NEWS
author wenzelm
Sat Jan 25 16:59:41 2014 +0100 (2014-01-25)
changeset 55139 4d899933a51a
parent 55122 3eb7bcca5b90
child 55143 04448228381d
permissions -rw-r--r--
NEWS for 31afce809794;
     1 Isabelle NEWS -- history user-relevant changes
     2 ==============================================
     3 
     4 New in this Isabelle version
     5 ----------------------------
     6 
     7 *** General ***
     8 
     9 * Document antiquotation @{url} produces markup for the given URL,
    10 which results in an active hyperlink within the text.
    11 
    12 * Document antiquotation @{file_unchecked} is like @{file}, but does
    13 not check existence within the file-system.
    14 
    15 * Discontinued legacy_isub_isup, which was a temporary Isabelle/ML
    16 workaround in Isabelle2013-1.  The prover process no longer accepts
    17 old identifier syntax with \<^isub> or \<^isup>.
    18 
    19 * Syntax of document antiquotation @{rail} now uses \<newline> instead
    20 of "\\", to avoid the optical illusion of escaped backslash within
    21 string token.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
    22 
    23 * Lexical syntax (inner and outer) supports text cartouches with
    24 arbitrary nesting, and without escapes of quotes etc.
    25 
    26 
    27 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
    28 
    29 * Auxiliary files ('ML_file' etc.) are managed by the Prover IDE.
    30 Open text buffers take precedence over copies within the file-system.
    31 
    32 * Document panel: simplied interaction where every single mouse click
    33 (re)opens document via desktop environment or as jEdit buffer.
    34 
    35 * Option "jedit_print_mode" (see also "Plugin Options / Isabelle /
    36 General") allows to specify additional print modes for the prover
    37 process, without requiring old-fashioned command-line invocation of
    38 "isabelle jedit -m MODE".
    39 
    40 
    41 *** Pure ***
    42 
    43 * More thorough check of proof context for goal statements and
    44 attributed fact expressions (concerning background theory, declared
    45 hyps).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, tools need to observe standard
    46 context discipline.  See also Assumption.add_assumes and the more
    47 primitive Thm.assume_hyps.
    48 
    49 * Inner syntax token language allows regular quoted strings "..."
    50 (only makes sense in practice, if outer syntax is delimited
    51 differently).
    52 
    53 
    54 *** HOL ***
    55 
    56 * Simproc "finite_Collect" is no longer enabled by default, due to
    57 spurious crashes and other surprises.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
    58 
    59 * Moved new (co)datatype package and its dependencies from "HOL-BNF" to "HOL".
    60   The "bnf", "wrap_free_constructors", "datatype_new", "codatatype",
    61   "primrec_new", "primcorec", and "primcorecursive" command are now part of
    62   "Main".
    63   INCOMPATIBILITY.
    64   Theory renamings:
    65     FunDef.thy ~> Fun_Def.thy (and Fun_Def_Base.thy)
    66     Library/Wfrec.thy ~> Wfrec.thy
    67     Library/Zorn.thy ~> Zorn.thy
    68     Cardinals/Order_Relation.thy ~> Order_Relation.thy
    69     Library/Order_Union.thy ~> Cardinals/Order_Union.thy
    70     Cardinals/Cardinal_Arithmetic_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Arithmetic.thy
    71     Cardinals/Cardinal_Order_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Cardinal_Order_Relation.thy
    72     Cardinals/Constructions_on_Wellorders_Base.thy ~> BNF_Constructions_on_Wellorders.thy
    73     Cardinals/Wellorder_Embedding_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Embedding.thy
    74     Cardinals/Wellorder_Relation_Base.thy ~> BNF_Wellorder_Relation.thy
    75     BNF/Ctr_Sugar.thy ~> Ctr_Sugar.thy
    76     BNF/Basic_BNFs.thy ~> Basic_BNFs.thy
    77     BNF/BNF_Comp.thy ~> BNF_Comp.thy
    78     BNF/BNF_Def.thy ~> BNF_Def.thy
    79     BNF/BNF_FP_Base.thy ~> BNF_FP_Base.thy
    80     BNF/BNF_GFP.thy ~> BNF_GFP.thy
    81     BNF/BNF_LFP.thy ~> BNF_LFP.thy
    82     BNF/BNF_Util.thy ~> BNF_Util.thy
    83     BNF/Coinduction.thy ~> Coinduction.thy
    84     BNF/More_BNFs.thy ~> Library/More_BNFs.thy
    85     BNF/Countable_Type.thy ~> Library/Countable_Set_Type.thy
    86     BNF/Examples/* ~> BNF_Examples/*
    87   New theories:
    88     List_Prefix.thy (split from Library/Sublist.thy)
    89     Wellorder_Extension.thy (split from Zorn.thy)
    90     Library/Cardinal_Notations.thy
    91     Library/BNF_Decl.thy
    92     BNF_Examples/Misc_Primcorec.thy
    93     BNF_Examples/Stream_Processor.thy
    94   Discontinued theory:
    95     BNF/BNF.thy
    96     BNF/Equiv_Relations_More.thy
    97 
    98 * New theory:
    99     Cardinals/Ordinal_Arithmetic.thy
   100 
   101 * Theory reorganizations:
   102   * Big_Operators.thy ~> Groups_Big.thy and Lattices_Big.thy
   103 
   104 * The symbol "\<newline>" may be used within char or string literals
   105 to represent (Char Nibble0 NibbleA), i.e. ASCII newline.
   106 
   107 * Activation of Z3 now works via "z3_non_commercial" system option
   108 (without requiring restart), instead of former settings variable
   109 "Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL".  The option can be edited in Isabelle/jEdit menu
   110 Plugin Options / Isabelle / General.
   111 
   112 * "declare [[code abort: ...]]" replaces "code_abort ...".
   113 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   114 
   115 * "declare [[code drop: ...]]" drops all code equations associated
   116 with the given constants.
   117 
   118 * Abolished slightly odd global lattice interpretation for min/max.
   119 
   120 Fact consolidations:
   121     min_max.inf_assoc ~> min.assoc
   122     min_max.inf_commute ~> min.commute
   123     min_max.inf_left_commute ~> min.left_commute
   124     min_max.inf_idem ~> min.idem
   125     min_max.inf_left_idem ~> min.left_idem
   126     min_max.inf_right_idem ~> min.right_idem
   127     min_max.sup_assoc ~> max.assoc
   128     min_max.sup_commute ~> max.commute
   129     min_max.sup_left_commute ~> max.left_commute
   130     min_max.sup_idem ~> max.idem
   131     min_max.sup_left_idem ~> max.left_idem
   132     min_max.sup_inf_distrib1 ~> max_min_distrib2
   133     min_max.sup_inf_distrib2 ~> max_min_distrib1
   134     min_max.inf_sup_distrib1 ~> min_max_distrib2
   135     min_max.inf_sup_distrib2 ~> min_max_distrib1
   136     min_max.distrib ~> min_max_distribs
   137     min_max.inf_absorb1 ~> min.absorb1
   138     min_max.inf_absorb2 ~> min.absorb2
   139     min_max.sup_absorb1 ~> max.absorb1
   140     min_max.sup_absorb2 ~> max.absorb2
   141     min_max.le_iff_inf ~> min.absorb_iff1
   142     min_max.le_iff_sup ~> max.absorb_iff2
   143     min_max.inf_le1 ~> min.cobounded1
   144     min_max.inf_le2 ~> min.cobounded2
   145     le_maxI1, min_max.sup_ge1 ~> max.cobounded1
   146     le_maxI2, min_max.sup_ge2 ~> max.cobounded2
   147     min_max.le_infI1 ~> min.coboundedI1
   148     min_max.le_infI2 ~> min.coboundedI2
   149     min_max.le_supI1 ~> max.coboundedI1
   150     min_max.le_supI2 ~> max.coboundedI2
   151     min_max.less_infI1 ~> min.strict_coboundedI1
   152     min_max.less_infI2 ~> min.strict_coboundedI2
   153     min_max.less_supI1 ~> max.strict_coboundedI1
   154     min_max.less_supI2 ~> max.strict_coboundedI2
   155     min_max.inf_mono ~> min.mono
   156     min_max.sup_mono ~> max.mono
   157     min_max.le_infI, min_max.inf_greatest ~> min.boundedI
   158     min_max.le_supI, min_max.sup_least ~> max.boundedI
   159     min_max.le_inf_iff ~> min.bounded_iff
   160     min_max.le_sup_iff ~> max.bounded_iff
   161 
   162 For min_max.inf_sup_aci, prefer (one of) min.commute, min.assoc,
   163 min.left_commute, min.left_idem, max.commute, max.assoc,
   164 max.left_commute, max.left_idem directly.
   165 
   166 For min_max.inf_sup_ord, prefer (one of) min.cobounded1, min.cobounded2,
   167 max.cobounded1m max.cobounded2 directly.
   168 
   169 For min_ac or max_ac, prefor more general collection ac_simps.
   170 
   171 INCOMPATBILITY. 
   172 
   173 * Word library: bit representations prefer type bool over type bit.
   174 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   175 
   176 * Theorem disambiguation Inf_le_Sup (on finite sets) ~> Inf_fin_le_Sup_fin.
   177 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   178 
   179 * Code generations are provided for make, fields, extend and truncate
   180 operations on records.
   181 
   182 * Qualified constant names Wellfounded.acc, Wellfounded.accp.
   183 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   184 
   185 * Fact generalization and consolidation:
   186     neq_one_mod_two, mod_2_not_eq_zero_eq_one_int ~> not_mod_2_eq_0_eq_1
   187 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   188 
   189 * Purely algebraic definition of even.  Fact generalization and consolidation:
   190     nat_even_iff_2_dvd, int_even_iff_2_dvd ~> even_iff_2_dvd
   191     even_zero_(nat|int) ~> even_zero
   192 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   193 
   194 * Abolished neg_numeral.
   195   * Canonical representation for minus one is "- 1".
   196   * Canonical representation for other negative numbers is "- (numeral _)".
   197   * When devising rule sets for number calculation, consider the
   198     following canonical cases: 0, 1, numeral _, - 1, - numeral _.
   199   * HOLogic.dest_number also recognizes numerals in non-canonical forms
   200     like "numeral One", "- numeral One", "- 0" and even "- ... - _".
   201   * Syntax for negative numerals is mere input syntax.
   202 INCOMPATBILITY.
   203 
   204 * Elimination of fact duplicates:
   205     equals_zero_I ~> minus_unique
   206     diff_eq_0_iff_eq ~> right_minus_eq
   207     nat_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_nat
   208     int_infinite ~> infinite_UNIV_int
   209 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   210 
   211 * Fact name consolidation:
   212     diff_def, diff_minus, ab_diff_minus ~> diff_conv_add_uminus
   213     minus_le_self_iff ~> neg_less_eq_nonneg
   214     le_minus_self_iff ~> less_eq_neg_nonpos
   215     neg_less_nonneg ~> neg_less_pos
   216     less_minus_self_iff ~> less_neg_neg [simp]
   217 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   218 
   219 * More simplification rules on unary and binary minus:
   220 add_diff_cancel, add_diff_cancel_left, add_le_same_cancel1,
   221 add_le_same_cancel2, add_less_same_cancel1, add_less_same_cancel2,
   222 add_minus_cancel, diff_add_cancel, le_add_same_cancel1,
   223 le_add_same_cancel2, less_add_same_cancel1, less_add_same_cancel2,
   224 minus_add_cancel, uminus_add_conv_diff.  These correspondingly
   225 have been taken away from fact collections algebra_simps and
   226 field_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   227 
   228 To restore proofs, the following patterns are helpful:
   229 
   230 a) Arbitrary failing proof not involving "diff_def":
   231 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps.
   232 
   233 b) Lifting rules from addition to subtraction:
   234 Try with "using <rule for addition> of [... "- _" ...]" by simp".
   235 
   236 c) Simplification with "diff_def": just drop "diff_def".
   237 Consider simplification with algebra_simps or field_simps;
   238 or the brute way with
   239 "simp add: diff_conv_add_uminus del: add_uminus_conv_diff".
   240 
   241 * SUP and INF generalized to conditionally_complete_lattice
   242 
   243 * Theory Lubs moved HOL image to HOL-Library. It is replaced by
   244 Conditionally_Complete_Lattices.   INCOMPATIBILITY.
   245 
   246 * Introduce bdd_above and bdd_below in Conditionally_Complete_Lattices, use them
   247 instead of explicitly stating boundedness of sets.
   248 
   249 * ccpo.admissible quantifies only over non-empty chains to allow
   250 more syntax-directed proof rules; the case of the empty chain
   251 shows up as additional case in fixpoint induction proofs.
   252 INCOMPATIBILITY
   253 
   254 * Removed solvers remote_cvc3 and remote_z3. Use cvc3 and z3 instead.
   255 
   256 * Nitpick:
   257   - Fixed soundness bug whereby mutually recursive datatypes could take
   258     infinite values.
   259 
   260 * HOL-Multivariate_Analysis:
   261   - type class ordered_real_vector for ordered vector spaces
   262   - changed order of ordered_euclidean_space to be compatible with
   263     pointwise ordering on products. Therefore instance of
   264     conditionally_complete_lattice and ordered_real_vector.
   265     INCOMPATIBILITY: use box instead of greaterThanLessThan or
   266     explicit set-comprehensions with eucl_less for other (half-) open
   267     intervals.
   268 
   269 
   270 *** ML ***
   271 
   272 * Toplevel function "use" refers to raw ML bootstrap environment,
   273 without Isar context nor antiquotations.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
   274 Note that 'ML_file' is the canonical command to load ML files into the
   275 formal context.
   276 
   277 * Proper context for basic Simplifier operations: rewrite_rule,
   278 rewrite_goals_rule, rewrite_goals_tac etc. INCOMPATIBILITY, need to
   279 pass runtime Proof.context (and ensure that the simplified entity
   280 actually belongs to it).
   281 
   282 
   283 *** System ***
   284 
   285 * Simplified "isabelle display" tool.  Settings variables DVI_VIEWER
   286 and PDF_VIEWER now refer to the actual programs, not shell
   287 command-lines.  Discontinued option -c: invocation may be asynchronous
   288 via desktop environment, without any special precautions.  Potential
   289 INCOMPATIBILITY with ambitious private settings.
   290 
   291 * Improved 'display_drafts' concerning desktop integration and
   292 repeated invocation in PIDE front-end: re-use single file
   293 $ISABELLE_HOME_USER/tmp/drafts.pdf and corresponding views.
   294 
   295 
   296 
   297 New in Isabelle2013-2 (December 2013)
   298 -------------------------------------
   299 
   300 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   301 
   302 * More robust editing of running commands with internal forks,
   303 e.g. non-terminating 'by' steps.
   304 
   305 * More relaxed Sledgehammer panel: avoid repeated application of query
   306 after edits surrounding the command location.
   307 
   308 * More status information about commands that are interrupted
   309 accidentally (via physical event or Poly/ML runtime system signal,
   310 e.g. out-of-memory).
   311 
   312 
   313 *** System ***
   314 
   315 * More robust termination of external processes managed by
   316 Isabelle/ML: support cancellation of tasks within the range of
   317 milliseconds, as required for PIDE document editing with automatically
   318 tried tools (e.g. Sledgehammer).
   319 
   320 * Reactivated Isabelle/Scala kill command for external processes on
   321 Mac OS X, which was accidentally broken in Isabelle2013-1 due to a
   322 workaround for some Debian/Ubuntu Linux versions from 2013.
   323 
   324 
   325 
   326 New in Isabelle2013-1 (November 2013)
   327 -------------------------------------
   328 
   329 *** General ***
   330 
   331 * Discontinued obsolete 'uses' within theory header.  Note that
   332 commands like 'ML_file' work without separate declaration of file
   333 dependencies.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   334 
   335 * Discontinued redundant 'use' command, which was superseded by
   336 'ML_file' in Isabelle2013.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   337 
   338 * Simplified subscripts within identifiers, using plain \<^sub>
   339 instead of the second copy \<^isub> and \<^isup>.  Superscripts are
   340 only for literal tokens within notation; explicit mixfix annotations
   341 for consts or fixed variables may be used as fall-back for unusual
   342 names.  Obsolete \<twosuperior> has been expanded to \<^sup>2 in
   343 Isabelle/HOL.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "isabelle update_sub_sup" to
   344 standardize symbols as a starting point for further manual cleanup.
   345 The ML reference variable "legacy_isub_isup" may be set as temporary
   346 workaround, to make the prover accept a subset of the old identifier
   347 syntax.
   348 
   349 * Document antiquotations: term style "isub" has been renamed to
   350 "sub".  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   351 
   352 * Uniform management of "quick_and_dirty" as system option (see also
   353 "isabelle options"), configuration option within the context (see also
   354 Config.get in Isabelle/ML), and attribute in Isabelle/Isar.  Minor
   355 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use more official Isabelle means to access
   356 quick_and_dirty, instead of historical poking into mutable reference.
   357 
   358 * Renamed command 'print_configs' to 'print_options'.  Minor
   359 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   360 
   361 * Proper diagnostic command 'print_state'.  Old 'pr' (with its
   362 implicit change of some global references) is retained for now as
   363 control command, e.g. for ProofGeneral 3.7.x.
   364 
   365 * Discontinued 'print_drafts' command with its old-fashioned PS output
   366 and Unix command-line print spooling.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: use
   367 'display_drafts' instead and print via the regular document viewer.
   368 
   369 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual,
   370 eliminated old "ref" manual.
   371 
   372 
   373 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   374 
   375 * New manual "jedit" for Isabelle/jEdit, see isabelle doc or
   376 Documentation panel.
   377 
   378 * Dockable window "Documentation" provides access to Isabelle
   379 documentation.
   380 
   381 * Dockable window "Find" provides query operations for formal entities
   382 (GUI front-end to 'find_theorems' command).
   383 
   384 * Dockable window "Sledgehammer" manages asynchronous / parallel
   385 sledgehammer runs over existing document sources, independently of
   386 normal editing and checking process.
   387 
   388 * Dockable window "Timing" provides an overview of relevant command
   389 timing information, depending on option jedit_timing_threshold.  The
   390 same timing information is shown in the extended tooltip of the
   391 command keyword, when hovering the mouse over it while the CONTROL or
   392 COMMAND modifier is pressed.
   393 
   394 * Improved dockable window "Theories": Continuous checking of proof
   395 document (visible and required parts) may be controlled explicitly,
   396 using check box or shortcut "C+e ENTER".  Individual theory nodes may
   397 be marked explicitly as required and checked in full, using check box
   398 or shortcut "C+e SPACE".
   399 
   400 * Improved completion mechanism, which is now managed by the
   401 Isabelle/jEdit plugin instead of SideKick.  Refined table of Isabelle
   402 symbol abbreviations (see $ISABELLE_HOME/etc/symbols).
   403 
   404 * Standard jEdit keyboard shortcut C+b complete-word is remapped to
   405 isabelle.complete for explicit completion in Isabelle sources.
   406 INCOMPATIBILITY wrt. jEdit defaults, may have to invent new shortcuts
   407 to resolve conflict.
   408 
   409 * Improved support of various "minor modes" for Isabelle NEWS,
   410 options, session ROOT etc., with completion and SideKick tree view.
   411 
   412 * Strictly monotonic document update, without premature cancellation of
   413 running transactions that are still needed: avoid reset/restart of
   414 such command executions while editing.
   415 
   416 * Support for asynchronous print functions, as overlay to existing
   417 document content.
   418 
   419 * Support for automatic tools in HOL, which try to prove or disprove
   420 toplevel theorem statements.
   421 
   422 * Action isabelle.reset-font-size resets main text area font size
   423 according to Isabelle/Scala plugin option "jedit_font_reset_size" (see
   424 also "Plugin Options / Isabelle / General").  It can be bound to some
   425 keyboard shortcut by the user (e.g. C+0 and/or C+NUMPAD0).
   426 
   427 * File specifications in jEdit (e.g. file browser) may refer to
   428 $ISABELLE_HOME and $ISABELLE_HOME_USER on all platforms.  Discontinued
   429 obsolete $ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS variable.
   430 
   431 * Improved support for Linux look-and-feel "GTK+", see also "Utilities
   432 / Global Options / Appearance".
   433 
   434 * Improved support of native Mac OS X functionality via "MacOSX"
   435 plugin, which is now enabled by default.
   436 
   437 
   438 *** Pure ***
   439 
   440 * Commands 'interpretation' and 'sublocale' are now target-sensitive.
   441 In particular, 'interpretation' allows for non-persistent
   442 interpretation within "context ... begin ... end" blocks offering a
   443 light-weight alternative to 'sublocale'.  See "isar-ref" manual for
   444 details.
   445 
   446 * Improved locales diagnostic command 'print_dependencies'.
   447 
   448 * Discontinued obsolete 'axioms' command, which has been marked as
   449 legacy since Isabelle2009-2.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use 'axiomatization'
   450 instead, while observing its uniform scope for polymorphism.
   451 
   452 * Discontinued empty name bindings in 'axiomatization'.
   453 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   454 
   455 * System option "proofs" has been discontinued.  Instead the global
   456 state of Proofterm.proofs is persistently compiled into logic images
   457 as required, notably HOL-Proofs.  Users no longer need to change
   458 Proofterm.proofs dynamically.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   459 
   460 * Syntax translation functions (print_translation etc.) always depend
   461 on Proof.context.  Discontinued former "(advanced)" option -- this is
   462 now the default.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   463 
   464 * Former global reference trace_unify_fail is now available as
   465 configuration option "unify_trace_failure" (global context only).
   466 
   467 * SELECT_GOAL now retains the syntactic context of the overall goal
   468 state (schematic variables etc.).  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY in rare
   469 situations.
   470 
   471 
   472 *** HOL ***
   473 
   474 * Stronger precedence of syntax for big intersection and union on
   475 sets, in accordance with corresponding lattice operations.
   476 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   477 
   478 * Notation "{p:A. P}" now allows tuple patterns as well.
   479 
   480 * Nested case expressions are now translated in a separate check phase
   481 rather than during parsing. The data for case combinators is separated
   482 from the datatype package. The declaration attribute
   483 "case_translation" can be used to register new case combinators:
   484 
   485   declare [[case_translation case_combinator constructor1 ... constructorN]]
   486 
   487 * Code generator:
   488   - 'code_printing' unifies 'code_const' / 'code_type' / 'code_class' /
   489     'code_instance'.
   490   - 'code_identifier' declares name hints for arbitrary identifiers in
   491     generated code, subsuming 'code_modulename'.
   492 
   493 See the isar-ref manual for syntax diagrams, and the HOL theories for
   494 examples.
   495 
   496 * Attibute 'code': 'code' now declares concrete and abstract code
   497 equations uniformly.  Use explicit 'code equation' and 'code abstract'
   498 to distinguish both when desired.
   499 
   500 * Discontinued theories Code_Integer and Efficient_Nat by a more
   501 fine-grain stack of theories Code_Target_Int, Code_Binary_Nat,
   502 Code_Target_Nat and Code_Target_Numeral.  See the tutorial on code
   503 generation for details.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   504 
   505 * Numeric types are mapped by default to target language numerals:
   506 natural (replaces former code_numeral) and integer (replaces former
   507 code_int).  Conversions are available as integer_of_natural /
   508 natural_of_integer / integer_of_nat / nat_of_integer (in HOL) and
   509 Code_Numeral.integer_of_natural / Code_Numeral.natural_of_integer (in
   510 ML).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   511 
   512 * Function package: For mutually recursive functions f and g, separate
   513 cases rules f.cases and g.cases are generated instead of unusable
   514 f_g.cases which exposed internal sum types. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   515 in the case that the unusable rule was used nevertheless.
   516 
   517 * Function package: For each function f, new rules f.elims are
   518 generated, which eliminate equalities of the form "f x = t".
   519 
   520 * New command 'fun_cases' derives ad-hoc elimination rules for
   521 function equations as simplified instances of f.elims, analogous to
   522 inductive_cases.  See ~~/src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy for some examples.
   523 
   524 * Lifting:
   525   - parametrized correspondence relations are now supported:
   526     + parametricity theorems for the raw term can be specified in
   527       the command lift_definition, which allow us to generate stronger
   528       transfer rules
   529     + setup_lifting generates stronger transfer rules if parametric
   530       correspondence relation can be generated
   531     + various new properties of the relator must be specified to support
   532       parametricity
   533     + parametricity theorem for the Quotient relation can be specified
   534   - setup_lifting generates domain rules for the Transfer package
   535   - stronger reflexivity prover of respectfulness theorems for type
   536     copies
   537   - ===> and --> are now local. The symbols can be introduced
   538     by interpreting the locale lifting_syntax (typically in an
   539     anonymous context)
   540   - Lifting/Transfer relevant parts of Library/Quotient_* are now in
   541     Main. Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   542   - new commands for restoring and deleting Lifting/Transfer context:
   543     lifting_forget, lifting_update
   544   - the command print_quotmaps was renamed to print_quot_maps.
   545     INCOMPATIBILITY
   546 
   547 * Transfer:
   548   - better support for domains in Transfer: replace Domainp T
   549     by the actual invariant in a transferred goal
   550   - transfer rules can have as assumptions other transfer rules
   551   - Experimental support for transferring from the raw level to the
   552     abstract level: Transfer.transferred attribute
   553   - Attribute version of the transfer method: untransferred attribute
   554 
   555 * Reification and reflection:
   556   - Reification is now directly available in HOL-Main in structure
   557     "Reification".
   558   - Reflection now handles multiple lists with variables also.
   559   - The whole reflection stack has been decomposed into conversions.
   560 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   561 
   562 * Revised devices for recursive definitions over finite sets:
   563   - Only one fundamental fold combinator on finite set remains:
   564     Finite_Set.fold :: ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
   565     This is now identity on infinite sets.
   566   - Locales ("mini packages") for fundamental definitions with
   567     Finite_Set.fold: folding, folding_idem.
   568   - Locales comm_monoid_set, semilattice_order_set and
   569     semilattice_neutr_order_set for big operators on sets.
   570     See theory Big_Operators for canonical examples.
   571     Note that foundational constants comm_monoid_set.F and
   572     semilattice_set.F correspond to former combinators fold_image
   573     and fold1 respectively.  These are now gone.  You may use
   574     those foundational constants as substitutes, but it is
   575     preferable to interpret the above locales accordingly.
   576   - Dropped class ab_semigroup_idem_mult (special case of lattice,
   577     no longer needed in connection with Finite_Set.fold etc.)
   578   - Fact renames:
   579       card.union_inter ~> card_Un_Int [symmetric]
   580       card.union_disjoint ~> card_Un_disjoint
   581 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   582 
   583 * Locale hierarchy for abstract orderings and (semi)lattices.
   584 
   585 * Complete_Partial_Order.admissible is defined outside the type class
   586 ccpo, but with mandatory prefix ccpo. Admissibility theorems lose the
   587 class predicate assumption or sort constraint when possible.
   588 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   589 
   590 * Introduce type class "conditionally_complete_lattice": Like a
   591 complete lattice but does not assume the existence of the top and
   592 bottom elements.  Allows to generalize some lemmas about reals and
   593 extended reals.  Removed SupInf and replaced it by the instantiation
   594 of conditionally_complete_lattice for real. Renamed lemmas about
   595 conditionally-complete lattice from Sup_... to cSup_... and from
   596 Inf_...  to cInf_... to avoid hidding of similar complete lattice
   597 lemmas.
   598 
   599 * Introduce type class linear_continuum as combination of
   600 conditionally-complete lattices and inner dense linorders which have
   601 more than one element.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   602 
   603 * Introduced type classes order_top and order_bot. The old classes top
   604 and bot only contain the syntax without assumptions.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
   605 Rename bot -> order_bot, top -> order_top
   606 
   607 * Introduce type classes "no_top" and "no_bot" for orderings without
   608 top and bottom elements.
   609 
   610 * Split dense_linorder into inner_dense_order and no_top, no_bot.
   611 
   612 * Complex_Main: Unify and move various concepts from
   613 HOL-Multivariate_Analysis to HOL-Complex_Main.
   614 
   615  - Introduce type class (lin)order_topology and
   616    linear_continuum_topology.  Allows to generalize theorems about
   617    limits and order.  Instances are reals and extended reals.
   618 
   619  - continuous and continuos_on from Multivariate_Analysis:
   620    "continuous" is the continuity of a function at a filter.  "isCont"
   621    is now an abbrevitation: "isCont x f == continuous (at _) f".
   622 
   623    Generalized continuity lemmas from isCont to continuous on an
   624    arbitrary filter.
   625 
   626  - compact from Multivariate_Analysis. Use Bolzano's lemma to prove
   627    compactness of closed intervals on reals. Continuous functions
   628    attain infimum and supremum on compact sets. The inverse of a
   629    continuous function is continuous, when the function is continuous
   630    on a compact set.
   631 
   632  - connected from Multivariate_Analysis. Use it to prove the
   633    intermediate value theorem. Show connectedness of intervals on
   634    linear_continuum_topology).
   635 
   636  - first_countable_topology from Multivariate_Analysis. Is used to
   637    show equivalence of properties on the neighbourhood filter of x and
   638    on all sequences converging to x.
   639 
   640  - FDERIV: Definition of has_derivative moved to Deriv.thy. Moved
   641    theorems from Library/FDERIV.thy to Deriv.thy and base the
   642    definition of DERIV on FDERIV. Add variants of DERIV and FDERIV
   643    which are restricted to sets, i.e. to represent derivatives from
   644    left or right.
   645 
   646  - Removed the within-filter. It is replaced by the principal filter:
   647 
   648      F within X = inf F (principal X)
   649 
   650  - Introduce "at x within U" as a single constant, "at x" is now an
   651    abbreviation for "at x within UNIV"
   652 
   653  - Introduce named theorem collections tendsto_intros,
   654    continuous_intros, continuous_on_intros and FDERIV_intros. Theorems
   655    in tendsto_intros (or FDERIV_intros) are also available as
   656    tendsto_eq_intros (or FDERIV_eq_intros) where the right-hand side
   657    is replaced by a congruence rule. This allows to apply them as
   658    intro rules and then proving equivalence by the simplifier.
   659 
   660  - Restructured theories in HOL-Complex_Main:
   661 
   662    + Moved RealDef and RComplete into Real
   663 
   664    + Introduced Topological_Spaces and moved theorems about
   665      topological spaces, filters, limits and continuity to it
   666 
   667    + Renamed RealVector to Real_Vector_Spaces
   668 
   669    + Split Lim, SEQ, Series into Topological_Spaces,
   670      Real_Vector_Spaces, and Limits
   671 
   672    + Moved Ln and Log to Transcendental
   673 
   674    + Moved theorems about continuity from Deriv to Topological_Spaces
   675 
   676  - Remove various auxiliary lemmas.
   677 
   678 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   679 
   680 * Nitpick:
   681   - Added option "spy"
   682   - Reduce incidence of "too high arity" errors
   683 
   684 * Sledgehammer:
   685   - Renamed option:
   686       isar_shrink ~> isar_compress
   687     INCOMPATIBILITY.
   688   - Added options "isar_try0", "spy"
   689   - Better support for "isar_proofs"
   690   - MaSh has been fined-tuned and now runs as a local server
   691 
   692 * Improved support for ad hoc overloading of constants (see also
   693 isar-ref manual and ~~/src/HOL/ex/Adhoc_Overloading_Examples.thy).
   694 
   695 * Library/Polynomial.thy:
   696   - Use lifting for primitive definitions.
   697   - Explicit conversions from and to lists of coefficients, used for
   698     generated code.
   699   - Replaced recursion operator poly_rec by fold_coeffs.
   700   - Prefer pre-existing gcd operation for gcd.
   701   - Fact renames:
   702     poly_eq_iff ~> poly_eq_poly_eq_iff
   703     poly_ext ~> poly_eqI
   704     expand_poly_eq ~> poly_eq_iff
   705 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   706 
   707 * New Library/Simps_Case_Conv.thy: Provides commands simps_of_case and
   708 case_of_simps to convert function definitions between a list of
   709 equations with patterns on the lhs and a single equation with case
   710 expressions on the rhs. See also Ex/Simps_Case_Conv_Examples.thy.
   711 
   712 * New Library/FSet.thy: type of finite sets defined as a subtype of
   713 sets defined by Lifting/Transfer.
   714 
   715 * Discontinued theory src/HOL/Library/Eval_Witness.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   716 
   717 * Consolidation of library theories on product orders:
   718 
   719     Product_Lattice ~> Product_Order -- pointwise order on products
   720     Product_ord ~> Product_Lexorder -- lexicographic order on products
   721 
   722 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   723 
   724 * Imperative-HOL: The MREC combinator is considered legacy and no
   725 longer included by default. INCOMPATIBILITY, use partial_function
   726 instead, or import theory Legacy_Mrec as a fallback.
   727 
   728 * HOL-Algebra: Discontinued theories ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/abstract and
   729 ~~/src/HOL/Algebra/poly.  Existing theories should be based on
   730 ~~/src/HOL/Library/Polynomial instead.  The latter provides
   731 integration with HOL's type classes for rings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   732 
   733 * HOL-BNF:
   734   - Various improvements to BNF-based (co)datatype package, including
   735     new commands "primrec_new", "primcorec", and
   736     "datatype_new_compat", as well as documentation. See
   737     "datatypes.pdf" for details.
   738   - New "coinduction" method to avoid some boilerplate (compared to
   739     coinduct).
   740   - Renamed keywords:
   741     data ~> datatype_new
   742     codata ~> codatatype
   743     bnf_def ~> bnf
   744   - Renamed many generated theorems, including
   745     discs ~> disc
   746     map_comp' ~> map_comp
   747     map_id' ~> map_id
   748     sels ~> sel
   749     set_map' ~> set_map
   750     sets ~> set
   751 IMCOMPATIBILITY.
   752 
   753 
   754 *** ML ***
   755 
   756 * Spec_Check is a Quickcheck tool for Isabelle/ML.  The ML function
   757 "check_property" allows to check specifications of the form "ALL x y
   758 z. prop x y z".  See also ~~/src/Tools/Spec_Check/ with its
   759 Examples.thy in particular.
   760 
   761 * Improved printing of exception trace in Poly/ML 5.5.1, with regular
   762 tracing output in the command transaction context instead of physical
   763 stdout.  See also Toplevel.debug, Toplevel.debugging and
   764 ML_Compiler.exn_trace.
   765 
   766 * ML type "theory" is now immutable, without any special treatment of
   767 drafts or linear updates (which could lead to "stale theory" errors in
   768 the past).  Discontinued obsolete operations like Theory.copy,
   769 Theory.checkpoint, and the auxiliary type theory_ref.  Minor
   770 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   771 
   772 * More uniform naming of goal functions for skipped proofs:
   773 
   774     Skip_Proof.prove  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry
   775     Skip_Proof.prove_global  ~>  Goal.prove_sorry_global
   776 
   777 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   778 
   779 * Simplifier tactics and tools use proper Proof.context instead of
   780 historic type simpset.  Old-style declarations like addsimps,
   781 addsimprocs etc. operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type simpset
   782 retains its use as snapshot of the main Simplifier context, using
   783 simpset_of and put_simpset on Proof.context.  INCOMPATIBILITY -- port
   784 old tools by making them depend on (ctxt : Proof.context) instead of
   785 (ss : simpset), then turn (simpset_of ctxt) into ctxt.
   786 
   787 * Modifiers for classical wrappers (e.g. addWrapper, delWrapper)
   788 operate on Proof.context instead of claset, for uniformity with addIs,
   789 addEs, addDs etc. Note that claset_of and put_claset allow to manage
   790 clasets separately from the context.
   791 
   792 * Discontinued obsolete ML antiquotations @{claset} and @{simpset}.
   793 INCOMPATIBILITY, use @{context} instead.
   794 
   795 * Antiquotation @{theory_context A} is similar to @{theory A}, but
   796 presents the result as initial Proof.context.
   797 
   798 
   799 *** System ***
   800 
   801 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle usedir, mkdir, make -- superseded by
   802 "isabelle build" in Isabelle2013.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   803 
   804 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle-process options -f and -u (former
   805 administrative aliases of option -e).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
   806 
   807 * Discontinued obsolete isabelle print tool, and PRINT_COMMAND
   808 settings variable.
   809 
   810 * Discontinued ISABELLE_DOC_FORMAT settings variable and historic
   811 document formats: dvi.gz, ps, ps.gz -- the default document format is
   812 always pdf.
   813 
   814 * Isabelle settings variable ISABELLE_BUILD_JAVA_OPTIONS allows to
   815 specify global resources of the JVM process run by isabelle build.
   816 
   817 * Toplevel executable $ISABELLE_HOME/bin/isabelle_scala_script allows
   818 to run Isabelle/Scala source files as standalone programs.
