proofs. eq_cs is gone but can be put back

4918 as ZF_cs addSIs [equalityI];

4922 New in Isabelle94-7 (November 96)

4923 ---------------------------------

4925 * allowing negative levels (as offsets) in prlev and choplev;

4927 * super-linear speedup for large simplifications;

4929 * FOL, ZF and HOL now use miniscoping: rewriting pushes

4930 quantifications in as far as possible (COULD MAKE EXISTING PROOFS

4931 FAIL); can suppress it using the command Delsimps (ex_simps @

4932 all_simps); De Morgan laws are also now included, by default;

4934 * improved printing of ==> : ~:

4936 * new object-logic "Sequents" adds linear logic, while replacing LK

4937 and Modal (thanks to Sara Kalvala);

4939 * HOL/Auth: correctness proofs for authentication protocols;

4941 * HOL: new auto_tac combines rewriting and classical reasoning (many

4942 examples on HOL/Auth);

4944 * HOL: new command AddIffs for declaring theorems of the form P=Q to

4945 the rewriter and classical reasoner simultaneously;

4947 * function uresult no longer returns theorems in "standard" format;

4948 regain previous version by: val uresult = standard o uresult;

4952 New in Isabelle94-6

4953 -------------------

4955 * oracles -- these establish an interface between Isabelle and trusted

4956 external reasoners, which may deliver results as theorems;

4958 * proof objects (in particular record all uses of oracles);

4960 * Simp_tac, Fast_tac, etc. that refer to implicit simpset / claset;

4962 * "constdefs" section in theory files;

4964 * "primrec" section (HOL) no longer requires names;

4966 * internal type "tactic" now simply "thm -> thm Sequence.seq";

4970 New in Isabelle94-5

4971 -------------------

4973 * reduced space requirements;

4975 * automatic HTML generation from theories;

4977 * theory files no longer require "..." (quotes) around most types;

4979 * new examples, including two proofs of the Church-Rosser theorem;

4981 * non-curried (1994) version of HOL is no longer distributed;

4985 New in Isabelle94-4

4986 -------------------

4988 * greatly reduced space requirements;

4990 * theory files (.thy) no longer require \...\ escapes at line breaks;

4992 * searchable theorem database (see the section "Retrieving theorems" on

4993 page 8 of the Reference Manual);

4995 * new examples, including Grabczewski's monumental case study of the

4996 Axiom of Choice;

4998 * The previous version of HOL renamed to Old_HOL;

5000 * The new version of HOL (previously called CHOL) uses a curried syntax

5001 for functions. Application looks like f a b instead of f(a,b);

5003 * Mutually recursive inductive definitions finally work in HOL;

5005 * In ZF, pattern-matching on tuples is now available in all abstractions and

5006 translates to the operator "split";

5010 New in Isabelle94-3

5011 -------------------

5013 * new infix operator, addss, allowing the classical reasoner to

5014 perform simplification at each step of its search. Example:

5015 fast_tac (cs addss ss)

5017 * a new logic, CHOL, the same as HOL, but with a curried syntax

5018 for functions. Application looks like f a b instead of f(a,b). Also pairs

5019 look like (a,b) instead of <a,b>;

5021 * PLEASE NOTE: CHOL will eventually replace HOL!

5023 * In CHOL, pattern-matching on tuples is now available in all abstractions.

5024 It translates to the operator "split". A new theory of integers is available;

5026 * In ZF, integer numerals now denote two's-complement binary integers.

5027 Arithmetic operations can be performed by rewriting. See ZF/ex/Bin.ML;

5029 * Many new examples: I/O automata, Church-Rosser theorem, equivalents

5030 of the Axiom of Choice;

5034 New in Isabelle94-2

5035 -------------------

5037 * Significantly faster resolution;

5039 * the different sections in a .thy file can now be mixed and repeated

5040 freely;

5042 * Database of theorems for FOL, HOL and ZF. New

5043 commands including qed, qed_goal and bind_thm store theorems in the database.

5045 * Simple database queries: return a named theorem (get_thm) or all theorems of

5046 a given theory (thms_of), or find out what theory a theorem was proved in

5047 (theory_of_thm);

5049 * Bugs fixed in the inductive definition and datatype packages;

5051 * The classical reasoner provides deepen_tac and depth_tac, making FOL_dup_cs

5052 and HOL_dup_cs obsolete;

5054 * Syntactic ambiguities caused by the new treatment of syntax in Isabelle94-1

5055 have been removed;

5057 * Simpler definition of function space in ZF;

5059 * new results about cardinal and ordinal arithmetic in ZF;

5061 * 'subtype' facility in HOL for introducing new types as subsets of existing

5062 types;

5064 :mode=text:wrap=hard:maxLineLen=72:

5065 $Id$