   819 
   820 * Improved "isabelle keywords" tool (for old-style ProofGeneral
   821 keyword tables): use Isabelle/Scala operations, which inspect outer
   822 syntax without requiring to build sessions first.
   823 
   824 * Sessions may be organized via 'chapter' specifications in the ROOT
   825 file, which determines a two-level hierarchy of browser info.  The old
   826 tree-like organization via implicit sub-session relation (with its
   827 tendency towards erratic fluctuation of URLs) has been discontinued.
   828 The default chapter is called "Unsorted".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
   829 for HTML presentation of theories.
   830 
   831 
   832 
   833 New in Isabelle2013 (February 2013)
   834 -----------------------------------
   835 
   836 *** General ***
   837 
   838 * Theorem status about oracles and unfinished/failed future proofs is
   839 no longer printed by default, since it is incompatible with
   840 incremental / parallel checking of the persistent document model.  ML
   841 function Thm.peek_status may be used to inspect a snapshot of the
   842 ongoing evaluation process.  Note that in batch mode --- notably
   843 isabelle build --- the system ensures that future proofs of all
   844 accessible theorems in the theory context are finished (as before).
   845 
   846 * Configuration option show_markup controls direct inlining of markup
   847 into the printed representation of formal entities --- notably type
   848 and sort constraints.  This enables Prover IDE users to retrieve that
   849 information via tooltips in the output window, for example.
   850 
   851 * Command 'ML_file' evaluates ML text from a file directly within the
   852 theory, without any predeclaration via 'uses' in the theory header.
   853 
   854 * Old command 'use' command and corresponding keyword 'uses' in the
   855 theory header are legacy features and will be discontinued soon.
   856 Tools that load their additional source files may imitate the
   857 'ML_file' implementation, such that the system can take care of
   858 dependencies properly.
   859 
   860 * Discontinued obsolete method fastsimp / tactic fast_simp_tac, which
   861 is called fastforce / fast_force_tac already since Isabelle2011-1.
   862 
   863 * Updated and extended "isar-ref" and "implementation" manual, reduced
   864 remaining material in old "ref" manual.
   865 
   866 * Improved support for auxiliary contexts that indicate block structure
   867 for specifications.  Nesting of "context fixes ... context assumes ..."
   868 and "class ... context ...".
   869 
   870 * Attribute "consumes" allows a negative value as well, which is
   871 interpreted relatively to the total number of premises of the rule in
   872 the target context.  This form of declaration is stable when exported
   873 from a nested 'context' with additional assumptions.  It is the
   874 preferred form for definitional packages, notably cases/rules produced
   875 in HOL/inductive and HOL/function.
   876 
   877 * More informative error messages for Isar proof commands involving
   878 lazy enumerations (method applications etc.).
   879 
   880 * Refined 'help' command to retrieve outer syntax commands according
   881 to name patterns (with clickable results).
   882 
   883 
   884 *** Prover IDE -- Isabelle/Scala/jEdit ***
   885 
   886 * Parallel terminal proofs ('by') are enabled by default, likewise
   887 proofs that are built into packages like 'datatype', 'function'.  This
   888 allows to "run ahead" checking the theory specifications on the
   889 surface, while the prover is still crunching on internal
   890 justifications.  Unfinished / cancelled proofs are restarted as
   891 required to complete full proof checking eventually.
   892 
   893 * Improved output panel with tooltips, hyperlinks etc. based on the
   894 same Rich_Text_Area as regular Isabelle/jEdit buffers.  Activation of
   895 tooltips leads to some window that supports the same recursively,
   896 which can lead to stacks of tooltips as the semantic document content
   897 is explored.  ESCAPE closes the whole stack, individual windows may be
   898 closed separately, or detached to become independent jEdit dockables.
   899 
   900 * Improved support for commands that produce graph output: the text
   901 message contains a clickable area to open a new instance of the graph
   902 browser on demand.
   903 
   904 * More robust incremental parsing of outer syntax (partial comments,
   905 malformed symbols).  Changing the balance of open/close quotes and
   906 comment delimiters works more conveniently with unfinished situations
   907 that frequently occur in user interaction.
   908 
   909 * More efficient painting and improved reactivity when editing large
   910 files.  More scalable management of formal document content.
   911 
   912 * Smarter handling of tracing messages: prover process pauses after
   913 certain number of messages per command transaction, with some user
   914 dialog to stop or continue.  This avoids swamping the front-end with
   915 potentially infinite message streams.
   916 
   917 * More plugin options and preferences, based on Isabelle/Scala.  The
   918 jEdit plugin option panel provides access to some Isabelle/Scala
   919 options, including tuning parameters for editor reactivity and color
   920 schemes.
   921 
   922 * Dockable window "Symbols" provides some editing support for Isabelle
   923 symbols.
   924 
   925 * Dockable window "Monitor" shows ML runtime statistics.  Note that
   926 continuous display of the chart slows down the system.
   927 
   928 * Improved editing support for control styles: subscript, superscript,
   929 bold, reset of style -- operating on single symbols or text
   930 selections.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C+e DOWN/UP/RIGHT/LEFT.
   931 
   932 * Actions isabelle.increase-font-size and isabelle.decrease-font-size
   933 adjust the main text area font size, and its derivatives for output,
   934 tooltips etc.  Cf. keyboard shortcuts C-PLUS and C-MINUS, which often
   935 need to be adapted to local keyboard layouts.
   936 
   937 * More reactive completion popup by default: use \t (TAB) instead of
   938 \n (NEWLINE) to minimize intrusion into regular flow of editing.  See
   939 also "Plugin Options / SideKick / General / Code Completion Options".
   940 
   941 * Implicit check and build dialog of the specified logic session
   942 image.  For example, HOL, HOLCF, HOL-Nominal can be produced on
   943 demand, without bundling big platform-dependent heap images in the
   944 Isabelle distribution.
   945 
   946 * Uniform Java 7 platform on Linux, Mac OS X, Windows: recent updates
   947 from Oracle provide better multi-platform experience.  This version is
   948 now bundled exclusively with Isabelle.
   949 
   950 
   951 *** Pure ***
   952 
   953 * Code generation for Haskell: restrict unqualified imports from
   954 Haskell Prelude to a small set of fundamental operations.
   955 
   956 * Command 'export_code': relative file names are interpreted
   957 relatively to master directory of current theory rather than the
   958 rather arbitrary current working directory.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
   959 
   960 * Discontinued obsolete attribute "COMP".  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY,
   961 use regular rule composition via "OF" / "THEN", or explicit proof
   962 structure instead.  Note that Isabelle/ML provides a variety of
   963 operators like COMP, INCR_COMP, COMP_INCR, which need to be applied
   964 with some care where this is really required.
   965 
   966 * Command 'typ' supports an additional variant with explicit sort
   967 constraint, to infer and check the most general type conforming to a
   968 given sort.  Example (in HOL):
   969 
   970   typ "_ * _ * bool * unit" :: finite
   971 
   972 * Command 'locale_deps' visualizes all locales and their relations as
   973 a Hasse diagram.
   974 
   975 
   976 *** HOL ***
   977 
   978 * Sledgehammer:
   979 
   980   - Added MaSh relevance filter based on machine-learning; see the
   981     Sledgehammer manual for details.
   982   - Polished Isar proofs generated with "isar_proofs" option.
   983   - Rationalized type encodings ("type_enc" option).
   984   - Renamed "kill_provers" subcommand to "kill_all".
   985   - Renamed options:
   986       isar_proof ~> isar_proofs
   987       isar_shrink_factor ~> isar_shrink
   988       max_relevant ~> max_facts
   989       relevance_thresholds ~> fact_thresholds
   990 
   991 * Quickcheck: added an optimisation for equality premises.  It is
   992 switched on by default, and can be switched off by setting the
   993 configuration quickcheck_optimise_equality to false.
   994 
   995 * Quotient: only one quotient can be defined by quotient_type
   996 INCOMPATIBILITY.
   997 
   998 * Lifting:
   999   - generation of an abstraction function equation in lift_definition
  1000   - quot_del attribute
  1001   - renamed no_abs_code -> no_code (INCOMPATIBILITY.)
  1002 
  1003 * Simproc "finite_Collect" rewrites set comprehensions into pointfree
  1004 expressions.
  1005 
  1006 * Preprocessing of the code generator rewrites set comprehensions into
  1007 pointfree expressions.
  1008 
  1009 * The SMT solver Z3 has now by default a restricted set of directly
  1010 supported features. For the full set of features (div/mod, nonlinear
  1011 arithmetic, datatypes/records) with potential proof reconstruction
  1012 failures, enable the configuration option "z3_with_extensions".  Minor
  1013 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1014 
  1015 * Simplified 'typedef' specifications: historical options for implicit
  1016 set definition and alternative name have been discontinued.  The
  1017 former behavior of "typedef (open) t = A" is now the default, but
  1018 written just "typedef t = A".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt theories
  1019 accordingly.
  1020 
  1021 * Removed constant "chars"; prefer "Enum.enum" on type "char"
  1022 directly.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1023 
  1024 * Moved operation product, sublists and n_lists from theory Enum to
  1025 List.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1026 
  1027 * Theorem UN_o generalized to SUP_comp.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1028 
  1029 * Class "comm_monoid_diff" formalises properties of bounded
  1030 subtraction, with natural numbers and multisets as typical instances.
  1031 
  1032 * Added combinator "Option.these" with type "'a option set => 'a set".
  1033 
  1034 * Theory "Transitive_Closure": renamed lemmas
  1035 
  1036   reflcl_tranclp -> reflclp_tranclp
  1037   rtranclp_reflcl -> rtranclp_reflclp
  1038 
  1039 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1040 
  1041 * Theory "Rings": renamed lemmas (in class semiring)
  1042 
  1043   left_distrib ~> distrib_right
  1044   right_distrib ~> distrib_left
  1045 
  1046 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1047 
  1048 * Generalized the definition of limits:
  1049 
  1050   - Introduced the predicate filterlim (LIM x F. f x :> G) which
  1051     expresses that when the input values x converge to F then the
  1052     output f x converges to G.
  1053 
  1054   - Added filters for convergence to positive (at_top) and negative
  1055     infinity (at_bot).
  1056 
  1057   - Moved infinity in the norm (at_infinity) from
  1058     Multivariate_Analysis to Complex_Main.
  1059 
  1060   - Removed real_tendsto_inf, it is superseded by "LIM x F. f x :>
  1061     at_top".
  1062 
  1063 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1064 
  1065 * Theory "Library/Option_ord" provides instantiation of option type to
  1066 lattice type classes.
  1067 
  1068 * Theory "Library/Multiset": renamed
  1069 
  1070     constant fold_mset ~> Multiset.fold
  1071     fact fold_mset_commute ~> fold_mset_comm
  1072 
  1073 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1074 
  1075 * Renamed theory Library/List_Prefix to Library/Sublist, with related
  1076 changes as follows.
  1077 
  1078   - Renamed constants (and related lemmas)
  1079 
  1080       prefix ~> prefixeq
  1081       strict_prefix ~> prefix
  1082 
  1083   - Replaced constant "postfix" by "suffixeq" with swapped argument
  1084     order (i.e., "postfix xs ys" is now "suffixeq ys xs") and dropped
  1085     old infix syntax "xs >>= ys"; use "suffixeq ys xs" instead.
  1086     Renamed lemmas accordingly.
  1087 
  1088   - Added constant "list_hembeq" for homeomorphic embedding on
  1089     lists. Added abbreviation "sublisteq" for special case
  1090     "list_hembeq (op =)".
  1091 
  1092   - Theory Library/Sublist no longer provides "order" and "bot" type
  1093     class instances for the prefix order (merely corresponding locale
  1094     interpretations). The type class instances are now in theory
  1095     Library/Prefix_Order.
  1096 
  1097   - The sublist relation of theory Library/Sublist_Order is now based
  1098     on "Sublist.sublisteq".  Renamed lemmas accordingly:
  1099 
  1100       le_list_append_le_same_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append_le_same_iff
  1101       le_list_append_mono ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_append_mono
  1102       le_list_below_empty ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil, Sublist.list_hembeq_Nil2
  1103       le_list_Cons_EX ~> Sublist.list_hembeq_ConsD
  1104       le_list_drop_Cons2 ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2'
  1105       le_list_drop_Cons_neq ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons2_neq
  1106       le_list_drop_Cons ~> Sublist.sublisteq_Cons'
  1107       le_list_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_drop_many
  1108       le_list_filter_left ~> Sublist.sublisteq_filter_left
  1109       le_list_rev_drop_many ~> Sublist.sublisteq_rev_drop_many
  1110       le_list_rev_take_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append
  1111       le_list_same_length ~> Sublist.sublisteq_same_length
  1112       le_list_take_many_iff ~> Sublist.sublisteq_append'
  1113       less_eq_list.drop ~> less_eq_list_drop
  1114       less_eq_list.induct ~> less_eq_list_induct
  1115       not_le_list_length ~> Sublist.not_sublisteq_length
  1116 
  1117 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1118 
  1119 * New theory Library/Countable_Set.
  1120 
  1121 * Theory Library/Debug and Library/Parallel provide debugging and
  1122 parallel execution for code generated towards Isabelle/ML.
  1123 
  1124 * Theory Library/FuncSet: Extended support for Pi and extensional and
  1125 introduce the extensional dependent function space "PiE". Replaced
  1126 extensional_funcset by an abbreviation, and renamed lemmas from
  1127 extensional_funcset to PiE as follows:
  1128 
  1129   extensional_empty  ~>  PiE_empty
  1130   extensional_funcset_empty_domain  ~>  PiE_empty_domain
  1131   extensional_funcset_empty_range  ~>  PiE_empty_range
  1132   extensional_funcset_arb  ~>  PiE_arb
  1133   extensional_funcset_mem  ~>  PiE_mem
  1134   extensional_funcset_extend_domainI  ~>  PiE_fun_upd
  1135   extensional_funcset_restrict_domain  ~>  fun_upd_in_PiE
  1136   extensional_funcset_extend_domain_eq  ~>  PiE_insert_eq
  1137   card_extensional_funcset  ~>  card_PiE
  1138   finite_extensional_funcset  ~>  finite_PiE
  1139 
  1140 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1141 
  1142 * Theory Library/FinFun: theory of almost everywhere constant
  1143 functions (supersedes the AFP entry "Code Generation for Functions as
  1144 Data").
  1145 
  1146 * Theory Library/Phantom: generic phantom type to make a type
  1147 parameter appear in a constant's type.  This alternative to adding
  1148 TYPE('a) as another parameter avoids unnecessary closures in generated
  1149 code.
  1150 
  1151 * Theory Library/RBT_Impl: efficient construction of red-black trees
  1152 from sorted associative lists. Merging two trees with rbt_union may
  1153 return a structurally different tree than before.  Potential
  1154 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1155 
  1156 * Theory Library/IArray: immutable arrays with code generation.
  1157 
  1158 * Theory Library/Finite_Lattice: theory of finite lattices.
  1159 
  1160 * HOL/Multivariate_Analysis: replaced
  1161 
  1162   "basis :: 'a::euclidean_space => nat => real"
  1163   "\<Chi>\<Chi> :: (nat => real) => 'a::euclidean_space"
  1164 
  1165 on euclidean spaces by using the inner product "_ \<bullet> _" with
  1166 vectors from the Basis set: "\<Chi>\<Chi> i. f i" is superseded by
  1167 "SUM i : Basis. f i * r i".
  1168 
  1169   With this change the following constants are also changed or removed:
  1170 
  1171     DIM('a) :: nat  ~>  card (Basis :: 'a set)   (is an abbreviation)
  1172     a $$ i  ~>  inner a i  (where i : Basis)
  1173     cart_base i  removed
  1174     \<pi>, \<pi>'  removed
  1175 
  1176   Theorems about these constants where removed.
  1177 
  1178   Renamed lemmas:
  1179 
  1180     component_le_norm  ~>  Basis_le_norm
  1181     euclidean_eq  ~>  euclidean_eq_iff
  1182     differential_zero_maxmin_component  ~>  differential_zero_maxmin_cart
  1183     euclidean_simps  ~>  inner_simps
  1184     independent_basis  ~>  independent_Basis
  1185     span_basis  ~>  span_Basis
  1186     in_span_basis  ~>  in_span_Basis
  1187     norm_bound_component_le  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_le
  1188     norm_bound_component_lt  ~>  norm_boound_Basis_lt
  1189     component_le_infnorm  ~>  Basis_le_infnorm
  1190 
  1191 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1192 
  1193 * HOL/Probability:
  1194 
  1195   - Added simproc "measurable" to automatically prove measurability.
  1196 
  1197   - Added induction rules for sigma sets with disjoint union
  1198     (sigma_sets_induct_disjoint) and for Borel-measurable functions
  1199     (borel_measurable_induct).
  1200 
  1201   - Added the Daniell-Kolmogorov theorem (the existence the limit of a
  1202     projective family).
  1203 
  1204 * HOL/Cardinals: Theories of ordinals and cardinals (supersedes the
  1205 AFP entry "Ordinals_and_Cardinals").
  1206 
  1207 * HOL/BNF: New (co)datatype package based on bounded natural functors
  1208 with support for mixed, nested recursion and interesting non-free
  1209 datatypes.
  1210 
  1211 * HOL/Finite_Set and Relation: added new set and relation operations
  1212 expressed by Finite_Set.fold.
  1213 
  1214 * New theory HOL/Library/RBT_Set: implementation of sets by red-black
  1215 trees for the code generator.
  1216 
  1217 * HOL/Library/RBT and HOL/Library/Mapping have been converted to
  1218 Lifting/Transfer.
  1219 possible INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1220 
  1221 * HOL/Set: renamed Set.project -> Set.filter
  1222 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1223 
  1224 
  1225 *** Document preparation ***
  1226 
  1227 * Dropped legacy antiquotations "term_style" and "thm_style", since
  1228 styles may be given as arguments to "term" and "thm" already.
  1229 Discontinued legacy styles "prem1" .. "prem19".
  1230 
  1231 * Default LaTeX rendering for \<euro> is now based on eurosym package,
  1232 instead of slightly exotic babel/greek.
  1233 
  1234 * Document variant NAME may use different LaTeX entry point
  1235 document/root_NAME.tex if that file exists, instead of the common
  1236 document/root.tex.
  1237 
  1238 * Simplified custom document/build script, instead of old-style
  1239 document/IsaMakefile.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1240 
  1241 
  1242 *** ML ***
  1243 
  1244 * The default limit for maximum number of worker threads is now 8,
  1245 instead of 4, in correspondence to capabilities of contemporary
  1246 hardware and Poly/ML runtime system.
  1247 
  1248 * Type Seq.results and related operations support embedded error
  1249 messages within lazy enumerations, and thus allow to provide
  1250 informative errors in the absence of any usable results.
  1251 
  1252 * Renamed Position.str_of to Position.here to emphasize that this is a
  1253 formal device to inline positions into message text, but not
  1254 necessarily printing visible text.
  1255 
  1256 
  1257 *** System ***
  1258 
  1259 * Advanced support for Isabelle sessions and build management, see
  1260 "system" manual for the chapter of that name, especially the "isabelle
  1261 build" tool and its examples.  The "isabelle mkroot" tool prepares
  1262 session root directories for use with "isabelle build", similar to
  1263 former "isabelle mkdir" for "isabelle usedir".  Note that this affects
  1264 document preparation as well.  INCOMPATIBILITY, isabelle usedir /
  1265 mkdir / make are rendered obsolete.
  1266 
  1267 * Discontinued obsolete Isabelle/build script, it is superseded by the
  1268 regular isabelle build tool.  For example:
  1269 
  1270   isabelle build -s -b HOL
  1271 
  1272 * Discontinued obsolete "isabelle makeall".
  1273 
  1274 * Discontinued obsolete IsaMakefile and ROOT.ML files from the
  1275 Isabelle distribution, except for rudimentary src/HOL/IsaMakefile that
  1276 provides some traditional targets that invoke "isabelle build".  Note
  1277 that this is inefficient!  Applications of Isabelle/HOL involving
  1278 "isabelle make" should be upgraded to use "isabelle build" directly.
  1279 
  1280 * The "isabelle options" tool prints Isabelle system options, as
  1281 required for "isabelle build", for example.
  1282 
  1283 * The "isabelle logo" tool produces EPS and PDF format simultaneously.
  1284 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY in command-line options.
  1285 
  1286 * The "isabelle install" tool has now a simpler command-line.  Minor
  1287 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1288 
  1289 * The "isabelle components" tool helps to resolve add-on components
  1290 that are not bundled, or referenced from a bare-bones repository
  1291 version of Isabelle.
  1292 
  1293 * Settings variable ISABELLE_PLATFORM_FAMILY refers to the general
  1294 platform family: "linux", "macos", "windows".
  1295 
  1296 * The ML system is configured as regular component, and no longer
  1297 picked up from some surrounding directory.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY
  1298 for home-made settings.
  1299 
  1300 * Improved ML runtime statistics (heap, threads, future tasks etc.).
  1301 
  1302 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2.1, which was the last version
  1303 without exception positions and advanced ML compiler/toplevel
  1304 configuration.
  1305 
  1306 * Discontinued special treatment of Proof General -- no longer guess
  1307 PROOFGENERAL_HOME based on accidental file-system layout.  Minor
  1308 INCOMPATIBILITY: provide PROOFGENERAL_HOME and PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS
  1309 settings manually, or use a Proof General version that has been
  1310 bundled as Isabelle component.
  1311 
  1312 
  1313 
  1314 New in Isabelle2012 (May 2012)
  1315 ------------------------------
  1316 
  1317 *** General ***
  1318 
  1319 * Prover IDE (PIDE) improvements:
  1320 
  1321   - more robust Sledgehammer integration (as before the sledgehammer
  1322     command-line needs to be typed into the source buffer)
  1323   - markup for bound variables
  1324   - markup for types of term variables (displayed as tooltips)
  1325   - support for user-defined Isar commands within the running session
  1326   - improved support for Unicode outside original 16bit range
  1327     e.g. glyph for \<A> (thanks to jEdit 4.5.1)
  1328 
  1329 * Forward declaration of outer syntax keywords within the theory
  1330 header -- minor INCOMPATIBILITY for user-defined commands.  Allow new
  1331 commands to be used in the same theory where defined.
  1332 
  1333 * Auxiliary contexts indicate block structure for specifications with
  1334 additional parameters and assumptions.  Such unnamed contexts may be
  1335 nested within other targets, like 'theory', 'locale', 'class',
  1336 'instantiation' etc.  Results from the local context are generalized
  1337 accordingly and applied to the enclosing target context.  Example:
  1338 
  1339   context
  1340     fixes x y z :: 'a
  1341     assumes xy: "x = y" and yz: "y = z"
  1342   begin
  1343 
  1344   lemma my_trans: "x = z" using xy yz by simp
  1345 
  1346   end
  1347 
  1348   thm my_trans
  1349 
  1350 The most basic application is to factor-out context elements of
  1351 several fixes/assumes/shows theorem statements, e.g. see
  1352 ~~/src/HOL/Isar_Examples/Group_Context.thy
  1353 
  1354 Any other local theory specification element works within the "context
  1355 ... begin ... end" block as well.
  1356 
  1357 * Bundled declarations associate attributed fact expressions with a
  1358 given name in the context.  These may be later included in other
  1359 contexts.  This allows to manage context extensions casually, without
  1360 the logical dependencies of locales and locale interpretation.  See
  1361 commands 'bundle', 'include', 'including' etc. in the isar-ref manual.
  1362 
  1363 * Commands 'lemmas' and 'theorems' allow local variables using 'for'
  1364 declaration, and results are standardized before being stored.  Thus
  1365 old-style "standard" after instantiation or composition of facts
  1366 becomes obsolete.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, due to potential change of
  1367 indices of schematic variables.
  1368 
  1369 * Rule attributes in local theory declarations (e.g. locale or class)
  1370 are now statically evaluated: the resulting theorem is stored instead
  1371 of the original expression.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1372 the historic accident of dynamic re-evaluation in interpretations
  1373 etc. was exploited.
  1374 
  1375 * New tutorial "Programming and Proving in Isabelle/HOL"
  1376 ("prog-prove").  It completely supersedes "A Tutorial Introduction to
  1377 Structured Isar Proofs" ("isar-overview"), which has been removed.  It
  1378 also supersedes "Isabelle/HOL, A Proof Assistant for Higher-Order
  1379 Logic" as the recommended beginners tutorial, but does not cover all
  1380 of the material of that old tutorial.
  1381 
  1382 * Updated and extended reference manuals: "isar-ref",
  1383 "implementation", "system"; reduced remaining material in old "ref"
  1384 manual.
  1385 
  1386 
  1387 *** Pure ***
  1388 
  1389 * Command 'definition' no longer exports the foundational "raw_def"
  1390 into the user context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, may use the regular
  1391 "def" result with attribute "abs_def" to imitate the old version.
  1392 
  1393 * Attribute "abs_def" turns an equation of the form "f x y == t" into
  1394 "f == %x y. t", which ensures that "simp" or "unfold" steps always
  1395 expand it.  This also works for object-logic equality.  (Formerly
  1396 undocumented feature.)
  1397 
  1398 * Sort constraints are now propagated in simultaneous statements, just
  1399 like type constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, where
  1400 distinct sorts used to be assigned accidentally.  For example:
  1401 
  1402   lemma "P (x::'a::foo)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"  -- "now illegal"
  1403 
  1404   lemma "P (x::'a)" and "Q (y::'a::bar)"
  1405     -- "now uniform 'a::bar instead of default sort for first occurrence (!)"
  1406 
  1407 * Rule composition via attribute "OF" (or ML functions OF/MRS) is more
  1408 tolerant against multiple unifiers, as long as the final result is
  1409 unique.  (As before, rules are composed in canonical right-to-left
  1410 order to accommodate newly introduced premises.)
  1411 
  1412 * Renamed some inner syntax categories:
  1413 
  1414     num ~> num_token
  1415     xnum ~> xnum_token
  1416     xstr ~> str_token
  1417 
  1418 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that in practice "num_const" or
  1419 "num_position" etc. are mainly used instead (which also include
  1420 position information via constraints).
  1421 
  1422 * Simplified configuration options for syntax ambiguity: see
  1423 "syntax_ambiguity_warning" and "syntax_ambiguity_limit" in isar-ref
  1424 manual.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1425 
  1426 * Discontinued configuration option "syntax_positions": atomic terms
  1427 in parse trees are always annotated by position constraints.
  1428 
  1429 * Old code generator for SML and its commands 'code_module',
  1430 'code_library', 'consts_code', 'types_code' have been discontinued.
  1431 Use commands of the generic code generator instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1432 
  1433 * Redundant attribute "code_inline" has been discontinued. Use
  1434 "code_unfold" instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1435 
  1436 * Dropped attribute "code_unfold_post" in favor of the its dual
  1437 "code_abbrev", which yields a common pattern in definitions like
  1438 
  1439   definition [code_abbrev]: "f = t"
  1440 
  1441 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1442 
  1443 * Obsolete 'types' command has been discontinued.  Use 'type_synonym'
  1444 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1445 
  1446 * Discontinued old "prems" fact, which used to refer to the accidental
  1447 collection of foundational premises in the context (already marked as
  1448 legacy since Isabelle2011).
  1449 
  1450 
  1451 *** HOL ***
  1452 
  1453 * Type 'a set is now a proper type constructor (just as before
  1454 Isabelle2008).  Definitions mem_def and Collect_def have disappeared.
  1455 Non-trivial INCOMPATIBILITY.  For developments keeping predicates and
  1456 sets separate, it is often sufficient to rephrase some set S that has
  1457 been accidentally used as predicates by "%x. x : S", and some
  1458 predicate P that has been accidentally used as set by "{x. P x}".
  1459 Corresponding proofs in a first step should be pruned from any
  1460 tinkering with former theorems mem_def and Collect_def as far as
  1461 possible.
  1462 
  1463 For developments which deliberately mix predicates and sets, a
  1464 planning step is necessary to determine what should become a predicate
  1465 and what a set.  It can be helpful to carry out that step in
  1466 Isabelle2011-1 before jumping right into the current release.
  1467 
  1468 * Code generation by default implements sets as container type rather
  1469 than predicates.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1470 
  1471 * New type synonym 'a rel = ('a * 'a) set
  1472 
  1473 * The representation of numerals has changed.  Datatype "num"
  1474 represents strictly positive binary numerals, along with functions
  1475 "numeral :: num => 'a" and "neg_numeral :: num => 'a" to represent
  1476 positive and negated numeric literals, respectively.  See also
  1477 definitions in ~~/src/HOL/Num.thy.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, some
  1478 user theories may require adaptations as follows:
  1479 
  1480   - Theorems with number_ring or number_semiring constraints: These
  1481     classes are gone; use comm_ring_1 or comm_semiring_1 instead.
  1482 
  1483   - Theories defining numeric types: Remove number, number_semiring,
  1484     and number_ring instances. Defer all theorems about numerals until
  1485     after classes one and semigroup_add have been instantiated.
  1486 
  1487   - Numeral-only simp rules: Replace each rule having a "number_of v"
  1488     pattern with two copies, one for numeral and one for neg_numeral.
  1489 
  1490   - Theorems about subclasses of semiring_1 or ring_1: These classes
  1491     automatically support numerals now, so more simp rules and
  1492     simprocs may now apply within the proof.
  1493 
  1494   - Definitions and theorems using old constructors Pls/Min/Bit0/Bit1:
  1495     Redefine using other integer operations.
  1496 
  1497 * Transfer: New package intended to generalize the existing
  1498 "descending" method and related theorem attributes from the Quotient
  1499 package.  (Not all functionality is implemented yet, but future
  1500 development will focus on Transfer as an eventual replacement for the
  1501 corresponding parts of the Quotient package.)
  1502 
  1503   - transfer_rule attribute: Maintains a collection of transfer rules,
  1504     which relate constants at two different types. Transfer rules may
  1505     relate different type instances of the same polymorphic constant,
  1506     or they may relate an operation on a raw type to a corresponding
  1507     operation on an abstract type (quotient or subtype). For example:
  1508 
  1509     ((A ===> B) ===> list_all2 A ===> list_all2 B) map map
  1510     (cr_int ===> cr_int ===> cr_int) (%(x,y) (u,v). (x+u, y+v)) plus_int
  1511 
  1512   - transfer method: Replaces a subgoal on abstract types with an
  1513     equivalent subgoal on the corresponding raw types. Constants are
  1514     replaced with corresponding ones according to the transfer rules.
  1515     Goals are generalized over all free variables by default; this is
  1516     necessary for variables whose types change, but can be overridden
  1517     for specific variables with e.g. "transfer fixing: x y z".  The
  1518     variant transfer' method allows replacing a subgoal with one that
  1519     is logically stronger (rather than equivalent).
  1520 
  1521   - relator_eq attribute: Collects identity laws for relators of
  1522     various type constructors, e.g. "list_all2 (op =) = (op =)".  The
  1523     transfer method uses these lemmas to infer transfer rules for
  1524     non-polymorphic constants on the fly.
  1525 
  1526   - transfer_prover method: Assists with proving a transfer rule for a
  1527     new constant, provided the constant is defined in terms of other
  1528     constants that already have transfer rules. It should be applied
  1529     after unfolding the constant definitions.
  1530 
  1531   - HOL/ex/Transfer_Int_Nat.thy: Example theory demonstrating transfer
  1532     from type nat to type int.
  1533 
  1534 * Lifting: New package intended to generalize the quotient_definition
  1535 facility of the Quotient package; designed to work with Transfer.
  1536 
  1537   - lift_definition command: Defines operations on an abstract type in
  1538     terms of a corresponding operation on a representation
  1539     type.  Example syntax:
  1540 
  1541     lift_definition dlist_insert :: "'a => 'a dlist => 'a dlist"
  1542       is List.insert
  1543 
  1544     Users must discharge a respectfulness proof obligation when each
  1545     constant is defined. (For a type copy, i.e. a typedef with UNIV,
  1546     the proof is discharged automatically.) The obligation is
  1547     presented in a user-friendly, readable form; a respectfulness
  1548     theorem in the standard format and a transfer rule are generated
  1549     by the package.
  1550 
  1551   - Integration with code_abstype: For typedefs (e.g. subtypes
  1552     corresponding to a datatype invariant, such as dlist),
  1553     lift_definition generates a code certificate theorem and sets up
  1554     code generation for each constant.
  1555 
  1556   - setup_lifting command: Sets up the Lifting package to work with a
  1557     user-defined type. The user must provide either a quotient theorem
  1558     or a type_definition theorem.  The package configures transfer
  1559     rules for equality and quantifiers on the type, and sets up the
  1560     lift_definition command to work with the type.
  1561 
  1562   - Usage examples: See Quotient_Examples/Lift_DList.thy,
  1563     Quotient_Examples/Lift_RBT.thy, Quotient_Examples/Lift_FSet.thy,
  1564     Word/Word.thy and Library/Float.thy.
  1565 
  1566 * Quotient package:
  1567 
  1568   - The 'quotient_type' command now supports a 'morphisms' option with
  1569     rep and abs functions, similar to typedef.
  1570 
  1571   - 'quotient_type' sets up new types to work with the Lifting and
  1572     Transfer packages, as with 'setup_lifting'.
  1573 
  1574   - The 'quotient_definition' command now requires the user to prove a
  1575     respectfulness property at the point where the constant is
  1576     defined, similar to lift_definition; INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1577 
  1578   - Renamed predicate 'Quotient' to 'Quotient3', and renamed theorems
  1579     accordingly, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1580 
  1581 * New diagnostic command 'find_unused_assms' to find potentially
  1582 superfluous assumptions in theorems using Quickcheck.
  1583 
  1584 * Quickcheck:
  1585 
  1586   - Quickcheck returns variable assignments as counterexamples, which
  1587     allows to reveal the underspecification of functions under test.
  1588     For example, refuting "hd xs = x", it presents the variable
  1589     assignment xs = [] and x = a1 as a counterexample, assuming that
  1590     any property is false whenever "hd []" occurs in it.
  1591 
  1592     These counterexample are marked as potentially spurious, as
  1593     Quickcheck also returns "xs = []" as a counterexample to the
  1594     obvious theorem "hd xs = hd xs".
  1595 
  1596     After finding a potentially spurious counterexample, Quickcheck
  1597     continues searching for genuine ones.
  1598 
  1599     By default, Quickcheck shows potentially spurious and genuine
  1600     counterexamples. The option "genuine_only" sets quickcheck to only
  1601     show genuine counterexamples.
  1602 
  1603   - The command 'quickcheck_generator' creates random and exhaustive
  1604     value generators for a given type and operations.
  1605 
  1606     It generates values by using the operations as if they were
  1607     constructors of that type.
  1608 
  1609   - Support for multisets.
  1610 
  1611   - Added "use_subtype" options.
  1612 
  1613   - Added "quickcheck_locale" configuration to specify how to process
  1614     conjectures in a locale context.
  1615 
  1616 * Nitpick: Fixed infinite loop caused by the 'peephole_optim' option
  1617 and affecting 'rat' and 'real'.
  1618 
  1619 * Sledgehammer:
  1620   - Integrated more tightly with SPASS, as described in the ITP 2012
  1621     paper "More SPASS with Isabelle".
  1622   - Made it try "smt" as a fallback if "metis" fails or times out.
  1623   - Added support for the following provers: Alt-Ergo (via Why3 and
  1624     TFF1), iProver, iProver-Eq.
  1625   - Sped up the minimizer.
  1626   - Added "lam_trans", "uncurry_aliases", and "minimize" options.
  1627   - Renamed "slicing" ("no_slicing") option to "slice" ("dont_slice").
  1628   - Renamed "sound" option to "strict".
  1629 
  1630 * Metis: Added possibility to specify lambda translations scheme as a
  1631 parenthesized argument (e.g., "by (metis (lifting) ...)").
  1632 
  1633 * SMT: Renamed "smt_fixed" option to "smt_read_only_certificates".
  1634 
  1635 * Command 'try0': Renamed from 'try_methods'. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1636 
  1637 * New "case_product" attribute to generate a case rule doing multiple
  1638 case distinctions at the same time.  E.g.
  1639 
  1640   list.exhaust [case_product nat.exhaust]
  1641 
  1642 produces a rule which can be used to perform case distinction on both
  1643 a list and a nat.
  1644 
  1645 * New "eventually_elim" method as a generalized variant of the
  1646 eventually_elim* rules.  Supports structured proofs.
  1647 
  1648 * Typedef with implicit set definition is considered legacy.  Use
  1649 "typedef (open)" form instead, which will eventually become the
  1650 default.
  1651 
  1652 * Record: code generation can be switched off manually with
  1653 
  1654   declare [[record_coden = false]]  -- "default true"
  1655 
  1656 * Datatype: type parameters allow explicit sort constraints.
  1657 
  1658 * Concrete syntax for case expressions includes constraints for source
  1659 positions, and thus produces Prover IDE markup for its bindings.
  1660 INCOMPATIBILITY for old-style syntax translations that augment the
  1661 pattern notation; e.g. see src/HOL/HOLCF/One.thy for translations of
  1662 one_case.
  1663 
  1664 * Clarified attribute "mono_set": pure declaration without modifying
  1665 the result of the fact expression.
  1666 
  1667 * More default pred/set conversions on a couple of relation operations
  1668 and predicates.  Added powers of predicate relations.  Consolidation
  1669 of some relation theorems:
  1670 
  1671   converse_def ~> converse_unfold
  1672   rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1673   symp_def ~> (modified, use symp_def and sym_def instead)
  1674   transp_def ~> transp_trans
  1675   Domain_def ~> Domain_unfold
  1676   Range_def ~> Domain_converse [symmetric]
  1677 
  1678 Generalized theorems INF_INT_eq, INF_INT_eq2, SUP_UN_eq, SUP_UN_eq2.
  1679 
  1680 See theory "Relation" for examples for making use of pred/set
  1681 conversions by means of attributes "to_set" and "to_pred".
  1682 
  1683 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1684 
  1685 * Renamed facts about the power operation on relations, i.e., relpow
  1686 to match the constant's name:
  1687 
  1688   rel_pow_1 ~> relpow_1
  1689   rel_pow_0_I ~> relpow_0_I
  1690   rel_pow_Suc_I ~> relpow_Suc_I
  1691   rel_pow_Suc_I2 ~> relpow_Suc_I2
  1692   rel_pow_0_E ~> relpow_0_E
  1693   rel_pow_Suc_E ~> relpow_Suc_E
  1694   rel_pow_E ~> relpow_E
  1695   rel_pow_Suc_D2 ~> relpow_Suc_D2
  1696   rel_pow_Suc_E2 ~> relpow_Suc_E2
  1697   rel_pow_Suc_D2' ~> relpow_Suc_D2'
  1698   rel_pow_E2 ~> relpow_E2
  1699   rel_pow_add ~> relpow_add
  1700   rel_pow_commute ~> relpow
  1701   rel_pow_empty ~> relpow_empty:
  1702   rtrancl_imp_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_UN_relpow
  1703   rel_pow_imp_rtrancl ~> relpow_imp_rtrancl
  1704   rtrancl_is_UN_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_is_UN_relpow
  1705   rtrancl_imp_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_imp_relpow
  1706   rel_pow_fun_conv ~> relpow_fun_conv
  1707   rel_pow_finite_bounded1 ~> relpow_finite_bounded1
  1708   rel_pow_finite_bounded ~> relpow_finite_bounded
  1709   rtrancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> rtrancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1710   trancl_finite_eq_rel_pow ~> trancl_finite_eq_relpow
  1711   single_valued_rel_pow ~> single_valued_relpow
  1712 
  1713 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1714 
  1715 * Theory Relation: Consolidated constant name for relation composition
  1716 and corresponding theorem names:
  1717 
  1718   - Renamed constant rel_comp to relcomp.
  1719 
  1720   - Dropped abbreviation pred_comp. Use relcompp instead.
  1721 
  1722   - Renamed theorems:
  1723 
  1724     rel_compI ~> relcompI
  1725     rel_compEpair ~> relcompEpair
  1726     rel_compE ~> relcompE
  1727     pred_comp_rel_comp_eq ~> relcompp_relcomp_eq
  1728     rel_comp_empty1 ~> relcomp_empty1
  1729     rel_comp_mono ~> relcomp_mono
  1730     rel_comp_subset_Sigma ~> relcomp_subset_Sigma
  1731     rel_comp_distrib ~> relcomp_distrib
  1732     rel_comp_distrib2 ~> relcomp_distrib2
  1733     rel_comp_UNION_distrib ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib
  1734     rel_comp_UNION_distrib2 ~> relcomp_UNION_distrib2
  1735     single_valued_rel_comp ~> single_valued_relcomp
  1736     rel_comp_def ~> relcomp_unfold
  1737     converse_rel_comp ~> converse_relcomp
  1738     pred_compI ~> relcomppI
  1739     pred_compE ~> relcomppE
  1740     pred_comp_bot1 ~> relcompp_bot1
  1741     pred_comp_bot2 ~> relcompp_bot2
  1742     transp_pred_comp_less_eq ~> transp_relcompp_less_eq
  1743     pred_comp_mono ~> relcompp_mono
  1744     pred_comp_distrib ~> relcompp_distrib
  1745     pred_comp_distrib2 ~> relcompp_distrib2
  1746     converse_pred_comp ~> converse_relcompp
  1747 
  1748     finite_rel_comp ~> finite_relcomp
  1749 
  1750     set_rel_comp ~> set_relcomp
  1751 
  1752 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1753 
  1754 * Theory Divides: Discontinued redundant theorems about div and mod.
  1755 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1756 
  1757   DIVISION_BY_ZERO ~> div_by_0, mod_by_0
  1758   zdiv_self ~> div_self
  1759   zmod_self ~> mod_self
  1760   zdiv_zero ~> div_0
  1761   zmod_zero ~> mod_0
  1762   zdiv_zmod_equality ~> div_mod_equality2
  1763   zdiv_zmod_equality2 ~> div_mod_equality
  1764   zmod_zdiv_trivial ~> mod_div_trivial
  1765   zdiv_zminus_zminus ~> div_minus_minus
  1766   zmod_zminus_zminus ~> mod_minus_minus
  1767   zdiv_zminus2 ~> div_minus_right
  1768   zmod_zminus2 ~> mod_minus_right
  1769   zdiv_minus1_right ~> div_minus1_right
  1770   zmod_minus1_right ~> mod_minus1_right
  1771   zdvd_mult_div_cancel ~> dvd_mult_div_cancel
  1772   zmod_zmult1_eq ~> mod_mult_right_eq
  1773   zpower_zmod ~> power_mod
  1774   zdvd_zmod ~> dvd_mod
  1775   zdvd_zmod_imp_zdvd ~> dvd_mod_imp_dvd
  1776   mod_mult_distrib ~> mult_mod_left
  1777   mod_mult_distrib2 ~> mult_mod_right
  1778 
  1779 * Removed redundant theorems nat_mult_2 and nat_mult_2_right; use
  1780 generic mult_2 and mult_2_right instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1781 
  1782 * Finite_Set.fold now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1783 
  1784 * Consolidated theorem names concerning fold combinators:
  1785 
  1786   inf_INFI_fold_inf ~> inf_INF_fold_inf
  1787   sup_SUPR_fold_sup ~> sup_SUP_fold_sup
  1788   INFI_fold_inf ~> INF_fold_inf
  1789   SUPR_fold_sup ~> SUP_fold_sup
  1790   union_set ~> union_set_fold
  1791   minus_set ~> minus_set_fold
  1792   INFI_set_fold ~> INF_set_fold
  1793   SUPR_set_fold ~> SUP_set_fold
  1794   INF_code ~> INF_set_foldr
  1795   SUP_code ~> SUP_set_foldr
  1796   foldr.simps ~> foldr.simps (in point-free formulation)
  1797   foldr_fold_rev ~> foldr_conv_fold
  1798   foldl_fold ~> foldl_conv_fold
  1799   foldr_foldr ~> foldr_conv_foldl
  1800   foldl_foldr ~> foldl_conv_foldr
  1801   fold_set_remdups ~> fold_set_fold_remdups
  1802   fold_set ~> fold_set_fold
  1803   fold1_set ~> fold1_set_fold
  1804 
  1805 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1806 
  1807 * Dropped rarely useful theorems concerning fold combinators:
  1808 foldl_apply, foldl_fun_comm, foldl_rev, fold_weak_invariant,
  1809 rev_foldl_cons, fold_set_remdups, fold_set, fold_set1,
  1810 concat_conv_foldl, foldl_weak_invariant, foldl_invariant,
  1811 foldr_invariant, foldl_absorb0, foldl_foldr1_lemma, foldl_foldr1,
  1812 listsum_conv_fold, listsum_foldl, sort_foldl_insort, foldl_assoc,
  1813 foldr_conv_foldl, start_le_sum, elem_le_sum, sum_eq_0_conv.
  1814 INCOMPATIBILITY.  For the common phrases "%xs. List.foldr plus xs 0"
  1815 and "List.foldl plus 0", prefer "List.listsum".  Otherwise it can be
  1816 useful to boil down "List.foldr" and "List.foldl" to "List.fold" by
  1817 unfolding "foldr_conv_fold" and "foldl_conv_fold".
  1818 
  1819 * Dropped lemmas minus_set_foldr, union_set_foldr, union_coset_foldr,
  1820 inter_coset_foldr, Inf_fin_set_foldr, Sup_fin_set_foldr,
  1821 Min_fin_set_foldr, Max_fin_set_foldr, Inf_set_foldr, Sup_set_foldr,
  1822 INF_set_foldr, SUP_set_foldr.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Prefer corresponding
  1823 lemmas over fold rather than foldr, or make use of lemmas
  1824 fold_conv_foldr and fold_rev.
  1825 
  1826 * Congruence rules Option.map_cong and Option.bind_cong for recursion
  1827 through option types.
  1828 
  1829 * "Transitive_Closure.ntrancl": bounded transitive closure on
  1830 relations.
  1831 
  1832 * Constant "Set.not_member" now qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1833 
  1834 * Theory Int: Discontinued many legacy theorems specific to type int.
  1835 INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems instead.
  1836 
  1837   zminus_zminus ~> minus_minus
  1838   zminus_0 ~> minus_zero
  1839   zminus_zadd_distrib ~> minus_add_distrib
  1840   zadd_commute ~> add_commute
  1841   zadd_assoc ~> add_assoc
  1842   zadd_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  1843   zadd_ac ~> add_ac
  1844   zmult_ac ~> mult_ac
  1845   zadd_0 ~> add_0_left
  1846   zadd_0_right ~> add_0_right
  1847   zadd_zminus_inverse2 ~> left_minus
  1848   zmult_zminus ~> mult_minus_left
  1849   zmult_commute ~> mult_commute
  1850   zmult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  1851   zadd_zmult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  1852   zadd_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_distrib
  1853   zdiff_zmult_distrib ~> left_diff_distrib
  1854   zdiff_zmult_distrib2 ~> right_diff_distrib
  1855   zmult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  1856   zmult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  1857   zle_refl ~> order_refl
  1858   zle_trans ~> order_trans
  1859   zle_antisym ~> order_antisym
  1860   zle_linear ~> linorder_linear
  1861   zless_linear ~> linorder_less_linear
  1862   zadd_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  1863   zadd_strict_right_mono ~> add_strict_right_mono
  1864   zadd_zless_mono ~> add_less_le_mono
  1865   int_0_less_1 ~> zero_less_one
  1866   int_0_neq_1 ~> zero_neq_one
  1867   zless_le ~> less_le
  1868   zpower_zadd_distrib ~> power_add
  1869   zero_less_zpower_abs_iff ~> zero_less_power_abs_iff
  1870   zero_le_zpower_abs ~> zero_le_power_abs
  1871 
  1872 * Theory Deriv: Renamed
  1873 
  1874   DERIV_nonneg_imp_nonincreasing ~> DERIV_nonneg_imp_nondecreasing
  1875 
  1876 * Theory Library/Multiset: Improved code generation of multisets.
  1877 
  1878 * Theory HOL/Library/Set_Algebras: Addition and multiplication on sets
  1879 are expressed via type classes again. The special syntax
  1880 \<oplus>/\<otimes> has been replaced by plain +/*. Removed constant
  1881 setsum_set, which is now subsumed by Big_Operators.setsum.
  1882 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  1883 
  1884 * Theory HOL/Library/Diagonalize has been removed. INCOMPATIBILITY,
  1885 use theory HOL/Library/Nat_Bijection instead.
  1886 
  1887 * Theory HOL/Library/RBT_Impl: Backing implementation of red-black
  1888 trees is now inside a type class context.  Names of affected
  1889 operations and lemmas have been prefixed by rbt_.  INCOMPATIBILITY for
  1890 theories working directly with raw red-black trees, adapt the names as
  1891 follows:
  1892 
  1893   Operations:
  1894   bulkload -> rbt_bulkload
  1895   del_from_left -> rbt_del_from_left
  1896   del_from_right -> rbt_del_from_right
  1897   del -> rbt_del
  1898   delete -> rbt_delete
  1899   ins -> rbt_ins
  1900   insert -> rbt_insert
  1901   insertw -> rbt_insert_with
  1902   insert_with_key -> rbt_insert_with_key
  1903   map_entry -> rbt_map_entry
  1904   lookup -> rbt_lookup
  1905   sorted -> rbt_sorted
  1906   tree_greater -> rbt_greater
  1907   tree_less -> rbt_less
  1908   tree_less_symbol -> rbt_less_symbol
  1909   union -> rbt_union
  1910   union_with -> rbt_union_with
  1911   union_with_key -> rbt_union_with_key
  1912 
  1913   Lemmas:
  1914   balance_left_sorted -> balance_left_rbt_sorted
  1915   balance_left_tree_greater -> balance_left_rbt_greater
  1916   balance_left_tree_less -> balance_left_rbt_less
  1917   balance_right_sorted -> balance_right_rbt_sorted
  1918   balance_right_tree_greater -> balance_right_rbt_greater
  1919   balance_right_tree_less -> balance_right_rbt_less
  1920   balance_sorted -> balance_rbt_sorted
  1921   balance_tree_greater -> balance_rbt_greater
  1922   balance_tree_less -> balance_rbt_less
  1923   bulkload_is_rbt -> rbt_bulkload_is_rbt
  1924   combine_sorted -> combine_rbt_sorted
  1925   combine_tree_greater -> combine_rbt_greater
  1926   combine_tree_less -> combine_rbt_less
  1927   delete_in_tree -> rbt_delete_in_tree
  1928   delete_is_rbt -> rbt_delete_is_rbt
  1929   del_from_left_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_greater
  1930   del_from_left_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_left_rbt_less
  1931   del_from_right_tree_greater -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_greater
  1932   del_from_right_tree_less -> rbt_del_from_right_rbt_less
  1933   del_in_tree -> rbt_del_in_tree
  1934   del_inv1_inv2 -> rbt_del_inv1_inv2
  1935   del_sorted -> rbt_del_rbt_sorted
  1936   del_tree_greater -> rbt_del_rbt_greater
  1937   del_tree_less -> rbt_del_rbt_less
  1938   dom_lookup_Branch -> dom_rbt_lookup_Branch
  1939   entries_lookup -> entries_rbt_lookup
  1940   finite_dom_lookup -> finite_dom_rbt_lookup
  1941   insert_sorted -> rbt_insert_rbt_sorted
  1942   insertw_is_rbt -> rbt_insertw_is_rbt
  1943   insertwk_is_rbt -> rbt_insertwk_is_rbt
  1944   insertwk_sorted -> rbt_insertwk_rbt_sorted
  1945   insertw_sorted -> rbt_insertw_rbt_sorted
  1946   ins_sorted -> ins_rbt_sorted
  1947   ins_tree_greater -> ins_rbt_greater
  1948   ins_tree_less -> ins_rbt_less
  1949   is_rbt_sorted -> is_rbt_rbt_sorted
  1950   lookup_balance -> rbt_lookup_balance
  1951   lookup_bulkload -> rbt_lookup_rbt_bulkload
  1952   lookup_delete -> rbt_lookup_rbt_delete
  1953   lookup_Empty -> rbt_lookup_Empty
  1954   lookup_from_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_from_in_tree
  1955   lookup_in_tree -> rbt_lookup_in_tree
  1956   lookup_ins -> rbt_lookup_ins
  1957   lookup_insert -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insert
  1958   lookup_insertw -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertw
  1959   lookup_insertwk -> rbt_lookup_rbt_insertwk
  1960   lookup_keys -> rbt_lookup_keys
  1961   lookup_map -> rbt_lookup_map
  1962   lookup_map_entry -> rbt_lookup_rbt_map_entry
  1963   lookup_tree_greater -> rbt_lookup_rbt_greater
  1964   lookup_tree_less -> rbt_lookup_rbt_less
  1965   lookup_union -> rbt_lookup_rbt_union
  1966   map_entry_color_of -> rbt_map_entry_color_of
  1967   map_entry_inv1 -> rbt_map_entry_inv1
  1968   map_entry_inv2 -> rbt_map_entry_inv2
  1969   map_entry_is_rbt -> rbt_map_entry_is_rbt
  1970   map_entry_sorted -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_sorted
  1971   map_entry_tree_greater -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_greater
  1972   map_entry_tree_less -> rbt_map_entry_rbt_less
  1973   map_tree_greater -> map_rbt_greater
  1974   map_tree_less -> map_rbt_less
  1975   map_sorted -> map_rbt_sorted
  1976   paint_sorted -> paint_rbt_sorted
  1977   paint_lookup -> paint_rbt_lookup
  1978   paint_tree_greater -> paint_rbt_greater
  1979   paint_tree_less -> paint_rbt_less
  1980   sorted_entries -> rbt_sorted_entries
  1981   tree_greater_eq_trans -> rbt_greater_eq_trans
  1982   tree_greater_nit -> rbt_greater_nit
  1983   tree_greater_prop -> rbt_greater_prop
  1984   tree_greater_simps -> rbt_greater_simps
  1985   tree_greater_trans -> rbt_greater_trans
  1986   tree_less_eq_trans -> rbt_less_eq_trans
  1987   tree_less_nit -> rbt_less_nit
  1988   tree_less_prop -> rbt_less_prop
  1989   tree_less_simps -> rbt_less_simps
  1990   tree_less_trans -> rbt_less_trans
  1991   tree_ord_props -> rbt_ord_props
  1992   union_Branch -> rbt_union_Branch
  1993   union_is_rbt -> rbt_union_is_rbt
  1994   unionw_is_rbt -> rbt_unionw_is_rbt
  1995   unionwk_is_rbt -> rbt_unionwk_is_rbt
  1996   unionwk_sorted -> rbt_unionwk_rbt_sorted
  1997 
  1998 * Theory HOL/Library/Float: Floating point numbers are now defined as
  1999 a subset of the real numbers.  All operations are defined using the
  2000 lifing-framework and proofs use the transfer method.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2001 
  2002   Changed Operations:
  2003   float_abs -> abs
  2004   float_nprt -> nprt
  2005   float_pprt -> pprt
  2006   pow2 -> use powr
  2007   round_down -> float_round_down
  2008   round_up -> float_round_up
  2009   scale -> exponent
  2010 
  2011   Removed Operations:
  2012   ceiling_fl, lb_mult, lb_mod, ub_mult, ub_mod
  2013 
  2014   Renamed Lemmas:
  2015   abs_float_def -> Float.compute_float_abs
  2016   bitlen_ge0 -> bitlen_nonneg
  2017   bitlen.simps -> Float.compute_bitlen
  2018   float_components -> Float_mantissa_exponent
  2019   float_divl.simps -> Float.compute_float_divl
  2020   float_divr.simps -> Float.compute_float_divr
  2021   float_eq_odd -> mult_powr_eq_mult_powr_iff
  2022   float_power -> real_of_float_power
  2023   lapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_lapprox_posrat
  2024   lapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_lapprox_rat
  2025   le_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_le
  2026   le_float_def -> less_eq_float.rep_eq
  2027   less_float_def' -> Float.compute_float_less
  2028   less_float_def -> less_float.rep_eq
  2029   normfloat_def -> Float.compute_normfloat
  2030   normfloat_imp_odd_or_zero -> mantissa_not_dvd and mantissa_noteq_0
  2031   normfloat -> normfloat_def
  2032   normfloat_unique -> use normfloat_def
  2033   number_of_float_Float -> Float.compute_float_numeral, Float.compute_float_neg_numeral
  2034   one_float_def -> Float.compute_float_one
  2035   plus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_plus
  2036   rapprox_posrat_def -> Float.compute_rapprox_posrat
  2037   rapprox_rat.simps -> Float.compute_rapprox_rat
  2038   real_of_float_0 -> zero_float.rep_eq
  2039   real_of_float_1 -> one_float.rep_eq
  2040   real_of_float_abs -> abs_float.rep_eq
  2041   real_of_float_add -> plus_float.rep_eq
  2042   real_of_float_minus -> uminus_float.rep_eq
  2043   real_of_float_mult -> times_float.rep_eq
  2044   real_of_float_simp -> Float.rep_eq
  2045   real_of_float_sub -> minus_float.rep_eq
  2046   round_down.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_down
  2047   round_up.simps -> Float.compute_float_round_up
  2048   times_float_def -> Float.compute_float_times
  2049   uminus_float_def -> Float.compute_float_uminus
  2050   zero_float_def -> Float.compute_float_zero
  2051 
  2052   Lemmas not necessary anymore, use the transfer method:
  2053   bitlen_B0, bitlen_B1, bitlen_ge1, bitlen_Min, bitlen_Pls, float_divl,
  2054   float_divr, float_le_simp, float_less1_mantissa_bound,
  2055   float_less_simp, float_less_zero, float_le_zero,
  2056   float_pos_less1_e_neg, float_pos_m_pos, float_split, float_split2,
  2057   floor_pos_exp, lapprox_posrat, lapprox_posrat_bottom, lapprox_rat,
  2058   lapprox_rat_bottom, normalized_float, rapprox_posrat,
  2059   rapprox_posrat_le1, rapprox_rat, real_of_float_ge0_exp,
  2060   real_of_float_neg_exp, real_of_float_nge0_exp, round_down floor_fl,
  2061   round_up, zero_le_float, zero_less_float
  2062 
  2063 * New theory HOL/Library/DAList provides an abstract type for
  2064 association lists with distinct keys.
  2065 
  2066 * Session HOL/IMP: Added new theory of abstract interpretation of
  2067 annotated commands.
  2068 
  2069 * Session HOL-Import: Re-implementation from scratch is faster,
  2070 simpler, and more scalable.  Requires a proof bundle, which is
  2071 available as an external component.  Discontinued old (and mostly
  2072 dead) Importer for HOL4 and HOL Light.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2073 
  2074 * Session HOL-Word: Discontinued many redundant theorems specific to
  2075 type 'a word. INCOMPATIBILITY, use the corresponding generic theorems
  2076 instead.
  2077 
  2078   word_sub_alt ~> word_sub_wi
  2079   word_add_alt ~> word_add_def
  2080   word_mult_alt ~> word_mult_def
  2081   word_minus_alt ~> word_minus_def
  2082   word_0_alt ~> word_0_wi
  2083   word_1_alt ~> word_1_wi
  2084   word_add_0 ~> add_0_left
  2085   word_add_0_right ~> add_0_right
  2086   word_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2087   word_mult_1_right ~> mult_1_right
  2088   word_add_commute ~> add_commute
  2089   word_add_assoc ~> add_assoc
  2090   word_add_left_commute ~> add_left_commute
  2091   word_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2092   word_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2093   word_mult_left_commute ~> mult_left_commute
  2094   word_left_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2095   word_right_distrib ~> right_distrib
  2096   word_left_minus ~> left_minus
  2097   word_diff_0_right ~> diff_0_right
  2098   word_diff_self ~> diff_self
  2099   word_sub_def ~> diff_minus
  2100   word_diff_minus ~> diff_minus
  2101   word_add_ac ~> add_ac
  2102   word_mult_ac ~> mult_ac
  2103   word_plus_ac0 ~> add_0_left add_0_right add_ac
  2104   word_times_ac1 ~> mult_1_left mult_1_right mult_ac
  2105   word_order_trans ~> order_trans
  2106   word_order_refl ~> order_refl
  2107   word_order_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2108   word_order_linear ~> linorder_linear
  2109   lenw1_zero_neq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2110   word_number_of_eq ~> number_of_eq
  2111   word_of_int_add_hom ~> wi_hom_add
  2112   word_of_int_sub_hom ~> wi_hom_sub
  2113   word_of_int_mult_hom ~> wi_hom_mult
  2114   word_of_int_minus_hom ~> wi_hom_neg
  2115   word_of_int_succ_hom ~> wi_hom_succ
  2116   word_of_int_pred_hom ~> wi_hom_pred
  2117   word_of_int_0_hom ~> word_0_wi
  2118   word_of_int_1_hom ~> word_1_wi
  2119 
  2120 * Session HOL-Word: New proof method "word_bitwise" for splitting
  2121 machine word equalities and inequalities into logical circuits,
  2122 defined in HOL/Word/WordBitwise.thy.  Supports addition, subtraction,
  2123 multiplication, shifting by constants, bitwise operators and numeric
  2124 constants.  Requires fixed-length word types, not 'a word.  Solves
  2125 many standard word identities outright and converts more into first
  2126 order problems amenable to blast or similar.  See also examples in
  2127 HOL/Word/Examples/WordExamples.thy.
  2128 
  2129 * Session HOL-Probability: Introduced the type "'a measure" to
  2130 represent measures, this replaces the records 'a algebra and 'a
  2131 measure_space.  The locales based on subset_class now have two
  2132 locale-parameters the space \<Omega> and the set of measurable sets M.
  2133 The product of probability spaces uses now the same constant as the
  2134 finite product of sigma-finite measure spaces "PiM :: ('i => 'a)
  2135 measure".  Most constants are defined now outside of locales and gain
  2136 an additional parameter, like null_sets, almost_eventually or \<mu>'.
  2137 Measure space constructions for distributions and densities now got
  2138 their own constants distr and density.  Instead of using locales to
  2139 describe measure spaces with a finite space, the measure count_space
  2140 and point_measure is introduced.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2141 
  2142   Renamed constants:
  2143   measure -> emeasure
  2144   finite_measure.\<mu>' -> measure
  2145   product_algebra_generator -> prod_algebra
  2146   product_prob_space.emb -> prod_emb
  2147   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> PiM
  2148 
  2149   Removed locales:
  2150   completeable_measure_space
  2151   finite_measure_space
  2152   finite_prob_space
  2153   finite_product_finite_prob_space
  2154   finite_product_sigma_algebra
  2155   finite_sigma_algebra
  2156   measure_space
  2157   pair_finite_prob_space
  2158   pair_finite_sigma_algebra
  2159   pair_finite_space
  2160   pair_sigma_algebra
  2161   product_sigma_algebra
  2162 
  2163   Removed constants:
  2164   conditional_space
  2165   distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2166   image_space
  2167   joint_distribution -> use distr measure, or distributed predicate
  2168   pair_measure_generator
  2169   product_prob_space.infprod_algebra -> use PiM
  2170   subvimage
  2171 
  2172   Replacement theorems:
  2173   finite_additivity_sufficient -> ring_of_sets.countably_additiveI_finite
  2174   finite_measure.empty_measure -> measure_empty
  2175   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_above -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_decseq
  2176   finite_measure.finite_continuity_from_below -> finite_measure.finite_Lim_measure_incseq
  2177   finite_measure.finite_measure_countably_subadditive -> finite_measure.finite_measure_subadditive_countably
  2178   finite_measure.finite_measure_eq -> finite_measure.emeasure_eq_measure
  2179   finite_measure.finite_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_finite
  2180   finite_measure.finite_measure_finite_singleton -> finite_measure.finite_measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2181   finite_measure.positive_measure' -> measure_nonneg
  2182   finite_measure.real_measure -> finite_measure.emeasure_real
  2183   finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_times -> finite_product_prob_space.finite_measure_PiM_emb
  2184   finite_product_sigma_algebra.in_P -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2185   finite_product_sigma_algebra.P_empty -> space_PiM_empty, sets_PiM_empty
  2186   information_space.conditional_entropy_eq -> information_space.conditional_entropy_simple_distributed
  2187   information_space.conditional_entropy_positive -> information_space.conditional_entropy_nonneg_simple
  2188   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_eq_mutual_information_simple
  2189   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_generic_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2190   information_space.conditional_mutual_information_positive -> information_space.conditional_mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2191   information_space.entropy_commute -> information_space.entropy_commute_simple
  2192   information_space.entropy_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2193   information_space.entropy_generic_eq -> information_space.entropy_simple_distributed
  2194   information_space.entropy_positive -> information_space.entropy_nonneg_simple
  2195   information_space.entropy_uniform_max -> information_space.entropy_uniform
  2196   information_space.KL_eq_0_imp -> information_space.KL_eq_0_iff_eq
  2197   information_space.KL_eq_0 -> information_space.KL_same_eq_0
  2198   information_space.KL_ge_0 -> information_space.KL_nonneg
  2199   information_space.mutual_information_eq -> information_space.mutual_information_simple_distributed
  2200   information_space.mutual_information_positive -> information_space.mutual_information_nonneg_simple
  2201   Int_stable_cuboids -> Int_stable_atLeastAtMost
  2202   Int_stable_product_algebra_generator -> positive_integral
  2203   measure_preserving -> equality "distr M N f = N" "f : measurable M N"
  2204   measure_space.additive -> emeasure_additive
  2205   measure_space.AE_iff_null_set -> AE_iff_null
  2206   measure_space.almost_everywhere_def -> eventually_ae_filter
  2207   measure_space.almost_everywhere_vimage -> AE_distrD
  2208   measure_space.continuity_from_above -> INF_emeasure_decseq
  2209   measure_space.continuity_from_above_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_decseq
  2210   measure_space.continuity_from_below_Lim -> Lim_emeasure_incseq
  2211   measure_space.continuity_from_below -> SUP_emeasure_incseq
  2212   measure_space_density -> emeasure_density
  2213   measure_space.density_is_absolutely_continuous -> absolutely_continuousI_density
  2214   measure_space.integrable_vimage -> integrable_distr
  2215   measure_space.integral_translated_density -> integral_density
  2216   measure_space.integral_vimage -> integral_distr
  2217   measure_space.measure_additive -> plus_emeasure
  2218   measure_space.measure_compl -> emeasure_compl
  2219   measure_space.measure_countable_increasing -> emeasure_countable_increasing
  2220   measure_space.measure_countably_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_countably
  2221   measure_space.measure_decseq -> decseq_emeasure
  2222   measure_space.measure_Diff -> emeasure_Diff
  2223   measure_space.measure_Diff_null_set -> emeasure_Diff_null_set
  2224   measure_space.measure_eq_0 -> emeasure_eq_0
  2225   measure_space.measure_finitely_subadditive -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2226   measure_space.measure_finite_singleton -> emeasure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2227   measure_space.measure_incseq -> incseq_emeasure
  2228   measure_space.measure_insert -> emeasure_insert
  2229   measure_space.measure_mono -> emeasure_mono
  2230   measure_space.measure_not_negative -> emeasure_not_MInf
  2231   measure_space.measure_preserving_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2232   measure_space.measure_setsum -> setsum_emeasure
  2233   measure_space.measure_setsum_split -> setsum_emeasure_cover
  2234   measure_space.measure_space_vimage -> emeasure_distr
  2235   measure_space.measure_subadditive_finite -> emeasure_subadditive_finite
  2236   measure_space.measure_subadditive -> subadditive
  2237   measure_space.measure_top -> emeasure_space
  2238   measure_space.measure_UN_eq_0 -> emeasure_UN_eq_0
  2239   measure_space.measure_Un_null_set -> emeasure_Un_null_set
  2240   measure_space.positive_integral_translated_density -> positive_integral_density
  2241   measure_space.positive_integral_vimage -> positive_integral_distr
  2242   measure_space.real_continuity_from_above -> Lim_measure_decseq
  2243   measure_space.real_continuity_from_below -> Lim_measure_incseq
  2244   measure_space.real_measure_countably_subadditive -> measure_subadditive_countably
  2245   measure_space.real_measure_Diff -> measure_Diff
  2246   measure_space.real_measure_finite_Union -> measure_finite_Union
  2247   measure_space.real_measure_setsum_singleton -> measure_eq_setsum_singleton
  2248   measure_space.real_measure_subadditive -> measure_subadditive
  2249   measure_space.real_measure_Union -> measure_Union
  2250   measure_space.real_measure_UNION -> measure_UNION
  2251   measure_space.simple_function_vimage -> simple_function_comp
  2252   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2253   measure_space.simple_integral_vimage -> simple_integral_distr
  2254   measure_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2255   measure_unique_Int_stable_vimage -> measure_eqI_generator_eq
  2256   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_fst -> sets_Pair1
  2257   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_cut_snd -> sets_Pair2
  2258   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_fst -> measurable_Pair1
  2259   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_pair_image_snd -> measurable_Pair2
  2260   pair_sigma_algebra.measurable_product_swap -> measurable_pair_swap_iff
  2261   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap
  2262   pair_sigma_algebra.pair_sigma_algebra_swap_measurable -> measurable_pair_swap'
  2263   pair_sigma_algebra.sets_swap -> sets_pair_swap
  2264   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_fst -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair1
  2265   pair_sigma_finite.measure_cut_measurable_snd -> pair_sigma_finite.measurable_emeasure_Pair2
  2266   pair_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_swap -> pair_sigma_finite.distr_pair_swap
  2267   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt2 -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt2
  2268   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_alt -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_alt
  2269   pair_sigma_finite.pair_measure_times -> pair_sigma_finite.emeasure_pair_measure_Times
  2270   prob_space.indep_distribution_eq_measure -> prob_space.indep_vars_iff_distr_eq_PiM
  2271   prob_space.indep_var_distributionD -> prob_space.indep_var_distribution_eq
  2272   prob_space.measure_space_1 -> prob_space.emeasure_space_1
  2273   prob_space.prob_space_vimage -> prob_space_distr
  2274   prob_space.random_variable_restrict -> measurable_restrict
  2275   prob_space_unique_Int_stable -> measure_eqI_prob_space
  2276   product_algebraE -> prod_algebraE_all
  2277   product_algebra_generator_der -> prod_algebra_eq_finite
  2278   product_algebra_generator_into_space -> prod_algebra_sets_into_space
  2279   product_algebraI -> sets_PiM_I_finite
  2280   product_measure_exists -> product_sigma_finite.sigma_finite
  2281   product_prob_space.finite_index_eq_finite_product -> product_prob_space.sets_PiM_generator
  2282   product_prob_space.finite_measure_infprod_emb_Pi -> product_prob_space.measure_PiM_emb
  2283   product_prob_space.infprod_spec -> product_prob_space.emeasure_PiM_emb_not_empty
  2284   product_prob_space.measurable_component -> measurable_component_singleton
  2285   product_prob_space.measurable_emb -> measurable_prod_emb
  2286   product_prob_space.measurable_into_infprod_algebra -> measurable_PiM_single
  2287   product_prob_space.measurable_singleton_infprod -> measurable_component_singleton
  2288   product_prob_space.measure_emb -> emeasure_prod_emb
  2289   product_prob_space.measure_preserving_restrict -> product_prob_space.distr_restrict
  2290   product_sigma_algebra.product_algebra_into_space -> space_closed
  2291   product_sigma_finite.measure_fold -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2292   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_component_singelton -> product_sigma_finite.distr_singleton
  2293   product_sigma_finite.measure_preserving_merge -> product_sigma_finite.distr_merge
  2294   sequence_space.measure_infprod -> sequence_space.measure_PiM_countable
  2295   sets_product_algebra -> sets_PiM
  2296   sigma_algebra.measurable_sigma -> measurable_measure_of
  2297   sigma_finite_measure.disjoint_sigma_finite -> sigma_finite_disjoint
  2298   sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_vimage -> sigma_finite_measure.RN_deriv_distr
  2299   sigma_product_algebra_sigma_eq -> sigma_prod_algebra_sigma_eq
  2300   space_product_algebra -> space_PiM
  2301 
  2302 * Session HOL-TPTP: support to parse and import TPTP problems (all
  2303 languages) into Isabelle/HOL.
  2304 
  2305 
  2306 *** FOL ***
  2307 
  2308 * New "case_product" attribute (see HOL).
  2309 
  2310 
  2311 *** ZF ***
  2312 
  2313 * Greater support for structured proofs involving induction or case
  2314 analysis.
  2315 
  2316 * Much greater use of mathematical symbols.
  2317 
  2318 * Removal of many ML theorem bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2319 
  2320 
  2321 *** ML ***
  2322 
  2323 * Antiquotation @{keyword "name"} produces a parser for outer syntax
  2324 from a minor keyword introduced via theory header declaration.
  2325 
  2326 * Antiquotation @{command_spec "name"} produces the
  2327 Outer_Syntax.command_spec from a major keyword introduced via theory
  2328 header declaration; it can be passed to Outer_Syntax.command etc.
  2329 
  2330 * Local_Theory.define no longer hard-wires default theorem name
  2331 "foo_def", but retains the binding as given.  If that is Binding.empty
  2332 / Attrib.empty_binding, the result is not registered as user-level
  2333 fact.  The Local_Theory.define_internal variant allows to specify a
  2334 non-empty name (used for the foundation in the background theory),
  2335 while omitting the fact binding in the user-context.  Potential
  2336 INCOMPATIBILITY for derived definitional packages: need to specify
  2337 naming policy for primitive definitions more explicitly.
  2338 
  2339 * Renamed Thm.capply to Thm.apply, and Thm.cabs to Thm.lambda in
  2340 conformance with similar operations in structure Term and Logic.
  2341 
  2342 * Antiquotation @{attributes [...]} embeds attribute source
  2343 representation into the ML text, which is particularly useful with
  2344 declarations like Local_Theory.note.
  2345 
  2346 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2347 ProofContext has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2348 
  2349 * Refined Local_Theory.declaration {syntax, pervasive}, with subtle
  2350 change of semantics: update is applied to auxiliary local theory
  2351 context as well.
  2352 
  2353 * Modernized some old-style infix operations:
  2354 
  2355   addeqcongs    ~> Simplifier.add_eqcong
  2356   deleqcongs    ~> Simplifier.del_eqcong
  2357   addcongs      ~> Simplifier.add_cong
  2358   delcongs      ~> Simplifier.del_cong
  2359   setmksimps    ~> Simplifier.set_mksimps
  2360   setmkcong     ~> Simplifier.set_mkcong
  2361   setmksym      ~> Simplifier.set_mksym
  2362   setmkeqTrue   ~> Simplifier.set_mkeqTrue
  2363   settermless   ~> Simplifier.set_termless
  2364   setsubgoaler  ~> Simplifier.set_subgoaler
  2365   addsplits     ~> Splitter.add_split
  2366   delsplits     ~> Splitter.del_split
  2367 
  2368 
  2369 *** System ***
  2370 
  2371 * USER_HOME settings variable points to cross-platform user home
  2372 directory, which coincides with HOME on POSIX systems only.  Likewise,
  2373 the Isabelle path specification "~" now expands to $USER_HOME, instead
  2374 of former $HOME.  A different default for USER_HOME may be set
  2375 explicitly in shell environment, before Isabelle settings are
  2376 evaluated.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY: need to adapt Isabelle path where
  2377 the generic user home was intended.
  2378 
  2379 * ISABELLE_HOME_WINDOWS refers to ISABELLE_HOME in windows file name
  2380 notation, which is useful for the jEdit file browser, for example.
  2381 
  2382 * ISABELLE_JDK_HOME settings variable points to JDK with javac and jar
  2383 (not just JRE).
  2384 
  2385 
  2386 
  2387 New in Isabelle2011-1 (October 2011)
  2388 ------------------------------------
  2389 
  2390 *** General ***
  2391 
  2392 * Improved Isabelle/jEdit Prover IDE (PIDE), which can be invoked as
  2393 "isabelle jedit" or "ISABELLE_HOME/Isabelle" on the command line.
  2394 
  2395   - Management of multiple theory files directly from the editor
  2396     buffer store -- bypassing the file-system (no requirement to save
  2397     files for checking).
  2398 
  2399   - Markup of formal entities within the text buffer, with semantic
  2400     highlighting, tooltips and hyperlinks to jump to defining source
  2401     positions.
  2402 
  2403   - Improved text rendering, with sub/superscripts in the source
  2404     buffer (including support for copy/paste wrt. output panel, HTML
  2405     theory output and other non-Isabelle text boxes).
  2406 
  2407   - Refined scheduling of proof checking and printing of results,
  2408     based on interactive editor view.  (Note: jEdit folding and
  2409     narrowing allows to restrict buffer perspectives explicitly.)
  2410 
  2411   - Reduced CPU performance requirements, usable on machines with few
  2412     cores.
  2413 
  2414   - Reduced memory requirements due to pruning of unused document
  2415     versions (garbage collection).
  2416 
  2417 See also ~~/src/Tools/jEdit/README.html for further information,
  2418 including some remaining limitations.
  2419 
  2420 * Theory loader: source files are exclusively located via the master
  2421 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  2422 The global load path (such as src/HOL/Library) has been discontinued.
  2423 Note that the path element ~~ may be used to reference theories in the
  2424 Isabelle home folder -- for instance, "~~/src/HOL/Library/FuncSet".
  2425 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2426 
  2427 * Theory loader: source files are identified by content via SHA1
  2428 digests.  Discontinued former path/modtime identification and optional
  2429 ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT plugin scripts.
  2430 
  2431 * Parallelization of nested Isar proofs is subject to
  2432 Goal.parallel_proofs_threshold (default 100).  See also isabelle
  2433 usedir option -Q.
  2434 
  2435 * Name space: former unsynchronized references are now proper
  2436 configuration options, with more conventional names:
  2437 
  2438   long_names   ~> names_long
  2439   short_names  ~> names_short
  2440   unique_names ~> names_unique
  2441 
  2442 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, need to declare options in context like this:
  2443 
  2444   declare [[names_unique = false]]
  2445 
  2446 * Literal facts `prop` may contain dummy patterns, e.g. `_ = _`.  Note
  2447 that the result needs to be unique, which means fact specifications
  2448 may have to be refined after enriching a proof context.
  2449 
  2450 * Attribute "case_names" has been refined: the assumptions in each case
  2451 can be named now by following the case name with [name1 name2 ...].
  2452 
  2453 * Isabelle/Isar reference manual has been updated and extended:
  2454   - "Synopsis" provides a catalog of main Isar language concepts.
  2455   - Formal references in syntax diagrams, via @{rail} antiquotation.
  2456   - Updated material from classic "ref" manual, notably about
  2457     "Classical Reasoner".
  2458 
  2459 
  2460 *** HOL ***
  2461 
  2462 * Class bot and top require underlying partial order rather than
  2463 preorder: uniqueness of bot and top is guaranteed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2464 
  2465 * Class complete_lattice: generalized a couple of lemmas from sets;
  2466 generalized theorems INF_cong and SUP_cong.  New type classes for
  2467 complete boolean algebras and complete linear orders.  Lemmas
  2468 Inf_less_iff, less_Sup_iff, INF_less_iff, less_SUP_iff now reside in
  2469 class complete_linorder.
  2470 
  2471 Changed proposition of lemmas Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, Inf_fun_def,
  2472 Sup_fun_def, Inf_apply, Sup_apply.
  2473 
  2474 Removed redundant lemmas (the right hand side gives hints how to
  2475 replace them for (metis ...), or (simp only: ...) proofs):
  2476 
  2477   Inf_singleton ~> Inf_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Inf_empty inf_top_right]
  2478   Sup_singleton ~> Sup_insert [where A="{}", unfolded Sup_empty sup_bot_right]
  2479   Inf_binary ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2480   Sup_binary ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2481   Int_eq_Inter ~> Inf_insert, Inf_empty, and inf_top_right
  2482   Un_eq_Union ~> Sup_insert, Sup_empty, and sup_bot_right
  2483   Inter_def ~> INF_def, image_def
  2484   Union_def ~> SUP_def, image_def
  2485   INT_eq ~> INF_def, and image_def
  2486   UN_eq ~> SUP_def, and image_def
  2487   INF_subset ~> INF_superset_mono [OF _ order_refl]
  2488 
  2489 More consistent and comprehensive names:
  2490 
  2491   INTER_eq_Inter_image ~> INF_def
  2492   UNION_eq_Union_image ~> SUP_def
  2493   INFI_def ~> INF_def
  2494   SUPR_def ~> SUP_def
  2495   INF_leI ~> INF_lower
  2496   INF_leI2 ~> INF_lower2
  2497   le_INFI ~> INF_greatest
  2498   le_SUPI ~> SUP_upper
  2499   le_SUPI2 ~> SUP_upper2
  2500   SUP_leI ~> SUP_least
  2501   INFI_bool_eq ~> INF_bool_eq
  2502   SUPR_bool_eq ~> SUP_bool_eq
  2503   INFI_apply ~> INF_apply
  2504   SUPR_apply ~> SUP_apply
  2505   INTER_def ~> INTER_eq
  2506   UNION_def ~> UNION_eq
  2507 
  2508 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2509 
  2510 * Renamed theory Complete_Lattice to Complete_Lattices.
  2511 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2512 
  2513 * Theory Complete_Lattices: lemmas Inf_eq_top_iff, INF_eq_top_iff,
  2514 INF_image, Inf_insert, INF_top, Inf_top_conv, INF_top_conv, SUP_bot,
  2515 Sup_bot_conv, SUP_bot_conv, Sup_eq_top_iff, SUP_eq_top_iff, SUP_image,
  2516 Sup_insert are now declared as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2517 
  2518 * Theory Lattice: lemmas compl_inf_bot, compl_le_comp_iff,
  2519 compl_sup_top, inf_idem, inf_left_idem, inf_sup_absorb, sup_idem,
  2520 sup_inf_absob, sup_left_idem are now declared as [simp].  Minor
  2521 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2522 
  2523 * Added syntactic classes "inf" and "sup" for the respective
  2524 constants.  INCOMPATIBILITY: Changes in the argument order of the
  2525 (mostly internal) locale predicates for some derived classes.
  2526 
  2527 * Theorem collections ball_simps and bex_simps do not contain theorems
  2528 referring to UNION any longer; these have been moved to collection
  2529 UN_ball_bex_simps.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2530 
  2531 * Theory Archimedean_Field: floor now is defined as parameter of a
  2532 separate type class floor_ceiling.
  2533 
  2534 * Theory Finite_Set: more coherent development of fold_set locales:
  2535 
  2536     locale fun_left_comm ~> locale comp_fun_commute
  2537     locale fun_left_comm_idem ~> locale comp_fun_idem
  2538 
  2539 Both use point-free characterization; interpretation proofs may need
  2540 adjustment.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2541 
  2542 * Theory Limits: Type "'a net" has been renamed to "'a filter", in
  2543 accordance with standard mathematical terminology. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2544 
  2545 * Theory Complex_Main: The locale interpretations for the
  2546 bounded_linear and bounded_bilinear locales have been removed, in
  2547 order to reduce the number of duplicate lemmas. Users must use the
  2548 original names for distributivity theorems, potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2549 
  2550   divide.add ~> add_divide_distrib
  2551   divide.diff ~> diff_divide_distrib
  2552   divide.setsum ~> setsum_divide_distrib
  2553   mult.add_right ~> right_distrib
  2554   mult.diff_right ~> right_diff_distrib
  2555   mult_right.setsum ~> setsum_right_distrib
  2556   mult_left.diff ~> left_diff_distrib
  2557 
  2558 * Theory Complex_Main: Several redundant theorems have been removed or
  2559 replaced by more general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2560 
  2561   real_diff_def ~> minus_real_def
  2562   real_divide_def ~> divide_real_def
  2563   real_less_def ~> less_le
  2564   real_abs_def ~> abs_real_def
  2565   real_sgn_def ~> sgn_real_def
  2566   real_mult_commute ~> mult_commute
  2567   real_mult_assoc ~> mult_assoc
  2568   real_mult_1 ~> mult_1_left
  2569   real_add_mult_distrib ~> left_distrib
  2570   real_zero_not_eq_one ~> zero_neq_one
  2571   real_mult_inverse_left ~> left_inverse
  2572   INVERSE_ZERO ~> inverse_zero
  2573   real_le_refl ~> order_refl
  2574   real_le_antisym ~> order_antisym
  2575   real_le_trans ~> order_trans
  2576   real_le_linear ~> linear
  2577   real_le_eq_diff ~> le_iff_diff_le_0
  2578   real_add_left_mono ~> add_left_mono
  2579   real_mult_order ~> mult_pos_pos
  2580   real_mult_less_mono2 ~> mult_strict_left_mono
  2581   real_of_int_real_of_nat ~> real_of_int_of_nat_eq
  2582   real_0_le_divide_iff ~> zero_le_divide_iff
  2583   realpow_two_disj ~> power2_eq_iff
  2584   real_squared_diff_one_factored ~> square_diff_one_factored
  2585   realpow_two_diff ~> square_diff_square_factored
  2586   reals_complete2 ~> complete_real
  2587   real_sum_squared_expand ~> power2_sum
  2588   exp_ln_eq ~> ln_unique
  2589   expi_add ~> exp_add
  2590   expi_zero ~> exp_zero
  2591   lemma_DERIV_subst ~> DERIV_cong
  2592   LIMSEQ_Zfun_iff ~> tendsto_Zfun_iff
  2593   LIMSEQ_const ~> tendsto_const
  2594   LIMSEQ_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2595   LIMSEQ_add ~> tendsto_add
  2596   LIMSEQ_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2597   LIMSEQ_minus_cancel ~> tendsto_minus_cancel
  2598   LIMSEQ_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2599   bounded_linear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2600   bounded_bilinear.LIMSEQ ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2601   LIMSEQ_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2602   LIMSEQ_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2603   LIMSEQ_divide ~> tendsto_divide
  2604   LIMSEQ_pow ~> tendsto_power
  2605   LIMSEQ_setsum ~> tendsto_setsum
  2606   LIMSEQ_setprod ~> tendsto_setprod
  2607   LIMSEQ_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2608   LIMSEQ_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2609   LIMSEQ_imp_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2610   LIMSEQ_add_minus ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_minus]
  2611   LIMSEQ_add_const ~> tendsto_add [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2612   LIMSEQ_diff_const ~> tendsto_diff [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2613   LIMSEQ_Complex ~> tendsto_Complex
  2614   LIM_ident ~> tendsto_ident_at
  2615   LIM_const ~> tendsto_const
  2616   LIM_add ~> tendsto_add
  2617   LIM_add_zero ~> tendsto_add_zero
  2618   LIM_minus ~> tendsto_minus
  2619   LIM_diff ~> tendsto_diff
  2620   LIM_norm ~> tendsto_norm
  2621   LIM_norm_zero ~> tendsto_norm_zero
  2622   LIM_norm_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_norm_zero_cancel
  2623   LIM_norm_zero_iff ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff
  2624   LIM_rabs ~> tendsto_rabs
  2625   LIM_rabs_zero ~> tendsto_rabs_zero
  2626   LIM_rabs_zero_cancel ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_cancel
  2627   LIM_rabs_zero_iff ~> tendsto_rabs_zero_iff
  2628   LIM_compose ~> tendsto_compose
  2629   LIM_mult ~> tendsto_mult
  2630   LIM_scaleR ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2631   LIM_of_real ~> tendsto_of_real
  2632   LIM_power ~> tendsto_power
  2633   LIM_inverse ~> tendsto_inverse
  2634   LIM_sgn ~> tendsto_sgn
  2635   isCont_LIM_compose ~> isCont_tendsto_compose
  2636   bounded_linear.LIM ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2637   bounded_linear.LIM_zero ~> bounded_linear.tendsto_zero
  2638   bounded_bilinear.LIM ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto
  2639   bounded_bilinear.LIM_prod_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_zero
  2640   bounded_bilinear.LIM_left_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_left_zero
  2641   bounded_bilinear.LIM_right_zero ~> bounded_bilinear.tendsto_right_zero
  2642   LIM_inverse_fun ~> tendsto_inverse [OF tendsto_ident_at]
  2643 
  2644 * Theory Complex_Main: The definition of infinite series was
  2645 generalized.  Now it is defined on the type class {topological_space,
  2646 comm_monoid_add}.  Hence it is useable also for extended real numbers.
  2647 
  2648 * Theory Complex_Main: The complex exponential function "expi" is now
  2649 a type-constrained abbreviation for "exp :: complex => complex"; thus
  2650 several polymorphic lemmas about "exp" are now applicable to "expi".
  2651 
  2652 * Code generation:
  2653 
  2654   - Theory Library/Code_Char_ord provides native ordering of
  2655     characters in the target language.
  2656 
  2657   - Commands code_module and code_library are legacy, use export_code
  2658     instead.
  2659 
  2660   - Method "evaluation" is legacy, use method "eval" instead.
  2661 
  2662   - Legacy evaluator "SML" is deactivated by default.  May be
  2663     reactivated by the following theory command:
  2664 
  2665       setup {* Value.add_evaluator ("SML", Codegen.eval_term) *}
  2666 
  2667 * Declare ext [intro] by default.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2668 
  2669 * New proof method "induction" that gives induction hypotheses the
  2670 name "IH", thus distinguishing them from further hypotheses that come
  2671 from rule induction.  The latter are still called "hyps".  Method
  2672 "induction" is a thin wrapper around "induct" and follows the same
  2673 syntax.
  2674 
  2675 * Method "fastsimp" has been renamed to "fastforce", but "fastsimp" is
  2676 still available as a legacy feature for some time.
  2677 
  2678 * Nitpick:
  2679   - Added "need" and "total_consts" options.
  2680   - Reintroduced "show_skolems" option by popular demand.
  2681   - Renamed attribute: nitpick_def ~> nitpick_unfold.
  2682     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2683 
  2684 * Sledgehammer:
  2685   - Use quasi-sound (and efficient) translations by default.
  2686   - Added support for the following provers: E-ToFoF, LEO-II,
  2687     Satallax, SNARK, Waldmeister, and Z3 with TPTP syntax.
  2688   - Automatically preplay and minimize proofs before showing them if
  2689     this can be done within reasonable time.
  2690   - sledgehammer available_provers ~> sledgehammer supported_provers.
  2691     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2692   - Added "preplay_timeout", "slicing", "type_enc", "sound",
  2693     "max_mono_iters", and "max_new_mono_instances" options.
  2694   - Removed "explicit_apply" and "full_types" options as well as "Full
  2695     Types" Proof General menu item. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2696 
  2697 * Metis:
  2698   - Removed "metisF" -- use "metis" instead. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2699   - Obsoleted "metisFT" -- use "metis (full_types)" instead.
  2700     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2701 
  2702 * Command 'try':
  2703   - Renamed 'try_methods' and added "simp:", "intro:", "dest:", and
  2704     "elim:" options. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2705   - Introduced 'try' that not only runs 'try_methods' but also
  2706     'solve_direct', 'sledgehammer', 'quickcheck', and 'nitpick'.
  2707 
  2708 * Quickcheck:
  2709   - Added "eval" option to evaluate terms for the found counterexample
  2710     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2711   - Added post-processing of terms to obtain readable counterexamples
  2712     (currently only supported by the default (exhaustive) tester).
  2713   - New counterexample generator quickcheck[narrowing] enables
  2714     narrowing-based testing.  Requires the Glasgow Haskell compiler
  2715     with its installation location defined in the Isabelle settings
  2716     environment as ISABELLE_GHC.
  2717   - Removed quickcheck tester "SML" based on the SML code generator
  2718     (formly in HOL/Library).
  2719 
  2720 * Function package: discontinued option "tailrec".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2721 use 'partial_function' instead.
  2722 
  2723 * Theory Library/Extended_Reals replaces now the positive extended
  2724 reals found in probability theory. This file is extended by
  2725 Multivariate_Analysis/Extended_Real_Limits.
  2726 
  2727 * Theory Library/Old_Recdef: old 'recdef' package has been moved here,
  2728 from where it must be imported explicitly if it is really required.
  2729 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2730 
  2731 * Theory Library/Wfrec: well-founded recursion combinator "wfrec" has
  2732 been moved here.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2733 
  2734 * Theory Library/Saturated provides type of numbers with saturated
  2735 arithmetic.
  2736 
  2737 * Theory Library/Product_Lattice defines a pointwise ordering for the
  2738 product type 'a * 'b, and provides instance proofs for various order
  2739 and lattice type classes.
  2740 
  2741 * Theory Library/Countable now provides the "countable_datatype" proof
  2742 method for proving "countable" class instances for datatypes.
  2743 
  2744 * Theory Library/Cset_Monad allows do notation for computable sets
  2745 (cset) via the generic monad ad-hoc overloading facility.
  2746 
  2747 * Library: Theories of common data structures are split into theories
  2748 for implementation, an invariant-ensuring type, and connection to an
  2749 abstract type. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2750 
  2751   - RBT is split into RBT and RBT_Mapping.
  2752   - AssocList is split and renamed into AList and AList_Mapping.
  2753   - DList is split into DList_Impl, DList, and DList_Cset.
  2754   - Cset is split into Cset and List_Cset.
  2755 
  2756 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity has been renamed to
  2757 Library/Extended_Nat, with name changes of the following types and
  2758 constants:
  2759 
  2760   type inat   ~> type enat
  2761   Fin         ~> enat
  2762   Infty       ~> infinity (overloaded)
  2763   iSuc        ~> eSuc
  2764   the_Fin     ~> the_enat
  2765 
  2766 Every theorem name containing "inat", "Fin", "Infty", or "iSuc" has
  2767 been renamed accordingly. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2768 
  2769 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: The euclidean_space type class now
  2770 fixes a constant "Basis :: 'a set" consisting of the standard
  2771 orthonormal basis for the type. Users now have the option of
  2772 quantifying over this set instead of using the "basis" function, e.g.
  2773 "ALL x:Basis. P x" vs "ALL i<DIM('a). P (basis i)".
  2774 
  2775 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Type "('a, 'b) cart" has been renamed
  2776 to "('a, 'b) vec" (the syntax "'a ^ 'b" remains unaffected). Constants
  2777 "Cart_nth" and "Cart_lambda" have been respectively renamed to
  2778 "vec_nth" and "vec_lambda"; theorems mentioning those names have
  2779 changed to match. Definition theorems for overloaded constants now use
  2780 the standard "foo_vec_def" naming scheme. A few other theorems have
  2781 been renamed as follows (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  2782 
  2783   Cart_eq          ~> vec_eq_iff
  2784   dist_nth_le_cart ~> dist_vec_nth_le
  2785   tendsto_vector   ~> vec_tendstoI
  2786   Cauchy_vector    ~> vec_CauchyI
  2787 
  2788 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: Several duplicate theorems have been
  2789 removed, and other theorems have been renamed or replaced with more
  2790 general versions. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2791 
  2792   finite_choice ~> finite_set_choice
  2793   eventually_conjI ~> eventually_conj
  2794   eventually_and ~> eventually_conj_iff
  2795   eventually_false ~> eventually_False
  2796   setsum_norm ~> norm_setsum
  2797   Lim_sequentially ~> LIMSEQ_def
  2798   Lim_ident_at ~> LIM_ident
  2799   Lim_const ~> tendsto_const
  2800   Lim_cmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF tendsto_const]
  2801   Lim_neg ~> tendsto_minus
  2802   Lim_add ~> tendsto_add
  2803   Lim_sub ~> tendsto_diff
  2804   Lim_mul ~> tendsto_scaleR
  2805   Lim_vmul ~> tendsto_scaleR [OF _ tendsto_const]
  2806   Lim_null_norm ~> tendsto_norm_zero_iff [symmetric]
  2807   Lim_linear ~> bounded_linear.tendsto
  2808   Lim_component ~> tendsto_euclidean_component
  2809   Lim_component_cart ~> tendsto_vec_nth
  2810   Lim_inner ~> tendsto_inner [OF tendsto_const]
  2811   dot_lsum ~> inner_setsum_left
  2812   dot_rsum ~> inner_setsum_right
  2813   continuous_cmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF continuous_const]
  2814   continuous_neg ~> continuous_minus
  2815   continuous_sub ~> continuous_diff
  2816   continuous_vmul ~> continuous_scaleR [OF _ continuous_const]
  2817   continuous_mul ~> continuous_scaleR
  2818   continuous_inv ~> continuous_inverse
  2819   continuous_at_within_inv ~> continuous_at_within_inverse
  2820   continuous_at_inv ~> continuous_at_inverse
  2821   continuous_at_norm ~> continuous_norm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2822   continuous_at_infnorm ~> continuous_infnorm [OF continuous_at_id]
  2823   continuous_at_component ~> continuous_component [OF continuous_at_id]
  2824   continuous_on_neg ~> continuous_on_minus
  2825   continuous_on_sub ~> continuous_on_diff
  2826   continuous_on_cmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF continuous_on_const]
  2827   continuous_on_vmul ~> continuous_on_scaleR [OF _ continuous_on_const]
  2828   continuous_on_mul ~> continuous_on_scaleR
  2829   continuous_on_mul_real ~> continuous_on_mult
  2830   continuous_on_inner ~> continuous_on_inner [OF continuous_on_const]
  2831   continuous_on_norm ~> continuous_on_norm [OF continuous_on_id]
  2832   continuous_on_inverse ~> continuous_on_inv
  2833   uniformly_continuous_on_neg ~> uniformly_continuous_on_minus
  2834   uniformly_continuous_on_sub ~> uniformly_continuous_on_diff
  2835   subset_interior ~> interior_mono
  2836   subset_closure ~> closure_mono
  2837   closure_univ ~> closure_UNIV
  2838   real_arch_lt ~> reals_Archimedean2
  2839   real_arch ~> reals_Archimedean3
  2840   real_abs_norm ~> abs_norm_cancel
  2841   real_abs_sub_norm ~> norm_triangle_ineq3
  2842   norm_cauchy_schwarz_abs ~> Cauchy_Schwarz_ineq2
  2843 
  2844 * Session HOL-Probability:
  2845   - Caratheodory's extension lemma is now proved for ring_of_sets.
  2846   - Infinite products of probability measures are now available.
  2847   - Sigma closure is independent, if the generator is independent
  2848   - Use extended reals instead of positive extended
  2849     reals. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2850 
  2851 * Session HOLCF: Discontinued legacy theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2852 
  2853   expand_fun_below ~> fun_below_iff
  2854   below_fun_ext ~> fun_belowI
  2855   expand_cfun_eq ~> cfun_eq_iff
  2856   ext_cfun ~> cfun_eqI
  2857   expand_cfun_below ~> cfun_below_iff
  2858   below_cfun_ext ~> cfun_belowI
  2859   monofun_fun_fun ~> fun_belowD
  2860   monofun_fun_arg ~> monofunE
  2861   monofun_lub_fun ~> adm_monofun [THEN admD]
  2862   cont_lub_fun ~> adm_cont [THEN admD]
  2863   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  2864   cont_Rep_CFun_app ~> cont_APP_app
  2865   cont_Rep_CFun_app_app ~> cont_APP_app_app
  2866   cont_cfun_fun ~> cont_Rep_cfun1 [THEN contE]
  2867   cont_cfun_arg ~> cont_Rep_cfun2 [THEN contE]
  2868   contlub_cfun ~> lub_APP [symmetric]
  2869   contlub_LAM ~> lub_LAM [symmetric]
  2870   thelubI ~> lub_eqI
  2871   UU_I ~> bottomI
  2872   lift_distinct1 ~> lift.distinct(1)
  2873   lift_distinct2 ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2874   Def_not_UU ~> lift.distinct(2)
  2875   Def_inject ~> lift.inject
  2876   below_UU_iff ~> below_bottom_iff
  2877   eq_UU_iff ~> eq_bottom_iff
  2878 
  2879 
  2880 *** Document preparation ***
  2881 
  2882 * Antiquotation @{rail} layouts railroad syntax diagrams, see also
  2883 isar-ref manual, both for description and actual application of the
  2884 same.
  2885 
  2886 * Antiquotation @{value} evaluates the given term and presents its
  2887 result.
  2888 
  2889 * Antiquotations: term style "isub" provides ad-hoc conversion of
  2890 variables x1, y23 into subscripted form x\<^isub>1,
  2891 y\<^isub>2\<^isub>3.
  2892 
  2893 * Predefined LaTeX macros for Isabelle symbols \<bind> and \<then>
  2894 (e.g. see ~~/src/HOL/Library/Monad_Syntax.thy).
  2895 
  2896 * Localized \isabellestyle switch can be used within blocks or groups
  2897 like this:
  2898 
  2899   \isabellestyle{it}  %preferred default
  2900   {\isabellestylett @{text "typewriter stuff"}}
  2901 
  2902 * Discontinued special treatment of hard tabulators.  Implicit
  2903 tab-width is now defined as 1.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY for visual
  2904 layouts.
  2905 
  2906 
  2907 *** ML ***
  2908 
  2909 * The inner syntax of sort/type/term/prop supports inlined YXML
  2910 representations within quoted string tokens.  By encoding logical
  2911 entities via Term_XML (in ML or Scala) concrete syntax can be
  2912 bypassed, which is particularly useful for producing bits of text
  2913 under external program control.
  2914 
  2915 * Antiquotations for ML and document preparation are managed as theory
  2916 data, which requires explicit setup.
  2917 
  2918 * Isabelle_Process.is_active allows tools to check if the official
  2919 process wrapper is running (Isabelle/Scala/jEdit) or the old TTY loop
  2920 (better known as Proof General).
  2921 
  2922 * Structure Proof_Context follows standard naming scheme.  Old
  2923 ProofContext is still available for some time as legacy alias.
  2924 
  2925 * Structure Timing provides various operations for timing; supersedes
  2926 former start_timing/end_timing etc.
  2927 
  2928 * Path.print is the official way to show file-system paths to users
  2929 (including quotes etc.).
  2930 
  2931 * Inner syntax: identifiers in parse trees of generic categories
  2932 "logic", "aprop", "idt" etc. carry position information (disguised as
  2933 type constraints).  Occasional INCOMPATIBILITY with non-compliant
  2934 translations that choke on unexpected type constraints.  Positions can
  2935 be stripped in ML translations via Syntax.strip_positions /
  2936 Syntax.strip_positions_ast, or via the syntax constant
  2937 "_strip_positions" within parse trees.  As last resort, positions can
  2938 be disabled via the configuration option Syntax.positions, which is
  2939 called "syntax_positions" in Isar attribute syntax.
  2940 
  2941 * Discontinued special status of various ML structures that contribute
  2942 to structure Syntax (Ast, Lexicon, Mixfix, Parser, Printer etc.): less
  2943 pervasive content, no inclusion in structure Syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  2944 refer directly to Ast.Constant, Lexicon.is_identifier,
  2945 Syntax_Trans.mk_binder_tr etc.
  2946 
  2947 * Typed print translation: discontinued show_sorts argument, which is
  2948 already available via context of "advanced" translation.
  2949 
  2950 * Refined PARALLEL_GOALS tactical: degrades gracefully for schematic
  2951 goal states; body tactic needs to address all subgoals uniformly.
  2952 
  2953 * Slightly more special eq_list/eq_set, with shortcut involving
  2954 pointer equality (assumes that eq relation is reflexive).
  2955 
  2956 * Classical tactics use proper Proof.context instead of historic types
  2957 claset/clasimpset.  Old-style declarations like addIs, addEs, addDs
  2958 operate directly on Proof.context.  Raw type claset retains its use as
  2959 snapshot of the classical context, which can be recovered via
  2960 (put_claset HOL_cs) etc.  Type clasimpset has been discontinued.
  2961 INCOMPATIBILITY, classical tactics and derived proof methods require
  2962 proper Proof.context.
  2963 
  2964 
  2965 *** System ***
  2966 
  2967 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.2, which was the last version
  2968 without proper multithreading and TimeLimit implementation.
  2969 
  2970 * Discontinued old lib/scripts/polyml-platform, which has been
  2971 obsolete since Isabelle2009-2.
  2972 
  2973 * Various optional external tools are referenced more robustly and
  2974 uniformly by explicit Isabelle settings as follows:
  2975 
  2976   ISABELLE_CSDP   (formerly CSDP_EXE)
  2977   ISABELLE_GHC    (formerly EXEC_GHC or GHC_PATH)
  2978   ISABELLE_OCAML  (formerly EXEC_OCAML)
  2979   ISABELLE_SWIPL  (formerly EXEC_SWIPL)
  2980   ISABELLE_YAP    (formerly EXEC_YAP)
  2981 
  2982 Note that automated detection from the file-system or search path has
  2983 been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  2984 
  2985 * Scala layer provides JVM method invocation service for static
  2986 methods of type (String)String, see Invoke_Scala.method in ML.  For
  2987 example:
  2988 
  2989   Invoke_Scala.method "java.lang.System.getProperty" "java.home"
  2990 
  2991 Together with YXML.string_of_body/parse_body and XML.Encode/Decode
  2992 this allows to pass structured values between ML and Scala.
  2993 
  2994 * The IsabelleText fonts includes some further glyphs to support the
  2995 Prover IDE.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY: users who happen to have
  2996 installed a local copy (which is normally *not* required) need to
  2997 delete or update it from ~~/lib/fonts/.
  2998 
  2999 
  3000 
  3001 New in Isabelle2011 (January 2011)
  3002 ----------------------------------
  3003 
  3004 *** General ***
  3005 
  3006 * Experimental Prover IDE based on Isabelle/Scala and jEdit (see
  3007 src/Tools/jEdit).  This also serves as IDE for Isabelle/ML, with
  3008 useful tooltips and hyperlinks produced from its static analysis.  The
  3009 bundled component provides an executable Isabelle tool that can be run
  3010 like this:
  3011 
  3012   Isabelle2011/bin/isabelle jedit
  3013 
  3014 * Significantly improved Isabelle/Isar implementation manual.
  3015 
  3016 * System settings: ISABELLE_HOME_USER now includes ISABELLE_IDENTIFIER
  3017 (and thus refers to something like $HOME/.isabelle/Isabelle2011),
  3018 while the default heap location within that directory lacks that extra
  3019 suffix.  This isolates multiple Isabelle installations from each
  3020 other, avoiding problems with old settings in new versions.
  3021 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to copy/upgrade old user settings manually.
  3022 
  3023 * Source files are always encoded as UTF-8, instead of old-fashioned
  3024 ISO-Latin-1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Isabelle LaTeX documents might require
  3025 the following package declarations:
  3026 
  3027   \usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
  3028   \usepackage{textcomp}
  3029 
  3030 * Explicit treatment of UTF-8 sequences as Isabelle symbols, such that
  3031 a Unicode character is treated as a single symbol, not a sequence of
  3032 non-ASCII bytes as before.  Since Isabelle/ML string literals may
  3033 contain symbols without further backslash escapes, Unicode can now be
  3034 used here as well.  Recall that Symbol.explode in ML provides a
  3035 consistent view on symbols, while raw explode (or String.explode)
  3036 merely give a byte-oriented representation.
  3037 
  3038 * Theory loader: source files are primarily located via the master
  3039 directory of each theory node (where the .thy file itself resides).
  3040 The global load path is still partially available as legacy feature.
  3041 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY due to subtle change in file lookup: use
  3042 explicit paths, relatively to the theory.
  3043 
  3044 * Special treatment of ML file names has been discontinued.
  3045 Historically, optional extensions .ML or .sml were added on demand --
  3046 at the cost of clarity of file dependencies.  Recall that Isabelle/ML
  3047 files exclusively use the .ML extension.  Minor INCOMPATIBILTY.
  3048 
  3049 * Various options that affect pretty printing etc. are now properly
  3050 handled within the context via configuration options, instead of
  3051 unsynchronized references or print modes.  There are both ML Config.T
  3052 entities and Isar declaration attributes to access these.
  3053 
  3054   ML (Config.T)                 Isar (attribute)
  3055 
  3056   eta_contract                  eta_contract
  3057   show_brackets                 show_brackets
  3058   show_sorts                    show_sorts
  3059   show_types                    show_types
  3060   show_question_marks           show_question_marks
  3061   show_consts                   show_consts
  3062   show_abbrevs                  show_abbrevs
  3063 
  3064   Syntax.ast_trace              syntax_ast_trace
  3065   Syntax.ast_stat               syntax_ast_stat
  3066   Syntax.ambiguity_level        syntax_ambiguity_level
  3067 
  3068   Goal_Display.goals_limit      goals_limit
  3069   Goal_Display.show_main_goal   show_main_goal
  3070 
  3071   Method.rule_trace             rule_trace
  3072 
  3073   Thy_Output.display            thy_output_display
  3074   Thy_Output.quotes             thy_output_quotes
  3075   Thy_Output.indent             thy_output_indent
  3076   Thy_Output.source             thy_output_source
  3077   Thy_Output.break              thy_output_break
  3078 
  3079 Note that corresponding "..._default" references in ML may only be
  3080 changed globally at the ROOT session setup, but *not* within a theory.
  3081 The option "show_abbrevs" supersedes the former print mode
  3082 "no_abbrevs" with inverted meaning.
  3083 
  3084 * More systematic naming of some configuration options.
  3085 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3086 
  3087   trace_simp  ~>  simp_trace
  3088   debug_simp  ~>  simp_debug
  3089 
  3090 * Support for real valued configuration options, using simplistic
  3091 floating-point notation that coincides with the inner syntax for
  3092 float_token.
  3093 
  3094 * Support for real valued preferences (with approximative PGIP type):
  3095 front-ends need to accept "pgint" values in float notation.
  3096 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3097 
  3098 * The IsabelleText font now includes Cyrillic, Hebrew, Arabic from
  3099 DejaVu Sans.
  3100 
  3101 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 5.0 and 5.1 versions.
  3102 
  3103 
  3104 *** Pure ***
  3105 
  3106 * Command 'type_synonym' (with single argument) replaces somewhat
  3107 outdated 'types', which is still available as legacy feature for some
  3108 time.
  3109 
  3110 * Command 'nonterminal' (with 'and' separated list of arguments)
  3111 replaces somewhat outdated 'nonterminals'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3112 
  3113 * Command 'notepad' replaces former 'example_proof' for
  3114 experimentation in Isar without any result.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3115 
  3116 * Locale interpretation commands 'interpret' and 'sublocale' accept
  3117 lists of equations to map definitions in a locale to appropriate
  3118 entities in the context of the interpretation.  The 'interpretation'
  3119 command already provided this functionality.
  3120 
  3121 * Diagnostic command 'print_dependencies' prints the locale instances
  3122 that would be activated if the specified expression was interpreted in
  3123 the current context.  Variant "print_dependencies!" assumes a context
  3124 without interpretations.
  3125 
  3126 * Diagnostic command 'print_interps' prints interpretations in proofs
  3127 in addition to interpretations in theories.
  3128 
  3129 * Discontinued obsolete 'global' and 'local' commands to manipulate
  3130 the theory name space.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.  The ML functions
  3131 Sign.root_path and Sign.local_path may be applied directly where this
  3132 feature is still required for historical reasons.
  3133 
  3134 * Discontinued obsolete 'constdefs' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3135 'definition' instead.
  3136 
  3137 * The "prems" fact, which refers to the accidental collection of
  3138 foundational premises in the context, is now explicitly marked as
  3139 legacy feature and will be discontinued soon.  Consider using "assms"
  3140 of the head statement or reference facts by explicit names.
  3141 
  3142 * Document antiquotations @{class} and @{type} print classes and type
  3143 constructors.
  3144 
  3145 * Document antiquotation @{file} checks file/directory entries within
  3146 the local file system.
  3147 
  3148 
  3149 *** HOL ***
  3150 
  3151 * Coercive subtyping: functions can be declared as coercions and type
  3152 inference will add them as necessary upon input of a term.  Theory
  3153 Complex_Main declares real :: nat => real and real :: int => real as
  3154 coercions. A coercion function f is declared like this:
  3155 
  3156   declare [[coercion f]]
  3157 
  3158 To lift coercions through type constructors (e.g. from nat => real to
  3159 nat list => real list), map functions can be declared, e.g.
  3160 
  3161   declare [[coercion_map map]]
  3162 
  3163 Currently coercion inference is activated only in theories including
  3164 real numbers, i.e. descendants of Complex_Main.  This is controlled by
  3165 the configuration option "coercion_enabled", e.g. it can be enabled in
  3166 other theories like this:
  3167 
  3168   declare [[coercion_enabled]]
  3169 
  3170 * Command 'partial_function' provides basic support for recursive
  3171 function definitions over complete partial orders.  Concrete instances
  3172 are provided for i) the option type, ii) tail recursion on arbitrary
  3173 types, and iii) the heap monad of Imperative_HOL.  See
  3174 src/HOL/ex/Fundefs.thy and src/HOL/Imperative_HOL/ex/Linked_Lists.thy
  3175 for examples.
  3176 
  3177 * Function package: f.psimps rules are no longer implicitly declared
  3178 as [simp].  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3179 
  3180 * Datatype package: theorems generated for executable equality (class
  3181 "eq") carry proper names and are treated as default code equations.
  3182 
  3183 * Inductive package: now offers command 'inductive_simps' to
  3184 automatically derive instantiated and simplified equations for
  3185 inductive predicates, similar to 'inductive_cases'.
  3186 
  3187 * Command 'enriched_type' allows to register properties of the
  3188 functorial structure of types.
  3189 
  3190 * Improved infrastructure for term evaluation using code generator
  3191 techniques, in particular static evaluation conversions.
  3192 
  3193 * Code generator: Scala (2.8 or higher) has been added to the target
  3194 languages.
  3195 
  3196 * Code generator: globbing constant expressions "*" and "Theory.*"
  3197 have been replaced by the more idiomatic "_" and "Theory._".
  3198 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3199 
  3200 * Code generator: export_code without explicit file declaration prints
  3201 to standard output.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3202 
  3203 * Code generator: do not print function definitions for case
  3204 combinators any longer.
  3205 
  3206 * Code generator: simplification with rules determined with
  3207 src/Tools/Code/code_simp.ML and method "code_simp".
  3208 
  3209 * Code generator for records: more idiomatic representation of record
  3210 types.  Warning: records are not covered by ancient SML code
  3211 generation any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  In cases of need, a suitable
  3212 rep_datatype declaration helps to succeed then:
  3213 
  3214   record 'a foo = ...
  3215   ...
  3216   rep_datatype foo_ext ...
  3217 
  3218 * Records: logical foundation type for records does not carry a
  3219 '_type' suffix any longer (obsolete due to authentic syntax).
  3220 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3221 
  3222 * Quickcheck now by default uses exhaustive testing instead of random
  3223 testing.  Random testing can be invoked by "quickcheck [random]",
  3224 exhaustive testing by "quickcheck [exhaustive]".
  3225 
  3226 * Quickcheck instantiates polymorphic types with small finite
  3227 datatypes by default. This enables a simple execution mechanism to
  3228 handle quantifiers and function equality over the finite datatypes.
  3229 
  3230 * Quickcheck random generator has been renamed from "code" to
  3231 "random".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3232 
  3233 * Quickcheck now has a configurable time limit which is set to 30
  3234 seconds by default. This can be changed by adding [timeout = n] to the
  3235 quickcheck command. The time limit for Auto Quickcheck is still set
  3236 independently.
  3237 
  3238 * Quickcheck in locales considers interpretations of that locale for
  3239 counter example search.
  3240 
  3241 * Sledgehammer:
  3242   - Added "smt" and "remote_smt" provers based on the "smt" proof
  3243     method. See the Sledgehammer manual for details ("isabelle doc
  3244     sledgehammer").
  3245   - Renamed commands:
  3246     sledgehammer atp_info ~> sledgehammer running_provers
  3247     sledgehammer atp_kill ~> sledgehammer kill_provers
  3248     sledgehammer available_atps ~> sledgehammer available_provers
  3249     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3250   - Renamed options:
  3251     sledgehammer [atps = ...] ~> sledgehammer [provers = ...]
  3252     sledgehammer [atp = ...] ~> sledgehammer [prover = ...]
  3253     sledgehammer [timeout = 77 s] ~> sledgehammer [timeout = 77]
  3254     (and "ms" and "min" are no longer supported)
  3255     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3256 
  3257 * Nitpick:
  3258   - Renamed options:
  3259     nitpick [timeout = 77 s] ~> nitpick [timeout = 77]
  3260     nitpick [tac_timeout = 777 ms] ~> nitpick [tac_timeout = 0.777]
  3261     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3262   - Added support for partial quotient types.
  3263   - Added local versions of the "Nitpick.register_xxx" functions.
  3264   - Added "whack" option.
  3265   - Allow registration of quotient types as codatatypes.
  3266   - Improved "merge_type_vars" option to merge more types.
  3267   - Removed unsound "fast_descrs" option.
  3268   - Added custom symmetry breaking for datatypes, making it possible to reach
  3269     higher cardinalities.
  3270   - Prevent the expansion of too large definitions.
  3271 
  3272 * Proof methods "metis" and "meson" now have configuration options
  3273 "meson_trace", "metis_trace", and "metis_verbose" that can be enabled
  3274 to diagnose these tools. E.g.
  3275 
  3276     using [[metis_trace = true]]
  3277 
  3278 * Auto Solve: Renamed "Auto Solve Direct".  The tool is now available
  3279 manually as command 'solve_direct'.
  3280 
  3281 * The default SMT solver Z3 must be enabled explicitly (due to
  3282 licensing issues) by setting the environment variable
  3283 Z3_NON_COMMERCIAL in etc/settings of the component, for example.  For
  3284 commercial applications, the SMT solver CVC3 is provided as fall-back;
  3285 changing the SMT solver is done via the configuration option
  3286 "smt_solver".
  3287 
  3288 * Remote SMT solvers need to be referred to by the "remote_" prefix,
  3289 i.e. "remote_cvc3" and "remote_z3".
  3290 
  3291 * Added basic SMT support for datatypes, records, and typedefs using
  3292 the oracle mode (no proofs).  Direct support of pairs has been dropped
  3293 in exchange (pass theorems fst_conv snd_conv pair_collapse to the SMT
  3294 support for a similar behavior).  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3295 
  3296 * Changed SMT configuration options:
  3297   - Renamed:
  3298     z3_proofs ~> smt_oracle (with inverted meaning)
  3299     z3_trace_assms ~> smt_trace_used_facts
  3300     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3301   - Added:
  3302     smt_verbose
  3303     smt_random_seed
  3304     smt_datatypes
  3305     smt_infer_triggers
  3306     smt_monomorph_limit
  3307     cvc3_options
  3308     remote_cvc3_options
  3309     remote_z3_options
  3310     yices_options
  3311 
  3312 * Boogie output files (.b2i files) need to be declared in the theory
  3313 header.
  3314 
  3315 * Simplification procedure "list_to_set_comprehension" rewrites list
  3316 comprehensions applied to List.set to set comprehensions.  Occasional
  3317 INCOMPATIBILITY, may be deactivated like this:
  3318 
  3319   declare [[simproc del: list_to_set_comprehension]]
  3320 
  3321 * Removed old version of primrec package.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3322 
  3323 * Removed simplifier congruence rule of "prod_case", as has for long
  3324 been the case with "split".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3325 
  3326 * String.literal is a type, but not a datatype.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3327 
  3328 * Removed [split_format ... and ... and ...] version of
  3329 [split_format].  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3330 
  3331 * Predicate "sorted" now defined inductively, with nice induction
  3332 rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY: former sorted.simps now named sorted_simps.
  3333 
  3334 * Constant "contents" renamed to "the_elem", to free the generic name
  3335 contents for other uses.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3336 
  3337 * Renamed class eq and constant eq (for code generation) to class
  3338 equal and constant equal, plus renaming of related facts and various
  3339 tuning.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3340 
  3341 * Dropped type classes mult_mono and mult_mono1.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3342 
  3343 * Removed output syntax "'a ~=> 'b" for "'a => 'b option".
  3344 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3345 
  3346 * Renamed theory Fset to Cset, type Fset.fset to Cset.set, in order to
  3347 avoid confusion with finite sets.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3348 
  3349 * Abandoned locales equiv, congruent and congruent2 for equivalence
  3350 relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY: use equivI rather than equiv_intro (same
  3351 for congruent(2)).
  3352 
  3353 * Some previously unqualified names have been qualified:
  3354 
  3355   types
  3356     bool ~> HOL.bool
  3357     nat ~> Nat.nat
  3358 
  3359   constants
  3360     Trueprop ~> HOL.Trueprop
  3361     True ~> HOL.True
  3362     False ~> HOL.False
  3363     op & ~> HOL.conj
  3364     op | ~> HOL.disj
  3365     op --> ~> HOL.implies
  3366     op = ~> HOL.eq
  3367     Not ~> HOL.Not
  3368     The ~> HOL.The
  3369     All ~> HOL.All
  3370     Ex ~> HOL.Ex
  3371     Ex1 ~> HOL.Ex1
  3372     Let ~> HOL.Let
  3373     If ~> HOL.If
  3374     Ball ~> Set.Ball
  3375     Bex ~> Set.Bex
  3376     Suc ~> Nat.Suc
  3377     Pair ~> Product_Type.Pair
  3378     fst ~> Product_Type.fst
  3379     snd ~> Product_Type.snd
  3380     curry ~> Product_Type.curry
  3381     op : ~> Set.member
  3382     Collect ~> Set.Collect
  3383 
  3384 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3385 
  3386 * More canonical naming convention for some fundamental definitions:
  3387 
  3388     bot_bool_eq ~> bot_bool_def
  3389     top_bool_eq ~> top_bool_def
  3390     inf_bool_eq ~> inf_bool_def
  3391     sup_bool_eq ~> sup_bool_def
  3392     bot_fun_eq  ~> bot_fun_def
  3393     top_fun_eq  ~> top_fun_def
  3394     inf_fun_eq  ~> inf_fun_def
  3395     sup_fun_eq  ~> sup_fun_def
  3396 
  3397 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3398 
  3399 * More stylized fact names:
  3400 
  3401   expand_fun_eq ~> fun_eq_iff
  3402   expand_set_eq ~> set_eq_iff
  3403   set_ext       ~> set_eqI
  3404   nat_number    ~> eval_nat_numeral
  3405 
  3406 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3407 
  3408 * Refactoring of code-generation specific operations in theory List:
  3409 
  3410   constants
  3411     null ~> List.null
  3412 
  3413   facts
  3414     mem_iff ~> member_def
  3415     null_empty ~> null_def
  3416 
  3417 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Note that these were not supposed to be used
  3418 regularly unless for striking reasons; their main purpose was code
  3419 generation.
  3420 
  3421 Various operations from the Haskell prelude are used for generating
  3422 Haskell code.
  3423 
  3424 * Term "bij f" is now an abbreviation of "bij_betw f UNIV UNIV".  Term
  3425 "surj f" is now an abbreviation of "range f = UNIV".  The theorems
  3426 bij_def and surj_def are unchanged.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3427 
  3428 * Abolished some non-alphabetic type names: "prod" and "sum" replace
  3429 "*" and "+" respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3430 
  3431 * Name "Plus" of disjoint sum operator "<+>" is now hidden.  Write
  3432 "Sum_Type.Plus" instead.
  3433 
  3434 * Constant "split" has been merged with constant "prod_case"; names of
  3435 ML functions, facts etc. involving split have been retained so far,
  3436 though.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3437 
  3438 * Dropped old infix syntax "_ mem _" for List.member; use "_ : set _"
  3439 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3440 
  3441 * Removed lemma "Option.is_none_none" which duplicates "is_none_def".
  3442 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3443 
  3444 * Former theory Library/Enum is now part of the HOL-Main image.
  3445 INCOMPATIBILITY: all constants of the Enum theory now have to be
  3446 referred to by its qualified name.
  3447 
  3448   enum    ~>  Enum.enum
  3449   nlists  ~>  Enum.nlists
  3450   product ~>  Enum.product
  3451 
  3452 * Theory Library/Monad_Syntax provides do-syntax for monad types.
  3453 Syntax in Library/State_Monad has been changed to avoid ambiguities.
  3454 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3455 
  3456 * Theory Library/SetsAndFunctions has been split into
  3457 Library/Function_Algebras and Library/Set_Algebras; canonical names
  3458 for instance definitions for functions; various improvements.
  3459 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3460 
  3461 * Theory Library/Multiset provides stable quicksort implementation of
  3462 sort_key.
  3463 
  3464 * Theory Library/Multiset: renamed empty_idemp ~> empty_neutral.
  3465 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3466 
  3467 * Session Multivariate_Analysis: introduced a type class for euclidean
  3468 space.  Most theorems are now stated in terms of euclidean spaces
  3469 instead of finite cartesian products.
  3470 
  3471   types
  3472     real ^ 'n ~>  'a::real_vector
  3473               ~>  'a::euclidean_space
  3474               ~>  'a::ordered_euclidean_space
  3475         (depends on your needs)
  3476 
  3477   constants
  3478      _ $ _        ~> _ $$ _
  3479      \<chi> x. _  ~> \<chi>\<chi> x. _
  3480      CARD('n)     ~> DIM('a)
  3481 
  3482 Also note that the indices are now natural numbers and not from some
  3483 finite type. Finite cartesian products of euclidean spaces, products
  3484 of euclidean spaces the real and complex numbers are instantiated to
  3485 be euclidean_spaces.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3486 
  3487 * Session Probability: introduced pextreal as positive extended real
  3488 numbers.  Use pextreal as value for measures.  Introduce the
  3489 Radon-Nikodym derivative, product spaces and Fubini's theorem for
  3490 arbitrary sigma finite measures.  Introduces Lebesgue measure based on
  3491 the integral in Multivariate Analysis.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3492 
  3493 * Session Imperative_HOL: revamped, corrected dozens of inadequacies.
  3494 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3495 
  3496 * Session SPARK (with image HOL-SPARK) provides commands to load and
  3497 prove verification conditions generated by the SPARK Ada program
  3498 verifier.  See also src/HOL/SPARK and src/HOL/SPARK/Examples.
  3499 
  3500 
  3501 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  3502 
  3503 * Theorems for additive ring operations (locale abelian_monoid and
  3504 descendants) are generated by interpretation from their multiplicative
  3505 counterparts.  Names (in particular theorem names) have the mandatory
  3506 qualifier 'add'.  Previous theorem names are redeclared for
  3507 compatibility.
  3508 
  3509 * Structure "int_ring" is now an abbreviation (previously a
  3510 definition).  This fits more natural with advanced interpretations.
  3511 
  3512 
  3513 *** HOLCF ***
  3514 
  3515 * The domain package now runs in definitional mode by default: The
  3516 former command 'new_domain' is now called 'domain'.  To use the domain
  3517 package in its original axiomatic mode, use 'domain (unsafe)'.
  3518 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3519 
  3520 * The new class "domain" is now the default sort.  Class "predomain"
  3521 is an unpointed version of "domain". Theories can be updated by
  3522 replacing sort annotations as shown below.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3523 
  3524   'a::type ~> 'a::countable
  3525   'a::cpo  ~> 'a::predomain
  3526   'a::pcpo ~> 'a::domain
  3527 
  3528 * The old type class "rep" has been superseded by class "domain".
  3529 Accordingly, users of the definitional package must remove any
  3530 "default_sort rep" declarations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3531 
  3532 * The domain package (definitional mode) now supports unpointed
  3533 predomain argument types, as long as they are marked 'lazy'. (Strict
  3534 arguments must be in class "domain".) For example, the following
  3535 domain definition now works:
  3536 
  3537   domain natlist = nil | cons (lazy "nat discr") (lazy "natlist")
  3538 
  3539 * Theory HOLCF/Library/HOL_Cpo provides cpo and predomain class
  3540 instances for types from main HOL: bool, nat, int, char, 'a + 'b,
  3541 'a option, and 'a list.  Additionally, it configures fixrec and the
  3542 domain package to work with these types.  For example:
  3543 
  3544   fixrec isInl :: "('a + 'b) u -> tr"
  3545     where "isInl$(up$(Inl x)) = TT" | "isInl$(up$(Inr y)) = FF"
  3546 
  3547   domain V = VFun (lazy "V -> V") | VCon (lazy "nat") (lazy "V list")
  3548 
  3549 * The "(permissive)" option of fixrec has been replaced with a
  3550 per-equation "(unchecked)" option. See
  3551 src/HOL/HOLCF/Tutorial/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3552 
  3553 * The "bifinite" class no longer fixes a constant "approx"; the class
  3554 now just asserts that such a function exists.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3555 
  3556 * Former type "alg_defl" has been renamed to "defl".  HOLCF no longer
  3557 defines an embedding of type 'a defl into udom by default; instances
  3558 of "bifinite" and "domain" classes are available in
  3559 src/HOL/HOLCF/Library/Defl_Bifinite.thy.
  3560 
  3561 * The syntax "REP('a)" has been replaced with "DEFL('a)".
  3562 
  3563 * The predicate "directed" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3564 
  3565 * The type class "finite_po" has been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3566 
  3567 * The function "cprod_map" has been renamed to "prod_map".
  3568 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3569 
  3570 * The monadic bind operator on each powerdomain has new binder syntax
  3571 similar to sets, e.g. "\<Union>\<sharp>x\<in>xs. t" represents
  3572 "upper_bind\<cdot>xs\<cdot>(\<Lambda> x. t)".
  3573 
  3574 * The infix syntax for binary union on each powerdomain has changed
  3575 from e.g. "+\<sharp>" to "\<union>\<sharp>", for consistency with set
  3576 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3577 
  3578 * The constant "UU" has been renamed to "bottom".  The syntax "UU" is
  3579 still supported as an input translation.
  3580 
  3581 * Renamed some theorems (the original names are also still available).
  3582 
  3583   expand_fun_below   ~> fun_below_iff
  3584   below_fun_ext      ~> fun_belowI
  3585   expand_cfun_eq     ~> cfun_eq_iff
  3586   ext_cfun           ~> cfun_eqI
  3587   expand_cfun_below  ~> cfun_below_iff
  3588   below_cfun_ext     ~> cfun_belowI
  3589   cont2cont_Rep_CFun ~> cont2cont_APP
  3590 
  3591 * The Abs and Rep functions for various types have changed names.
  3592 Related theorem names have also changed to match. INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3593 
  3594   Rep_CFun  ~> Rep_cfun
  3595   Abs_CFun  ~> Abs_cfun
  3596   Rep_Sprod ~> Rep_sprod
  3597   Abs_Sprod ~> Abs_sprod
  3598   Rep_Ssum  ~> Rep_ssum
  3599   Abs_Ssum  ~> Abs_ssum
  3600 
  3601 * Lemmas with names of the form *_defined_iff or *_strict_iff have
  3602 been renamed to *_bottom_iff.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3603 
  3604 * Various changes to bisimulation/coinduction with domain package:
  3605 
  3606   - Definitions of "bisim" constants no longer mention definedness.
  3607   - With mutual recursion, "bisim" predicate is now curried.
  3608   - With mutual recursion, each type gets a separate coind theorem.
  3609   - Variable names in bisim_def and coinduct rules have changed.
  3610 
  3611 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3612 
  3613 * Case combinators generated by the domain package for type "foo" are
  3614 now named "foo_case" instead of "foo_when".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3615 
  3616 * Several theorems have been renamed to more accurately reflect the
  3617 names of constants and types involved.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3618 
  3619   thelub_const    ~> lub_const
  3620   lub_const       ~> is_lub_const
  3621   thelubI         ~> lub_eqI
  3622   is_lub_lub      ~> is_lubD2
  3623   lubI            ~> is_lub_lub
  3624   unique_lub      ~> is_lub_unique
  3625   is_ub_lub       ~> is_lub_rangeD1
  3626   lub_bin_chain   ~> is_lub_bin_chain
  3627   lub_fun         ~> is_lub_fun
  3628   thelub_fun      ~> lub_fun
  3629   thelub_cfun     ~> lub_cfun
  3630   thelub_Pair     ~> lub_Pair
  3631   lub_cprod       ~> is_lub_prod
  3632   thelub_cprod    ~> lub_prod
  3633   minimal_cprod   ~> minimal_prod
  3634   inst_cprod_pcpo ~> inst_prod_pcpo
  3635   UU_I            ~> bottomI
  3636   compact_UU      ~> compact_bottom
  3637   deflation_UU    ~> deflation_bottom
  3638   finite_deflation_UU ~> finite_deflation_bottom
  3639 
  3640 * Many legacy theorem names have been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3641 
  3642   sq_ord_less_eq_trans ~> below_eq_trans
  3643   sq_ord_eq_less_trans ~> eq_below_trans
  3644   refl_less            ~> below_refl
  3645   trans_less           ~> below_trans
  3646   antisym_less         ~> below_antisym
  3647   antisym_less_inverse ~> po_eq_conv [THEN iffD1]
  3648   box_less             ~> box_below
  3649   rev_trans_less       ~> rev_below_trans
  3650   not_less2not_eq      ~> not_below2not_eq
  3651   less_UU_iff          ~> below_UU_iff
  3652   flat_less_iff        ~> flat_below_iff
  3653   adm_less             ~> adm_below
  3654   adm_not_less         ~> adm_not_below
  3655   adm_compact_not_less ~> adm_compact_not_below
  3656   less_fun_def         ~> below_fun_def
  3657   expand_fun_less      ~> fun_below_iff
  3658   less_fun_ext         ~> fun_belowI
  3659   less_discr_def       ~> below_discr_def
  3660   discr_less_eq        ~> discr_below_eq
  3661   less_unit_def        ~> below_unit_def
  3662   less_cprod_def       ~> below_prod_def
  3663   prod_lessI           ~> prod_belowI
  3664   Pair_less_iff        ~> Pair_below_iff
  3665   fst_less_iff         ~> fst_below_iff
  3666   snd_less_iff         ~> snd_below_iff
  3667   expand_cfun_less     ~> cfun_below_iff
  3668   less_cfun_ext        ~> cfun_belowI
  3669   injection_less       ~> injection_below
  3670   less_up_def          ~> below_up_def
  3671   not_Iup_less         ~> not_Iup_below
  3672   Iup_less             ~> Iup_below
  3673   up_less              ~> up_below
  3674   Def_inject_less_eq   ~> Def_below_Def
  3675   Def_less_is_eq       ~> Def_below_iff
  3676   spair_less_iff       ~> spair_below_iff
  3677   less_sprod           ~> below_sprod
  3678   spair_less           ~> spair_below
  3679   sfst_less_iff        ~> sfst_below_iff
  3680   ssnd_less_iff        ~> ssnd_below_iff
  3681   fix_least_less       ~> fix_least_below
  3682   dist_less_one        ~> dist_below_one
  3683   less_ONE             ~> below_ONE
  3684   ONE_less_iff         ~> ONE_below_iff
  3685   less_sinlD           ~> below_sinlD
  3686   less_sinrD           ~> below_sinrD
  3687 
  3688 
  3689 *** FOL and ZF ***
  3690 
  3691 * All constant names are now qualified internally and use proper
  3692 identifiers, e.g. "IFOL.eq" instead of "op =".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3693 
  3694 
  3695 *** ML ***
  3696 
  3697 * Antiquotation @{assert} inlines a function bool -> unit that raises
  3698 Fail if the argument is false.  Due to inlining the source position of
  3699 failed assertions is included in the error output.
  3700 
  3701 * Discontinued antiquotation @{theory_ref}, which is obsolete since ML
  3702 text is in practice always evaluated with a stable theory checkpoint.
  3703 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use (Theory.check_thy @{theory}) instead.
  3704 
  3705 * Antiquotation @{theory A} refers to theory A from the ancestry of
  3706 the current context, not any accidental theory loader state as before.
  3707 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, subtle change in semantics.
  3708 
  3709 * Syntax.pretty_priority (default 0) configures the required priority
  3710 of pretty-printed output and thus affects insertion of parentheses.
  3711 
  3712 * Syntax.default_root (default "any") configures the inner syntax
  3713 category (nonterminal symbol) for parsing of terms.
  3714 
  3715 * Former exception Library.UnequalLengths now coincides with
  3716 ListPair.UnequalLengths.
  3717 
  3718 * Renamed structure MetaSimplifier to Raw_Simplifier.  Note that the
  3719 main functionality is provided by structure Simplifier.
  3720 
  3721 * Renamed raw "explode" function to "raw_explode" to emphasize its
  3722 meaning.  Note that internally to Isabelle, Symbol.explode is used in
  3723 almost all situations.
  3724 
  3725 * Discontinued obsolete function sys_error and exception SYS_ERROR.
  3726 See implementation manual for further details on exceptions in
  3727 Isabelle/ML.
  3728 
  3729 * Renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its
  3730 meaning.
  3731 
  3732 * Renamed structure PureThy to Pure_Thy and moved most of its
  3733 operations to structure Global_Theory, to emphasize that this is
  3734 rarely-used global-only stuff.
  3735 
  3736 * Discontinued Output.debug.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY, use plain writeln
  3737 instead (or tracing for high-volume output).
  3738 
  3739 * Configuration option show_question_marks only affects regular pretty
  3740 printing of types and terms, not raw Term.string_of_vname.
  3741 
  3742 * ML_Context.thm and ML_Context.thms are no longer pervasive.  Rare
  3743 INCOMPATIBILITY, superseded by static antiquotations @{thm} and
  3744 @{thms} for most purposes.
  3745 
  3746 * ML structure Unsynchronized is never opened, not even in Isar
  3747 interaction mode as before.  Old Unsynchronized.set etc. have been
  3748 discontinued -- use plain := instead.  This should be *rare* anyway,
  3749 since modern tools always work via official context data, notably
  3750 configuration options.
  3751 
  3752 * Parallel and asynchronous execution requires special care concerning
  3753 interrupts.  Structure Exn provides some convenience functions that
  3754 avoid working directly with raw Interrupt.  User code must not absorb
  3755 interrupts -- intermediate handling (for cleanup etc.) needs to be
  3756 followed by re-raising of the original exception.  Another common
  3757 source of mistakes are "handle _" patterns, which make the meaning of
  3758 the program subject to physical effects of the environment.
  3759 
  3760 
  3761 
  3762 New in Isabelle2009-2 (June 2010)
  3763 ---------------------------------
  3764 
  3765 *** General ***
  3766 
  3767 * Authentic syntax for *all* logical entities (type classes, type
  3768 constructors, term constants): provides simple and robust
  3769 correspondence between formal entities and concrete syntax.  Within
  3770 the parse tree / AST representations, "constants" are decorated by
  3771 their category (class, type, const) and spelled out explicitly with
  3772 their full internal name.
  3773 
  3774 Substantial INCOMPATIBILITY concerning low-level syntax declarations
  3775 and translations (translation rules and translation functions in ML).
  3776 Some hints on upgrading:
  3777 
  3778   - Many existing uses of 'syntax' and 'translations' can be replaced
  3779     by more modern 'type_notation', 'notation' and 'abbreviation',
  3780     which are independent of this issue.
  3781 
  3782   - 'translations' require markup within the AST; the term syntax
  3783     provides the following special forms:
  3784 
  3785       CONST c   -- produces syntax version of constant c from context
  3786       XCONST c  -- literally c, checked as constant from context
  3787       c         -- literally c, if declared by 'syntax'
  3788 
  3789     Plain identifiers are treated as AST variables -- occasionally the
  3790     system indicates accidental variables via the error "rhs contains
  3791     extra variables".
  3792 
  3793     Type classes and type constructors are marked according to their
  3794     concrete syntax.  Some old translations rules need to be written
  3795     for the "type" category, using type constructor application
  3796     instead of pseudo-term application of the default category
  3797     "logic".
  3798 
  3799   - 'parse_translation' etc. in ML may use the following
  3800     antiquotations:
  3801 
  3802       @{class_syntax c}   -- type class c within parse tree / AST
  3803       @{term_syntax c}    -- type constructor c within parse tree / AST
  3804       @{const_syntax c}   -- ML version of "CONST c" above
  3805       @{syntax_const c}   -- literally c (checked wrt. 'syntax' declarations)
  3806 
  3807   - Literal types within 'typed_print_translations', i.e. those *not*
  3808     represented as pseudo-terms are represented verbatim.  Use @{class
  3809     c} or @{type_name c} here instead of the above syntax
  3810     antiquotations.
  3811 
  3812 Note that old non-authentic syntax was based on unqualified base
  3813 names, so all of the above "constant" names would coincide.  Recall
  3814 that 'print_syntax' and ML_command "set Syntax.trace_ast" help to
  3815 diagnose syntax problems.
  3816 
  3817 * Type constructors admit general mixfix syntax, not just infix.
  3818 
  3819 * Concrete syntax may be attached to local entities without a proof
  3820 body, too.  This works via regular mixfix annotations for 'fix',
  3821 'def', 'obtain' etc. or via the explicit 'write' command, which is
  3822 similar to the 'notation' command in theory specifications.
  3823 
  3824 * Discontinued unnamed infix syntax (legacy feature for many years) --
  3825 need to specify constant name and syntax separately.  Internal ML
  3826 datatype constructors have been renamed from InfixName to Infix etc.
  3827 Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3828 
  3829 * Schematic theorem statements need to be explicitly markup as such,
  3830 via commands 'schematic_lemma', 'schematic_theorem',
  3831 'schematic_corollary'.  Thus the relevance of the proof is made
  3832 syntactically clear, which impacts performance in a parallel or
  3833 asynchronous interactive environment.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3834 
  3835 * Use of cumulative prems via "!" in some proof methods has been
  3836 discontinued (old legacy feature).
  3837 
  3838 * References 'trace_simp' and 'debug_simp' have been replaced by
  3839 configuration options stored in the context. Enabling tracing (the
  3840 case of debugging is similar) in proofs works via
  3841 
  3842   using [[trace_simp = true]]
  3843 
  3844 Tracing is then active for all invocations of the simplifier in
  3845 subsequent goal refinement steps. Tracing may also still be enabled or
  3846 disabled via the ProofGeneral settings menu.
  3847 
  3848 * Separate commands 'hide_class', 'hide_type', 'hide_const',
  3849 'hide_fact' replace the former 'hide' KIND command.  Minor
  3850 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3851 
  3852 * Improved parallelism of proof term normalization: usedir -p2 -q0 is
  3853 more efficient than combinations with -q1 or -q2.
  3854 
  3855 
  3856 *** Pure ***
  3857 
  3858 * Proofterms record type-class reasoning explicitly, using the
  3859 "unconstrain" operation internally.  This eliminates all sort
  3860 constraints from a theorem and proof, introducing explicit
  3861 OFCLASS-premises.  On the proof term level, this operation is
  3862 automatically applied at theorem boundaries, such that closed proofs
  3863 are always free of sort constraints.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools that
  3864 inspect proof terms.
  3865 
  3866 * Local theory specifications may depend on extra type variables that
  3867 are not present in the result type -- arguments TYPE('a) :: 'a itself
  3868 are added internally.  For example:
  3869 
  3870   definition unitary :: bool where "unitary = (ALL (x::'a) y. x = y)"
  3871 
  3872 * Predicates of locales introduced by classes carry a mandatory
  3873 "class" prefix.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3874 
  3875 * Vacuous class specifications observe default sort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3876 
  3877 * Old 'axclass' command has been discontinued.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  3878 'class' instead.
  3879 
  3880 * Command 'code_reflect' allows to incorporate generated ML code into
  3881 runtime environment; replaces immature code_datatype antiquotation.
  3882 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3883 
  3884 * Code generator: simple concept for abstract datatypes obeying
  3885 invariants.
  3886 
  3887 * Code generator: details of internal data cache have no impact on the
  3888 user space functionality any longer.
  3889 
  3890 * Methods "unfold_locales" and "intro_locales" ignore non-locale
  3891 subgoals.  This is more appropriate for interpretations with 'where'.
  3892 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3893 
  3894 * Command 'example_proof' opens an empty proof body.  This allows to
  3895 experiment with Isar, without producing any persistent result.
  3896 
  3897 * Commands 'type_notation' and 'no_type_notation' declare type syntax
  3898 within a local theory context, with explicit checking of the
  3899 constructors involved (in contrast to the raw 'syntax' versions).
  3900 
  3901 * Commands 'types' and 'typedecl' now work within a local theory
  3902 context -- without introducing dependencies on parameters or
  3903 assumptions, which is not possible in Isabelle/Pure.
  3904 
  3905 * Command 'defaultsort' has been renamed to 'default_sort', it works
  3906 within a local theory context.  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3907 
  3908 
  3909 *** HOL ***
  3910 
  3911 * Command 'typedef' now works within a local theory context -- without
  3912 introducing dependencies on parameters or assumptions, which is not
  3913 possible in Isabelle/Pure/HOL.  Note that the logical environment may
  3914 contain multiple interpretations of local typedefs (with different
  3915 non-emptiness proofs), even in a global theory context.
  3916 
  3917 * New package for quotient types.  Commands 'quotient_type' and
  3918 'quotient_definition' may be used for defining types and constants by
  3919 quotient constructions.  An example is the type of integers created by
  3920 quotienting pairs of natural numbers:
  3921 
  3922   fun
  3923     intrel :: "(nat * nat) => (nat * nat) => bool"
  3924   where
  3925     "intrel (x, y) (u, v) = (x + v = u + y)"
  3926 
  3927   quotient_type int = "nat * nat" / intrel
  3928     by (auto simp add: equivp_def expand_fun_eq)
  3929 
  3930   quotient_definition
  3931     "0::int" is "(0::nat, 0::nat)"
  3932 
  3933 The method "lifting" can be used to lift of theorems from the
  3934 underlying "raw" type to the quotient type.  The example
  3935 src/HOL/Quotient_Examples/FSet.thy includes such a quotient
  3936 construction and provides a reasoning infrastructure for finite sets.
  3937 
  3938 * Renamed Library/Quotient.thy to Library/Quotient_Type.thy to avoid
  3939 clash with new theory Quotient in Main HOL.
  3940 
  3941 * Moved the SMT binding into the main HOL session, eliminating
  3942 separate HOL-SMT session.
  3943 
  3944 * List membership infix mem operation is only an input abbreviation.
  3945 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3946 
  3947 * Theory Library/Word.thy has been removed.  Use library Word/Word.thy
  3948 for future developements; former Library/Word.thy is still present in
  3949 the AFP entry RSAPPS.
  3950 
  3951 * Theorem Int.int_induct renamed to Int.int_of_nat_induct and is no
  3952 longer shadowed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3953 
  3954 * Dropped theorem duplicate comp_arith; use semiring_norm instead.
  3955 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3956 
  3957 * Dropped theorem RealPow.real_sq_order; use power2_le_imp_le instead.
  3958 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3959 
  3960 * Dropped normalizing_semiring etc; use the facts in semiring classes
  3961 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3962 
  3963 * Dropped several real-specific versions of lemmas about floor and
  3964 ceiling; use the generic lemmas from theory "Archimedean_Field"
  3965 instead.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  3966 
  3967   floor_number_of_eq         ~> floor_number_of
  3968   le_floor_eq_number_of      ~> number_of_le_floor
  3969   le_floor_eq_zero           ~> zero_le_floor
  3970   le_floor_eq_one            ~> one_le_floor
  3971   floor_less_eq_number_of    ~> floor_less_number_of
  3972   floor_less_eq_zero         ~> floor_less_zero
  3973   floor_less_eq_one          ~> floor_less_one
  3974   less_floor_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_less_floor
  3975   less_floor_eq_zero         ~> zero_less_floor
  3976   less_floor_eq_one          ~> one_less_floor
  3977   floor_le_eq_number_of      ~> floor_le_number_of
  3978   floor_le_eq_zero           ~> floor_le_zero
  3979   floor_le_eq_one            ~> floor_le_one
  3980   floor_subtract_number_of   ~> floor_diff_number_of
  3981   floor_subtract_one         ~> floor_diff_one
  3982   ceiling_number_of_eq       ~> ceiling_number_of
  3983   ceiling_le_eq_number_of    ~> ceiling_le_number_of
  3984   ceiling_le_zero_eq         ~> ceiling_le_zero
  3985   ceiling_le_eq_one          ~> ceiling_le_one
  3986   less_ceiling_eq_number_of  ~> number_of_less_ceiling
  3987   less_ceiling_eq_zero       ~> zero_less_ceiling
  3988   less_ceiling_eq_one        ~> one_less_ceiling
  3989   ceiling_less_eq_number_of  ~> ceiling_less_number_of
  3990   ceiling_less_eq_zero       ~> ceiling_less_zero
  3991   ceiling_less_eq_one        ~> ceiling_less_one
  3992   le_ceiling_eq_number_of    ~> number_of_le_ceiling
  3993   le_ceiling_eq_zero         ~> zero_le_ceiling
  3994   le_ceiling_eq_one          ~> one_le_ceiling
  3995   ceiling_subtract_number_of ~> ceiling_diff_number_of
  3996   ceiling_subtract_one       ~> ceiling_diff_one
  3997 
  3998 * Theory "Finite_Set": various folding_XXX locales facilitate the
  3999 application of the various fold combinators on finite sets.
  4000 
  4001 * Library theory "RBT" renamed to "RBT_Impl"; new library theory "RBT"
  4002 provides abstract red-black tree type which is backed by "RBT_Impl" as
  4003 implementation.  INCOMPATIBILTY.
  4004 
  4005 * Theory Library/Coinductive_List has been removed -- superseded by
  4006 AFP/thys/Coinductive.
  4007 
  4008 * Theory PReal, including the type "preal" and related operations, has
  4009 been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4010 
  4011 * Real: new development using Cauchy Sequences.
  4012 
  4013 * Split off theory "Big_Operators" containing setsum, setprod,
  4014 Inf_fin, Sup_fin, Min, Max from theory Finite_Set.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4015 
  4016 * Theory "Rational" renamed to "Rat", for consistency with "Nat",
  4017 "Int" etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4018 
  4019 * Constant Rat.normalize needs to be qualified.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4020 
  4021 * New set of rules "ac_simps" provides combined assoc / commute
  4022 rewrites for all interpretations of the appropriate generic locales.
  4023 
  4024 * Renamed theory "OrderedGroup" to "Groups" and split theory
  4025 "Ring_and_Field" into theories "Rings" and "Fields"; for more
  4026 appropriate and more consistent names suitable for name prefixes
  4027 within the HOL theories.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4028 
  4029 * Some generic constants have been put to appropriate theories:
  4030   - less_eq, less: Orderings
  4031   - zero, one, plus, minus, uminus, times, abs, sgn: Groups
  4032   - inverse, divide: Rings
  4033 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4034 
  4035 * More consistent naming of type classes involving orderings (and
  4036 lattices):
  4037 
  4038     lower_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_inf
  4039     upper_semilattice                   ~> semilattice_sup
  4040 
  4041     dense_linear_order                  ~> dense_linorder
  4042 
  4043     pordered_ab_group_add               ~> ordered_ab_group_add
  4044     pordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> ordered_ab_group_add_abs
  4045     pordered_ab_semigroup_add           ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4046     pordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le    ~> ordered_ab_semigroup_add_imp_le
  4047     pordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add    ~> ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4048     pordered_cancel_comm_semiring       ~> ordered_cancel_comm_semiring
  4049     pordered_cancel_semiring            ~> ordered_cancel_semiring
  4050     pordered_comm_monoid_add            ~> ordered_comm_monoid_add
  4051     pordered_comm_ring                  ~> ordered_comm_ring
  4052     pordered_comm_semiring              ~> ordered_comm_semiring
  4053     pordered_ring                       ~> ordered_ring
  4054     pordered_ring_abs                   ~> ordered_ring_abs
  4055     pordered_semiring                   ~> ordered_semiring
  4056 
  4057     ordered_ab_group_add                ~> linordered_ab_group_add
  4058     ordered_ab_semigroup_add            ~> linordered_ab_semigroup_add
  4059     ordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add     ~> linordered_cancel_ab_semigroup_add
  4060     ordered_comm_semiring_strict        ~> linordered_comm_semiring_strict
  4061     ordered_field                       ~> linordered_field
  4062     ordered_field_no_lb                 ~> linordered_field_no_lb
  4063     ordered_field_no_ub                 ~> linordered_field_no_ub
  4064     ordered_field_dense_linear_order    ~> dense_linordered_field
  4065     ordered_idom                        ~> linordered_idom
  4066     ordered_ring                        ~> linordered_ring
  4067     ordered_ring_le_cancel_factor       ~> linordered_ring_le_cancel_factor
  4068     ordered_ring_less_cancel_factor     ~> linordered_ring_less_cancel_factor
  4069     ordered_ring_strict                 ~> linordered_ring_strict
  4070     ordered_semidom                     ~> linordered_semidom
  4071     ordered_semiring                    ~> linordered_semiring
  4072     ordered_semiring_1                  ~> linordered_semiring_1
  4073     ordered_semiring_1_strict           ~> linordered_semiring_1_strict
  4074     ordered_semiring_strict             ~> linordered_semiring_strict
  4075 
  4076   The following slightly odd type classes have been moved to a
  4077   separate theory Library/Lattice_Algebras:
  4078 
  4079     lordered_ab_group_add               ~> lattice_ab_group_add
  4080     lordered_ab_group_add_abs           ~> lattice_ab_group_add_abs
  4081     lordered_ab_group_add_meet          ~> semilattice_inf_ab_group_add
  4082     lordered_ab_group_add_join          ~> semilattice_sup_ab_group_add
  4083     lordered_ring                       ~> lattice_ring
  4084 
  4085 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4086 
  4087 * Refined field classes:
  4088   - classes division_ring_inverse_zero, field_inverse_zero,
  4089     linordered_field_inverse_zero include rule inverse 0 = 0 --
  4090     subsumes former division_by_zero class;
  4091   - numerous lemmas have been ported from field to division_ring.
  4092 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4093 
  4094 * Refined algebra theorem collections:
  4095   - dropped theorem group group_simps, use algebra_simps instead;
  4096   - dropped theorem group ring_simps, use field_simps instead;
  4097   - proper theorem collection field_simps subsumes former theorem
  4098     groups field_eq_simps and field_simps;
  4099   - dropped lemma eq_minus_self_iff which is a duplicate for
  4100     equal_neg_zero.
  4101 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4102 
  4103 * Theory Finite_Set and List: some lemmas have been generalized from
  4104 sets to lattices:
  4105 
  4106   fun_left_comm_idem_inter      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_inf
  4107   fun_left_comm_idem_union      ~> fun_left_comm_idem_sup
  4108   inter_Inter_fold_inter        ~> inf_Inf_fold_inf
  4109   union_Union_fold_union        ~> sup_Sup_fold_sup
  4110   Inter_fold_inter              ~> Inf_fold_inf
  4111   Union_fold_union              ~> Sup_fold_sup
  4112   inter_INTER_fold_inter        ~> inf_INFI_fold_inf
  4113   union_UNION_fold_union        ~> sup_SUPR_fold_sup
  4114   INTER_fold_inter              ~> INFI_fold_inf
  4115   UNION_fold_union              ~> SUPR_fold_sup
  4116 
  4117 * Theory "Complete_Lattice": lemmas top_def and bot_def have been
  4118 replaced by the more convenient lemmas Inf_empty and Sup_empty.
  4119 Dropped lemmas Inf_insert_simp and Sup_insert_simp, which are subsumed
  4120 by Inf_insert and Sup_insert.  Lemmas Inf_UNIV and Sup_UNIV replace
  4121 former Inf_Univ and Sup_Univ.  Lemmas inf_top_right and sup_bot_right
  4122 subsume inf_top and sup_bot respectively.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4123 
  4124 * Reorganized theory Multiset: swapped notation of pointwise and
  4125 multiset order:
  4126 
  4127   - pointwise ordering is instance of class order with standard syntax
  4128     <= and <;
  4129   - multiset ordering has syntax <=# and <#; partial order properties
  4130     are provided by means of interpretation with prefix
  4131     multiset_order;
  4132   - less duplication, less historical organization of sections,
  4133     conversion from associations lists to multisets, rudimentary code
  4134     generation;
  4135   - use insert_DiffM2 [symmetric] instead of elem_imp_eq_diff_union,
  4136     if needed.
  4137 
  4138 Renamed:
  4139 
  4140   multiset_eq_conv_count_eq  ~>  multiset_ext_iff
  4141   multi_count_ext  ~>  multiset_ext
  4142   diff_union_inverse2  ~>  diff_union_cancelR
  4143 
  4144 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4145 
  4146 * Theory Permutation: replaced local "remove" by List.remove1.
  4147 
  4148 * Code generation: ML and OCaml code is decorated with signatures.
  4149 
  4150 * Theory List: added transpose.
  4151 
  4152 * Library/Nat_Bijection.thy is a collection of bijective functions
  4153 between nat and other types, which supersedes the older libraries
  4154 Library/Nat_Int_Bij.thy and HOLCF/NatIso.thy.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4155 
  4156   Constants:
  4157   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat         ~> prod_encode
  4158   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2         ~> prod_decode
  4159   Nat_Int_Bij.int_to_nat_bij      ~> int_encode
  4160   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_int_bij      ~> int_decode
  4161   Countable.pair_encode           ~> prod_encode
  4162   NatIso.prod2nat                 ~> prod_encode
  4163   NatIso.nat2prod                 ~> prod_decode
  4164   NatIso.sum2nat                  ~> sum_encode
  4165   NatIso.nat2sum                  ~> sum_decode
  4166   NatIso.list2nat                 ~> list_encode
  4167   NatIso.nat2list                 ~> list_decode
  4168   NatIso.set2nat                  ~> set_encode
  4169   NatIso.nat2set                  ~> set_decode
  4170 
  4171   Lemmas:
  4172   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4173   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_inj     ~> inj_prod_encode
  4174   Nat_Int_Bij.nat2_to_nat_surj    ~> surj_prod_encode
  4175   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_inj     ~> inj_prod_decode
  4176   Nat_Int_Bij.nat_to_nat2_surj    ~> surj_prod_decode
  4177   Nat_Int_Bij.i2n_n2i_id          ~> int_encode_inverse
  4178   Nat_Int_Bij.n2i_i2n_id          ~> int_decode_inverse
  4179   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_nat_to_int_bij ~> surj_int_encode
  4180   Nat_Int_Bij.surj_int_to_nat_bij ~> surj_int_decode
  4181   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_nat_to_int_bij  ~> inj_int_encode
  4182   Nat_Int_Bij.inj_int_to_nat_bij  ~> inj_int_decode
  4183   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_nat_to_int_bij  ~> bij_int_encode
  4184   Nat_Int_Bij.bij_int_to_nat_bij  ~> bij_int_decode
  4185 
  4186 * Sledgehammer:
  4187   - Renamed ATP commands:
  4188     atp_info     ~> sledgehammer running_atps
  4189     atp_kill     ~> sledgehammer kill_atps
  4190     atp_messages ~> sledgehammer messages
  4191     atp_minimize ~> sledgehammer minimize
  4192     print_atps   ~> sledgehammer available_atps
  4193     INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4194   - Added user's manual ("isabelle doc sledgehammer").
  4195   - Added option syntax and "sledgehammer_params" to customize
  4196     Sledgehammer's behavior.  See the manual for details.
  4197   - Modified the Isar proof reconstruction code so that it produces
  4198     direct proofs rather than proofs by contradiction.  (This feature
  4199     is still experimental.)
  4200   - Made Isar proof reconstruction work for SPASS, remote ATPs, and in
  4201     full-typed mode.
  4202   - Added support for TPTP syntax for SPASS via the "spass_tptp" ATP.
  4203 
  4204 * Nitpick:
  4205   - Added and implemented "binary_ints" and "bits" options.
  4206   - Added "std" option and implemented support for nonstandard models.
  4207   - Added and implemented "finitize" option to improve the precision
  4208     of infinite datatypes based on a monotonicity analysis.
  4209   - Added support for quotient types.
  4210   - Added support for "specification" and "ax_specification"
  4211     constructs.
  4212   - Added support for local definitions (for "function" and
  4213     "termination" proofs).
  4214   - Added support for term postprocessors.
  4215   - Optimized "Multiset.multiset" and "FinFun.finfun".
  4216   - Improved efficiency of "destroy_constrs" optimization.
  4217   - Fixed soundness bugs related to "destroy_constrs" optimization and
  4218     record getters.
  4219   - Fixed soundness bug related to higher-order constructors.
  4220   - Fixed soundness bug when "full_descrs" is enabled.
  4221   - Improved precision of set constructs.
  4222   - Added "atoms" option.
  4223   - Added cache to speed up repeated Kodkod invocations on the same
  4224     problems.
  4225   - Renamed "MiniSatJNI", "zChaffJNI", "BerkMinAlloy", and
  4226     "SAT4JLight" to "MiniSat_JNI", "zChaff_JNI", "BerkMin_Alloy", and
  4227     "SAT4J_Light".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4228   - Removed "skolemize", "uncurry", "sym_break", "flatten_prop",
  4229     "sharing_depth", and "show_skolems" options.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4230   - Removed "nitpick_intro" attribute.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4231 
  4232 * Method "induct" now takes instantiations of the form t, where t is not
  4233   a variable, as a shorthand for "x == t", where x is a fresh variable.
  4234   If this is not intended, t has to be enclosed in parentheses.
  4235   By default, the equalities generated by definitional instantiations
  4236   are pre-simplified, which may cause parameters of inductive cases
  4237   to disappear, or may even delete some of the inductive cases.
  4238   Use "induct (no_simp)" instead of "induct" to restore the old
  4239   behaviour. The (no_simp) option is also understood by the "cases"
  4240   and "nominal_induct" methods, which now perform pre-simplification, too.
  4241   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4242 
  4243 
  4244 *** HOLCF ***
  4245 
  4246 * Variable names in lemmas generated by the domain package have
  4247 changed; the naming scheme is now consistent with the HOL datatype
  4248 package.  Some proof scripts may be affected, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4249 
  4250 * The domain package no longer defines the function "foo_copy" for
  4251 recursive domain "foo".  The reach lemma is now stated directly in
  4252 terms of "foo_take".  Lemmas and proofs that mention "foo_copy" must
  4253 be reformulated in terms of "foo_take", INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4254 
  4255 * Most definedness lemmas generated by the domain package (previously
  4256 of the form "x ~= UU ==> foo$x ~= UU") now have an if-and-only-if form
  4257 like "foo$x = UU <-> x = UU", which works better as a simp rule.
  4258 Proofs that used definedness lemmas as intro rules may break,
  4259 potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4260 
  4261 * Induction and casedist rules generated by the domain package now
  4262 declare proper case_names (one called "bottom", and one named for each
  4263 constructor).  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4264 
  4265 * For mutually-recursive domains, separate "reach" and "take_lemma"
  4266 rules are generated for each domain, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4267 
  4268   foo_bar.reach       ~> foo.reach  bar.reach
  4269   foo_bar.take_lemmas ~> foo.take_lemma  bar.take_lemma
  4270 
  4271 * Some lemmas generated by the domain package have been renamed for
  4272 consistency with the datatype package, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4273 
  4274   foo.ind        ~> foo.induct
  4275   foo.finite_ind ~> foo.finite_induct
  4276   foo.coind      ~> foo.coinduct
  4277   foo.casedist   ~> foo.exhaust
  4278   foo.exhaust    ~> foo.nchotomy
  4279 
  4280 * For consistency with other definition packages, the fixrec package
  4281 now generates qualified theorem names, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4282 
  4283   foo_simps  ~> foo.simps
  4284   foo_unfold ~> foo.unfold
  4285   foo_induct ~> foo.induct
  4286 
  4287 * The "fixrec_simp" attribute has been removed.  The "fixrec_simp"
  4288 method and internal fixrec proofs now use the default simpset instead.
  4289 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4290 
  4291 * The "contlub" predicate has been removed.  Proof scripts should use
  4292 lemma contI2 in place of monocontlub2cont, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4293 
  4294 * The "admw" predicate has been removed, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4295 
  4296 * The constants cpair, cfst, and csnd have been removed in favor of
  4297 Pair, fst, and snd from Isabelle/HOL, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4298 
  4299 
  4300 *** ML ***
  4301 
  4302 * Antiquotations for basic formal entities:
  4303 
  4304     @{class NAME}         -- type class
  4305     @{class_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of the above
  4306 
  4307     @{type_name NAME}     -- logical type
  4308     @{type_abbrev NAME}   -- type abbreviation
  4309     @{nonterminal NAME}   -- type of concrete syntactic category
  4310     @{type_syntax NAME}   -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4311 
  4312     @{const_name NAME}    -- logical constant (INCOMPATIBILITY)
  4313     @{const_abbrev NAME}  -- abbreviated constant
  4314     @{const_syntax NAME}  -- syntax representation of any of the above
  4315 
  4316 * Antiquotation @{syntax_const NAME} ensures that NAME refers to a raw
  4317 syntax constant (cf. 'syntax' command).
  4318 
  4319 * Antiquotation @{make_string} inlines a function to print arbitrary
  4320 values similar to the ML toplevel.  The result is compiler dependent
  4321 and may fall back on "?" in certain situations.
  4322 
  4323 * Diagnostic commands 'ML_val' and 'ML_command' may refer to
  4324 antiquotations @{Isar.state} and @{Isar.goal}.  This replaces impure
  4325 Isar.state() and Isar.goal(), which belong to the old TTY loop and do
  4326 not work with the asynchronous Isar document model.
  4327 
  4328 * Configuration options now admit dynamic default values, depending on
  4329 the context or even global references.
  4330 
  4331 * SHA1.digest digests strings according to SHA-1 (see RFC 3174).  It
  4332 uses an efficient external library if available (for Poly/ML).
  4333 
  4334 * Renamed some important ML structures, while keeping the old names
  4335 for some time as aliases within the structure Legacy:
  4336 
  4337   OuterKeyword  ~>  Keyword
  4338   OuterLex      ~>  Token
  4339   OuterParse    ~>  Parse
  4340   OuterSyntax   ~>  Outer_Syntax
  4341   PrintMode     ~>  Print_Mode
  4342   SpecParse     ~>  Parse_Spec
  4343   ThyInfo       ~>  Thy_Info
  4344   ThyLoad       ~>  Thy_Load
  4345   ThyOutput     ~>  Thy_Output
  4346   TypeInfer     ~>  Type_Infer
  4347 
  4348 Note that "open Legacy" simplifies porting of sources, but forgetting
  4349 to remove it again will complicate porting again in the future.
  4350 
  4351 * Most operations that refer to a global context are named
  4352 accordingly, e.g. Simplifier.global_context or
  4353 ProofContext.init_global.  There are some situations where a global
  4354 context actually works, but under normal circumstances one needs to
  4355 pass the proper local context through the code!
  4356 
  4357 * Discontinued old TheoryDataFun with its copy/init operation -- data
  4358 needs to be pure.  Functor Theory_Data_PP retains the traditional
  4359 Pretty.pp argument to merge, which is absent in the standard
  4360 Theory_Data version.
  4361 
  4362 * Sorts.certify_sort and derived "cert" operations for types and terms
  4363 no longer minimize sorts.  Thus certification at the boundary of the
  4364 inference kernel becomes invariant under addition of class relations,
  4365 which is an important monotonicity principle.  Sorts are now minimized
  4366 in the syntax layer only, at the boundary between the end-user and the
  4367 system.  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY, may have to use Sign.minimize_sort
  4368 explicitly in rare situations.
  4369 
  4370 * Renamed old-style Drule.standard to Drule.export_without_context, to
  4371 emphasize that this is in no way a standard operation.
  4372 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4373 
  4374 * Subgoal.FOCUS (and variants): resulting goal state is normalized as
  4375 usual for resolution.  Rare INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4376 
  4377 * Renamed varify/unvarify operations to varify_global/unvarify_global
  4378 to emphasize that these only work in a global situation (which is
  4379 quite rare).
  4380 
  4381 * Curried take and drop in library.ML; negative length is interpreted
  4382 as infinity (as in chop).  Subtle INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4383 
  4384 * Proof terms: type substitutions on proof constants now use canonical
  4385 order of type variables.  INCOMPATIBILITY for tools working with proof
  4386 terms.
  4387 
  4388 * Raw axioms/defs may no longer carry sort constraints, and raw defs
  4389 may no longer carry premises.  User-level specifications are
  4390 transformed accordingly by Thm.add_axiom/add_def.
  4391 
  4392 
  4393 *** System ***
  4394 
  4395 * Discontinued special HOL_USEDIR_OPTIONS for the main HOL image;
  4396 ISABELLE_USEDIR_OPTIONS applies uniformly to all sessions.  Note that
  4397 proof terms are enabled unconditionally in the new HOL-Proofs image.
  4398 
  4399 * Discontinued old ISABELLE and ISATOOL environment settings (legacy
  4400 feature since Isabelle2009).  Use ISABELLE_PROCESS and ISABELLE_TOOL,
  4401 respectively.
  4402 
  4403 * Old lib/scripts/polyml-platform is superseded by the
  4404 ISABELLE_PLATFORM setting variable, which defaults to the 32 bit
  4405 variant, even on a 64 bit machine.  The following example setting
  4406 prefers 64 bit if available:
  4407 
  4408   ML_PLATFORM="${ISABELLE_PLATFORM64:-$ISABELLE_PLATFORM}"
  4409 
  4410 * The preliminary Isabelle/jEdit application demonstrates the emerging
  4411 Isabelle/Scala layer for advanced prover interaction and integration.
  4412 See src/Tools/jEdit or "isabelle jedit" provided by the properly built
  4413 component.
  4414 
  4415 * "IsabelleText" is a Unicode font derived from Bitstream Vera Mono
  4416 and Bluesky TeX fonts.  It provides the usual Isabelle symbols,
  4417 similar to the default assignment of the document preparation system
  4418 (cf. isabellesym.sty).  The Isabelle/Scala class Isabelle_System
  4419 provides some operations for direct access to the font without asking
  4420 the user for manual installation.
  4421 
  4422 
  4423 
  4424 New in Isabelle2009-1 (December 2009)
  4425 -------------------------------------
  4426 
  4427 *** General ***
  4428 
  4429 * Discontinued old form of "escaped symbols" such as \\<forall>.  Only
  4430 one backslash should be used, even in ML sources.
  4431 
  4432 
  4433 *** Pure ***
  4434 
  4435 * Locale interpretation propagates mixins along the locale hierarchy.
  4436 The currently only available mixins are the equations used to map
  4437 local definitions to terms of the target domain of an interpretation.
  4438 
  4439 * Reactivated diagnostic command 'print_interps'.  Use "print_interps
  4440 loc" to print all interpretations of locale "loc" in the theory.
  4441 Interpretations in proofs are not shown.
  4442 
  4443 * Thoroughly revised locales tutorial.  New section on conditional
  4444 interpretation.
  4445 
  4446 * On instantiation of classes, remaining undefined class parameters
  4447 are formally declared.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4448 
  4449 
  4450 *** Document preparation ***
  4451 
  4452 * New generalized style concept for printing terms: @{foo (style) ...}
  4453 instead of @{foo_style style ...}  (old form is still retained for
  4454 backward compatibility).  Styles can be also applied for
  4455 antiquotations prop, term_type and typeof.
  4456 
  4457 
  4458 *** HOL ***
  4459 
  4460 * New proof method "smt" for a combination of first-order logic with
  4461 equality, linear and nonlinear (natural/integer/real) arithmetic, and
  4462 fixed-size bitvectors; there is also basic support for higher-order
  4463 features (esp. lambda abstractions).  It is an incomplete decision
  4464 procedure based on external SMT solvers using the oracle mechanism;
  4465 for the SMT solver Z3, this method is proof-producing.  Certificates
  4466 are provided to avoid calling the external solvers solely for
  4467 re-checking proofs.  Due to a remote SMT service there is no need for
  4468 installing SMT solvers locally.  See src/HOL/SMT.
  4469 
  4470 * New commands to load and prove verification conditions generated by
  4471 the Boogie program verifier or derived systems (e.g. the Verifying C
  4472 Compiler (VCC) or Spec#).  See src/HOL/Boogie.
  4473 
  4474 * New counterexample generator tool 'nitpick' based on the Kodkod
  4475 relational model finder.  See src/HOL/Tools/Nitpick and
  4476 src/HOL/Nitpick_Examples.
  4477 
  4478 * New commands 'code_pred' and 'values' to invoke the predicate
  4479 compiler and to enumerate values of inductive predicates.
  4480 
  4481 * A tabled implementation of the reflexive transitive closure.
  4482 
  4483 * New implementation of quickcheck uses generic code generator;
  4484 default generators are provided for all suitable HOL types, records
  4485 and datatypes.  Old quickcheck can be re-activated importing theory
  4486 Library/SML_Quickcheck.
  4487 
  4488 * New testing tool Mirabelle for automated proof tools.  Applies
  4489 several tools and tactics like sledgehammer, metis, or quickcheck, to
  4490 every proof step in a theory.  To be used in batch mode via the
  4491 "mirabelle" utility.
  4492 
  4493 * New proof method "sos" (sum of squares) for nonlinear real
  4494 arithmetic (originally due to John Harison). It requires theory
  4495 Library/Sum_Of_Squares.  It is not a complete decision procedure but
  4496 works well in practice on quantifier-free real arithmetic with +, -,
  4497 *, ^, =, <= and <, i.e. boolean combinations of equalities and
  4498 inequalities between polynomials.  It makes use of external
  4499 semidefinite programming solvers.  Method "sos" generates a
  4500 certificate that can be pasted into the proof thus avoiding the need
  4501 to call an external tool every time the proof is checked.  See
  4502 src/HOL/Library/Sum_Of_Squares.
  4503 
  4504 * New method "linarith" invokes existing linear arithmetic decision
  4505 procedure only.
  4506 
  4507 * New command 'atp_minimal' reduces result produced by Sledgehammer.
  4508 
  4509 * New Sledgehammer option "Full Types" in Proof General settings menu.
  4510 Causes full type information to be output to the ATPs.  This slows
  4511 ATPs down considerably but eliminates a source of unsound "proofs"
  4512 that fail later.
  4513 
  4514 * New method "metisFT": A version of metis that uses full type
  4515 information in order to avoid failures of proof reconstruction.
  4516 
  4517 * New evaluator "approximate" approximates an real valued term using
  4518 the same method as the approximation method.
  4519 
  4520 * Method "approximate" now supports arithmetic expressions as
  4521 boundaries of intervals and implements interval splitting and Taylor
  4522 series expansion.
  4523 
  4524 * ML antiquotation @{code_datatype} inserts definition of a datatype
  4525 generated by the code generator; e.g. see src/HOL/Predicate.thy.
  4526 
  4527 * New theory SupInf of the supremum and infimum operators for sets of
  4528 reals.
  4529 
  4530 * New theory Probability, which contains a development of measure
  4531 theory, eventually leading to Lebesgue integration and probability.
  4532 
  4533 * Extended Multivariate Analysis to include derivation and Brouwer's
  4534 fixpoint theorem.
  4535 
  4536 * Reorganization of number theory, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  4537   - new number theory development for nat and int, in theories Divides
  4538     and GCD as well as in new session Number_Theory
  4539   - some constants and facts now suffixed with _nat and _int
  4540     accordingly
  4541   - former session NumberTheory now named Old_Number_Theory, including
  4542     theories Legacy_GCD and Primes (prefer Number_Theory if possible)
  4543   - moved theory Pocklington from src/HOL/Library to
  4544     src/HOL/Old_Number_Theory
  4545 
  4546 * Theory GCD includes functions Gcd/GCD and Lcm/LCM for the gcd and
  4547 lcm of finite and infinite sets. It is shown that they form a complete
  4548 lattice.
  4549 
  4550 * Class semiring_div requires superclass no_zero_divisors and proof of
  4551 div_mult_mult1; theorems div_mult_mult1, div_mult_mult2,
  4552 div_mult_mult1_if, div_mult_mult1 and div_mult_mult2 have been
  4553 generalized to class semiring_div, subsuming former theorems
  4554 zdiv_zmult_zmult1, zdiv_zmult_zmult1_if, zdiv_zmult_zmult1 and
  4555 zdiv_zmult_zmult2.  div_mult_mult1 is now [simp] by default.
  4556 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4557 
  4558 * Refinements to lattice classes and sets:
  4559   - less default intro/elim rules in locale variant, more default
  4560     intro/elim rules in class variant: more uniformity
  4561   - lemma ge_sup_conv renamed to le_sup_iff, in accordance with
  4562     le_inf_iff
  4563   - dropped lemma alias inf_ACI for inf_aci (same for sup_ACI and
  4564     sup_aci)
  4565   - renamed ACI to inf_sup_aci
  4566   - new class "boolean_algebra"
  4567   - class "complete_lattice" moved to separate theory
  4568     "Complete_Lattice"; corresponding constants (and abbreviations)
  4569     renamed and with authentic syntax:
  4570     Set.Inf ~>    Complete_Lattice.Inf
  4571     Set.Sup ~>    Complete_Lattice.Sup
  4572     Set.INFI ~>   Complete_Lattice.INFI
  4573     Set.SUPR ~>   Complete_Lattice.SUPR
  4574     Set.Inter ~>  Complete_Lattice.Inter
  4575     Set.Union ~>  Complete_Lattice.Union
  4576     Set.INTER ~>  Complete_Lattice.INTER
  4577     Set.UNION ~>  Complete_Lattice.UNION
  4578   - authentic syntax for
  4579     Set.Pow
  4580     Set.image
  4581   - mere abbreviations:
  4582     Set.empty               (for bot)
  4583     Set.UNIV                (for top)
  4584     Set.inter               (for inf, formerly Set.Int)
  4585     Set.union               (for sup, formerly Set.Un)
  4586     Complete_Lattice.Inter  (for Inf)
  4587     Complete_Lattice.Union  (for Sup)
  4588     Complete_Lattice.INTER  (for INFI)
  4589     Complete_Lattice.UNION  (for SUPR)
  4590   - object-logic definitions as far as appropriate
  4591 
  4592 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Care is required when theorems Int_subset_iff or
  4593 Un_subset_iff are explicitly deleted as default simp rules; then also
  4594 their lattice counterparts le_inf_iff and le_sup_iff have to be
  4595 deleted to achieve the desired effect.
  4596 
  4597 * Rules inf_absorb1, inf_absorb2, sup_absorb1, sup_absorb2 are no simp
  4598 rules by default any longer; the same applies to min_max.inf_absorb1
  4599 etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4600 
  4601 * Rules sup_Int_eq and sup_Un_eq are no longer declared as
  4602 pred_set_conv by default.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4603 
  4604 * Power operations on relations and functions are now one dedicated
  4605 constant "compow" with infix syntax "^^".  Power operation on
  4606 multiplicative monoids retains syntax "^" and is now defined generic
  4607 in class power.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4608 
  4609 * Relation composition "R O S" now has a more standard argument order:
  4610 "R O S = {(x, z). EX y. (x, y) : R & (y, z) : S}".  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  4611 rewrite propositions with "S O R" --> "R O S". Proofs may occasionally
  4612 break, since the O_assoc rule was not rewritten like this.  Fix using
  4613 O_assoc[symmetric].  The same applies to the curried version "R OO S".
  4614 
  4615 * Function "Inv" is renamed to "inv_into" and function "inv" is now an
  4616 abbreviation for "inv_into UNIV".  Lemmas are renamed accordingly.
  4617 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4618 
  4619 * Most rules produced by inductive and datatype package have mandatory
  4620 prefixes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4621 
  4622 * Changed "DERIV_intros" to a dynamic fact, which can be augmented by
  4623 the attribute of the same name.  Each of the theorems in the list
  4624 DERIV_intros assumes composition with an additional function and
  4625 matches a variable to the derivative, which has to be solved by the
  4626 Simplifier.  Hence (auto intro!: DERIV_intros) computes the derivative
  4627 of most elementary terms.  Former Maclauren.DERIV_tac and
  4628 Maclauren.deriv_tac should be replaced by (auto intro!: DERIV_intros).
  4629 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4630 
  4631 * Code generator attributes follow the usual underscore convention:
  4632     code_unfold     replaces    code unfold
  4633     code_post       replaces    code post
  4634     etc.
  4635   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4636 
  4637 * Renamed methods:
  4638     sizechange -> size_change
  4639     induct_scheme -> induction_schema
  4640   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4641 
  4642 * Discontinued abbreviation "arbitrary" of constant "undefined".
  4643 INCOMPATIBILITY, use "undefined" directly.
  4644 
  4645 * Renamed theorems:
  4646     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4647     Suc_eq_add_numeral_1_left -> Suc_eq_plus1_left
  4648     Suc_plus1 -> Suc_eq_plus1
  4649     *anti_sym -> *antisym*
  4650     vector_less_eq_def -> vector_le_def
  4651   INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4652 
  4653 * Added theorem List.map_map as [simp].  Removed List.map_compose.
  4654 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4655 
  4656 * Removed predicate "M hassize n" (<--> card M = n & finite M).
  4657 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4658 
  4659 
  4660 *** HOLCF ***
  4661 
  4662 * Theory Representable defines a class "rep" of domains that are
  4663 representable (via an ep-pair) in the universal domain type "udom".
  4664 Instances are provided for all type constructors defined in HOLCF.
  4665 
  4666 * The 'new_domain' command is a purely definitional version of the
  4667 domain package, for representable domains.  Syntax is identical to the
  4668 old domain package.  The 'new_domain' package also supports indirect
  4669 recursion using previously-defined type constructors.  See
  4670 src/HOLCF/ex/New_Domain.thy for examples.
  4671 
  4672 * Method "fixrec_simp" unfolds one step of a fixrec-defined constant
  4673 on the left-hand side of an equation, and then performs
  4674 simplification.  Rewriting is done using rules declared with the
  4675 "fixrec_simp" attribute.  The "fixrec_simp" method is intended as a
  4676 replacement for "fixpat"; see src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for examples.
  4677 
  4678 * The pattern-match compiler in 'fixrec' can now handle constructors
  4679 with HOL function types.  Pattern-match combinators for the Pair
  4680 constructor are pre-configured.
  4681 
  4682 * The 'fixrec' package now produces better fixed-point induction rules
  4683 for mutually-recursive definitions:  Induction rules have conclusions
  4684 of the form "P foo bar" instead of "P <foo, bar>".
  4685 
  4686 * The constant "sq_le" (with infix syntax "<<" or "\<sqsubseteq>") has
  4687 been renamed to "below".  The name "below" now replaces "less" in many
  4688 theorem names.  (Legacy theorem names using "less" are still supported
  4689 as well.)
  4690 
  4691 * The 'fixrec' package now supports "bottom patterns".  Bottom
  4692 patterns can be used to generate strictness rules, or to make
  4693 functions more strict (much like the bang-patterns supported by the
  4694 Glasgow Haskell Compiler).  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  4695 examples.
  4696 
  4697 
  4698 *** ML ***
  4699 
  4700 * Support for Poly/ML 5.3.0, with improved reporting of compiler
  4701 errors and run-time exceptions, including detailed source positions.
  4702 
  4703 * Structure Name_Space (formerly NameSpace) now manages uniquely
  4704 identified entries, with some additional information such as source
  4705 position, logical grouping etc.
  4706 
  4707 * Theory and context data is now introduced by the simplified and
  4708 modernized functors Theory_Data, Proof_Data, Generic_Data.  Data needs
  4709 to be pure, but the old TheoryDataFun for mutable data (with explicit
  4710 copy operation) is still available for some time.
  4711 
  4712 * Structure Synchronized (cf. src/Pure/Concurrent/synchronized.ML)
  4713 provides a high-level programming interface to synchronized state
  4714 variables with atomic update.  This works via pure function
  4715 application within a critical section -- its runtime should be as
  4716 short as possible; beware of deadlocks if critical code is nested,
  4717 either directly or indirectly via other synchronized variables!
  4718 
  4719 * Structure Unsynchronized (cf. src/Pure/ML-Systems/unsynchronized.ML)
  4720 wraps raw ML references, explicitly indicating their non-thread-safe
  4721 behaviour.  The Isar toplevel keeps this structure open, to
  4722 accommodate Proof General as well as quick and dirty interactive
  4723 experiments with references.
  4724 
  4725 * PARALLEL_CHOICE and PARALLEL_GOALS provide basic support for
  4726 parallel tactical reasoning.
  4727 
  4728 * Tacticals Subgoal.FOCUS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PREMS, Subgoal.FOCUS_PARAMS
  4729 are similar to SUBPROOF, but are slightly more flexible: only the
  4730 specified parts of the subgoal are imported into the context, and the
  4731 body tactic may introduce new subgoals and schematic variables.
  4732 
  4733 * Old tactical METAHYPS, which does not observe the proof context, has
  4734 been renamed to Old_Goals.METAHYPS and awaits deletion.  Use SUBPROOF
  4735 or Subgoal.FOCUS etc.
  4736 
  4737 * Renamed functor TableFun to Table, and GraphFun to Graph.  (Since
  4738 functors have their own ML name space there is no point to mark them
  4739 separately.)  Minor INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4740 
  4741 * Renamed NamedThmsFun to Named_Thms.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4742 
  4743 * Renamed several structures FooBar to Foo_Bar.  Occasional,
  4744 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4745 
  4746 * Operations of structure Skip_Proof no longer require quick_and_dirty
  4747 mode, which avoids critical setmp.
  4748 
  4749 * Eliminated old Attrib.add_attributes, Method.add_methods and related
  4750 combinators for "args".  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to use simplified
  4751 Attrib/Method.setup introduced in Isabelle2009.
  4752 
  4753 * Proper context for simpset_of, claset_of, clasimpset_of.  May fall
  4754 back on global_simpset_of, global_claset_of, global_clasimpset_of as
  4755 last resort.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4756 
  4757 * Display.pretty_thm now requires a proper context (cf. former
  4758 ProofContext.pretty_thm).  May fall back on Display.pretty_thm_global
  4759 or even Display.pretty_thm_without_context as last resort.
  4760 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4761 
  4762 * Discontinued Display.pretty_ctyp/cterm etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  4763 Syntax.pretty_typ/term directly, preferably with proper context
  4764 instead of global theory.
  4765 
  4766 
  4767 *** System ***
  4768 
  4769 * Further fine tuning of parallel proof checking, scales up to 8 cores
  4770 (max. speedup factor 5.0).  See also Goal.parallel_proofs in ML and
  4771 usedir option -q.
  4772 
  4773 * Support for additional "Isabelle components" via etc/components, see
  4774 also the system manual.
  4775 
  4776 * The isabelle makeall tool now operates on all components with
  4777 IsaMakefile, not just hardwired "logics".
  4778 
  4779 * Removed "compress" option from isabelle-process and isabelle usedir;
  4780 this is always enabled.
  4781 
  4782 * Discontinued support for Poly/ML 4.x versions.
  4783 
  4784 * Isabelle tool "wwwfind" provides web interface for 'find_theorems'
  4785 on a given logic image.  This requires the lighttpd webserver and is
  4786 currently supported on Linux only.
  4787 
  4788 
  4789 
  4790 New in Isabelle2009 (April 2009)
  4791 --------------------------------
  4792 
  4793 *** General ***
  4794 
  4795 * Simplified main Isabelle executables, with less surprises on
  4796 case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4797 
  4798   - The main Isabelle tool wrapper is now called "isabelle" instead of
  4799     "isatool."
  4800 
  4801   - The former "isabelle" alias for "isabelle-process" has been
  4802     removed (should rarely occur to regular users).
  4803 
  4804   - The former "isabelle-interface" and its alias "Isabelle" have been
  4805     removed (interfaces are now regular Isabelle tools).
  4806 
  4807 Within scripts and make files, the Isabelle environment variables
  4808 ISABELLE_TOOL and ISABELLE_PROCESS replace old ISATOOL and ISABELLE,
  4809 respectively.  (The latter are still available as legacy feature.)
  4810 
  4811 The old isabelle-interface wrapper could react in confusing ways if
  4812 the interface was uninstalled or changed otherwise.  Individual
  4813 interface tool configuration is now more explicit, see also the
  4814 Isabelle system manual.  In particular, Proof General is now available
  4815 via "isabelle emacs".
  4816 
  4817 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to adapt derivative scripts.  Users may need to
  4818 purge installed copies of Isabelle executables and re-run "isabelle
  4819 install -p ...", or use symlinks.
  4820 
  4821 * The default for ISABELLE_HOME_USER is now ~/.isabelle instead of the
  4822 old ~/isabelle, which was slightly non-standard and apt to cause
  4823 surprises on case-insensitive file-systems (such as Mac OS).
  4824 
  4825 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to move existing ~/isabelle/etc,
  4826 ~/isabelle/heaps, ~/isabelle/browser_info to the new place.  Special
  4827 care is required when using older releases of Isabelle.  Note that
  4828 ISABELLE_HOME_USER can be changed in Isabelle/etc/settings of any
  4829 Isabelle distribution, in order to use the new ~/.isabelle uniformly.
  4830 
  4831 * Proofs of fully specified statements are run in parallel on
  4832 multi-core systems.  A speedup factor of 2.5 to 3.2 can be expected on
  4833 a regular 4-core machine, if the initial heap space is made reasonably
  4834 large (cf. Poly/ML option -H).  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  4835 
  4836 * The main reference manuals ("isar-ref", "implementation", and
  4837 "system") have been updated and extended.  Formally checked references
  4838 as hyperlinks are now available uniformly.
  4839 
  4840 
  4841 *** Pure ***
  4842 
  4843 * Complete re-implementation of locales.  INCOMPATIBILITY in several
  4844 respects.  The most important changes are listed below.  See the
  4845 Tutorial on Locales ("locales" manual) for details.
  4846 
  4847 - In locale expressions, instantiation replaces renaming.  Parameters
  4848 must be declared in a for clause.  To aid compatibility with previous
  4849 parameter inheritance, in locale declarations, parameters that are not
  4850 'touched' (instantiation position "_" or omitted) are implicitly added
  4851 with their syntax at the beginning of the for clause.
  4852 
  4853 - Syntax from abbreviations and definitions in locales is available in
  4854 locale expressions and context elements.  The latter is particularly
  4855 useful in locale declarations.
  4856 
  4857 - More flexible mechanisms to qualify names generated by locale
  4858 expressions.  Qualifiers (prefixes) may be specified in locale
  4859 expressions, and can be marked as mandatory (syntax: "name!:") or
  4860 optional (syntax "name?:").  The default depends for plain "name:"
  4861 depends on the situation where a locale expression is used: in
  4862 commands 'locale' and 'sublocale' prefixes are optional, in
  4863 'interpretation' and 'interpret' prefixes are mandatory.  The old
  4864 implicit qualifiers derived from the parameter names of a locale are
  4865 no longer generated.
  4866 
  4867 - Command "sublocale l < e" replaces "interpretation l < e".  The
  4868 instantiation clause in "interpretation" and "interpret" (square
  4869 brackets) is no longer available.  Use locale expressions.
  4870 
  4871 - When converting proof scripts, mandatory qualifiers in
  4872 'interpretation' and 'interpret' should be retained by default, even
  4873 if this is an INCOMPATIBILITY compared to former behavior.  In the
  4874 worst case, use the "name?:" form for non-mandatory ones.  Qualifiers
  4875 in locale expressions range over a single locale instance only.
  4876 
  4877 - Dropped locale element "includes".  This is a major INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4878 In existing theorem specifications replace the includes element by the
  4879 respective context elements of the included locale, omitting those
  4880 that are already present in the theorem specification.  Multiple
  4881 assume elements of a locale should be replaced by a single one
  4882 involving the locale predicate.  In the proof body, declarations (most
  4883 notably theorems) may be regained by interpreting the respective
  4884 locales in the proof context as required (command "interpret").
  4885 
  4886 If using "includes" in replacement of a target solely because the
  4887 parameter types in the theorem are not as general as in the target,
  4888 consider declaring a new locale with additional type constraints on
  4889 the parameters (context element "constrains").
  4890 
  4891 - Discontinued "locale (open)".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4892 
  4893 - Locale interpretation commands no longer attempt to simplify goal.
  4894 INCOMPATIBILITY: in rare situations the generated goal differs.  Use
  4895 methods intro_locales and unfold_locales to clarify.
  4896 
  4897 - Locale interpretation commands no longer accept interpretation
  4898 attributes.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4899 
  4900 * Class declaration: so-called "base sort" must not be given in import
  4901 list any longer, but is inferred from the specification.  Particularly
  4902 in HOL, write
  4903 
  4904     class foo = ...
  4905 
  4906 instead of
  4907 
  4908     class foo = type + ...
  4909 
  4910 * Class target: global versions of theorems stemming do not carry a
  4911 parameter prefix any longer.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4912 
  4913 * Class 'instance' command no longer accepts attached definitions.
  4914 INCOMPATIBILITY, use proper 'instantiation' target instead.
  4915 
  4916 * Recovered hiding of consts, which was accidentally broken in
  4917 Isabelle2007.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, ``hide const c'' really
  4918 makes c inaccessible; consider using ``hide (open) const c'' instead.
  4919 
  4920 * Slightly more coherent Pure syntax, with updated documentation in
  4921 isar-ref manual.  Removed locales meta_term_syntax and
  4922 meta_conjunction_syntax: TERM and &&& (formerly &&) are now permanent,
  4923 INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations.  Note that &&& should not be used
  4924 directly in regular applications.
  4925 
  4926 * There is a new syntactic category "float_const" for signed decimal
  4927 fractions (e.g. 123.45 or -123.45).
  4928 
  4929 * Removed exotic 'token_translation' command.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML
  4930 interface with 'setup' command instead.
  4931 
  4932 * Command 'local_setup' is similar to 'setup', but operates on a local
  4933 theory context.
  4934 
  4935 * The 'axiomatization' command now only works within a global theory
  4936 context.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4937 
  4938 * Goal-directed proof now enforces strict proof irrelevance wrt. sort
  4939 hypotheses.  Sorts required in the course of reasoning need to be
  4940 covered by the constraints in the initial statement, completed by the
  4941 type instance information of the background theory.  Non-trivial sort
  4942 hypotheses, which rarely occur in practice, may be specified via
  4943 vacuous propositions of the form SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::c).  For example:
  4944 
  4945   lemma assumes "SORT_CONSTRAINT('a::empty)" shows False ...
  4946 
  4947 The result contains an implicit sort hypotheses as before --
  4948 SORT_CONSTRAINT premises are eliminated as part of the canonical rule
  4949 normalization.
  4950 
  4951 * Generalized Isar history, with support for linear undo, direct state
  4952 addressing etc.
  4953 
  4954 * Changed defaults for unify configuration options:
  4955 
  4956   unify_trace_bound = 50 (formerly 25)
  4957   unify_search_bound = 60 (formerly 30)
  4958 
  4959 * Different bookkeeping for code equations (INCOMPATIBILITY):
  4960 
  4961   a) On theory merge, the last set of code equations for a particular
  4962      constant is taken (in accordance with the policy applied by other
  4963      parts of the code generator framework).
  4964 
  4965   b) Code equations stemming from explicit declarations (e.g. code
  4966      attribute) gain priority over default code equations stemming
  4967      from definition, primrec, fun etc.
  4968 
  4969 * Keyword 'code_exception' now named 'code_abort'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4970 
  4971 * Unified theorem tables for both code generators.  Thus [code
  4972 func] has disappeared and only [code] remains.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  4973 
  4974 * Command 'find_consts' searches for constants based on type and name
  4975 patterns, e.g.
  4976 
  4977     find_consts "_ => bool"
  4978 
  4979 By default, matching is against subtypes, but it may be restricted to
  4980 the whole type.  Searching by name is possible.  Multiple queries are
  4981 conjunctive and queries may be negated by prefixing them with a
  4982 hyphen:
  4983 
  4984     find_consts strict: "_ => bool" name: "Int" -"int => int"
  4985 
  4986 * New 'find_theorems' criterion "solves" matches theorems that
  4987 directly solve the current goal (modulo higher-order unification).
  4988 
  4989 * Auto solve feature for main theorem statements: whenever a new goal
  4990 is stated, "find_theorems solves" is called; any theorems that could
  4991 solve the lemma directly are listed as part of the goal state.
  4992 Cf. associated options in Proof General Isabelle settings menu,
  4993 enabled by default, with reasonable timeout for pathological cases of
  4994 higher-order unification.
  4995 
  4996 
  4997 *** Document preparation ***
  4998 
  4999 * Antiquotation @{lemma} now imitates a regular terminal proof,
  5000 demanding keyword 'by' and supporting the full method expression
  5001 syntax just like the Isar command 'by'.
  5002 
  5003 
  5004 *** HOL ***
  5005 
  5006 * Integrated main parts of former image HOL-Complex with HOL.  Entry
  5007 points Main and Complex_Main remain as before.
  5008 
  5009 * Logic image HOL-Plain provides a minimal HOL with the most important
  5010 tools available (inductive, datatype, primrec, ...).  This facilitates
  5011 experimentation and tool development.  Note that user applications
  5012 (and library theories) should never refer to anything below theory
  5013 Main, as before.
  5014 
  5015 * Logic image HOL-Main stops at theory Main, and thus facilitates
  5016 experimentation due to shorter build times.
  5017 
  5018 * Logic image HOL-NSA contains theories of nonstandard analysis which
  5019 were previously part of former HOL-Complex.  Entry point Hyperreal
  5020 remains valid, but theories formerly using Complex_Main should now use
  5021 new entry point Hypercomplex.
  5022 
  5023 * Generic ATP manager for Sledgehammer, based on ML threads instead of
  5024 Posix processes.  Avoids potentially expensive forking of the ML
  5025 process.  New thread-based implementation also works on non-Unix
  5026 platforms (Cygwin).  Provers are no longer hardwired, but defined
  5027 within the theory via plain ML wrapper functions.  Basic Sledgehammer
  5028 commands are covered in the isar-ref manual.
  5029 
  5030 * Wrapper scripts for remote SystemOnTPTP service allows to use
  5031 sledgehammer without local ATP installation (Vampire etc.). Other
  5032 provers may be included via suitable ML wrappers, see also
  5033 src/HOL/ATP_Linkup.thy.
  5034 
  5035 * ATP selection (E/Vampire/Spass) is now via Proof General's settings
  5036 menu.
  5037 
  5038 * The metis method no longer fails because the theorem is too trivial
  5039 (contains the empty clause).
  5040 
  5041 * The metis method now fails in the usual manner, rather than raising
  5042 an exception, if it determines that it cannot prove the theorem.
  5043 
  5044 * Method "coherent" implements a prover for coherent logic (see also
  5045 src/Tools/coherent.ML).
  5046 
  5047 * Constants "undefined" and "default" replace "arbitrary".  Usually
  5048 "undefined" is the right choice to replace "arbitrary", though
  5049 logically there is no difference.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5050 
  5051 * Command "value" now integrates different evaluation mechanisms.  The
  5052 result of the first successful evaluation mechanism is printed.  In
  5053 square brackets a particular named evaluation mechanisms may be
  5054 specified (currently, [SML], [code] or [nbe]).  See further
  5055 src/HOL/ex/Eval_Examples.thy.
  5056 
  5057 * Normalization by evaluation now allows non-leftlinear equations.
  5058 Declare with attribute [code nbe].
  5059 
  5060 * Methods "case_tac" and "induct_tac" now refer to the very same rules
  5061 as the structured Isar versions "cases" and "induct", cf. the
  5062 corresponding "cases" and "induct" attributes.  Mutual induction rules
  5063 are now presented as a list of individual projections
  5064 (e.g. foo_bar.inducts for types foo and bar); the old format with
  5065 explicit HOL conjunction is no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, in
  5066 rare situations a different rule is selected --- notably nested tuple
  5067 elimination instead of former prod.exhaust: use explicit (case_tac t
  5068 rule: prod.exhaust) here.
  5069 
  5070 * Attributes "cases", "induct", "coinduct" support "del" option.
  5071 
  5072 * Removed fact "case_split_thm", which duplicates "case_split".
  5073 
  5074 * The option datatype has been moved to a new theory Option.  Renamed
  5075 option_map to Option.map, and o2s to Option.set, INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5076 
  5077 * New predicate "strict_mono" classifies strict functions on partial
  5078 orders.  With strict functions on linear orders, reasoning about
  5079 (in)equalities is facilitated by theorems "strict_mono_eq",
  5080 "strict_mono_less_eq" and "strict_mono_less".
  5081 
  5082 * Some set operations are now proper qualified constants with
  5083 authentic syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5084 
  5085     op Int ~>   Set.Int
  5086     op Un ~>    Set.Un
  5087     INTER ~>    Set.INTER
  5088     UNION ~>    Set.UNION
  5089     Inter ~>    Set.Inter
  5090     Union ~>    Set.Union
  5091     {} ~>       Set.empty
  5092     UNIV ~>     Set.UNIV
  5093 
  5094 * Class complete_lattice with operations Inf, Sup, INFI, SUPR now in
  5095 theory Set.
  5096 
  5097 * Auxiliary class "itself" has disappeared -- classes without any
  5098 parameter are treated as expected by the 'class' command.
  5099 
  5100 * Leibnitz's Series for Pi and the arcus tangens and logarithm series.
  5101 
  5102 * Common decision procedures (Cooper, MIR, Ferrack, Approximation,
  5103 Dense_Linear_Order) are now in directory HOL/Decision_Procs.
  5104 
  5105 * Theory src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Approximation provides the new proof
  5106 method "approximation".  It proves formulas on real values by using
  5107 interval arithmetic.  In the formulas are also the transcendental
  5108 functions sin, cos, tan, atan, ln, exp and the constant pi are
  5109 allowed. For examples see
  5110 src/HOL/Descision_Procs/ex/Approximation_Ex.thy.
  5111 
  5112 * Theory "Reflection" now resides in HOL/Library.
  5113 
  5114 * Entry point to Word library now simply named "Word".
  5115 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5116 
  5117 * Made source layout more coherent with logical distribution
  5118 structure:
  5119 
  5120     src/HOL/Library/RType.thy ~> src/HOL/Typerep.thy
  5121     src/HOL/Library/Code_Message.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5122     src/HOL/Library/GCD.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5123     src/HOL/Library/Order_Relation.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5124     src/HOL/Library/Parity.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5125     src/HOL/Library/Univ_Poly.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5126     src/HOL/Real/ContNotDenum.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5127     src/HOL/Real/Lubs.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5128     src/HOL/Real/PReal.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5129     src/HOL/Real/Rational.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5130     src/HOL/Real/RComplete.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5131     src/HOL/Real/RealDef.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5132     src/HOL/Real/RealPow.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5133     src/HOL/Real/Real.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5134     src/HOL/Complex/Complex_Main.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5135     src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5136     src/HOL/Complex/FrechetDeriv.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5137     src/HOL/Complex/Fundamental_Theorem_Algebra.thy ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5138     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Deriv.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5139     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Fact.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5140     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Integration.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5141     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Lim.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5142     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Ln.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5143     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Log.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5144     src/HOL/Hyperreal/MacLaurin.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5145     src/HOL/Hyperreal/NthRoot.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5146     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Series.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5147     src/HOL/Hyperreal/SEQ.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5148     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Taylor.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5149     src/HOL/Hyperreal/Transcendental.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5150     src/HOL/Real/Float ~> src/HOL/Library/
  5151     src/HOL/Real/HahnBanach ~> src/HOL/HahnBanach
  5152     src/HOL/Real/RealVector.thy ~> src/HOL/
  5153 
  5154     src/HOL/arith_data.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5155     src/HOL/hologic.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5156     src/HOL/simpdata.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5157     src/HOL/int_arith1.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools/int_arith.ML
  5158     src/HOL/int_factor_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5159     src/HOL/nat_simprocs.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5160     src/HOL/Real/float_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5161     src/HOL/Real/float_syntax.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5162     src/HOL/Real/rat_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5163     src/HOL/Real/real_arith.ML ~> src/HOL/Tools
  5164 
  5165     src/HOL/Library/Array.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5166     src/HOL/Library/Heap_Monad.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5167     src/HOL/Library/Heap.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5168     src/HOL/Library/Imperative_HOL.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5169     src/HOL/Library/Ref.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5170     src/HOL/Library/Relational.thy ~> src/HOL/Imperative_HOL
  5171 
  5172 * If methods "eval" and "evaluation" encounter a structured proof
  5173 state with !!/==>, only the conclusion is evaluated to True (if
  5174 possible), avoiding strange error messages.
  5175 
  5176 * Method "sizechange" automates termination proofs using (a
  5177 modification of) the size-change principle.  Requires SAT solver.  See
  5178 src/HOL/ex/Termination.thy for examples.
  5179 
  5180 * Simplifier: simproc for let expressions now unfolds if bound
  5181 variable occurs at most once in let expression body.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5182 
  5183 * Method "arith": Linear arithmetic now ignores all inequalities when
  5184 fast_arith_neq_limit is exceeded, instead of giving up entirely.
  5185 
  5186 * New attribute "arith" for facts that should always be used
  5187 automatically by arithmetic. It is intended to be used locally in
  5188 proofs, e.g.
  5189 
  5190   assumes [arith]: "x > 0"
  5191 
  5192 Global usage is discouraged because of possible performance impact.
  5193 
  5194 * New classes "top" and "bot" with corresponding operations "top" and
  5195 "bot" in theory Orderings; instantiation of class "complete_lattice"
  5196 requires instantiation of classes "top" and "bot".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5197 
  5198 * Changed definition lemma "less_fun_def" in order to provide an
  5199 instance for preorders on functions; use lemma "less_le" instead.
  5200 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5201 
  5202 * Theory Orderings: class "wellorder" moved here, with explicit
  5203 induction rule "less_induct" as assumption.  For instantiation of
  5204 "wellorder" by means of predicate "wf", use rule wf_wellorderI.
  5205 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5206 
  5207 * Theory Orderings: added class "preorder" as superclass of "order".
  5208 INCOMPATIBILITY: Instantiation proofs for order, linorder
  5209 etc. slightly changed.  Some theorems named order_class.* now named
  5210 preorder_class.*.
  5211 
  5212 * Theory Relation: renamed "refl" to "refl_on", "reflexive" to "refl,
  5213 "diag" to "Id_on".
  5214 
  5215 * Theory Finite_Set: added a new fold combinator of type
  5216 
  5217   ('a => 'b => 'b) => 'b => 'a set => 'b
  5218 
  5219 Occasionally this is more convenient than the old fold combinator
  5220 which is now defined in terms of the new one and renamed to
  5221 fold_image.
  5222 
  5223 * Theories Ring_and_Field and OrderedGroup: The lemmas "group_simps"
  5224 and "ring_simps" have been replaced by "algebra_simps" (which can be
  5225 extended with further lemmas!).  At the moment both still exist but
  5226 the former will disappear at some point.
  5227 
  5228 * Theory Power: Lemma power_Suc is now declared as a simp rule in
  5229 class recpower.  Type-specific simp rules for various recpower types
  5230 have been removed.  INCOMPATIBILITY, rename old lemmas as follows:
  5231 
  5232 rat_power_0    -> power_0
  5233 rat_power_Suc  -> power_Suc
  5234 realpow_0      -> power_0
  5235 realpow_Suc    -> power_Suc
  5236 complexpow_0   -> power_0
  5237 complexpow_Suc -> power_Suc
  5238 power_poly_0   -> power_0
  5239 power_poly_Suc -> power_Suc
  5240 
  5241 * Theories Ring_and_Field and Divides: Definition of "op dvd" has been
  5242 moved to separate class dvd in Ring_and_Field; a couple of lemmas on
  5243 dvd has been generalized to class comm_semiring_1.  Likewise a bunch
  5244 of lemmas from Divides has been generalized from nat to class
  5245 semiring_div.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  This involves the following theorem
  5246 renames resulting from duplicate elimination:
  5247 
  5248     dvd_def_mod ~>          dvd_eq_mod_eq_0
  5249     zero_dvd_iff ~>         dvd_0_left_iff
  5250     dvd_0 ~>                dvd_0_right
  5251     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_DIV ~> div_by_0
  5252     DIVISION_BY_ZERO_MOD ~> mod_by_0
  5253     mult_div ~>             div_mult_self2_is_id
  5254     mult_mod ~>             mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5255 
  5256 * Theory IntDiv: removed many lemmas that are instances of class-based
  5257 generalizations (from Divides and Ring_and_Field).  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5258 rename old lemmas as follows:
  5259 
  5260 dvd_diff               -> nat_dvd_diff
  5261 dvd_zminus_iff         -> dvd_minus_iff
  5262 mod_add1_eq            -> mod_add_eq
  5263 mod_mult1_eq           -> mod_mult_right_eq
  5264 mod_mult1_eq'          -> mod_mult_left_eq
  5265 mod_mult_distrib_mod   -> mod_mult_eq
  5266 nat_mod_add_left_eq    -> mod_add_left_eq
  5267 nat_mod_add_right_eq   -> mod_add_right_eq
  5268 nat_mod_div_trivial    -> mod_div_trivial
  5269 nat_mod_mod_trivial    -> mod_mod_trivial
  5270 zdiv_zadd_self1        -> div_add_self1
  5271 zdiv_zadd_self2        -> div_add_self2
  5272 zdiv_zmult_self1       -> div_mult_self2_is_id
  5273 zdiv_zmult_self2       -> div_mult_self1_is_id
  5274 zdvd_triv_left         -> dvd_triv_left
  5275 zdvd_triv_right        -> dvd_triv_right
  5276 zdvd_zmult_cancel_disj -> dvd_mult_cancel_left
  5277 zmod_eq0_zdvd_iff      -> dvd_eq_mod_eq_0[symmetric]
  5278 zmod_zadd_left_eq      -> mod_add_left_eq
  5279 zmod_zadd_right_eq     -> mod_add_right_eq
  5280 zmod_zadd_self1        -> mod_add_self1
  5281 zmod_zadd_self2        -> mod_add_self2
  5282 zmod_zadd1_eq          -> mod_add_eq
  5283 zmod_zdiff1_eq         -> mod_diff_eq
  5284 zmod_zdvd_zmod         -> mod_mod_cancel
  5285 zmod_zmod_cancel       -> mod_mod_cancel
  5286 zmod_zmult_self1       -> mod_mult_self2_is_0
  5287 zmod_zmult_self2       -> mod_mult_self1_is_0
  5288 zmod_1                 -> mod_by_1
  5289 zdiv_1                 -> div_by_1
  5290 zdvd_abs1              -> abs_dvd_iff
  5291 zdvd_abs2              -> dvd_abs_iff
  5292 zdvd_refl              -> dvd_refl
  5293 zdvd_trans             -> dvd_trans
  5294 zdvd_zadd              -> dvd_add
  5295 zdvd_zdiff             -> dvd_diff
  5296 zdvd_zminus_iff        -> dvd_minus_iff
  5297 zdvd_zminus2_iff       -> minus_dvd_iff
  5298 zdvd_zmultD            -> dvd_mult_right
  5299 zdvd_zmultD2           -> dvd_mult_left
  5300 zdvd_zmult_mono        -> mult_dvd_mono
  5301 zdvd_0_right           -> dvd_0_right
  5302 zdvd_0_left            -> dvd_0_left_iff
  5303 zdvd_1_left            -> one_dvd
  5304 zminus_dvd_iff         -> minus_dvd_iff
  5305 
  5306 * Theory Rational: 'Fract k 0' now equals '0'.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5307 
  5308 * The real numbers offer decimal input syntax: 12.34 is translated
  5309 into 1234/10^2. This translation is not reversed upon output.
  5310 
  5311 * Theory Library/Polynomial defines an abstract type 'a poly of
  5312 univariate polynomials with coefficients of type 'a.  In addition to
  5313 the standard ring operations, it also supports div and mod.  Code
  5314 generation is also supported, using list-style constructors.
  5315 
  5316 * Theory Library/Inner_Product defines a class of real_inner for real
  5317 inner product spaces, with an overloaded operation inner :: 'a => 'a
  5318 => real.  Class real_inner is a subclass of real_normed_vector from
  5319 theory RealVector.
  5320 
  5321 * Theory Library/Product_Vector provides instances for the product
  5322 type 'a * 'b of several classes from RealVector and Inner_Product.
  5323 Definitions of addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, norms,
  5324 and inner products are included.
  5325 
  5326 * Theory Library/Bit defines the field "bit" of integers modulo 2.  In
  5327 addition to the field operations, numerals and case syntax are also
  5328 supported.
  5329 
  5330 * Theory Library/Diagonalize provides constructive version of Cantor's
  5331 first diagonalization argument.
  5332 
  5333 * Theory Library/GCD: Curried operations gcd, lcm (for nat) and zgcd,
  5334 zlcm (for int); carried together from various gcd/lcm developements in
  5335 the HOL Distribution.  Constants zgcd and zlcm replace former igcd and
  5336 ilcm; corresponding theorems renamed accordingly.  INCOMPATIBILITY,
  5337 may recover tupled syntax as follows:
  5338 
  5339     hide (open) const gcd
  5340     abbreviation gcd where
  5341       "gcd == (%(a, b). GCD.gcd a b)"
  5342     notation (output)
  5343       GCD.gcd ("gcd '(_, _')")
  5344 
  5345 The same works for lcm, zgcd, zlcm.
  5346 
  5347 * Theory Library/Nat_Infinity: added addition, numeral syntax and more
  5348 instantiations for algebraic structures.  Removed some duplicate
  5349 theorems.  Changes in simp rules.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5350 
  5351 * ML antiquotation @{code} takes a constant as argument and generates
  5352 corresponding code in background and inserts name of the corresponding
  5353 resulting ML value/function/datatype constructor binding in place.
  5354 All occurrences of @{code} with a single ML block are generated
  5355 simultaneously.  Provides a generic and safe interface for
  5356 instrumentalizing code generation.  See
  5357 src/HOL/Decision_Procs/Ferrack.thy for a more ambitious application.
  5358 In future you ought to refrain from ad-hoc compiling generated SML
  5359 code on the ML toplevel.  Note that (for technical reasons) @{code}
  5360 cannot refer to constants for which user-defined serializations are
  5361 set.  Refer to the corresponding ML counterpart directly in that
  5362 cases.
  5363 
  5364 * Command 'rep_datatype': instead of theorem names the command now
  5365 takes a list of terms denoting the constructors of the type to be
  5366 represented as datatype.  The characteristic theorems have to be
  5367 proven.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Also observe that the following theorems
  5368 have disappeared in favour of existing ones:
  5369 
  5370     unit_induct                 ~> unit.induct
  5371     prod_induct                 ~> prod.induct
  5372     sum_induct                  ~> sum.induct
  5373     Suc_Suc_eq                  ~> nat.inject
  5374     Suc_not_Zero Zero_not_Suc   ~> nat.distinct
  5375 
  5376 
  5377 *** HOL-Algebra ***
  5378 
  5379 * New locales for orders and lattices where the equivalence relation
  5380 is not restricted to equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY: all order and lattice
  5381 locales use a record structure with field eq for the equivalence.
  5382 
  5383 * New theory of factorial domains.
  5384 
  5385 * Units_l_inv and Units_r_inv are now simp rules by default.
  5386 INCOMPATIBILITY.  Simplifier proof that require deletion of l_inv
  5387 and/or r_inv will now also require deletion of these lemmas.
  5388 
  5389 * Renamed the following theorems, INCOMPATIBILITY:
  5390 
  5391 UpperD ~> Upper_memD
  5392 LowerD ~> Lower_memD
  5393 least_carrier ~> least_closed
  5394 greatest_carrier ~> greatest_closed
  5395 greatest_Lower_above ~> greatest_Lower_below
  5396 one_zero ~> carrier_one_zero
  5397 one_not_zero ~> carrier_one_not_zero  (collision with assumption)
  5398 
  5399 
  5400 *** HOL-Nominal ***
  5401 
  5402 * Nominal datatypes can now contain type-variables.
  5403 
  5404 * Commands 'nominal_inductive' and 'equivariance' work with local
  5405 theory targets.
  5406 
  5407 * Nominal primrec can now works with local theory targets and its
  5408 specification syntax now conforms to the general format as seen in
  5409 'inductive' etc.
  5410 
  5411 * Method "perm_simp" honours the standard simplifier attributes
  5412 (no_asm), (no_asm_use) etc.
  5413 
  5414 * The new predicate #* is defined like freshness, except that on the
  5415 left hand side can be a set or list of atoms.
  5416 
  5417 * Experimental command 'nominal_inductive2' derives strong induction
  5418 principles for inductive definitions.  In contrast to
  5419 'nominal_inductive', which can only deal with a fixed number of
  5420 binders, it can deal with arbitrary expressions standing for sets of
  5421 atoms to be avoided.  The only inductive definition we have at the
  5422 moment that needs this generalisation is the typing rule for Lets in
  5423 the algorithm W:
  5424 
  5425  Gamma |- t1 : T1   (x,close Gamma T1)::Gamma |- t2 : T2   x#Gamma
  5426  -----------------------------------------------------------------
  5427          Gamma |- Let x be t1 in t2 : T2
  5428 
  5429 In this rule one wants to avoid all the binders that are introduced by
  5430 "close Gamma T1".  We are looking for other examples where this
  5431 feature might be useful.  Please let us know.
  5432 
  5433 
  5434 *** HOLCF ***
  5435 
  5436 * Reimplemented the simplification procedure for proving continuity
  5437 subgoals.  The new simproc is extensible; users can declare additional
  5438 continuity introduction rules with the attribute [cont2cont].
  5439 
  5440 * The continuity simproc now uses a different introduction rule for
  5441 solving continuity subgoals on terms with lambda abstractions.  In
  5442 some rare cases the new simproc may fail to solve subgoals that the
  5443 old one could solve, and "simp add: cont2cont_LAM" may be necessary.
  5444 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5445 
  5446 * Command 'fixrec': specification syntax now conforms to the general
  5447 format as seen in 'inductive' etc.  See src/HOLCF/ex/Fixrec_ex.thy for
  5448 examples.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5449 
  5450 
  5451 *** ZF ***
  5452 
  5453 * Proof of Zorn's Lemma for partial orders.
  5454 
  5455 
  5456 *** ML ***
  5457 
  5458 * Multithreading for Poly/ML 5.1/5.2 is no longer supported, only for
  5459 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.  Important note: the TimeLimit facility
  5460 depends on multithreading, so timouts will not work before Poly/ML
  5461 5.2.1!
  5462 
  5463 * High-level support for concurrent ML programming, see
  5464 src/Pure/Cuncurrent.  The data-oriented model of "future values" is
  5465 particularly convenient to organize independent functional
  5466 computations.  The concept of "synchronized variables" provides a
  5467 higher-order interface for components with shared state, avoiding the
  5468 delicate details of mutexes and condition variables.  (Requires
  5469 Poly/ML 5.2.1 or later.)
  5470 
  5471 * ML bindings produced via Isar commands are stored within the Isar
  5472 context (theory or proof).  Consequently, commands like 'use' and 'ML'
  5473 become thread-safe and work with undo as expected (concerning
  5474 top-level bindings, not side-effects on global references).
  5475 INCOMPATIBILITY, need to provide proper Isar context when invoking the
  5476 compiler at runtime; really global bindings need to be given outside a
  5477 theory.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5478 
  5479 * Command 'ML_prf' is analogous to 'ML' but works within a proof
  5480 context.  Top-level ML bindings are stored within the proof context in
  5481 a purely sequential fashion, disregarding the nested proof structure.
  5482 ML bindings introduced by 'ML_prf' are discarded at the end of the
  5483 proof.  (Requires Poly/ML 5.2 or later.)
  5484 
  5485 * Simplified ML attribute and method setup, cf. functions Attrib.setup
  5486 and Method.setup, as well as Isar commands 'attribute_setup' and
  5487 'method_setup'.  INCOMPATIBILITY for 'method_setup', need to simplify
  5488 existing code accordingly, or use plain 'setup' together with old
  5489 Method.add_method.
  5490 
  5491 * Simplified ML oracle interface Thm.add_oracle promotes 'a -> cterm
  5492 to 'a -> thm, while results are always tagged with an authentic oracle
  5493 name.  The Isar command 'oracle' is now polymorphic, no argument type
  5494 is specified.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify existing oracle code
  5495 accordingly.  Note that extra performance may be gained by producing
  5496 the cterm carefully, avoiding slow Thm.cterm_of.
  5497 
  5498 * Simplified interface for defining document antiquotations via
  5499 ThyOutput.antiquotation, ThyOutput.output, and optionally
  5500 ThyOutput.maybe_pretty_source.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to simplify user
  5501 antiquotations accordingly, see src/Pure/Thy/thy_output.ML for common
  5502 examples.
  5503 
  5504 * More systematic treatment of long names, abstract name bindings, and
  5505 name space operations.  Basic operations on qualified names have been
  5506 move from structure NameSpace to Long_Name, e.g. Long_Name.base_name,
  5507 Long_Name.append.  Old type bstring has been mostly replaced by
  5508 abstract type binding (see structure Binding), which supports precise
  5509 qualification by packages and local theory targets, as well as proper
  5510 tracking of source positions.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to wrap old
  5511 bstring values into Binding.name, or better pass through abstract
  5512 bindings everywhere.  See further src/Pure/General/long_name.ML,
  5513 src/Pure/General/binding.ML and src/Pure/General/name_space.ML
  5514 
  5515 * Result facts (from PureThy.note_thms, ProofContext.note_thms,
  5516 LocalTheory.note etc.) now refer to the *full* internal name, not the
  5517 bstring as before.  INCOMPATIBILITY, not detected by ML type-checking!
  5518 
  5519 * Disposed old type and term read functions (Sign.read_def_typ,
  5520 Sign.read_typ, Sign.read_def_terms, Sign.read_term,
  5521 Thm.read_def_cterms, Thm.read_cterm etc.).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should
  5522 use regular Syntax.read_typ, Syntax.read_term, Syntax.read_typ_global,
  5523 Syntax.read_term_global etc.; see also OldGoals.read_term as last
  5524 resort for legacy applications.
  5525 
  5526 * Disposed old declarations, tactics, tactic combinators that refer to
  5527 the simpset or claset of an implicit theory (such as Addsimps,
  5528 Simp_tac, SIMPSET).  INCOMPATIBILITY, should use @{simpset} etc. in
  5529 embedded ML text, or local_simpset_of with a proper context passed as
  5530 explicit runtime argument.
  5531 
  5532 * Rules and tactics that read instantiations (read_instantiate,
  5533 res_inst_tac, thin_tac, subgoal_tac etc.) now demand a proper proof
  5534 context, which is required for parsing and type-checking.  Moreover,
  5535 the variables are specified as plain indexnames, not string encodings
  5536 thereof.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5537 
  5538 * Generic Toplevel.add_hook interface allows to analyze the result of
  5539 transactions.  E.g. see src/Pure/ProofGeneral/proof_general_pgip.ML
  5540 for theorem dependency output of transactions resulting in a new
  5541 theory state.
  5542 
  5543 * ML antiquotations: block-structured compilation context indicated by
  5544 \<lbrace> ... \<rbrace>; additional antiquotation forms:
  5545 
  5546   @{binding name}                         - basic name binding
  5547   @{let ?pat = term}                      - term abbreviation (HO matching)
  5548   @{note name = fact}                     - fact abbreviation
  5549   @{thm fact}                             - singleton fact (with attributes)
  5550   @{thms fact}                            - general fact (with attributes)
  5551   @{lemma prop by method}                 - singleton goal
  5552   @{lemma prop by meth1 meth2}            - singleton goal
  5553   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by method}      - general goal
  5554   @{lemma prop1 ... propN by meth1 meth2} - general goal
  5555   @{lemma (open) ...}                     - open derivation
  5556 
  5557 
  5558 *** System ***
  5559 
  5560 * The Isabelle "emacs" tool provides a specific interface to invoke
  5561 Proof General / Emacs, with more explicit failure if that is not
  5562 installed (the old isabelle-interface script silently falls back on
  5563 isabelle-process).  The PROOFGENERAL_HOME setting determines the
  5564 installation location of the Proof General distribution.
  5565 
  5566 * Isabelle/lib/classes/Pure.jar provides basic support to integrate
  5567 the Isabelle process into a JVM/Scala application.  See
  5568 Isabelle/lib/jedit/plugin for a minimal example.  (The obsolete Java
  5569 process wrapper has been discontinued.)
  5570 
  5571 * Added homegrown Isabelle font with unicode layout, see lib/fonts.
  5572 
  5573 * Various status messages (with exact source position information) are
  5574 emitted, if proper markup print mode is enabled.  This allows
  5575 user-interface components to provide detailed feedback on internal
  5576 prover operations.
  5577 
  5578 
  5579 
  5580 New in Isabelle2008 (June 2008)
  5581 -------------------------------
  5582 
  5583 *** General ***
  5584 
  5585 * The Isabelle/Isar Reference Manual (isar-ref) has been reorganized
  5586 and updated, with formally checked references as hyperlinks.
  5587 
  5588 * Theory loader: use_thy (and similar operations) no longer set the
  5589 implicit ML context, which was occasionally hard to predict and in
  5590 conflict with concurrency.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use ML within Isar which
  5591 provides a proper context already.
  5592 
  5593 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  5594 file are no longer supported.  INCOMPATIBILITY, regular 'uses' and
  5595 'use' within a theory file will do the job.
  5596 
  5597 * Name space merge now observes canonical order, i.e. the second space
  5598 is inserted into the first one, while existing entries in the first
  5599 space take precedence.  INCOMPATIBILITY in rare situations, may try to
  5600 swap theory imports.
  5601 
  5602 * Syntax: symbol \<chi> is now considered a letter.  Potential
  5603 INCOMPATIBILITY in identifier syntax etc.
  5604 
  5605 * Outer syntax: string tokens no longer admit escaped white space,
  5606 which was an accidental (undocumented) feature.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use
  5607 white space without escapes.
  5608 
  5609 * Outer syntax: string tokens may contain arbitrary character codes
  5610 specified via 3 decimal digits (as in SML).  E.g. "foo\095bar" for
  5611 "foo_bar".
  5612 
  5613 
  5614 *** Pure ***
  5615 
  5616 * Context-dependent token translations.  Default setup reverts locally
  5617 fixed variables, and adds hilite markup for undeclared frees.
  5618 
  5619 * Unused theorems can be found using the new command 'unused_thms'.
  5620 There are three ways of invoking it:
  5621 
  5622 (1) unused_thms
  5623      Only finds unused theorems in the current theory.
  5624 
  5625 (2) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n -
  5626      Finds unused theorems in the current theory and all of its ancestors,
  5627      excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of their ancestors.
  5628 
  5629 (3) unused_thms thy_1 ... thy_n - thy'_1 ... thy'_m
  5630      Finds unused theorems in the theories thy'_1 ... thy'_m and all of
  5631      their ancestors, excluding the theories thy_1 ... thy_n and all of
  5632      their ancestors.
  5633 
  5634 In order to increase the readability of the list produced by
  5635 unused_thms, theorems that have been created by a particular instance
  5636 of a theory command such as 'inductive' or 'function' are considered
  5637 to belong to the same "group", meaning that if at least one theorem in
  5638 this group is used, the other theorems in the same group are no longer
  5639 reported as unused.  Moreover, if all theorems in the group are
  5640 unused, only one theorem in the group is displayed.
  5641 
  5642 Note that proof objects have to be switched on in order for
  5643 unused_thms to work properly (i.e. !proofs must be >= 1, which is
  5644 usually the case when using Proof General with the default settings).
  5645 
  5646 * Authentic naming of facts disallows ad-hoc overwriting of previous
  5647 theorems within the same name space.  INCOMPATIBILITY, need to remove
  5648 duplicate fact bindings, or even accidental fact duplications.  Note
  5649 that tools may maintain dynamically scoped facts systematically, using
  5650 PureThy.add_thms_dynamic.
  5651 
  5652 * Command 'hide' now allows to hide from "fact" name space as well.
  5653 
  5654 * Eliminated destructive theorem database, simpset, claset, and
  5655 clasimpset.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY, really need to observe linear
  5656 update of theories within ML code.
  5657 
  5658 * Eliminated theory ProtoPure and CPure, leaving just one Pure theory.
  5659 INCOMPATIBILITY, object-logics depending on former Pure require
  5660 additional setup PureThy.old_appl_syntax_setup; object-logics
  5661 depending on former CPure need to refer to Pure.
  5662 
  5663 * Commands 'use' and 'ML' are now purely functional, operating on
  5664 theory/local_theory.  Removed former 'ML_setup' (on theory), use 'ML'
  5665 instead.  Added 'ML_val' as mere diagnostic replacement for 'ML'.
  5666 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5667 
  5668 * Command 'setup': discontinued implicit version with ML reference.
  5669 
  5670 * Instantiation target allows for simultaneous specification of class
  5671 instance operations together with an instantiation proof.
  5672 Type-checking phase allows to refer to class operations uniformly.
  5673 See src/HOL/Complex/Complex.thy for an Isar example and
  5674 src/HOL/Library/Eval.thy for an ML example.
  5675 
  5676 * Indexing of literal facts: be more serious about including only
  5677 facts from the visible specification/proof context, but not the
  5678 background context (locale etc.).  Affects `prop` notation and method
  5679 "fact".  INCOMPATIBILITY: need to name facts explicitly in rare
  5680 situations.
  5681 
  5682 * Method "cases", "induct", "coinduct": removed obsolete/undocumented
  5683 "(open)" option, which used to expose internal bound variables to the
  5684 proof text.
  5685 
  5686 * Isar statements: removed obsolete case "rule_context".
  5687 INCOMPATIBILITY, better use explicit fixes/assumes.
  5688 
  5689 * Locale proofs: default proof step now includes 'unfold_locales';
  5690 hence 'proof' without argument may be used to unfold locale
  5691 predicates.
  5692 
  5693 
  5694 *** Document preparation ***
  5695 
  5696 * Simplified pdfsetup.sty: color/hyperref is used unconditionally for
  5697 both pdf and dvi (hyperlinks usually work in xdvi as well); removed
  5698 obsolete thumbpdf setup (contemporary PDF viewers do this on the
  5699 spot); renamed link color from "darkblue" to "linkcolor" (default
  5700 value unchanged, can be redefined via \definecolor); no longer sets
  5701 "a4paper" option (unnecessary or even intrusive).
  5702 
  5703 * Antiquotation @{lemma A method} proves proposition A by the given
  5704 method (either a method name or a method name plus (optional) method
  5705 arguments in parentheses) and prints A just like @{prop A}.
  5706 
  5707 
  5708 *** HOL ***
  5709 
  5710 * New primrec package.  Specification syntax conforms in style to
  5711 definition/function/....  No separate induction rule is provided.  The
  5712 "primrec" command distinguishes old-style and new-style specifications
  5713 by syntax.  The former primrec package is now named OldPrimrecPackage.
  5714 When adjusting theories, beware: constants stemming from new-style
  5715 primrec specifications have authentic syntax.
  5716 
  5717 * Metis prover is now an order of magnitude faster, and also works
  5718 with multithreading.
  5719 
  5720 * Metis: the maximum number of clauses that can be produced from a
  5721 theorem is now given by the attribute max_clauses.  Theorems that
  5722 exceed this number are ignored, with a warning printed.
  5723 
  5724 * Sledgehammer no longer produces structured proofs by default. To
  5725 enable, declare [[sledgehammer_full = true]].  Attributes
  5726 reconstruction_modulus, reconstruction_sorts renamed
  5727 sledgehammer_modulus, sledgehammer_sorts.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5728 
  5729 * Method "induct_scheme" derives user-specified induction rules
  5730 from well-founded induction and completeness of patterns. This factors
  5731 out some operations that are done internally by the function package
  5732 and makes them available separately.  See
  5733 src/HOL/ex/Induction_Scheme.thy for examples.
  5734 
  5735 * More flexible generation of measure functions for termination
  5736 proofs: Measure functions can be declared by proving a rule of the
  5737 form "is_measure f" and giving it the [measure_function] attribute.
  5738 The "is_measure" predicate is logically meaningless (always true), and
  5739 just guides the heuristic.  To find suitable measure functions, the
  5740 termination prover sets up the goal "is_measure ?f" of the appropriate
  5741 type and generates all solutions by prolog-style backwards proof using
  5742 the declared rules.
  5743 
  5744 This setup also deals with rules like 
  5745 
  5746   "is_measure f ==> is_measure (list_size f)"
  5747 
  5748 which accommodates nested datatypes that recurse through lists.
  5749 Similar rules are predeclared for products and option types.
  5750 
  5751 * Turned the type of sets "'a set" into an abbreviation for "'a => bool"
  5752 
  5753   INCOMPATIBILITIES:
  5754 
  5755   - Definitions of overloaded constants on sets have to be replaced by
  5756     definitions on => and bool.
  5757 
  5758   - Some definitions of overloaded operators on sets can now be proved
  5759     using the definitions of the operators on => and bool.  Therefore,
  5760     the following theorems have been renamed:
  5761 
  5762       subset_def   -> subset_eq
  5763       psubset_def  -> psubset_eq
  5764       set_diff_def -> set_diff_eq
  5765       Compl_def    -> Compl_eq
  5766       Sup_set_def  -> Sup_set_eq
  5767       Inf_set_def  -> Inf_set_eq
  5768       sup_set_def  -> sup_set_eq
  5769       inf_set_def  -> inf_set_eq
  5770 
  5771   - Due to the incompleteness of the HO unification algorithm, some
  5772     rules such as subst may require manual instantiation, if some of
  5773     the unknowns in the rule is a set.
  5774 
  5775   - Higher order unification and forward proofs:
  5776     The proof pattern
  5777 
  5778       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5779       then have "EX S. P S" ..
  5780 
  5781     no longer works (due to the incompleteness of the HO unification
  5782     algorithm) and must be replaced by the pattern
  5783 
  5784       have "EX S. P S"
  5785       proof
  5786         show "P S" <...>
  5787       qed
  5788 
  5789   - Calculational reasoning with subst (or similar rules):
  5790     The proof pattern
  5791 
  5792       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5793       also have "S = T" <...>
  5794       finally have "P T" .
  5795 
  5796     no longer works (for similar reasons as the previous example) and
  5797     must be replaced by something like
  5798 
  5799       have "P (S::'a set)" <...>
  5800       moreover have "S = T" <...>
  5801       ultimately have "P T" by simp
  5802 
  5803   - Tactics or packages written in ML code:
  5804     Code performing pattern matching on types via
  5805 
  5806       Type ("set", [T]) => ...
  5807 
  5808     must be rewritten. Moreover, functions like strip_type or
  5809     binder_types no longer return the right value when applied to a
  5810     type of the form
  5811 
  5812       T1 => ... => Tn => U => bool
  5813 
  5814     rather than
  5815 
  5816       T1 => ... => Tn => U set
  5817 
  5818 * Merged theories Wellfounded_Recursion, Accessible_Part and
  5819 Wellfounded_Relations to theory Wellfounded.
  5820 
  5821 * Explicit class "eq" for executable equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5822 
  5823 * Class finite no longer treats UNIV as class parameter.  Use class
  5824 enum from theory Library/Enum instead to achieve a similar effect.
  5825 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5826 
  5827 * Theory List: rule list_induct2 now has explicitly named cases "Nil"
  5828 and "Cons".  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5829 
  5830 * HOL (and FOL): renamed variables in rules imp_elim and swap.
  5831 Potential INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5832 
  5833 * Theory Product_Type: duplicated lemmas split_Pair_apply and
  5834 injective_fst_snd removed, use split_eta and prod_eqI instead.
  5835 Renamed upd_fst to apfst and upd_snd to apsnd.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5836 
  5837 * Theory Nat: removed redundant lemmas that merely duplicate lemmas of
  5838 the same name in theory Orderings:
  5839 
  5840   less_trans
  5841   less_linear
  5842   le_imp_less_or_eq
  5843   le_less_trans
  5844   less_le_trans
  5845   less_not_sym
  5846   less_asym
  5847 
  5848 Renamed less_imp_le to less_imp_le_nat, and less_irrefl to
  5849 less_irrefl_nat.  Potential INCOMPATIBILITY due to more general types
  5850 and different variable names.
  5851 
  5852 * Library/Option_ord.thy: Canonical order on option type.
  5853 
  5854 * Library/RBT.thy: Red-black trees, an efficient implementation of
  5855 finite maps.
  5856 
  5857 * Library/Countable.thy: Type class for countable types.
  5858 
  5859 * Theory Int: The representation of numerals has changed.  The infix
  5860 operator BIT and the bit datatype with constructors B0 and B1 have
  5861 disappeared.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use "Int.Bit0 x" and "Int.Bit1 y" in
  5862 place of "x BIT bit.B0" and "y BIT bit.B1", respectively.  Theorems
  5863 involving BIT, B0, or B1 have been renamed with "Bit0" or "Bit1"
  5864 accordingly.
  5865 
  5866 * Theory Nat: definition of <= and < on natural numbers no longer
  5867 depend on well-founded relations.  INCOMPATIBILITY.  Definitions
  5868 le_def and less_def have disappeared.  Consider lemmas not_less
  5869 [symmetric, where ?'a = nat] and less_eq [symmetric] instead.
  5870 
  5871 * Theory Finite_Set: locales ACf, ACe, ACIf, ACIfSL and ACIfSLlin
  5872 (whose purpose mainly is for various fold_set functionals) have been
  5873 abandoned in favor of the existing algebraic classes
  5874 ab_semigroup_mult, comm_monoid_mult, ab_semigroup_idem_mult,
  5875 lower_semilattice (resp. upper_semilattice) and linorder.
  5876 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5877 
  5878 * Theory Transitive_Closure: induct and cases rules now declare proper
  5879 case_names ("base" and "step").  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5880 
  5881 * Theorem Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct generalized to complete
  5882 lattices.  The form set-specific version is available as
  5883 Inductive.lfp_ordinal_induct_set.
  5884 
  5885 * Renamed theorems "power.simps" to "power_int.simps".
  5886 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5887 
  5888 * Class semiring_div provides basic abstract properties of semirings
  5889 with division and modulo operations.  Subsumes former class dvd_mod.
  5890 
  5891 * Merged theories IntDef, Numeral and IntArith into unified theory
  5892 Int.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5893 
  5894 * Theory Library/Code_Index: type "index" now represents natural
  5895 numbers rather than integers.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5896 
  5897 * New class "uminus" with operation "uminus" (split of from class
  5898 "minus" which now only has operation "minus", binary).
  5899 INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5900 
  5901 * Constants "card", "internal_split", "option_map" now with authentic
  5902 syntax.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5903 
  5904 * Definitions subset_def, psubset_def, set_diff_def, Compl_def,
  5905 le_bool_def, less_bool_def, le_fun_def, less_fun_def, inf_bool_def,
  5906 sup_bool_def, Inf_bool_def, Sup_bool_def, inf_fun_def, sup_fun_def,
  5907 Inf_fun_def, Sup_fun_def, inf_set_def, sup_set_def, Inf_set_def,
  5908 Sup_set_def, le_def, less_def, option_map_def now with object
  5909 equality.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5910 
  5911 * Records. Removed K_record, and replaced it by pure lambda term
  5912 %x. c. The simplifier setup is now more robust against eta expansion.
  5913 INCOMPATIBILITY: in cases explicitly referring to K_record.
  5914 
  5915 * Library/Multiset: {#a, b, c#} abbreviates {#a#} + {#b#} + {#c#}.
  5916 
  5917 * Library/ListVector: new theory of arithmetic vector operations.
  5918 
  5919 * Library/Order_Relation: new theory of various orderings as sets of
  5920 pairs.  Defines preorders, partial orders, linear orders and
  5921 well-orders on sets and on types.
  5922 
  5923 
  5924 *** ZF ***
  5925 
  5926 * Renamed some theories to allow to loading both ZF and HOL in the
  5927 same session:
  5928 
  5929   Datatype  -> Datatype_ZF
  5930   Inductive -> Inductive_ZF
  5931   Int       -> Int_ZF
  5932   IntDiv    -> IntDiv_ZF
  5933   Nat       -> Nat_ZF
  5934   List      -> List_ZF
  5935   Main      -> Main_ZF
  5936 
  5937 INCOMPATIBILITY: ZF theories that import individual theories below
  5938 Main might need to be adapted.  Regular theory Main is still
  5939 available, as trivial extension of Main_ZF.
  5940 
  5941 
  5942 *** ML ***
  5943 
  5944 * ML within Isar: antiquotation @{const name} or @{const
  5945 name(typargs)} produces statically-checked Const term.
  5946 
  5947 * Functor NamedThmsFun: data is available to the user as dynamic fact
  5948 (of the same name).  Removed obsolete print command.
  5949 
  5950 * Removed obsolete "use_legacy_bindings" function.
  5951 
  5952 * The ``print mode'' is now a thread-local value derived from a global
  5953 template (the former print_mode reference), thus access becomes
  5954 non-critical.  The global print_mode reference is for session
  5955 management only; user-code should use print_mode_value,
  5956 print_mode_active, PrintMode.setmp etc.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  5957 
  5958 * Functions system/system_out provide a robust way to invoke external
  5959 shell commands, with propagation of interrupts (requires Poly/ML
  5960 5.2.1).  Do not use OS.Process.system etc. from the basis library!
  5961 
  5962 
  5963 *** System ***
  5964 
  5965 * Default settings: PROOFGENERAL_OPTIONS no longer impose xemacs ---
  5966 in accordance with Proof General 3.7, which prefers GNU emacs.
  5967 
  5968 * isatool tty runs Isabelle process with plain tty interaction;
  5969 optional line editor may be specified via ISABELLE_LINE_EDITOR
  5970 setting, the default settings attempt to locate "ledit" and "rlwrap".
  5971 
  5972 * isatool browser now works with Cygwin as well, using general
  5973 "javapath" function defined in Isabelle process environment.
  5974 
  5975 * YXML notation provides a simple and efficient alternative to
  5976 standard XML transfer syntax.  See src/Pure/General/yxml.ML and
  5977 isatool yxml as described in the Isabelle system manual.
  5978 
  5979 * JVM class isabelle.IsabelleProcess (located in Isabelle/lib/classes)
  5980 provides general wrapper for managing an Isabelle process in a robust
  5981 fashion, with ``cooked'' output from stdin/stderr.
  5982 
  5983 * Rudimentary Isabelle plugin for jEdit (see Isabelle/lib/jedit),
  5984 based on Isabelle/JVM process wrapper (see Isabelle/lib/classes).
  5985 
  5986 * Removed obsolete THIS_IS_ISABELLE_BUILD feature.  NB: the documented
  5987 way of changing the user's settings is via
  5988 ISABELLE_HOME_USER/etc/settings, which is a fully featured bash
  5989 script.
  5990 
  5991 * Multithreading.max_threads := 0 refers to the number of actual CPU
  5992 cores of the underlying machine, which is a good starting point for
  5993 optimal performance tuning.  The corresponding usedir option -M allows
  5994 "max" as an alias for "0".  WARNING: does not work on certain versions
  5995 of Mac OS (with Poly/ML 5.1).
  5996 
  5997 * isabelle-process: non-ML sessions are run with "nice", to reduce the
  5998 adverse effect of Isabelle flooding interactive front-ends (notably
  5999 ProofGeneral / XEmacs).
  6000 
  6001 
  6002 
  6003 New in Isabelle2007 (November 2007)
  6004 -----------------------------------
  6005 
  6006 *** General ***
  6007 
  6008 * More uniform information about legacy features, notably a
  6009 warning/error of "Legacy feature: ...", depending on the state of the
  6010 tolerate_legacy_features flag (default true). FUTURE INCOMPATIBILITY:
  6011 legacy features will disappear eventually.
  6012 
  6013 * Theory syntax: the header format ``theory A = B + C:'' has been
  6014 discontinued in favour of ``theory A imports B C begin''.  Use isatool
  6015 fixheaders to convert existing theory files.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6016 
  6017 * Theory syntax: the old non-Isar theory file format has been
  6018 discontinued altogether.  Note that ML proof scripts may still be used
  6019 with Isar theories; migration is usually quite simple with the ML
  6020 function use_legacy_bindings.  INCOMPATIBILITY.
  6021 
  6022 * Theory syntax: some popular names (e.g. 'class', 'declaration',
  6023 'fun', 'help', 'if') are now keywords.  INCOMPATIBILITY, use double
  6024 quotes.
  6025 
  6026 * Theory loader: be more serious about observing the static theory
  6027 header specifications (including optional directories), but not the
  6028 accidental file locations of previously successful loads.  The strict
  6029 update policy of former update_thy is now already performed by
  6030 use_thy, so the former has been removed; use_thys updates several
  6031 theories simultaneously, just as 'imports' within a theory header
  6032 specification, but without merging the results.  Potential
  6033 INCOMPATIBILITY: may need to refine theory headers and commands
  6034 ROOT.ML which depend on load order.
  6035 
  6036 * Theory loader: optional support for content-based file
  6037 identification, instead of the traditional scheme of full physical
  6038 path plus date stamp; configured by the ISABELLE_FILE_IDENT setting
  6039 (cf. the system manual).  The new scheme allows to work with
  6040 non-finished theories in persistent session images, such that source
  6041 files may be moved later on without requiring reloads.
  6042 
  6043 * Theory loader: old-style ML proof scripts being *attached* to a thy
  6044 file (with the same base name as the theory) are considered a legacy
  6045 feature, which will disappear eventually. Even now, the theory loader
  6046 no longer maintains dependencies on such files.
  6047 
  6048 * Syntax: the scope for resolving ambiguities via type-inference is
  6049 now limited to individual terms, instead of whole simultaneous
  6050 specifications as before. This greatly reduces the complexity of the
  6051 syntax module and improves flexibility by separating parsing and
  6052 type-checking. INCOMPATIBILITY: additional type-constraints (explicit
  6053 'fixes' etc.) are required in rare situations.
  6054 
  6055 * Syntax: constants introduced by new-style packages ('definition',
  6056 'abbreviation' etc.) are passed through the syntax module in
  6057 ``authentic mode''. This means that associated mixfix annotations
  6058 really stick to such constants, independently of potential name space
  6059 ambiguities introduced later on. INCOMPATIBILITY: constants in parse
  6060 trees are represented slightly differently, may need to adapt syntax
  6061 translations accordingly. Use CONST marker in 'translations' and
  6062 @{const_syntax} antiquotation in 'parse_translation' etc.
  6063 
  6064 * Legacy goal package: reduced interface to the bare minimum required
  6065 to keep existing proof scripts running.  Most other user-level
  6066 functions are now part of the OldGoals structure, which is *not* open
  6067 by default (consider isatool expandshort before open OldGoals).
  6068 Removed top_sg, prin, printyp, pprint_term/typ altogether, because
  6069 these tend to cause confusion about the actual goal (!) context being
  6070 used here, which is not necessarily the same as the_context().
  6071 
  6072 * Command 'find_theorems': supports "*" wild-card in "name:"
  6073 criterion; "with_dups" option.  Certain ProofGeneral versions might
  6074 support a specific search form (see ProofGeneral/CHANGES).
  6075 
  6076 * The ``prems limit'' option (cf. ProofContext.prems_limit) is now -1
  6077 by default, which means that "prems" (and also "fixed variables") are
  6078 suppressed from proof state output.  Note that the ProofGeneral
  6079 settings mechanism allows to change and save options persistently, but
  6080 older versions of Isabelle will fail to start up if a negative prems
  6081 limit is imposed.
  6082 
  6083 * Local theory targets may be specified by non-nested blocks of
  6084 ``context/locale/class ... begin'' followed by ``end''.  The body may
  6085 contain definitions, theorems etc., including any derived mechanism
  6086 that has been implemented on top of these primitives.  This concept
  6087 generalizes the existing ``theorem (in ...)'' towards more versatility
  6088 and scalability.
  6089 
  6090 * Proof General interface: proper undo of final 'end' command;
  6091 discontinued Isabelle/classic mode (ML proof scripts).
  6092 
  6093 
  6094 *** Document preparation ***
  6095 
  6096 * Added antiquotation @{theory name} which prints the given name,
  6097 after checking that it refers to a valid ancestor theory in the
  6098 current context.
  6099 
  6100 * Added antiquotations @{ML_type text} and @{ML_struct text} which
  6101 check the given source text as ML type/structure, printing verbatim.
  6102 
  6103 * Added antiquotation @{abbrev "c args"} which prints the abbreviation
  6104 "c args == rhs" given in the current context.  (Any number of
  6105 arguments may be given on the LHS.)
  6106 
  6107 
  6108 *** Pure ***
  6109 
  6110 * The 'class' package offers a combination of axclass and locale to
  6111 achieve Haskell-like type classes in Isabelle.  Definitions and
  6112 theorems within a class context produce both relative results (with
  6113 implicit parameters according to the locale context), and polymorphic
  6114 constants with qualified polymorphism (according to the class
  6115 context).  Within the body context of a 'class' target, a separate
  6116 syntax layer ("user space type system") takes care of converting
  6117 between global polymorphic consts and internal locale representation.
  6118 See src/HOL/ex/Classpackage.thy for examples (as well as main HOL).
  6119 "isatool doc classes" provides a tutorial.
  6120 
  6121 * Generic code generator framework allows to generate executable
  6122 code for ML and Haskell (including Isabelle classes).  A short usage
  6123 sketch:
  6124 
  6125     internal compilation:
  6126         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML
  6127     writing SML code to a file:
  6128         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in SML <filename>
  6129     writing OCaml code to a file:
  6130         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in OCaml <filename>
  6131     writing Haskell code to a bunch of files:
  6132         export_code <list of constants (term syntax)> in Haskell <filename>
  6133 
  6134     evaluating closed propositions to True/False using code generation:
  6135         method ``eval''
  6136 
  6137 Reasonable default setup of framework in HOL.
  6138 
  6139 Theorem attributs for selecting and transforming function equations theorems:
  6140 
  6141     [code fun]:        select a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  6142     [code fun del]:    deselect a theorem as function equation for a specific constant
  6143     [code inline]:     select an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  6144     [code inline del]: deselect an equation theorem for unfolding (inlining) in place
  6145 
  6146 User-defined serializations (target in {SML, OCaml, Haskell}):
  6147 
  6148     code_const <and-list of constants (term syntax)>
  6149       {(target) <and-list of const target syntax>}+
  6150 
  6151     code_type <and-list of type constructors>
  6152       {(target) <and-list of type target syntax>}+
  6153 
  6154     code_instance <and-list of instances>
  6155       {(target)}+
  6156         where instance ::= <type constructor> :: <class>
  6157 
  6158     code_class <and_list of classes>
  6159       {(target) <and-list of class target syntax>}+
  6160         where class target syntax ::= <class name> {where {<classop> == <target syntax>}+}?
  6161 
  6162 code_instance and code_class only are effective to target Haskell.
  6163 
  6164 For example usage see src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator.thy and
  6165 src/HOL/ex/Codegenerator_Pretty.thy.  A separate tutorial on code
  6166 generation from Isabelle/HOL theories is available via "isatool doc
  6167 codegen".
  6168 
  6169 * Code generator: consts in 'consts_code' Isar commands are now
  6170 referred to by usual term syntax (including optional type
  6171 annotations).
  6172 
  6173 * Command 'no_translations' removes translation rules from theory
  6174 syntax.
  6175 
  6176 * Overloaded definitions are now actually checked for acyclic
  6177 dependencies.  The overloading scheme is slightly more general than
  6178 that of Haskell98, although Isabelle does not demand an exact
  6179 correspondence to type class and instance declarations.
  6180 INCOMPATIBILITY, use ``defs (unchecked overloaded)'' to admit more
  6181 exotic versions of overloading -- at the discretion of the user!
  6182 
  6183 Polymorphic constants are represented via type arguments, i.e. the
  6184 instantiation that matches an instance against the most general
  6185 declaration given in the signature.  For example, with the declaration
  6186 c :: 'a => 'a => 'a, an instance c :: nat => nat => nat is represented
  6187 as c(nat).  Overloading is essentially simultaneous structural
  6188 recursion over such type arguments.  Incomplete specification patterns
  6189 impose global constraints on all occurrences, e.g. c('a * 'a) on the
  6190 LHS means that more general c('a * 'b) will be disallowed on any RHS.
  6191 Command 'print_theory' outputs the normalized system of recursive
  6192 equations, see section "definitions".
  6193 
  6194 * Configuration options are maintained within the theory or proof
  6195 context (with name and type bool/int/string), providing a very simple
  6196 interface to a poor-man's version of general context data.  Tools may
  6197 declare options in ML (e.g. using Attrib.config_int) and then refer to
  6198 these values using Config.get etc.  Users may change options via an
  6199 associated attribute of the same name.  This form of context
  6200 declaration works particularly well with commands 'declare' or
  6201 'using', for example ``declare [[foo = 42]]''.  Thus it has become
  6202 very easy to avoid global references, which would not observe Isar
  6203 toplevel undo/redo and fail to work with multithreading.
  6204 
  6205 Various global ML references of Pure and HOL have been turned into
  6206 configuration options:
  6207 
  6208   Unify.search_bound		unify_search_bound
  6209   Unify.trace_bound		unify_trace_bound
  6210   Unify.trace_simp		unify_trace_simp
  6211   Unify.trace_types		unify_trace_types
  6212   Simplifier.simp_depth_limit	simp_depth_limit
  6213   Blast.depth_limit		blast_depth_limit
  6214   DatatypeProp.dtK		datatype_distinctness_limit
  6215   fast_arith_neq_limit  	fast_arith_neq_limit
  6216   fast_arith_split_limit	fast_arith_split_limit
  6217 
  6218 * Named collections of theorems may be easily installed as context
  6219 data using the functor NamedThmsFun (see also
  6220 src/Pure/Tools/named_thms.ML).  The user may add or delete facts via
  6221 attributes; there is also a toplevel print command.  This facility is
  6222 just a common case of general context data, which is the preferred way
  6223 for anything more complex than just a list of facts in canonical
  6224 order.
  6225 
  6226 * Isar: command 'declaration' augments a local theory by generic
  6227 declaration functions written in ML.  This enables arbitrary content
  6228 being added to the context, depending on a morphism that tells the
  6229 difference of the original declaration context wrt. the application
  6230 context encountered later on.
  6231 
  6232 * Isar: proper interfaces for simplification procedures.  Command
  6233 'simproc_setup' declares named simprocs (with match patterns, and body
  6234 text in ML).  Attribute "simproc" adds/deletes simprocs in the current
  6235 context.  ML antiquotation @{simproc name} retrieves named simprocs.
  6236 
  6237 * Isar: an extra pair of brackets around attribute declarations
  6238 abbreviates a theorem reference involving an internal dummy fact,
  6239 which will be ignored later --- only the effect of the attribute on
  6240 the background context will persist.  This form of in-place
  6241 declarations is particularly useful with commands like 'declare' and
  6242 'using', for example ``have A using [[simproc a]] by simp''.
  6243 
  6244 * Isar: method "assumption" (and implicit closing of subproofs) now
  6245 takes simple non-atomic goal assumptions into account: after applying
  6246 an assumption as a rule the resulting subgoals are solved by atomic
  6247 assumption steps.  This is particularly useful to finish 'obtain'
  6248 goals, such as "!!x. (!!x. P x ==> thesis) ==> P x ==> thesis",
  6249 without referring to the original premise "!!x. P x ==> thesis" in the
  6250 Isar proof context.  POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY: method "assumption" is
  6251 more permissive.
  6252 
  6253 * Isar: implicit use of prems from the Isar proof context is
  6254 considered a legacy feature.  Common applications like ``have A .''
  6255 may be replaced by ``have A by fact'' or ``note `A`''.  In general,
  6256 referencing facts explicitly here improves readability and
  6257 maintainability of proof texts.
  6258 
  6259 * Isar: improper proof element 'guess' is like 'obtain', but derives
  6260 the obtained context from the course of reasoning!  For example:
  6261 
  6262   assume "EX x y. A x & B y"   -- "any previous fact"
  6263   then guess x and y by clarify
  6264